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Sample records for early glandular epithelial

  1. Establishing epithelial glandular polarity: interlinked roles for ARF6, Rac1, and the matrix microenvironment.

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    Monteleon, Christine L; Sedgwick, Alanna; Hartsell, Alyssa; Dai, Michael; Whittington, Catherine; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial cysts comprise the structural units of the glandular epithelium. Although glandular inversion in epithelial tumors is thought to be a potential mechanism for the establishment of metastatic disease, little is known about the morphogenic cues and signaling pathways that govern glandular polarity and organization. Using organotypic cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in reconstituted basement membrane, we show that cellular depletion of the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 promotes the formation of inverted cysts, wherein the apical cell membrane faces the cyst exterior, and the basal domain faces the central lumen, while individual cell polarity is maintained. These cysts are also defective in interactions with laminin at the cyst-matrix interface. This inversion of glandular orientation is accompanied by Rac1 inactivation during early cystogenesis, and temporal activation of Rac1 is sufficient to recover the normal cyst phenotype. In an unnatural collagen I microenvironment, ARF6-depleted, inverted epithelial cysts exhibit some loss of cell polarity, a marked increase in Rho activation and Rac1 inactivation, and striking rearrangement of the surrounding collagen I matrix. These studies demonstrate the importance of ARF6 as a critical determinant of glandular orientation and the matrix environment in dictating structural organization of epithelial cysts.

  2. Glandular epithelial AR inactivation enhances PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology.

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    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion induces uterine pathology, whereas androgen actions via androgen receptor (AR) support uterine growth and therefore may modify uterine cancer risk. We hypothesized that the androgen actions mediated via uterine glandular epithelial AR could modify PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology. To test our hypothesis, we developed uterine glandular epithelium-specific PTEN and/or AR knockout mouse models comparing the uterine pathology among wild-type (WT), glandular epithelium-specific AR inactivation (ugeARKO), PTEN deletion (ugePTENKO), and the combined PTEN and AR knockout (ugePTENARKO) female mice. The double knockout restricted to glandular epithelium showed that AR inactivation enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology with development of intraepithelial neoplasia by 20 weeks of age. In ugePTENARKO, 6/10 (60%) developed intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas 3/10 (30%) developed only glandular hyperplasia in ugePTENKO uterus. No uterine pathology was observed in WT (n=8) and ugeARKO (n=7) uteri. Uterine weight was significantly (P=0.002) increased in ugePTENARKO (374±97 mg (mean±s.e.)) compared with WT (97±6 mg), ugeARKO (94±12 mg), and ugePTENKO (205±33 mg). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and P-AKT expression was modified by uterine pathology but did not differ between ugePTENKO and ugePTENARKO, suggesting that its expressions are not directly affected by androgens. However, progesterone receptor (PR) expression was reduced in ugePTENARKO compared to ugePTENKO uterus, suggesting that PR expression could be regulated by glandular epithelial AR inactivation. In conclusion, glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating PR expression in the uterus.

  3. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

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    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  4. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna M. Makinen; Seppo Niemela; Tuomo Kerola; Juhani Lehtola; Tuomo J. Karttunen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly ass ociated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation,forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial cell proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis,and to evaluate the effect of H pylori treatment.METHODS: We studied 14 lymphocytic gastritis patients with H pylori infection. For controls, we selected 14 matched dyspeptic patients participating in another treatment trial whose H pylori infection had successfully been eradicated.Both groups were treated with a triple therapy and followed up with biopsies for 6-18 months (patients) or 3 months (controls). Blinded evaluation for histopathological features was carried out. To determine the cell proliferation index,the sections were labeled with Ki-67 antibody.RESULTS: Before treatment, lymphocytic gastritis was characterized by foveolar hyperplasia (P=0.001) and glandular atrophy in the body (P=0.008), and increased proliferation in both the body (P=0.001) and antrum (P=0.002). Proliferation correlated with foveolar hyperplasia and inflammation activity. After eradication therapy, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes decreased in the body (P=0.004)and antrum (P=0.065), remaining higher than in controls (P<0.001). Simultaneously, the proliferation index decreased in the body from 0.38 to 0.15 (P=0.043), and in the antrum from 0.34 to 0.20 (P=0.069), the antral index still being higher in lymphocytic gastritis than in controls (P=0.010).Foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the body improved (P=0.021), reaching the non-LG level.CONCLUSION: In lymphocytic gastritis, excessive epithelial cell proliferation is predominantly present in the body, where it associates with

  5. Bladder drainage and glandular epithelial morphometry of the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms

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    Carlos A. Cury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Morphometrically analyze the cells nuclei of the basal layer of the prostatic glandular epithelium in 20 patients aged between 57 and 85 years presenting benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms, catheterized or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with score of severe prostatic symptoms (with indication for transurethral resection of the prostate were distributed according to the presence or absence of bladder drainage previous to the surgery, in the treated group (n = 10, catheter during 3 months and in the control group (n = 10, without catheter. After obtaining prostate fragments through transurethral resection and the use of morphometric techniques, 100 nuclei of prostatic glands epithelium cells were studied (as to size and form, and compared to 500 nuclei from patients submitted to catheter drainage and 500 nuclei of non-catheterized patients. RESULTS: Significantly reduced values of the major, medium and minor nuclear diameters, volume, area and perimeter, contour index and nuclear volume-nuclear area ratio were observed in the treated group in relation to the control group. As to the form, eccentricity and coefficient of nuclear form, there were significant differences between treated and control groups. CONCLUSION: Long-term catheter bladder drainage in patients presenting benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms is associated to the reduction of morphometric parameters of the nuclei of prostatic glands’ epithelial cells, suggesting a likely decompressive duct effect.

  6. Engineered FGF-2 expression induces glandular epithelial hyperplasia in the murine prostatic dorsal lobe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N.; Takeuchi, T.; Nishimatsu, H.; Kamijo, T.; Tomita, K.; Schalken, J.A.; Teshima, S.; Kitamura, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is known that androgens and stromal-epithelial interactions are required for the formation and growth of the prostate. FGF-2 is overexpressed in prostatic stromal cells in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)/prostate cancer. This supports the paracrine/autocrine growth of prostatic epit

  7. Engineered FGF-2 expression induces glandular epithelial hyperplasia in the murine prostatic dorsal lobe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N.; Takeuchi, T.; Nishimatsu, H.; Kamijo, T.; Tomita, K.; Schalken, J.A.; Teshima, S.; Kitamura, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is known that androgens and stromal-epithelial interactions are required for the formation and growth of the prostate. FGF-2 is overexpressed in prostatic stromal cells in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)/prostate cancer. This supports the paracrine/autocrine growth of prostatic epit

  8. Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Study of Their Normal Histology With Emphasis on Glandular Depth, Presence of Columnar Epithelial Cells, and Distribution of Elastic Fibers.

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    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Belousova, Irena E; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kerl, Katrin; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-10-18

    The normal histology of anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) has been studied previously, but some aspects, including glandular depth, presence of columnar epithelium resembling columnar cell change/hyperplasia as defined in mammary pathology, and distribution of elastic fibers, have not been previously investigated. To address these issues, we studied 148 AGMLG identified in 133 paraffin blocks sampled from 64 vulvar wide excision or vulvectomy specimens (64 patients, various indications for surgery). The depth of AGMLG ranged from 0.64 to 3.9 mm. Epithelial columnar cell change was noted in 33.1% of all AGMLG, whereas columnar cell hyperplasia was detected in 10.1%. Occasionally, combinations of cuboidal epithelium and columnar cell change were seen within 1 histological section. Of 22 specimens stained for elastic fibers, in only 6 (27.3%) cases were elastic fibers found around glands. Periductal elastic fibers were demonstrated around 3 of the only 5 ducts, which were available for analysis in slides stained for elastic fibers. The depth of AGMLG should be taken into account when planning topical and surgical therapies for lesions derived or evolving from AGMLG. Alterations identical to columnar cell change may represent a normal variation of AGMLG.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis,gastric ulcer.METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of all the patients.Giemsa staining, improved toluidine-blue staining, and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of gastric mucosa inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection in superficial gastritis was 28.7%, in erosive gastritis 57.7%,in gastric erosion 63.3%, in gastric ulcer 80.8%, in early gastric cancer 52.4%. There was significant difference (P<0.05), except for the difference between early gastric cancer and erosive gastritis. H pylori infection rate in antrum, corpus, angulus of patients with superficial gastritis was 25.9%, 26.2%, 25.2%, respectively; in patients with erosive gastritis 46.9%, 53.5%, 49.0%,respectively; in patients with gastric erosion 52.4%, 61.5%,52.4%, respectively; in patients with gastric ulcer 52.4%,61.5%, 52.4%, respectively; in patients with early gastric cancer 35.0%, 50.7%, 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference was found among the different site biopsies in superficial gastritis, but in the other diseases the detected rates were higher in corpus biopsy (P<0.05). The grades of mononuclear cell infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, in early gastric cancer patients, were significantly higher than that in superficial gastritis patients, lower than that in gastric erosion and gastric ulcer patients (P<0.01);however, there was no significant difference compared with erosive gastritis. The grades

  10. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

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    Gabriela Vallejo-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion.

  11. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

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    Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Torres, Javier; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres-Morales, Julián; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion. PMID:26557697

  12. Reversed polarity of the glandular epithelial cells in micropapillary carcinoma of the large intestine and the EMA/MUC1 immunostain.

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    Cserni, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma of the colon and rectum is associated with an adverse prognosis. This tumour type displays reverse polarity of the tumour cells and is stated to be characterised by an inside-out epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)/MUC1 staining. Nine cases of primary colorectal carcinoma and one omental metastasis were studied by means of immunohistochemistry, using antibodies to detect EMA, MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC6, CD10, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The inside-out pattern staining with EMA/MUC1 ranged from diffuse circumferential through focal and partial to negative, but in some cases CEA, MUC3 and CD10 also showed this pattern staining, sometimes more clearly than did EMA or MUC1. The reverse polarity of colorectal micropapillary carcinomas is sometimes better visualised by immunostains other than EMA/MUC1.

  13. Mixed Squamous Cell and Glandular Papilloma of the Lung in a 64-Year-Old Woman

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    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopat...

  14. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

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    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  15. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

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    María Laura Chiribao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response, a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members, and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids. These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination.

  16. In vivo rat glandular stomach and colon micronucleus tests: Kinetics of micronucleated cells, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the target tissues after a single oral administration of stomach- or colon-carcinogens.

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    Ohyama, Wakako; Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Yasutake, Nobuyoshi

    2013-08-15

    We have developed in vivo micronucleus (MN) tests by using an epithelial cell suspension isolated from the glandular stomach and colon of rodents. In the present study, our aim was to demonstrate the characteristics of the glandular stomach and colon MN tests by analyzing time-related changes in MN frequencies, apoptosis and cell proliferation in the target tissues of male CD (SD) rats that were orally administered a single dose of a stomach- or colon-targeted carcinogen, i.e., N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) for the stomach and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for the colon. After treatment, the MN frequencies significantly increased in the respective target tissues, peaking at 48-96h and decreasing afterwards. The time-response pattern could be explained by the epithelial cell turnover confirmed with a labeling experiment using the thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). In the study with MNU and DMH, we also prepared paraffin sections of the respective target tissues for the immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. The incidence of apoptosis increased in the early phase (6 and/or 24h) after treatment, and then decreased. Cell proliferation was depressed when a high incidence of apoptosis was observed, and then it recovered until 72h. MN frequencies increased with the recovery of cell proliferation occurring later than the peak apoptosis response. These results indicated that micronuclei were induced in the glandular stomach and colon epithelial cells by administration of the model chemicals. On the other hand, MNU induced significant increases of MNed cells in both the glandular stomach and bone marrow in the same rats, while MNNG did only in the glandular stomach when administered orally up to 1/4 of the LD50. These results suggest that the glandular stomach- and colon-MN tests would be useful for evaluating the genotoxicity of agents in the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress during early pregnancy.

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    Lim, Whasun; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family binds to two transmembrane receptors; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2) with high affinity and p75 with low affinity. Although BDNF-NTRK2 signaling in the central nervous system is known, signaling in the female reproductive system is unknown. Therefore, we determined effects of BDNF on porcine endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells isolated from Day 12 of pregnancy, as well as expression of BDNF and NTRK2 in endometria of cyclic and pregnant pigs. BDNF-NTRK2 genes were expressed in uterine glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia during early pregnancy. In addition, their expression in uterine GE and LE decreased with increasing parity of sows. Recombinant BDNF increased proliferation in pLE cells in a dose-dependent, as well as expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in nuclei of pLE cells. BDNF also activated phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38 proteins in pLE cells. In addition, cell death resulting from tunicamycin-induced ER stress was prevented when pLE cells were treated with the combination of tunicamycin and BDNF which also decreased cells in the Sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response genes were mostly down-regulated to the basal levels as compared to non-treated pLE cells. Our finding suggests that BDNF acts via NTRK2 to induce development of pLE cells for maintenance of implantation and pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by inhibiting ER stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Aquaporins are upregulated in glandular epithelium at the time of implantation in the rat.

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    Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of luminal fluid is essential for blastocyst implantation. While it has been known for quite some time that there is a reduction in the amount of luminal fluid at the time of implantation, the mechanisms regulating this process are only just emerging. Previous studies have shown an upregulation of aquaporin (AQP) 5 channels in luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation providing a mechanism for fluid reabsorption across the surface epithelium. However to date the contribution of fluid reabsorption by glandular epithelial cells has not been established. This study using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates the presence of several AQP isoforms in the rat uterus at the time of implantation while immunofluorescence data demonstrates an apical distribution of AQPs5 and 9 in the glandular epithelium at the time of implantation. The presence of AQPs5 and 9 in the apical plasma membrane of the glandular epithelium seen in this study provides a mechanism for transcellular fluid transport across these glandular epithelial cells similar to that seen in luminal epithelial cells. The reabsorption of glandular fluid via AQP channels may also regulate luminal fluid volume and be involved in the reduction in luminal fluid seen at the time of implantation.

  19. Quantifying Epithelial Early Common Progenitors from Long-Term Primary or Cell Line Sphere Culture.

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    Clément, Flora; Zhu, Helen He; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Delay, Emmanuel; Maguer-Satta, Véronique

    2015-11-04

    Here, a protocol to quantify epithelial early common progenitor/stem cells grown as spheres in non-adherent culture conditions is described. This protocol is based on the combination of two functional tests: the sphere assay to maintain and enrich early progenitor/stem cells, and the epithelial colony-forming cells (E-CFC) assay to identify and quantify further differentiated epithelial progenitors. Primary spheres mainly contain progenitors and rare stem/early common progenitor cells while secondary and tertiary spheres contain progenitor cells derived from the early common progenitor/stem cell population maintained through passages and partially differentiated. Spheres are enzymatically and mechanically dissociated; the derived cells are subsequently plated on irradiated NIH-3T3 fibroblasts for further processing, as in the E-CFC assay. The principle of this assay is to quantify the number of epithelial colonies generated by cells present in the different sequential spheres. This assay has therefore been named the early common progenitor-derived colonies assay (ECP-DC).

  20. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, L.M.; Pijlman, B.M.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The perc

  1. Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.B.; Sterkenburg, M.A. van; Rabe, K.F.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Datson, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The airway epithelium responds to microbial exposure by altering expression of a variety of genes to increase innate host defense. We aimed to delineate the early transcriptional response in human primary bronchial epithelial cells exposed for 6 h to a mixture of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha or heat-inact

  2. Genetic analysis of the early natural history of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

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    Bhavana Pothuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC reflects diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage, but improved early detection is hindered by uncertainty as to the histologic origin and early natural history of this malignancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report combined molecular genetic and morphologic analyses of normal human ovarian tissues and early stage cancers, from both BRCA mutation carriers and the general population, indicating that EOCs frequently arise from dysplastic precursor lesions within epithelial inclusion cysts. In pathologically normal ovaries, molecular evidence of oncogenic stress was observed specifically within epithelial inclusion cysts. To further explore potential very early events in ovarian tumorigenesis, ovarian tissues from women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer were subjected to laser catapult microdissection and gene expression profiling. These studies revealed a quasi-neoplastic expression signature in benign ovarian cystic inclusion epithelium compared to surface epithelium, specifically with respect to genes affecting signal transduction, cell cycle control, and mitotic spindle formation. Consistent with this gene expression profile, a significantly higher cell proliferation index (increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis was observed in histopathologically normal ovarian cystic compared to surface epithelium. Furthermore, aneuploidy was frequently identified in normal ovarian cystic epithelium but not in surface epithelium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data indicate that EOC frequently arises in ovarian cystic inclusions, is preceded by an identifiable dysplastic precursor lesion, and that increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and aneuploidy are likely to represent very early aberrations in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  3. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

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    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  4. Developing an ancient epithelial appendage: FGF signalling regulates early tail denticle formation in sharks.

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    Cooper, Rory L; Martin, Kyle J; Rasch, Liam J; Fraser, Gareth J

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrate epithelial appendages constitute a diverse group of organs that includes integumentary structures such as reptilian scales, avian feathers and mammalian hair. Recent studies have provided new evidence for the homology of integumentary organ development throughout amniotes, despite their disparate final morphologies. These structures develop from conserved molecular signalling centres, known as epithelial placodes. It is not yet certain whether this homology extends beyond the integumentary organs of amniotes, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding their development in basal vertebrates. As the ancient sister lineage of bony vertebrates, extant chondrichthyans are well suited to testing the phylogenetic depth of this homology. Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) possess hard, mineralised epithelial appendages called odontodes, which include teeth and dermal denticles (placoid scales). Odontodes constitute some of the oldest known vertebrate integumentary appendages, predating the origin of gnathostomes. Here, we used an emerging model shark (Scyliorhinus canicula) to test the hypothesis that denticles are homologous to other placode-derived amniote integumentary organs. To examine the conservation of putative gene regulatory network (GRN) member function, we undertook small molecule inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling during caudal denticle formation. We show that during early caudal denticle morphogenesis, the shark expresses homologues of conserved developmental gene families, known to comprise a core GRN for early placode morphogenesis in amniotes. This includes conserved expression of FGFs, sonic hedgehog (shh) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4). Additionally, we reveal that denticle placodes possess columnar epithelial cells with a reduced rate of proliferation, a conserved characteristic of amniote skin appendage development. Small molecule inhibition of FGF signalling revealed placode development is FGF dependent

  5. Early detection of ozone-induced hydroperoxides in epithelial cells by a novel infrared spectroscopic method.

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    Hemmingsen, A; Allen, J T; Zhang, S; Mortensen, J; Spiteri, M A

    1999-11-01

    In the lower atmosphere ozone is a toxic and an unwanted oxidising pollutant causing injury to the airway epithelial cells by lipid peroxidation to yield products such as phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLHP). Measurements of PLHP, which are primary oxidation products, may reflect an early susceptibility of the target cell to oxidative stress. Biphasic cultures of bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to ozone at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1-1.0 ppm) for 4 and 12 h. Detection of PLHP was made using a novel technique based on fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in combination with high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Six phospholipids were identified on the HPTLC plate; lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). From the FTIR spectra, O-O stretching of hydroperoxides was identified in the range 890-820cm(-1). Multivariate data analysis revealed a positive correlation (r = 0.99 for 4 h exposure and r = 0.98 for 12h exposure) between ozone exposure levels and the region of the FTIR-spectrum comprising the main wavelengths for hydroperoxides. These data support this alternative, versatile and novel spectroscopic approach for the early detection of ozone-mediated damage in human airway epithelial cells.

  6. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  7. Glandular prediction: the pride and the prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, C

    2004-08-01

    For the cytologist and clinician alike, glandular lesions pose possibly the greatest challenge in cervical screening. Worldwide, with increasing confidence in cytological prediction, terminology is evolving. In the UK, with the adoption of liquid based methods, the technical aspects of cervical cytology are being addressed, it is now time to standardise our terminology in glandular reporting. Consideration of the cytological complexity, clinical needs and international protocols is essential in this endeavour.

  8. Early dental epithelial transcription factors distinguish ameloblastoma from keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, K; Kurppa, K J; Laiho, A; Peltonen, S; Berdal, A; Bouattour, A; Ruhin, B; Catón, J; Thesleff, I; Leivo, I; Morgan, P R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the molecular relationship between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) by means of a genome-wide expression analysis. Total RNA from 27 fresh tumor samples of 15 solid/multicystic intraosseous ameloblastomas and 12 sporadic KCOTs was hybridized on Affymetrix whole genome arrays. Hierarchical clustering separated ameloblastomas and KCOTs into 2 distinct groups. The gene set enrichment analysis based on 303 dental genes showed a similar separation of ameloblastomas and KCOTs. Early dental epithelial markers PITX2, MSX2, DLX2, RUNX1, and ISL1 were differentially overexpressed in ameloblastoma, indicating its dental identity. Also, PTHLH, a hormone involved in tooth eruption and invasive growth, was one of the most differentially upregulated genes in ameloblastoma. The most differentially overexpressed genes in KCOT were squamous epithelial differentiation markers SPRR1A, KRTDAP, and KRT4, as well as DSG1, a component of desmosomal cell-cell junctions. Additonally, the epithelial stem cell marker SOX2 was significantly upregulated in KCOT when compared with ameloblastoma. Taken together, the gene expression profile of ameloblastoma reflects differentiation from dental lamina toward the cap/bell stage of tooth development, as indicated by dental epithelium-specific transcription factors. In contrast, gene expression of KCOT indicates differentiation toward keratinocytes. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  9. Early Molecular Events in Murine Gastric Epithelial Cells Mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P; Czinn, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine whether similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho-ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho-JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS, whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori-infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  11. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  12. The Serum Glycome to Discriminate between Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Benign Ovarian Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Biskup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD, and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation.

  13. Deep sequencing of Trichomonas vaginalis during the early infection of vaginal epithelial cells and amoeboid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Sven B; Woehle, Christian; Kusdian, Gary; Landan, Giddy; Tachezy, Jan; Zimorski, Verena; Martin, William F

    2013-08-01

    The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis has the largest protozoan genome known, potentially encoding approximately 60,000 proteins. To what degree these genes are expressed is not well known and only a few key transcription factors and promoter domains have been identified. To shed light on the expression capacity of the parasite and transcriptional regulation during phase transitions, we deep sequenced the transcriptomes of the protozoan during two environmental stimuli of the early infection process: exposure to oxygen and contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Eleven 3' fragment libraries from different time points after exposure to oxygen only and in combination with human tissue were sequenced, generating more than 150 million reads which mapped onto 33,157 protein coding genes in total and a core set of more than 20,000 genes represented within all libraries. The data uncover gene family expression regulation in this parasite and give evidence for a concentrated response to the individual stimuli. Oxygen stress primarily reveals the parasite's strategies to deal with oxygen radicals. The exposure of oxygen-adapted parasites to human epithelial cells primarily induces cytoskeletal rearrangement and proliferation, reflecting the rapid morphological transition from spindle shaped flagellates to tissue-feeding and actively dividing amoeboids.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of early-initiated treatment for advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients: a modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, T.; Bekkers, R.L.; Gooszen, H.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Rovers, M.M.; Grutters, J.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Between diagnosis and primary treatment of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), gaps of several weeks exist. Reducing these time intervals may benefit the patient and may lead to a reduction of costs. We explored the cost-effectiveness of early-initiated treatment of patients wi

  15. Early Alterations in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells and Induction of Ovarian Epithelial Tumors Triggered by Loss of FSH Receptor

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    Xinlei Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the behavior of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, which plays a central role in ovarian cancer etiology. It has been suggested that incessant ovulation causes OSE changes leading to transformation and that high gonadotropin levels during postmenopause activate OSE receptors, inducing proliferation. We examined the chronology of OSE changes, including tumor appearance, in a mouse model where ovulation never occurs due to deletion of follitropin receptor. Changes in epithelial cells were marked by pan-cytokeratin (CK staining. Histologic changes and CK staining in the OSE increased from postnatal day 2. CK staining was observed inside the ovary by 24 days and increased thereafter in tumor-bearing animals. Ovaries from a third of aged (1 year mutant mice showed CK deep inside, indicating cell migration. These tumors resembled serous papillary adenoma of human ovaries. Weak expression of GATA-4 and elevation of PCNA, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and plateletderived growth factor receptors α and β in mutants indicated differences in cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Thus, we report that OSE changes occur long before epithelial tumors appear in FORKO mice. Our results suggest that neither incessant ovulation nor follicle-stimulating hormone receptor presence in the OSE is required for inducing ovarian tumors; thus, other mechanisms must contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis.

  16. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  17. Broad early immune response of porcine epithelial jejunal IPI-2I cells to Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurens, François; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Melo, Sandrine; Grave, Aurore; Salmon, Henri; Guillén, Nancy

    2009-02-01

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoebahistolytica triggers an acute inflammatory response at early stages of intestinal infection. The patho-physiological study of intestinal amoebiasis requires the development of powerful animal models. Swine provide robust model for human diseases and they could be used to study intestinal amoebiasis. Here, we introduce an in vitro model of swine intestinal epithelial cell (IPI-2I) co-cultured with E. histolytica. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have crucial roles in sensing pathogens and initiating innate immune response, which qualitatively influence adaptive immune response against them. The contact between the two cells induces marked macroscopic lesions of IEC monolayer and striking alteration of the IPI-2I cell phenotype including blebbing, such as loss of attachment before to be phagocyte by the trophozoite. Increase in Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the culture supernatant of IECs was observed when ameba is present and could reflect the cellular cytotoxicity exerted by the parasite. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we identified the up-regulation of cytokines/chemokines implicated in neutrophil chemoattraction and inflammation, such as CCL2, CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL3, GM-CSF, IL1 alpha, IL6 and IL8, in response to the parasite that can further regulate the immunoregulatory functions of the immune cells of the host. The study points a cardinal role of these pro-inflammatory compounds as central mediators in the interaction IECs/ameba and suggests mechanisms by which they coordinate intestinal immune response. This will focus future efforts on delineating the molecular and cellular mechanisms of other cell partners by the way of in vivo infection of swine.

  18. Hypermutator Salmonella Heidelberg induces an early cell death in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Zenbaa, Neila; Bouchard, Damien; Lavault, Marie-Thérèse; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2015-10-22

    We have previously described that a strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with a hypermutator phenotype, B182, adhered strongly to HeLa cells. In this work, we showed that this hypermutator Salmonella strain invaded HeLa epithelial cells and induced cytoskeleton alteration. Those changes lead to HeLa cell death which was characteristic of apoptosis. For the first time, we showed that this hypermutator strain induced apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases 2, 9 and 3. Complementation of B182 strain showed a decrease in cells death induction. In the presence of other Salmonella Heidelberg with a normomutator phenotype, such as WT and SL486, cell death and caspase 3 were undetectable. These results suggested that early apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were specific to B182. Besides, B182 induced LDH release and caspase 3 activation in CaCo-2 and HCT116 cells. Heat-treated B182 and diffusible products failed to induce this phenotype. Epithelial cells treatment with cytochalasin D caused the inhibition of B182 internalisation and caspase 3 activation. These results showed that this cell death required active S. Heidelberg B182 protein synthesis and bacterial internalisation. However sipB and sopB, usually involved in apoptosis induced by Salmonella were not overexpressed in B182, contrary to fimA and fliC. Comparative genome analysis showed numerous mutations as in rpoS which would be more investigated. The role of the hypermutator phenotype might be suspected to be implicated in these specific features. This result expands our knowledge about strong mutators frequently found in bacterial organisms isolated from clinical specimens.

  19. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  20. Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation Marker in Early Recurrence of FSGS in the Transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatima, H.; Moeller, M.J.; Smeets, B.; Yang, H.C.; D'Agati, V.D.; Alpers, C.E.; Fogo, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Podocyte loss is key in glomerulosclerosis. Activated parietal epithelial cells are proposed to contribute to pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis and may serve as stem cells that can transition to podocytes. CD44 is a marker for activated parietal epithelial cells. This stu

  1. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  2. Early mucosal sensing of SIV infection by paneth cells induces IL-1β production and initiates gut epithelial disruption.

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    Lauren A Hirao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV causes rapid CD4+ T cell depletion in the gut mucosa, resulting in immune deficiency and defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier. Breakdown in gut barrier integrity is linked to chronic inflammation and disease progression. However, the early effects of HIV on the gut epithelium, prior to the CD4+ T cell depletion, are not known. Further, the impact of early viral infection on mucosal responses to pathogenic and commensal microbes has not been investigated. We utilized the SIV model of AIDS to assess the earliest host-virus interactions and mechanisms of inflammation and dysfunction in the gut, prior to CD4+ T cell depletion. An intestinal loop model was used to interrogate the effects of SIV infection on gut mucosal immune sensing and response to pathogens and commensal bacteria in vivo. At 2.5 days post-SIV infection, low viral loads were detected in peripheral blood and gut mucosa without CD4+ T cell loss. However, immunohistological analysis revealed the disruption of the gut epithelium manifested by decreased expression and mislocalization of tight junction proteins. Correlating with epithelial disruption was a significant induction of IL-1β expression by Paneth cells, which were in close proximity to SIV-infected cells in the intestinal crypts. The IL-1β response preceded the induction of the antiviral interferon response. Despite the disruption of the gut epithelium, no aberrant responses to pathogenic or commensal bacteria were observed. In fact, inoculation of commensal Lactobacillus plantarum in intestinal loops led to rapid anti-inflammatory response and epithelial tight junction repair in SIV infected macaques. Thus, intestinal Paneth cells are the earliest responders to viral infection and induce gut inflammation through IL-1β signaling. Reversal of the IL-1β induced gut epithelial damage by Lactobacillus plantarum suggests synergistic host-commensal interactions during early viral infection and identify these

  3. [Endoscopic Submucosal dissection and mucosectomy for the treatment of the epithelial neoplasia and early gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda B, Fernando; Sanchez L, Juvenal

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection of early gastric cancer are accepted as a treatment options for cases of early gastric cancer where the probability of lymph node metastasis is nil or low. To establish the effectiveness of mucosectomy for the treatment of early gastric cancer and evaluate the extended indications for dysplasia lesions, also, we want to determine if the mucosectomy is relevant for lesions negative for neoplasia at the National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases (INEN), Lima, Peru. We call for estimating the utility and factibility of the endoscopic submucosa dissection with the needle knife. The study is an observational, prospective, analytical and cross longitudinal. The study was performed in 96 patients with Type 0 Neoplastic lesions at INEN from 1996 to 2008. The revised Vienna classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia was utilized. The indication for endoscopic mucosal resection as a radical treatment of early gastric cancer is according to the treatment guidelines for gastric cancer in Japan. The lesions were resected with a simple endoscopic snare, with the Olympus cap for some depressed lesions and the needle knife during the submucosal dissection. Lifting of the lesion with submucosal injection was done with saline solution with epinephrine or saline with distillate water. The statistical analysis included the SPPS-12 programme. 96 patients were treated by mucosectomy and endoscopic submucosal dissection from 1996 to 2008. The sample represents patients with a mean age over 50 years old and predominance of female. 55 patients belongs to category 1 of revised Vienna Classification, 9 patients are in the category 3, 31 patients are suitable in category 4 (20 with high grade adenoma/dysplasia and 11 with intramucosal carcinoma) and just 1 patient for the category 5. We resected 305 Type 0 lesions, 85 mucosal neoplasia, low grade (43) and high grade (31 adenoma/dysplasia in 20 patients

  4. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PMID:23133671

  6. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  8. Conditional deletion of epithelial IKKβ impairs alveolar formation through apoptosis and decreased VEGF expression during early mouse lung morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changgong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar septation marks the beginning of the transition from the saccular to alveolar stage of lung development. Inflammation can disrupt this process and permanently impair alveolar formation resulting in alveolar hypoplasia as seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm newborns. NF-κB is a transcription factor central to multiple inflammatory and developmental pathways including dorsal-ventral patterning in fruit flies; limb, mammary and submandibular gland development in mice; and branching morphogenesis in chick lungs. We have previously shown that epithelial overexpression of NF-κB accelerates lung maturity using transgenic mice. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that targeted deletion of NF-κB signaling in lung epithelium would impair alveolar formation. Methods We generated double transgenic mice with lung epithelium-specific deletion of IKKβ, a known activating kinase upstream of NF-κB, using a cre-loxP transgenic recombination strategy. Lungs of resulting progeny were analyzed at embryonic and early postnatal stages to determine specific effects on lung histology, and mRNA and protein expression of relevant lung morphoreulatory genes. Lastly, results measuring expression of the angiogenic factor, VEGF, were confirmed in vitro using a siRNA-knockdown strategy in cultured mouse lung epithelial cells. Results Our results showed that IKKβ deletion in the lung epithelium transiently decreased alveolar type I and type II cells and myofibroblasts and delayed alveolar formation. These effects were mediated through increased alveolar type II cell apoptosis and decreased epithelial VEGF expression. Conclusions These results suggest that epithelial NF-κB plays a critical role in early alveolar development possibly through regulation of VEGF.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.

  10. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    sepals. On the sepals, in addition to the peltate and subsessile capitate secretory trichomes, the stalked capitate glandular trichome type was detected. Ontogeny began with the expansion of a protodermic cell, which according to the sequence of periclinal and anticlinal division (either symmetric or asymmetric gave rise to the glandular trichomes. Differentiation of the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes was not synchronized and occurred very early in the leaf, stem and floral axis.

  11. Cdc42 is crucial for the establishment of epithelial polarity during early mammalian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Li, Shaohua; Chrostek-Grashoff, Anna

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane, but exhi......To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane...

  12. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  13. Do Perturbed Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Drive Early Stages of Carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    of an epithelial cell (Fearon and isografted mice. Cancer Res. 52, 5732-5737. Vogelstein, 1990; Mastorides and Maronpot, 2002). These Hahm, H. A. and...Watch thy neighbor: cancer is a cancers in the pituitary- isografted mouse which are histologically and communal affair. I. Cell. Sci. 117, 1287

  14. Prevalence of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells correlates with recurrence in early-stage ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yang, Yingkui

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells) have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44+ ...

  15. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  16. Media glandular dose in mammography;Dosis glandular media en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Pinedo S, A.; Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada en Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J., E-mail: hduran20_1@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  17. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  18. Hnf-1β transcription factor is an early hif-1α-independent marker of epithelial hypoxia and controls renal repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Faguer

    Full Text Available Epithelial repair following acute kidney injury (AKI requires epithelial-mesenchyme-epithelial cycling associated with transient re-expression of genes normally expressed during kidney development as well as activation of growth factors and cytokine-induced signaling. In normal kidney, the Hnf-1β transcription factor drives nephrogenesis, tubulogenesis and epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of epithelial planar cell polarity and expression of developmental or tubular segment-specific genes. In a mouse model of ischemic AKI induced by a 2-hours hemorrhagic shock, we show that expression of this factor is tightly regulated in the early phase of renal repair with a biphasic expression profile (early down-regulation followed by transient over-expression. These changes are associated to tubular epithelial differentiation as assessed by KSP-cadherin and megalin-cubilin endocytic complex expression analysis. In addition, early decrease in Hnf1b expression is associated with the transient over-expression of one of its main target genes, the suppressor of cytokine signaling Socs3, which has been shown essential for renal repair. In vitro, hypoxia induced early up-regulation of Hnf-1β from 1 to 24 hours, independently of the hypoxia-inducible factor Hif-1α. When prolonged, hypoxia induced Hnf-1β down-regulation while normoxia led to Hnf-1β normalization. Last, Hnf-1β down-regulation using RNA interference in HK-2 cells led to phenotype switch from an epithelial to a mesenchyme state. Taken together, we showed that Hnf-1β may drive recovery from ischemic AKI by regulating both the expression of genes important for homeostasis control during organ repair and the state of epithelial cell differentiation.

  19. In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells to Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    derived lung cells, only the epithelium will be tagged by this method. Prior to using these animals for our studies, we will ensure that lineage labeled...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0184 TITLE: In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15Sep2013-14Sep2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In Vivo Tagging of Lung

  20. Transmissible Plasmid Containing Salmonella enterica Heidelberg Isolates Modulate Cytokine Production During Early Stage of Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Williams, Katherine; Foley, Steven L

    2016-08-01

    The variation in cytokine production during bacterial invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is a contributing factor for progression of the infection. A few Salmonella enterica Heidelberg strains isolated from poultry products harbor transmissible plasmids (TPs), including those that encode a type-IV secretion system. Earlier, we showed that these TPs are responsible for increased virulence during infection. This study examines the potential role of these TPs in cytokine production in IECs. This study showed that S. Heidelberg strains containing TPs (we refer as virulent strains) caused decreased interleukin (IL)-10 production in IECs after 1 h infection. The virulent strains induced a high level of tumor necrosis factor-α production under identical conditions. The virulent strains of S. Heidelberg also altered the production of IL-2, IL-17, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to an avirulent strain. As a part of infection, bacteria cross the epithelial barrier and encounter intestinal macrophages. Hence, we examined the cytotoxic mechanism of strains of S. Heidelberg in macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy showed cell necrosis occurs during the early stage of infection. In conclusion, virulent S. Heidelberg strains were able to modify the host cytokine profile during the early stages of infection and also caused necrosis in macrophages.

  1. Oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period improves epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, G R; Tan, B E; Xiong, X; Kong, X F; Xiao, D F; Xu, L W; Wu, M M; Huang, B; Kim, S W; Yin, Y L

    2015-04-01

    Polyamines are necessary for normal integrity and the restitution after injury of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period on epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets. Eighteen neonatal piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) from 3 litters (6 piglets per litter) were assigned to 3 groups, representing oral administration with an equal volume of saline (control), putrescine (5 mg/kg BW), and proline (25 mg/kg BW) twice daily from d 1 to weaning at 14 d of age. Plasma and intestinal samples were obtained 3 d after weaning. The results showed that oral administration of putrescine or proline increased the final BW and ADG of piglets compared with the control (P putrescine- and proline-treated piglets compared with those of control piglets. The voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) 1.1 protein expression in the jejunum of piglets administrated with putrescine and the Kv1.5 mRNA and Kv1.1 protein levels in the ileum of piglets administrated with proline were greater than those in control piglets (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that polyamine or its precursor could improve mucosal proliferation, intestinal morphology, as well as tight junction and potassium channel protein expressions in early-weaned piglets, with implications for epithelial restitution and barrier function after stress injury.

  2. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett's Esophagus Malignant Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Joana; Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett's malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett's progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett's samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett's esophagus neoplastic progression.

  3. Role of mechanical stretching and lipopolysaccharide in early apoptosis and IL-8 of alveolar epithelial typeⅡ cells A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-Ming Ning; Xiao-Ning Sun; Xin-Kai Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of mechanical stretching and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the early apoptosis and IL-8 production of alveolar epithelial typeⅡ cellsA549.Methods:The experimental matrix consisted of three integrated studies.In the first study,A549 cells were subjected to different stretching strain frequency and duration time to see the effects on the early apoptosis.In the second study,A549 cells were subjected to mechanical stretch(15%4 h, 0.5Hz) andLPS(1 or100 ng/mL) to see whether mechanical strain andLPS also have an addictive effect on the early apoptosis.In the third study to investigate whether this addictive effect could be induced byLPS and mechanical stretch onIL-8 production,A549 cells were subjected to LPS(100 ng/mL) and mechanical strain(15%,0.5Hz,4 h).Real timePCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure mRNA and protein level ofIL-8.The early apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry.Results:Mechanical stretch induced the early apoptosis in a force and frequency and time-dependent manner.In the presence ofLPS, mechanical stretch enhancedLPS-induced early apoptosis, especially in100 ng/mLLPS group compared with1 ng/mLLPS and the control group.Mechanical stretch increasedIL-8 production and enhancedLPS-inducedIL-8 screation both in mRNA and protein levels.Conclusions:Mechanical stretch can induce the early apoptosis andIL-8 secretion.Mechanical stretch andLPS have an addictive effect on the early apoptosis andIL-8 production in alveolar type2 cells, which is one of the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury.

  4. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  5. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization (“opening zipper”) opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion (“closing zipper”) closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal “cords”. Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. PMID:27397682

  6. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  7. Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Yasugi, Sadao

    2005-06-01

    During development of the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), gut endoderm differentiates into glandular and luminal epithelium. We found that Delta1-expressing cells, undifferentiated cells and Notch-activated cells colocalize within the endodermal epithelium during early gland formation. Inhibition of Notch signaling using Numb or dominant-negative form of Su(H) resulted in a luminal differentiation, while forced activation of Notch signaling promoted the specification of immature glandular cells, but prevented the subsequent differentiation and the invagination of the glands. These results suggest that Delta1-mediated Notch signaling among endodermal cells functions as a binary switch for determination of glandular and luminal fates, and regulates patterned differentiation of glands in the chicken proventriculus.

  8. Mammary epithelial morphogenesis and early breast cancer. Evidence of involvement of basal components of the RNA Polymerase I transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Stefano; Wierzbicki, Andrzej J; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2016-09-16

    Upregulation of RNA Polymerase (Pol I)-mediated transcription of rRNA and increased ribogenesis are hallmarks of breast cancer. According to several datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), amplification/upregulation of genes encoding for basal components of the Pol I transcriptional machinery is frequent at different breast cancer stages. Here we show that knock down of the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3 (TIF-IA) in breast cancer cells is sufficient to reduce rRNA synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation, and second that stable ectopic expression of RRN3 in human mammary epithelial (HME1) cells, by increasing rRNA transcription, confers increased sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of a selective Pol I inhibitor. Further, RRN3-overexpressing HME1 cells, when grown in in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) culture, develop into morphologically aberrant acinar structures lacking a lumen and filled with proliferative cells, thus acquiring a morphology resembling in situ ductal breast cancer lesions (DCIS). Consequently, interference with RRN3 control of Pol I transcription seems capable of both compromising mammary epithelial morphogenetic processes at early breast cancer stages, and driving breast cancer progression by fostering proliferation.

  9. Relationship between epithelial and connective tissues in the stomach of the frog Rana temporaria during metamorphosis: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaro, A C; Rovira, J; Bodegas, M E; Burrell, M A; Sesma, P

    1998-08-01

    In the course of metamorphosis of the stomach of Rana temporaria tadpoles there is a marked increase in the amount of active mesenchymal fibroblasts and extracellular matrix underlying the regenerating gastric epithelium. At the onset of metamorphosis, a thick PAS-positive basement membrane is developed around the epithelial component of the mucosa, formed by the apical, degenerating larval epithelium and the basal, regenerative epithelial cords. Under the electron microscope, a folded basement membrane is usually revealed under the apical degenerating epithelium while a compact basement membrane (up to 1-2 microns thick), forming both patches and more extensive areas, is frequently seen around the regenerative glandular cords. Cytoplasmic processes, extending from both the epithelial and mesenchymal fibroblastic cells, cross the basement membrane and make physical contact between the two cellular types. At mid-metamorphosis areas of thick PAS-positive basement membrane are still observed around the differentiating glandular outlines, before disappearing completely at late metamorphosis. The probable involvement of intertissue interactions between epithelium and connective elements in the morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of secondary, definitive frog stomach is discussed. Early contacts between epithelium and phagocytes, probably related to the invasion of epithelium by the phagocytic cells, have also been observed.

  10. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Jayanta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When grown in three-dimensional (3D cultures, epithelial cells typically form cystic organoids that recapitulate cardinal features of in vivo epithelial structures. Characterizing essential cell actions and their roles, which constitute the system's dynamic phenotype, is critical to gaining deeper insight into the cystogenesis phenomena. Methods Starting with an earlier in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA1 that validated for several Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cell culture attributes, we built a revised analogue (ISEA2 to increase overlap between analogue and cell culture traits. Both analogues used agent-based, discrete event methods. A set of axioms determined ISEA behaviors; together, they specified the analogue's operating principles. A new experimentation framework enabled tracking relative axiom use and roles during simulated cystogenesis along with establishment of the consequences of their disruption. Results ISEA2 consistently produced convex cystic structures in a simulated embedded culture. Axiom use measures provided detailed descriptions of the analogue's dynamic phenotype. Dysregulating key cell death and division axioms led to disorganized structures. Adhering to either axiom less than 80% of the time caused ISEA1 to form easily identified morphological changes. ISEA2 was more robust to identical dysregulation. Both dysregulated analogues exhibited characteristics that resembled those associated with an in vitro model of early glandular epithelial cancer. Conclusion We documented the causal chains of events, and their relative roles, responsible for simulated cystogenesis. The results stand as an early hypothesis–a theory–of how individual MDCK cell actions give rise to consistently roundish, cystic organoids.

  11. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  12. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Abby L; Zinser, Glendon M; Waltz, Susan E

    2014-10-15

    Vitamin D₃ receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D₃ treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D₃ storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D₃. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D₃-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D₃-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development.

  13. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odgerel Oidovsambuu

    Full Text Available VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Although Vsig1(-/Y ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  14. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Nyamsuren, Gunsmaa; Liu, Shuai; Göring, Wolfgang; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although Vsig1(-/Y) ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y) cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  15. Three-dimensional epithelial and mesenchymal cell co-cultures form early tooth epithelium invagination-like structures: expression patterns of relevant molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2012-06-01

    Epithelium invagination is the key feature of early tooth development. In this study, we built a three-dimensional (3D) model to represent epithelium invagination-like structure by tissue engineering. Human normal oral epithelial cells (OECs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were co-cultivated for 2-7 weeks on matrigel or collagen gel to form epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. The histological change and gene expression were analyzed by HE staining, immunostaining, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). After 4 weeks of cultivation, OECs-formed epithelium invaginated into DPSCs-derived mesenchyme on both matrigel and collagen gel. OEC-DPSC co-cultures on matrigel showed typical invagination of epithelial cells and condensation of the underlying mesenchymal cells. Epithelial invagination-related molecules, CD44 and E-cadherin, and mesenchymal condensation involved molecules, N-cadherin and Msx1 expressed at a high level in the tissue model, suggesting the epithelial invagination is functional. However, when OECs and DPSCs were co-cultivated on collagen gel; the invaginated epithelium was transformed to several epithelial colonies inside the mesenchyme after long culture period. When DPSCs were co-cultivated with immortalized human OECs NDUSD-1, all of the above-mentioned features were not presented. Immunohistological staining and qRT-PCR analysis showed that p75, BMP2, Shh, Wnt10b, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Msx1, and Pax9 are involved in initiating epithelium invagination and epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in the 3D OEC-DPSC co-cultures. Our results suggest that co-cultivated OECs and DPSCs on matrigel under certain conditions can build an epithelium invagination-like model. This model might be explored as a potential research tool for epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and tooth regeneration.

  16. Epithelial stratification and placode invagination are separable functions in early morphogenesis of the molar tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Panousopoulou, Eleni; Tucker, Abigail S; Green, Jeremy B A

    2016-02-15

    Ectodermal organs, which include teeth, hair follicles, mammary ducts, and glands such as sweat, mucous and sebaceous glands, are initiated in development as placodes, which are epithelial thickenings that invaginate and bud into the underlying mesenchyme. These placodes are stratified into a basal and several suprabasal layers of cells. The mechanisms driving stratification and invagination are poorly understood. Using the mouse molar tooth as a model for ectodermal organ morphogenesis, we show here that vertical, stratifying cell divisions are enriched in the forming placode and that stratification is cell division dependent. Using inhibitor and gain-of-function experiments, we show that FGF signalling is necessary and sufficient for stratification but not invagination as such. We show that, instead, Shh signalling is necessary for, and promotes, invagination once suprabasal tissue is generated. Shh-dependent suprabasal cell shape suggests convergent migration and intercalation, potentially accounting for post-stratification placode invagination to bud stage. We present a model in which FGF generates suprabasal tissue by asymmetric cell division, while Shh triggers cell rearrangement in this tissue to drive invagination all the way to bud formation.

  17. Proteomics of the human endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma from the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brian L; Liu, Baoquan; Alkhas, Addie; Shoji, Yutaka; Challa, Rusheeswar; Wang, Guisong; Ferguson, Susan; Oliver, Julie; Mitchell, Dave; Bateman, Nicholas W; Zahn, Christopher M; Hamilton, Chad A; Payson, Mark; Lessey, Bruce; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in reproductive biology and women's health, a detailed molecular-level understanding of the human endometrium is lacking. Indeed, no comprehensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the important protein expression differences between the endometrial glandular epithelium and surrounding stroma during the proliferative and midsecretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We utilized laser microdissection to harvest epithelial cells and stromal compartments from proliferative and secretory premenopausal endometrial tissue and performed a global, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. This analysis identified 1224 total proteins from epithelial cells, among which 318 were differentially abundant between the proliferative and secretory phases (q glandular cells in the secretory phase, was confirmed to be elevated in midsecretory-phase baboon uterine lavage samples and also observed to have an N-linked glycosylated form that was not observed in the proliferative phase. This study provides a detailed view into the global proteomic alterations of the epithelial cells and stromal compartments of the cycling premenopausal endometrium. These proteomic alterations during endometrial remodeling provide a basis for numerous follow-up investigations on the function of these differentially regulated proteins and their role in reproductive biology and endometrial pathologies.

  18. In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    determine the tumor cell of origin [KrasG12D L/-/ /Sftpc- creER or KrasG12D L/-/ / p53 L/L /Sftpc-creER], or the contribution of alveolar type II cells in...cancer have advanced disease at the time of presentation, a finding that may be consistent with early spread. Even when lung cancer is diagnosed and...identify early stage patients at high risk of recurrence or metastatic disease as well as to develop more effective therapies for NSCLC. 7 The studies

  19. Early expression of mannose-binding lectin 2 during Aspergillus fumigatus infection in human corneal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Ye; Che; Jing-Fen; Zhang; Ji-Eun; Lee; Jing; Lin; Li-Ting; Hu; Nan; Jiang; Qian; Wang; Qiang; Xu; Gui-Qiu; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the early expression of mannose-binding lectin 2(MBL2) in human corneal epithelial cells(HCECs) infected by Aspergillus fumigatus(AF).METHODS: HCECs cultured in vitro with AF antigens and sampled at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h. The expression of MBL2 m RNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The expression of MBL2 protein in supernatant fluid was shown by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). MBL2 protein in HCECs was detected by immunocytochemistry at 0 and 24 h.RESULTS: MBL2 m RNA and protein are expressed in normal HCECs. The expression of MBL2 m RNA and protein in supernatant fluid begin to increase after being stimulated with AF antigens. The most significantly peak of MBL2 m RNA is in 2h. The protein of MBL2 in supernatant fluid decrease gradually after 0.5h. The protein in HCECs expression increase after stimulation of24 h.· CONCLUSION: MBL2 receptor expressed in normal HCECs in vitro. The stimulation by AF antigens can increase the early expression of it.

  20. Morphology of a novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity in the ant Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity and anterior pharynx is described in both workers and queens of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis. The infrabuccal cavity, connected with the buccal tube, forms a ventral outgrowth of the anterior pharynx, and as such displays the tegumental lining with a cuticle and an epithelial layer. In its dorsal region, the cavity's epithelium reaches a thickness of approx. 11-12mum in both workers and queens, which is considerably thicker than the epithelium lining the rest of the infrabuccal cavity. Also the possible role of the infrabuccal gland is discussed.

  1. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1988-08-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15.

  2. Distributions of PCNA and Cas-3 in rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Oner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the distributions of proliferating cell nuclear agent (PCNA and Cas-pase-3 (Cas-3 and their possible roles in implantation and decidualization during early pregnancy at immunohistochemical level. The tissue samples from pregnant animals between gestational days 1-5 were incubated by PCNA and Cas-3 antibodies and the obtained results were evaluated quantitatively. It was observed that PCNA immunoreactivity in uterine luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium reduced as from day 2 of gestation and disappeared as from day 4 of gestation. PCNA staining intensity in stromal cells and myometrium increased gradually with progressing gestation. While Cas-3 immunoreactivity was strongly detected in luminal and glandular epithelium throughout the whole gestational period, its reactivity markedly increased as from day 3 of gestation. In conclusion, it may suggest that the blastocyst implantation induces the uterine luminal epithelial cell death and stromal cell proliferation around the embryo in the uterus.

  3. Detection of activated parietal epithelial cells on the glomerular tuft distinguishes early focal segmental glomerulosclerosis from minimal change disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Stucker, Fabien; Wetzels, Jack; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Ronco, Pierre; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; D'Agati, Vivette; Fogo, Agnes B; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Boor, Peter; Floege, Jürgen; Ostendorf, Tammo; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-12-01

    In rodents, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) migrating onto the glomerular tuft participate in the formation of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions. We investigated whether immunohistologic detection of PEC markers in the initial biopsies of human patients with first manifestation of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with no immune complexes can improve the sensitivity to detect sclerotic lesions compared with standard methods. Ninety-five renal biopsies were stained for claudin-1 (PEC marker), CD44 (activated PECs), and LKIV69 (PEC matrix); 38 had been diagnosed as early primary FSGS and 57 as minimal change disease. PEC markers were detected on the tuft in 87% of the biopsies of patients diagnosed as primary FSGS. PEC markers were detected in FSGS lesions from the earliest stages of disease. In minimal change disease, no PEC activation was observed by immunohistology. However, in 25% of biopsies originally diagnosed as minimal change disease the presence of small lesions indicative of a sclerosing process were detected, which were undetectable on standard periodic acid-Schiff staining, even though only a single histologic section for each PEC marker was evaluated. Staining for LKIV69 detected lesions with the highest sensitivity. Two novel PEC markers A-kinase anchor protein 12 and annexin A3 exhibited similar sensitivity. In summary, detection of PECs on the glomerular tuft by immunostaining improves the differentiation between minimal change disease and primary FSGS and may serve to guide clinical decision making.

  4. Biphasic Aire expression in early embryos and in medullary thymic epithelial cells before end-stage terminal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yumiko; Hirota, Fumiko; Yano, Masashi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2010-05-10

    The roles of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the organization of the thymic microenvironment for establishing self-tolerance are enigmatic. We sought to monitor the production and maintenance of Aire-expressing mTECs by a fate-mapping strategy in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (Tg) mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Aire regulatory element were crossed with a GFP reporter strain. We found that, in addition to its well recognized expression within mature mTECs, Aire was expressed in the early embryo before emergence of the three germ cell layers. This observation may help to explain the development of ectodermal dystrophy often seen in patients with AIRE deficiency. With the use of one Tg line in which Cre recombinase expression was confined to mTECs, we found that Aire(+)CD80(high) mTECs further progressed to an Aire(-)CD80(intermediate) stage, suggesting that Aire expression is not constitutive from after its induction until cell death but instead is down-regulated at the beginning of terminal differentiation. We also demonstrated that many mTECs of Aire-expressing lineage are in close contact with thymic dendritic cells. This close proximity may contribute to transfer of tissue-restricted self-antigens expressed by mTECs to professional antigen-presenting cells.

  5. Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dedifferentiate Partly in Culture, While Maintaining their Ability to Improve Early Embryo Development Rate and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz-Panneau, B; Locatelli, Y; Uzbekova, S; Perreau, C; Mermillod, P

    2015-10-01

    There are convincing arguments to suggest that the success of early reproductive events is reliant on a satisfactory dialogue between gametes-embryo and the oviduct epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize an in vitro model to study these interactions. Cattle zygotes produced in vitro were cultured in either SOF or TCM-199 in the presence or absence of bovine oviduct cell monolayers (BOEC), under 20% or 5% O2 . The embryonic development rate and its quality (cell numbers, cryosurvival) were evaluated, as were the BOEC contents in 11 candidate transcripts (real-time PCR) at different time points. A BOEC co-culture did indeed increase the rate of development in both media under 5% O2 (41 vs 27% and 28 vs 10% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p culture, although mRNA levels of OGP, C3, PGR and ESR2 were clearly reduced, suggesting a dedifferentiation of BOEC during culture. However, SSP1 and GPX4 transcripts were slightly increased during culture, this rise becoming significant by the end of the culture period. In conclusion, our co-culture system with bovine oviduct epithelial cells used for the development of bovine zygotes produced in vitro enhanced blastocyst formation and above all the quality of the resulting embryos, which was associated with specific transcriptomic changes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. A human xenograft model for testing early events of epithelial neoplastic invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCANDLESS, JOHN R.; CRESS, ANNE E.; RABINOVITZ, ISAAC; PAYNE, CLAIRE M.; BOWDEN, G. TIM; KNOX, J. DAVID; NAGLE, RAY B.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a model of human prostate tumor cell invasion using the SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mouse diaphragm. Tumor cells were injected into SCID mice intraperitoneally and the diaphragms harvested three to five weeks later. Electron microscopy showed tumor cell penetration of the mesothelial cell layer and adhesion to the underlying basement membrane on the inferior surface of the mouse diaphragm, where colonies developed. Immunohistochemistry showed invasion by tumor cells through the basement membrane into the muscle of the diaphragm, presence of human tumor cells among the muscle cells and the presence of selected proteins on the invasion front of the tumor cells. Digital image analysis enabled quantitative comparison of events in the metastatic cascade by variants of the tumor cell line and evaluation of the effectiveness of a putative tumor inhibitor. Results suggest that the SCID mouse diaphragm model is a convenient, effective, easily oriented and reproducible in vivo model of the early events associated with human prostate tumor cell invasion. PMID:21533373

  7. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  8. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Di Lillo, F; Longo, R; Sarno, A; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported.

  9. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  10. Expression of late viral proteins is restricted in nasal mucosal leucocytes but not in epithelial cells during early-stage equine herpes virus-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Annick C; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2012-08-01

    Equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and reaches the lamina propria and bloodstream in infected mononuclear cells. This study evaluated expression of the late viral proteins gB, gC, gD and gM in respiratory epithelial and mononuclear cells using: (1) epithelial-like rabbit kidney cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with EHV-1 in vitro; (2) an equine ex vivo nasal explant system; and (3) nasal mucosa tissue of ponies infected in vivo. The viral proteins were expressed in all late-infected epithelial cells, whereas expression was not observed in infected leucocytes where proteins gB and gM were expressed in 60-90%, and proteins gC and gD in only 20% of infected cells, respectively. The results indicate that expression of these viral proteins during early-stage EHV-1 infection is highly dependent on the cell type infected.

  11. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  12. [Early loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arm 16q in flat epithelial atypia of the breast. Detection by microsatellite analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Dahrenmöller, C; Agelepoulos, K; Hungermann, D; Böcker, W

    2008-11-01

    With the improvement of breast carcinoma screening, pre-malignant cell lesions such as flat epithelial atypia (FEA) are detected more frequently. Several studies have demonstrated that FEA show features of a ductal neoplasia, but is it really a precursor lesion? We have started a comparative genetic analysis of a panel of nine microsatellite markers on six different chromosomal regions to investigate whether FEAs show the same characteristic genetic alterations as ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs) and invasive carcinoma of the breast. FEAs, DCISs and invasive carcinomas of the same patients were microdissected using PALM micro laser technology. DNA was isolated using the QIAamp DNA Micro Kit (QIAGEN). We have investigated a set of the polymorphic microsatellite markers D7S522, D8S522, NEFL, D10S541 (PTEN), D13S153 (RB1), D16S400, D16S402, D16S422 and D17S855 (BRCA1) using multiplex PCR for the detection of allelic imbalances. Most of the investigated FEAs showed a lower frequency of loss of heterozygosity than associated DCISs or invasive carcinomas. However, we were able to detect the same alterations in FEAs as in DCISs or invasive carcinomas in a number of cases. Notably, the microsatellite marker on 16q showed more prevalent allelic imbalances in FEAs than the other investigated markers. One of the hallmarks in the pathogenesis of a large subgroup of invasive breast carcinomas is the early loss of chromosome arm 16q. In this study, we were able to detect frequent genetic alterations on chromosome 16q in FEAs, associated DCISs and invasive carcinomas. This suggests that FEA is a precursor lesion in the low-grade pathway.

  13. Time-resolved dual RNA-seq reveals extensive rewiring of lung epithelial and pneumococcal transcriptomes during early infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprianto, Rieza; Slager, Jelle; Holsappel, Siger; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the main etiological agent of pneumonia. Pneumococcal infection is initiated by bacterial adherence to lung epithelial cells. The exact transcriptional changes occurring in both host and microbe during infection are unknown. Here, we

  14. A phase II study of combination chemotherapy in early relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer using gemcitabine and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Lund, Bente; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients relapsing with a short treatment-free interval (TFI) after prior chemotherapy is unsatisfactory. This phase II trial evaluated the activity and feasibility of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) plus gemcitabine in this setting.......Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients relapsing with a short treatment-free interval (TFI) after prior chemotherapy is unsatisfactory. This phase II trial evaluated the activity and feasibility of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) plus gemcitabine in this setting....

  15. Glandular Proteome Identifies Antiprotease Cystatin C as a Critical Modulator of Airway Hydration and Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. Idil Apak; Joo, Nam Soo; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Yan, Ziying; Tyler, Scott R.; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Yulong; Hsiao, Jordy J.; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Wright, Michael E.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel lead to viscous secretions from submucosal glands that cannot be properly hydrated and cleared by beating cilia in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. The mechanisms by which CFTR, and the predominant epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), control the hydration and clearance of glandular secretions remain unclear. We used a proteomics approach to characterize the proteins contained in CF and non-CF submucosal gland fluid droplets and found that differentially regulated proteases (cathepsin S and H) and their antiprotease (cystatin C) influenced the equilibration of fluid on the airway surface and tracheal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Contrary to prevailing models of airway hydration and clearance, cystatin C, or raising the airway surface liquid (ASL) pH, inhibited cathepsin-dependent ENaC-mediated fluid absorption and raised the height of ASL, and yet decreased MCC velocity. Importantly, coupling of both CFTR and ENaC activities were required for effective MCC and for effective ASL height equilibration after volume challenge. Cystatin C–inhibitable cathepsins controlled initial phases of ENaC-mediated fluid absorption, whereas CFTR activity was required to prevent ASL dehydration. Interestingly, CF airway epithelia absorbed fluid more slowly owing to reduced cysteine protease activity in the ASL but became abnormally dehydrated with time. Our findings demonstrate that, after volume challenge, pH-dependent protease-mediated coupling of CFTR and ENaC activities are required for rapid fluid equilibration at the airway surface and for effective MCC. These findings provide new insights into how glandular fluid secretions may be equilibrated at the airway surface and how this process may be impaired in CF. PMID:26334941

  16. Transient RUNX1 Expression during Early Mesendodermal Differentiation of hESCs Promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition through TGFB2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. VanOudenhove

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs from pluripotency to lineage commitment is not fully understood, and a role for phenotypic transcription factors in the initial stages of hESC differentiation remains to be explored. From a screen of candidate factors, we found that RUNX1 is selectively and transiently upregulated early in hESC differentiation to mesendodermal lineages. Transcriptome profiling and functional analyses upon RUNX1 depletion established a role for RUNX1 in promoting cell motility. In parallel, we discovered a loss of repression for several epithelial genes, indicating that loss of RUNX1 impaired an epithelial to mesenchymal transition during differentiation. Cell biological and biochemical approaches revealed that RUNX1 depletion specifically compromised TGFB2 signaling. Both the decrease in motility and deregulated epithelial marker expression upon RUNX1 depletion were rescued by reintroduction of TGFB2, but not TGFB1. These findings identify roles for RUNX1-TGFB2 signaling in early events of mesendodermal lineage commitment.

  17. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  18. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  19. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  20. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  1. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  2. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  3. The glandular odontogenic jaw cyst: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, N W; Joseph, B K; Monsour, P A; Young, W G

    1996-11-01

    A case of a rare odontogenic cyst arising in the lateral periodontal membrane in the mandible in a 14 year old girl is reported. This lesion appeared to be a new entity and has been named glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) or sialo-odontogenic cyst. Histologically the lesion was lined by mucous producing cuboidal epithelium containing several areas of thickening and numerous duct-like structures. The cyst recurred with the same histology two years postoperatively.

  4. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  5. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of activated parietal epithelial cells on the glomerular tuft distinguishes early focal segmental glomerulosclerosis from minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Stucker, F.; Wetzels, J.; Brocheriou, I.; Ronco, P.; Grone, H.J.; D'Agati, V.; Fogo, A.B.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Fischer, H.P.; Boor, P.; Floege, J.; Ostendorf, T.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) migrating onto the glomerular tuft participate in the formation of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions. We investigated whether immunohistologic detection of PEC markers in the initial biopsies of human patients with first manifestation of i

  7. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  8. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Is a Feed-Forward Translational Coactivator of Transforming Growth Factor β Early Protransforming Events in Breast Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, Lindsey; Mestel, Celine; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Schneider, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is overexpressed early in breast cancers in association with disease progression and reduced survival. Much remains to be understood regarding the role of eIF4E in human cancer. We determined, using immortalized human breast epithelial cells, that elevated expression of eIF4E translationally activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway, promoting cell invasion, a loss of cell polarity, increased cell survival, and other hallmarks of early neoplasia. Overexpression of eIF4E is shown to facilitate the selective translation of integrin β1 mRNA, which drives the translationally controlled assembly of a TGF-β receptor signaling complex containing α3β1 integrins, β-catenin, TGF-β receptor I, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smad2/3. This receptor complex acutely sensitizes nonmalignant breast epithelial cells to activation by typically substimulatory levels of activated TGF-β. TGF-β can promote cellular differentiation or invasion and transformation. As a translational coactivator of TGF-β, eIF4E confers selective mRNA translation, reprogramming nonmalignant cells to an invasive phenotype by reducing the set point for stimulation by activated TGF-β. Overexpression of eIF4E may be a proinvasive facilitator of TGF-β activity.

  9. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  10. Colostrum whey down-regulates the expression of early and late inflammatory response genes induced by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium components in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, M; Fortier, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S F; Boutin, Y; Asselin, C; Lessard, M

    2015-01-28

    Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-κB-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-κB induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose-response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens.

  11. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  12. Increase of α-SMA(+) and CK (+) cells as an early sign of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcz, Gábor; Sipos, Ferenc; Krenács, Tibor; Molnár, Jeannette; Patai, Arpád V; Leiszter, Katalin; Tóth, Kinga; Wichmann, Barna; Molnár, Béla; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to examine cell transition events by detecting the frequency of intrapithelial α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)(+)/cytokeratin (CK)(+) cells during colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, in relation to E-cadherin expression. Our further aim was to determine the proliferative activity of intraepithelial α-SMA(+) cells. Histologically healthy, adenoma, and colorectal cancer (CRC) biopsy samples were taken during routine colonoscopy and were included into tissue microarrays (TMAs). Slides immunostained for Ki-67, α-SMA, E-cadherin and pan-cytokeratin were digitalized and analyzed by using a digital microscope software. The proportion of α-SMA(+)/CK(+) cells was significantly higher in CRC samples (3.34 ± 1.01%) compared to healthy (1.94 ± 0.69%) or adenoma (1.62 ± 0.78%) samples (p SMA(+) cells. The majority of intraepithelial α-SMA(+) cells were in the proliferative phase. During tumor progression, the appearance of dot-like α-SMA staining in CK positive cells may indicate the initial phase of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The high proportion of intraepithelial α-SMA(+) proliferating cells may refer to their increased plasticity compared to differentiated cells. The negative correlation between E-cadherin and intraepithelial α-SMA expression suggests that EMT is facilitated by a loss of epithelial cell contact.

  13. Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Cecilia W; Huang, Dexing; Chew, Grace L; Hill, Prue; Vohora, Ambika; Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Godde, Nathan; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara L

    2016-11-01

    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.

  14. Polyploidization in the trophoblast and uterine glandular epithelium of the endotheliochorial placenta of silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.), as revealed by the DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybina, T G; Zybina, E V; Kiknadze, I I; Zhelezova, A I

    2001-05-01

    Dynamics of genome multiplication during establishment of interrelations between trophoblast and glandular epithelium of the endometrium has been studied in the course of formation of placenta in the silver fox. During formation of the placenta, penetration of the trophoblast into the zone of the endometrial glandular epithelium and of endometrial blood vessels into the zone of expanding trophoblast occurs. The trophoblast, which gradually replaces epithelium and a part of the stroma of the endometrium, closely adjoins endometrial vessels but does not disrupt them, thereby the endotheliochorial placenta is formed. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in trophoblast nuclei have shown that most of them are polyploid: predominantly 4-64c, occasionally 128c and 256c. Polyploidy of the trophoblast may be a consequence of various types of polyploidizing mitoses. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in mitotic figures have revealed the presence of mitoses of diploid cells, i.e. with the DNA amount of 4c (2n), and polyploid cells, i.e. 8c (4n), and 16c (8n), therefore trophoblast cells in the silver fox placenta are able to enter mitosis up to the octaploid level. Higher degrees of polyploidy in the trophoblast cells seem to be achieved by endoreduplication. Polyploidization of the uterine glandular epithelial cells during placentation in the silver fox occurs until the level of 8c. Thus, the tissue-specific response of the uterus to the implanting embryo consists of active proliferation and polyploidization of the glandular epithelium, which may compensate formation of prominent population of decidual cells (i.e., connective tissue cells). In the endotheliochorial placenta of the silver fox the regularity is confirmed that cells of both maternal and fetal origin are, as a rule, polyploid in sites of their contact in placenta, which may be of protective significance in the contact of allogenic organisms.

  15. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  16. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the maxillary sinus presenting as an antrochoanal polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Mulazimoglu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH is a rare benign upper airway lesion that is characterized by abnormal glandular proliferation. Maxillary sinus localization is extremely rare. Maxillary sinus involvement along with the extension beyond the sinus could be a challenge in differential diagnosis. In this article, a case of an isolated maxillary sinus REAH extending to the choana is presented.

  17. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the

  18. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the cerv

  19. Plant glandular trichomes as targets for breeding or engineering of resistance to herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Alba, J.M.; Escobar-Bravo, R.; Schuurink, R.C.; Kant, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant's secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by

  20. GLANDULAR HAIRS, NON-GLANDULAR HAIRS, AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN THE WINTER AND SUMMER LEAVES OF THE SEASONALLY DIMORPHIC THYMUS SIBTHORPII (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSABALIDIS ARTEMIOS Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the glandular and non-glandular hairs, and also the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in the winter and summer leaves of the seasonally dimorphic plant Thymus sibthorpii were studied. Glandular hairs comprise peltate hairs only (capitate hairs are missing. Peltate hairs are the sites of essential oil biosynthesis. They are more numerous in the winter leaves than in the summer leaves and consist of a 12-celled secretory head, a unicellular stalk, and an also unicellular epidermal foot. The essential oil of the winter leaves is mainly composed of linalool (42.4%, thymol (7.0%, p-cymene (5.8%, β-caryophyllene (5.7%, borneol (5.6%, and terpinen-4-ol (4.8%. The oil of the summer leaves is principally constituted of p-cymene (25.0%, linalool (19.1%, terpinen-4-ol (8.5% and borneol (8.3%. Non-glandular hairs proliferate in the summer leaves. They are conical in shape and consist of one basal epidermal cell and one apical pointed cell. Glandular and non-glandular hairs are implicated in the chemical and mechanical defense of the plant, respectively.

  1. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

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    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  2. Pore-forming virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus destabilize epithelial barriers-effects of alpha-toxin in the early phases of airway infection

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    Jan-Peter Hildebrandt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human commensal and an opportunistic pathogen that may affect the gastrointestinal tract, the heart, bones, skin or the respiratory tract. S. aureus is frequently involved in hospital- or community-acquired lung infections. The pathogenic potential is associated with its ability to secrete highly effective virulence factors. Among these, the pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and hemolysin A (Hla are the important virulence factors determining the prognosis of pneumonia cases. This review focuses on the structure and the functions of S. aureus hemolysin A and its sub-lethal effects on airway epithelial cells. The hypothesis is developed that Hla may not just be a tissue-destructive agent providing the bacteria with host-derived nutrients, but may also play complex roles in the very early stages of interactions of bacteria with healthy airways, possibly paving the way for establishing acute infections.

  3. Early changes in gene expression induced by blue light irradiation of A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Burght, Barbro W; Hansen, Morten; Olsen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  Accumulation of bisretinoids as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of some blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To identify genes whose expression may change under conditions of bisretinoid accumulation, we...... investigated the differential gene expression in RPE cells that had accumulated the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E and were exposed to blue light (430 nm). Methods:  A2E-laden RPE cells were exposed to blue light (A2E/430 nm) at various time intervals. Cell death was quantified using Dead Red staining, and RNA...... levels for the entire genome was determined using DNA microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome 2.0 Plus). Array results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results:  Principal component analysis revealed that the A2E-laden RPE cells...

  4. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett’s Esophagus Malignant Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B.

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett’s malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett’s progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett’s samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett’s esophagus neoplastic progression. PMID:27583562

  5. Modulation of Bmp4 signalling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place in early thymus and parathyroid development in avian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Hélia; Dupin, Elisabeth; Parreira, Leonor; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2012-01-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the development of the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches into the epithelia of thymus and parathyroid glands. Here we investigated the dynamics of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place at the earliest stages of thymic and parathyroid organogenesis using the quail-chick model together with a co-culture system capable of reproducing these early events in vitro. The presumptive territories of thymus and parathyroid epithelia were identified in three-dimensionally preserved pharyngeal endoderm of embryonic day 4.5 chick embryos on the basis of the expression of Foxn1 and Gcm2, respectively: the thymic rudiment is located in the dorsal domain of the third and fourth pouches, while the parathyroid rudiment occupies a more medial/anterior pouch domain. Using in vitro quail-chick tissue associations combined with in ovo transplantations, we show that the somatopleural but not the limb bud mesenchyme, can mimic the role of neural crest-derived pharyngeal mesenchyme to sustain development of these glands up to terminal differentiation. Furthermore, mesenchymal-derived Bmp4 appears to be essential to promote early stages of endoderm development during a short window of time, irrespective of the mesenchymal source. In vivo studies using the quail-chick system and implantation of growth factor soaked-beads further showed that expression of Bmp4 by the mesenchyme is necessary during a 24 h-period of time. After this period however, Bmp4 is no longer required and another signalling factor produced by the mesenchyme, Fgf10, influences later differentiation of the pouch endoderm. These results show that morphological development and cell differentiation of thymus and parathyroid epithelia require a succession of signals emanating from the associated mesenchyme, among which Bmp4 plays a pivotal role for triggering thymic epithelium specification.

  6. Short communication: Early-lactation, but not mid-lactation, bovine lactoferrin preparation increases epithelial barrier integrity of Caco-2 cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel C; Bassett, Shalome A; Haggarty, Neill W; Gopal, Pramod K; Armstrong, Kelly M; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-02-01

    Bovine lactoferrin is an important milk protein with many health-promoting properties, including improving intestinal barrier integrity. Dysfunction of this barrier, commonly referred to as "leaky gut," has been linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. With some processing techniques, lactoferrin isolated from milk collected at the start of the milking season (early lactation) may have lower purity than that isolated from milk collected during the rest of the milking season (mid-lactation) and could result in differences in bioactivity based on the stage of lactation. We compared reversed-phase HPLC chromatographs of early-lactation and mid-lactation preparations and found that both had large chromatograph peaks at the time predicted for lactoferrin. The notable difference between the 2 chromatographs was a much larger peak in the early-lactation lactoferrin sample that was determined to be angiogenin. Angiogenin was first identified due to its ability to induce new blood vessel formation, but is now known to be involved in numerous physiological processes. Then, we compared the effects of early-lactation and mid-lactation lactoferrin preparations in 2 bioassays: trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, a measure of immune-stimulatory properties. We found that early-lactation lactoferrin increased TEER across Caco-2 cell layers compared with control from 10 to 48 h, mid-lactation lactoferrin did not alter TEER. We also found that early-lactation lactoferrin reduced the amount of IL-8 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (compared with those treated with control medium) to a greater extent than mid-lactation lactoferrin. A pro-inflammatory chemokine, IL-8 is also known to decrease barrier function. These results suggest that the decrease in IL-8 production in the presence of early-lactation lactoferrin may be the mechanism by which it increases

  7. Mining the mouse transcriptome of receptive endometrium reveals distinct molecular signatures for the luminal and glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklaus, Andrea L; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2006-07-01

    Epithelia coat most tissues where they sense and respond to the environment and participate in innate immune responses. In the adult mouse uterus, columnar epithelium lines the central lumen and the glands that penetrate the underlying stroma. A nidatory surge of estrogen causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium to the receptive state that permits blastocyst attachment and allows subsequent implantation. Here, using laser-capture microdissection to isolate the luminal and glandular epithelia separately, we have profiled gene expression 2 h before embryo attachment to determine whether there are unique roles for these two epithelial structures in this process. Although most genes were expressed in both compartments, there was greater expression of 153 and 118 genes in the lumen and glands, respectively. In the luminal epithelium, there is enrichment in lipid, metal-ion binding, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, whereas in the glands, immune response genes are emphasized. In situ hybridization to uterine sections obtained from mice during the preimplantation period validated these data and indicated an array of previously undocumented genes expressed with unique patterns in these epithelia. The data show that each epithelial compartment has a distinct molecular signature and that they act differentially and synergistically to permit blastocyst implantation.

  8. Urotensin II Induces ER Stress and EMT and Increase Extracellular Matrix Production in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell in Early Diabetic Mice

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    Xin-Xin Pang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Urotensin II (UII and its receptor are highly expressed in the kidney tissue of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN. The aim of this study is to examine the roles of UII in the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in DN in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Kidney tissues were collected from patients with DN. C57BL/6 mice and mice with UII receptor knock out were injected with two consecutive doses of streptozotocin to induce diabetes and were sacrificed at 3th week for in vivo study. HK-2 cells in vitro were cultured and treated with UII. Markers of ER stress and EMT, fibronectin and type IV collagen were detected by immunohistochemistry, real time PCR and western blot. Results: We found that the expressions of protein of UII, GRP78, CHOP, ALPHA-SMA, fibronectin and type IV collagen were upregulated while E-cadherin protein was downregulated as shown by immunohistochemistry or western blot analysis in kidney of diabetic mice in comparison to normal control; moreover expressions of GRP78, CHOP, ALPHA-SMA, fibronectin and type IV collagen were inhibited while E-caherin expression was enhanced in kidney in diabetic mice with UII receptor knock out in comparison to C57BL/6 diabetic mice. In HK-2 cells, UII induced upregulation of GRP78, CHOP, ALPHA-SMA, fibroblast-specifc protein 1(FSP-1, fibronectin and type collagen and downregulation of E-cadherin. UII receptor antagonist can block UII-induced ER stress and EMT; moreover, 4-PBA can inhibit the mRNA expression of ALPHA-SMA and FSP1 induced by UII in HK-2 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to verify UII induces ER stress and EMT and increase extracellular matrix production in renal tubular epithelial cell in early diabetic mice. Moreover, UII may induce renal tubular epithelial EMT via triggering ER stress pathway in vitro, which might be the new pathogenic pathway for the development of renal fibrosis in DN.

  9. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  10. Cryopreserved cultured epithelial allografts for pediatric deep partial dermal burns: Early wound closure and suppression of scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Yanaga

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Cryopreserved allo-CEG contains growth factors that promote wound healing and factors that suppress scarring. Three effects, namely (1 early wound closure, (2 scarring suppression, and (3 pain relief were seen with grafts of cryopreserved allo-CEG in cases of childhood DDB. These observations show that cryopreserved allo-CEG is clinically useful and effective for the treatment of childhood DDB.

  11. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  12. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue doses for the establishment of a breast cancer screening system using mammography. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Hagiwara, Akira; Asahara, Masaki [and others

    2000-09-01

    The effects of technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions and X-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose of radiation were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for an RMI 156 phantom at each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition needed to obtain a radiographic density of 1.20 to 1.40 with an RMI 156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). The analysis included 208 dose measurements at 104 facilities. The results showed that the average glandular tissue dose depends strongly on the grid types and screen-film combinations used. There were also significant differences in radiographic density between the Standard Radiographic Condition and the Canonical Radiographic Condition. This analysis of the technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose will be useful in establishing a standardized mammographic breast cancer screening system. (author)

  13. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  14. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma. Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is

  15. Ultrastructural changes in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Regula; Kress, Annetrudi

    2002-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the endometrium associated with the oestrous cycle were studied in the South American marsupial Monodelphis domestica. The most conspicuous changes include the height and the differentiation of the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, which consists of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The glandular epithelium attains its maximum development during oestrus, the luminal epithelium at postoestrus. A distinct increase in the number of ciliated cells can be observed during pro-oestrus, reaching a maximum number at oestrus; this is followed by a process of deciliation. The presence of solitary cilia on the apices of non-ciliated cells is very conspicuous during all oestrous stages and can best be seen on the luminal epithelium. These findings differ from the observations in eutherian mammals, where solitary cilia are only found in the immature uterus or after ovariectomy. The secretory activity of non-ciliated cells of the luminal epithelium is hardly noticeable along the apical membrane and stains only very faintly with Alcian blue. The glandular epithelium cells are filled apically with exocytotic vesicles at oestrus and early postoestrus. However, in contrast to the cervical gland cells, they hardly stain with Alcian blue, indicating that mucins of a different type must be present. Mechanisms for the remodelling of the luminal and glandular epithelium are especially conspicuous at metoestrus and early pro-oestrus and include the presence of autolysosomes, residual bodies and apoptotic bodies. In the endometrial stroma, around the uterine glands, macrophages accumulate and attain a typical oestrous stage-dependent appearance during their phagocytotic activities.

  16. Early host responses of seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses in primary well-differentiated human lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L Gerlach

    Full Text Available Replication, cell tropism and the magnitude of the host's antiviral immune response each contribute to the resulting pathogenicity of influenza A viruses (IAV in humans. In contrast to seasonal IAV in human cases, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm shows a greater tropism for infection of the lung similar to H5N1. We hypothesized that host responses during infection of well-differentiated, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (wd-NHBE may differ between seasonal (H1N1 A/BN/59/07 and H1N1pdm isolates from a fatal (A/KY/180/10 and nonfatal (A/KY/136/09 case. For each virus, the level of infectious virus and host response to infection (gene expression and apical/basal cytokine/chemokine profiles were measured in wd-NHBE at 8, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours post-infection (hpi. At 24 and 36 hpi, KY/180 showed a significant, ten-fold higher titer as compared to the other two isolates. Apical cytokine/chemokine levels of IL-6, IL-8 and GRO were similar in wd-NHBE cells infected by each of these viruses. At 24 and 36 hpi, NHBE cells had greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-α, CCL2, TNF-α, and CCL5, when infected by pandemic viruses as compared with seasonal. Polarization of IL-6 in wd-NHBE cells was greatest at 36 hpi for all isolates. Differential polarized secretion was suggested for CCL5 across isolates. Despite differences in viral titer across isolates, no significant differences were observed in KY/180 and KY/136 gene expression intensity profiles. Microarray profiles of wd-NHBE cells diverged at 36 hpi with 1647 genes commonly shared by wd-NHBE cells infected by pandemic, but not seasonal isolates. Significant differences were observed in cytokine signaling, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal arrangement pathways. Our studies revealed differences in temporal dynamics and basal levels of cytokine/chemokine responses of wd-NHBE cells infected with each isolate; however, wd-NHBE cell gene intensity profiles were not significantly

  17. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed.

  18. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-fang Yan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  19. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the different kinds of epithelia had similar immunophenotype. The different components were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, CAM5.2, CK5/6, CK34βE12, and TTF-1, but negative for CK20. The transitional morphology and immunohistochemistry indicate the different components likely come from a same kind of progenitor in the bronchiolar wall.

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  1. Outcomes of cervical liquid-based cytology suggesting a glandular abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finall, A I; Olafsdottir, R

    2009-12-01

    To ascertain the positive predictive value of both ?glandular neoplasia (national standard code 6) and borderline change (national standard code 8) in glandular cells in liquid-based cervical cytology specimens in Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust and to outline the histological outcomes of these cases. Eighty-nine liquid-based (Surepath) cervical cytology cases were retrospectively identified from a 2-year period (January 2005 to December 2006) and correlated with histopathological diagnoses. Initial punch biopsy histology revealed 18 cases (21%) of cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN). A further nine cases (10%) of CGIN were identified following local excision or hysterectomy. Ten cases of invasive malignancy were identified: four endocervical adenocarcinomas (all node negative, TNM stage T1b1), five endometrial adenocarcinomas and one squamous cell carcinoma. There were 10 with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) alone. Women diagnosed with endometrial malignancy presented later with an average age of 64.6 years compared with 34.9 years for endocervical lesions. Taking high-grade CIN or worse as a positive outcome, the overall positive predictive value (PPV) of glandular abnormalities on cytology (both code 6 and 8) was 58.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.8, 68.4]. PPV for borderline change in glandular cells alone was 24.1% (95% CI 8.5, 39.6) and for ?glandular neoplasia alone 75.4% (95% CI 64.3, 86.5). With our interpretation of the classification, women with cytological diagnoses of glandular neoplasia of the cervix should initially be investigated by local resection rather than punch biopsy, and those with borderline change in glandular cells with repeat cytology.

  2. Glandular Dysplasia of the Uterine Endocervix A Morphological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 慶喜

    1991-01-01

    The endocervical mucosa was evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically in 935 cases (441 non-cancerous, 347 squamous cell carcinoma, 109 mixed type of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and 38 adenocarcinoma of the cervix) to indicate the relationship between glandular dysplasia and endocervical adenocarcinoma. The following results were obtained. (1) Glandular dysplasia occurred in 35.9% of the cases with endocervical adenocarcinoma including co-existence with squamous c...

  3. Cervical glandular atypia associated with squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: a premalignant lesion?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L J; Wells, M

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have described premalignant changes in the endocervical epithelium, but morphological criteria for the diagnosis of cervical glandular atypia of lesser severity than adenocarcinoma in situ have not been established. Adenocarcinoma in situ is often associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The endocervical mucosa in 105 cases of CIN grade III was evaluated and compared with that of 100 controls. Sixteen cases of cervical glandular atypia and one case of adenocarc...

  4. The expression of receptors for estrogen and epithelial growth factor in the male rabbit prostate and prostatic urethra following castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Iversen, H G

    1997-01-01

    were included as controls. In the control group, ERs were found in the urothelial lining and lamina propria of the prostatic urethra, and in the prostatic stroma. EGF receptors were demonstrated in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra and the glandular epithelium of the prostate. Following...

  5. P11: 18FDG-PET/CT for early prediction of response to first line platinum chemotherapy in advanced thymic epithelial tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Giovannella; Ottaviano, Margaret; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Segreto, Sabrina; Tucci, Irene; Damiano, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the value of the metabolic tumor response assessed with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), compared with clinicobiological markers, to predict the response disease to first line platinum based chemotherapy in advanced thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). Methods Twenty patients with diagnosis of TET and stage of disease III and IV sec, Masaoka-Koga, were retrospectively included in this monocentric study. Different pre-treatment clinical, biological and pathological parameters, including histotype sec, WHO 2004 and stage of disease sec, Masaoka-Koga were assessed. Tumor glucose metabolism at baseline and its change after the first line platinum based chemotherapy (from 4 to 6 cycles) were assessed using FDG-PET, moreover the response disease was assessed using total body CT scan for the evaluation of RECIST criteria 1.1. Results Twelve patients had an objective response to the first line platinum based chemotherapy according RECIST criteria 1.1 and all of them started with a SUVmax at baseline major than 5, indeed the other eight patients, non-responders to chemotherapy, had a SUVmax at baseline minor than 5. Conclusions It is important to define the chemosensitivity of advanced TETs early. Combining bio-pathological parameters with the metabolism at baseline assessed with FDG-PET can help the physician to early predict the probability of obtaining a disease response to first line platinum based chemotherapy. The SUVmax cut off of 5 at 18FDG-PET/CT performed at baseline treatment might be a new parameter for choosing the most powerful first line of chemotherapy. Given these results, further prospective studies are needed to establish a new first line therapy in advanced TETs with a low SUVmax at baseline, non-responders to conventional chemotherapy.

  6. Influence of the intrinsic gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the early life development of intestinal epithelial integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Frøkjær, Hanne

    surfaces of all epithelial linings by physical or specific hindrance of pathogenic species e.g. virus and bacteria. Moreover, the proteins constituting the tight junctions in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells are important as they take part in controlling, which substances can penetrate...

  7. Influence of the intrinsic gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the early life development of intestinal epithelial integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Frøkjær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    surfaces of all epithelial linings by physical or specific hindrance of pathogenic species e.g. virus and bacteria. Moreover, the proteins constituting the tight junctions in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells are important as they take part in controlling, which substances can penetrate...

  8. Detection of occult endocervical glandular dysplasia in cervical conization specimens for squamous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, F; Clemente, N; Alessandrini, L; Di Giuseppe, J; Cigolot, F; Buttignol, M; Ciavattini, A; Canzonieri, V

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of occult cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix (AC) in women treated with CO2-laser conization for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or squamocellular cervical cancer (SCC). The medical records of all women with a histological diagnosis of squamous lesions of the uterine cervix (persistent CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and SCC) who were subsequently treated with CO2-laser conization at our institution, during the period from January 1991 to December 2014, were analyzed in a retrospective case series. Among the 1004 women fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria, 77 cases (7.7%) of occult glandular lesions (CGIN and AC) were detected on the final cone specimen (48 cases of occult low-grade cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (LCGIN), 25 cases of occult high-grade cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (HCGIN), and four cases of occult "usual-type" AC). No difference in the mean age between women diagnosed with occult glandular lesions and women without occult glandular lesions on the final specimen emerged (39.1±9.3 vs 38.4±9.4, p=0.5). In women with occult LCGIN on cone specimen, mean follow-up of 48 months was reported (range 7-206 months) and no cases of progression to HCGIN or AC were observed. In conclusion, a relatively high rate of occult glandular lesions was found in women treated for squamous lesions. The natural history of CGIN is still uncertain and, in particular, there are some controversies as to whether LCGIN is a precursor lesion of HCGIN or AC. In this context the role of pathologists become very important since the appropriate diagnosis of these lesions could have potential implications in the clinical management of these patients.

  9. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium: human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S

    2000-04-01

    H. pylori infection almost invariably results in chronic gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develops severe destruction of epithelial glandular structure or peptic ulcer. To confirm the recent data obtained in testis and eye, showing that Fas ligand is involved in the phenomenon of "immune privilege," expression of Fas receptor and its ligand of the stomach was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients H. pylori-positive (N = 42) and with H. pylori-negative (N = 18) by two-color flow cytometry. The results show that membrane-bound Fas ligand protein is constitutively expressed on freshly isolated human gastric mucosal epithelium coupled with infiltrating lymphocytes. There was significant overexpression of Fas receptor and its ligand, and a higher frequency of apoptotic cell death detected by TUNEL in epithelium and infiltrating lymphocytes in H. pylori-infected patients. These findings suggest that involvement of Fas receptor and its ligand system contributes to some extent to mucosal damage in H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, the more specific findings are apoptotic depletion of invading mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by gastric epithelium. These provide the first direct quantitative evidence to support Fas receptor counterattack and/or paracrine fratricide as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in the H. pylori-infected glandular stomach.

  10. Ectopic runx2 expression in mammary epithelial cells disrupts formation of normal acini structure: implications for breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Jitesh; Imbalzano, Karen M; Underwood, Jean M; Cohet, Nathalie; Gokul, Karthiga; Akech, Jacqueline; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Janet L; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    The transcription factor Runx2 is highly expressed in breast cancer cells compared with mammary epithelial cells and contributes to metastasis. Here we directly show that Runx2 expression promotes a tumor cell phenotype of mammary acini in three-dimensional culture. Human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) form polarized, growth-arrested, acini-like structures with glandular architecture. The ectopic expression of Runx2 disrupts acini formation, and electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis revealed the absence of lumens. Characterization of the disrupted acini structures showed increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 positive cells), decreased apoptosis (Bcl-2 induction), and loss of basement membrane formation (absence of beta(4) integrin expression). In complementary experiments, inhibition of Runx2 function in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either short hairpin RNA-Runx2 or a mutant Runx2 deficient in subnuclear targeting resulted in reversion of acini to more normal structures and reduced tumor growth in vivo. These novel findings provide direct mechanistic evidence for the biological activity of Runx2, dependent on its subnuclear localization, in promoting early events of breast cancer progression and suggest a molecular therapeutic target.

  11. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merijn R. Kant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests.

  12. [Ultrastructural changes and regeneration of the endocrine apparatus of the human gastric mucosal glandular epithelium in patients with chronic erosive gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V F; Puzyrev, A A; Draĭ, R V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the structure and regeneration of the endocrine apparatus of the human gastric mucosal glandular epithelium. Using electron microscopy, the mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from 14 patients with chronic erosive Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, were studied. The most pronounced changes were seen both in the numbers and ultrastructure of G- and P-endocrinocytes. The changes were detected in the nucleus structure, endocrine granule and polysome content, and he mitochondrial structure. The regeneration of the endocrine cells took place through the differentiation of the committed precursors via the "agranular" cell stage, transformation of the exocrine cells into the endocrine ones, and as a result of the formation of the epithelial cords on the erosion surfaces that consisted of the cells in diverse differentiation stages (from the undifferentiated to specialized cells of all the endocrine and exocrine types).

  13. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  14. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appearance of glandular breast tissue may be difficult to distinguish from fat tissue by palpation, especially in obese girls. To our knowledge, validation of the clinical assessment of pubertal breast stages by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has never been performed. Our objective....... METHODS: Glandular breast tissue volume quantified by MRI and breast stage evaluation was performed in 100 healthy peripubertal girls. Circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), inhibin B, and estradiol were measured by immunoassays. Ovarian volume, uterine volume....... The best parameters to distinguish prepubertal girls from girls with breast development were: LH (area under the curve (AUC) by receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.871), inhibin B (AUC = 0.847) and estradiol (AUC = 0.830). CONCLUSION: Clinical palpation reliably detects the presence of glandular...

  15. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  16. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  17. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  18. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  19. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  20. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegała, Michał; Jakubowska, Teresa; Markowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and measuring tube voltage. On the base of exposure parameters, an average glandular dose for each of 100 female patients was estimated. The images obtained by using AEC system had the acceptable threshold contrast visibility irrespective of the applied anode/filter combination. Mean glandular doses in the females, examined with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination, were on average 23.6% lower than that of the Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh anode/filter combinations. It is recommended to use a combination of the W/Rh anode /filter which exhibited lower mean glandular doses.

  1. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  2. Liquid based cytology improves the positive predictive value of glandular smears compared to conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, R J; Errington, C A; Mansour, D J A

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in an urban setting decreases the diagnosis of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) and improves the positive predictive value (PPV) of cervical cytological screening. A retrospective database review was conducted identifying women with cervical cytological abnormalities including glandular neoplasia (grade 6) before and after the introduction of LBC. Following the introduction of LBC the rate of glandular neoplasia (grade 6) referrals fell from 1.08% to 0.69% of all cervical cytological abnormalities. There was a significant reduction in 'abnormal' cytological samples subsequently found to be associated with no invasive or preinvasive disease but no decrease in the number showing preinvasive or invasive disease. A significant decrease in number of patients having a final diagnosis of normal/inflammatory or wart changes was seen in those patients referred during the LBC period (p cytological glandular neoplasia referrals but not at the expense of missing preinvasive and invasive cancers. It has also increased the PPV of cervical sampling to detect preinvasive and invasive cancer from 59.6% to 76.0%.

  3. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Huan Li; Yan Liu; Juan Hua; Shi-Hong Luo; Sheng-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defen-sive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilac-tones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spec-troscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approxi-mately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. a-Substituted a,b-unsaturated g-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was ob-served for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens.

  4. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  5. Breast-Volume Displacement Using an Extended Glandular Flap for Small Dense Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We defined the glandular flap including fat in the subclavicular area as an extended glandular flap, which has been used for breast-conserving reconstruction in the upper portion of the breast. Indication. The excision volume was 20% to 40% of the breast volume, and the breast density was dense. Surgical Technique. The upper edge of the breast at the subclavicular area was drawn in the standing position before surgery. After partial mastectomy, an extended glandular flap was made by freeing the breast from both the skin and the pectoralis fascia up to the preoperative marking in the subclavicular area. It is important to keep the perforators of the internal mammary artery and/or the branches of the lateral thoracic artery intact while making the flap. Results. Seventeen patients underwent remodeling using an extended glandular flap. The cosmetic results at 1 year after the operation: excellent in 11, good in 1, fair in 3, and poor in 2. All cases of unacceptable outcome except one were cases with complications, and more than 30% resection of moderate or large size breasts did not obtain an excellent result for long-term followup. Conclusion. This technique is useful for performing the breast-conserving reconstruction of small dense breasts.

  6. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  7. Subcellular localization of YKL-40 in normal and malignant epithelial cells of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, A.; Balslev, E.; Kruse, H.

    2008-01-01

    . YKL-40 protein expression was redistributed in carcinoma versus normal glandular tissue of the breast. A reduced expression of YKL-40 in relation to intermediate filaments and desmosomes was found in tumor cells. Changes in YKL-40 expression suggest that the function of YKL-40 in cells of epithelial......YKL-40 is a new prognostic biomarker in cancer. The biological function is only poorly understood. This study aimed at determining the subcellular localization of YKL-40, using immunogold labeling, in normal epithelial cells and in malignant tumor cells of the breast by immunoelectron microscopy...

  8. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems; Dose glandular e controle de qualidade da imagem em servicos de mamografia com sistema de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  9. Multi-Omics of Tomato Glandular Trichomes Reveals Distinct Features of Central Carbon Metabolism Supporting High Productivity of Specialized Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcke, Gerd U; Bennewitz, Stefan; Bergau, Nick; Athmer, Benedikt; Henning, Anja; Majovsky, Petra; Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Tissier, Alain

    2017-05-01

    Glandular trichomes are metabolic cell factories with the capacity to produce large quantities of secondary metabolites. Little is known about the connection between central carbon metabolism and metabolic productivity for secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we performed comparative metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and (13)C-labeling of type VI glandular trichomes and leaves from a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum LA4024) and a wild (Solanum habrochaites LA1777) tomato accession. Specific features of glandular trichomes that drive the formation of secondary metabolites could be identified. Tomato type VI trichomes are photosynthetic but acquire their carbon essentially from leaf sucrose. The energy and reducing power from photosynthesis are used to support the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, while the comparatively reduced Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle activity may be involved in recycling metabolic CO2 Glandular trichomes cope with oxidative stress by producing high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, oxylipins, and glutathione. Finally, distinct mechanisms are present in glandular trichomes to increase the supply of precursors for the isoprenoid pathways. Particularly, the citrate-malate shuttle supplies cytosolic acetyl-CoA and plastidic glycolysis and malic enzyme support the formation of plastidic pyruvate. A model is proposed on how glandular trichomes achieve high metabolic productivity. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  11. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    metastases (overt and micrometastases) (Fig. 1E- F). Macro-metastases originating from early cancer cell mammospheres displayed a glandular phenotype but...whether a HER2+/P-p38lo profile was linked to the partial or total activation of an epithelium to mesenchyme transition program 19. Treatment of MCF10A...metastasis found in nude mice injected with MMTV-HER2 mammospheres (upper left). Upper right, shows differentiated glandular ductal structures found within

  12. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  13. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

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    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of glandular dose in a dedicated breast CT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao; WEI Long; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yan-Fang; SHU Hang; SUN Cui-Li; WEI Cun-Feng; CAO Da-Quan; QUE Jie-Min; SHI Rong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    A dedicated breast CT system (DBCT) is a new method for breast cancer detection proposed in recent years.In this paper,the glandular dose in the DBCT is simulated using the Monte Carlo method.The phantom shape is half ellipsoid,and a series of phantoms with different sizes,shapes and compositions were constructed. In order to optimize the spectra,monoenergy X-ray beams of 5-80 keV were used in simulation.The dose distribution of a breast phantom was studied:a higher energy beam generated more uniform distribution,and the outer parts got more dose than the inner parts.For polyenergtic spectra,four spectra of Al filters with different thicknesses were simulated,and the polyenergtic glandular dose was calculated as a spectral weighted combination of the monoenergetic dose.

  15. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Thymus pannonicus All. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of Lamiaceae are among the most investigated secretory structures. Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the glandular trichomes of Th. pannonicus L. were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our research results show that, the secretory structures are always multicellular, consisting in a basal cell, a unicellular pedicel and a gland which bears 1, 2, 8 or 12 cells. Aerial parts of Th. pannonicus L. were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield volatile oil which were subsequently analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in Th. pannonicus L. volatil oil were a-terpinyl acetate (48.83%, germacrene D (12.12%, cariophyllene oxide (6.35% and mircene (4.73%.

  16. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    OpenAIRE

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution.

  17. Histological analysis of the distribution pattern of glandular tissue in normal inferior nasal turbinates

    OpenAIRE

    Millas, Ieda; Liquidato, Bianca Maria; Dolci,José Eduardo Lutaif; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Macéa,José Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Nasal turbinates play an important role in nasal physiology. These functions include the important function of particle filtration by the mucocilliary system. Many nasal mucosal diseases, such as rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, are directly related with structural alterations of the mucosal lining of the turbinates. AIM: To study the distribution pattern of the glandular epithelium of the lamina propria in the normal lower nasal turbinate mucosa of the anterior, medium and posterior portions. MA...

  18. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  19. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Susanne N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses.

  20. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  1. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  2. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  3. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  4. Possible Roles of CC- and CXC-Chemokines in Regulating Bovine Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Sakumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the possible roles of chemokines in regulating bovine endometrial function during early pregnancy. The expression of six chemokines, including CCL2, CCL8, CCL11, CCL14, CCL16, and CXCL10, was higher in the endometrium at 15 and 18 days of pregnancy than at the same days in non-pregnant animals. Immunohistochemical staining showed that chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR3 were expressed in the epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the bovine endometrium as well as in the fetal trophoblast obtained from a cow on day 18 of pregnancy. The addition of interferon-τ (IFNT to an endometrial tissue culture system increased CCL8 and CXCL10 expression in the tissues, but did not affect CCL2, CCL11, and CCL16 expression. CCL14 expression by these tissues was inhibited by IFNT. CCL16, but not other chemokines, clearly stimulated interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 and myxovirus-resistance gene 1 (MX1 expression in these tissues. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 expression decreased after stimulation with CCL8 and CCL14, and oxytocin receptor (OTR expression was decreased by CCL2, CCL8, CCL14, and CXCL10. Collectively, the expression of chemokine genes is increased in the endometrium during early pregnancy. These genes may contribute to the regulation of endometrial function by inhibiting COX2 and OTR expression, subsequently decreasing prostaglandin production and preventing luteolysis in cows.

  5. MR imaging of epithelial cysts of the oral and maxillofacial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisatomi, Miki E-mail: tomi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp; Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Konouchi, Hironobu; Shigehara, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of primary epithelial cysts in order to distinguish the cysts from other possible lesions. MR images were obtained in 27 cases of epithelial cysts, including 7 odontogenic keratocysts, 3 dentigerous cysts, 1 glandular odontogenic cyst, 10 radicular cysts, 4 nasopalatine duct cysts, and 2 nasolabial cysts. In addition, contrast enhanced MR imagings were performed in 12 cases, including 3 odontogenic keratocysts, 1 dentigerous cyst, 1 glandular odontogenic cyst, and 7 radicular cysts. We obtained the following results on the basis of the above MR and contrast enhanced MR findings. (a) Odontogenic keratocysts had a predilection for intermediate-high signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images (WI) and heterogeneous low-high SI on T2WI. (b) Dentigerous cysts, glandular odontogenic cyst, radicular cysts and nasolabial cysts showed the same predilection with the SI, which were homogeneous intermediate SI on T1WI and homogeneous high SI on T2WI. (c) The MR images of the nasopalatine duct cysts, which showed homogeneous high SI on T1WI, were specific. (d) The Gd-T1WI would be useful in decisively differentiating odontogenic cysts, which showed rim-enhancement, from tumors consisting of solid components. In conclusion, we were able to obtain more information from the MR and contrast enhanced MR images than from conventional radiograph findings.

  6. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  7. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  8. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  9. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  10. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  11. Computer-aided identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma: Segmentation of glandular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of individual prostatic glandular structures is an important prerequisite to quantitative histological analysis of prostate cancer with the aid of a computer. We have developed a computer method to segment individual glandular units and to extract quantitative image features, for computer identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Two sets of digital histology images were used: database I (n = 57 for developing and testing the computer technique, and database II (n = 116 for independent validation. The segmentation technique was based on a k-means clustering and a region-growing method. Computer segmentation results were evaluated subjectively and also compared quantitatively against manual gland outlines, using the Jaccard similarity measure. Quantitative features that were extracted from the computer segmentation results include average gland size, spatial gland density, and average gland circularity. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA was used to combine quantitative image features. Classification performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and the area under the ROC curve (AUC. Results: Jaccard similarity coefficients between computer segmentation and manual outlines of individual glands were between 0.63 and 0.72 for non-cancer and between 0.48 and 0.54 for malignant glands, respectively, similar to an interobserver agreement of 0.79 for non-cancer and 0.75 for malignant glands, respectively. The AUC value for the features of average gland size and gland density combined via LDA was 0.91 for database I and 0.96 for database II. Conclusions: Using a computer, we are able to delineate individual prostatic glands automatically and identify prostatic adenocarcinoma accurately, based on the quantitative image features extracted from computer-segmented glandular structures.

  12. Rescue of glandular dysmorphogenesis in PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer epithelium by PPARγ-targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, I; Fatehullah, A; Deevi, R K; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2013-03-07

    Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis in a CRC model. Stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTEN in Caco-2 cells influenced expression or localization of cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inhibited cdc42 activation. Parental Caco-2 cells formed regular hollow gland-like structures (glands) with a single central lumen, in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Conversely, PTEN-deficient Caco-2 ShPTEN cells formed irregular glands with multiple abnormal lumens as well as intra- and/or intercellular vacuoles evocative of the high-grade CRC phenotype. Effects of targeted treatment were investigated. Phosphatidinylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) modulating treatment did not affect gland morphogenesis but did influence gland number, gland size and/or cell size within glands. As PTEN may be regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), cultures were treated with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. This treatment enhanced PTEN expression, cdc42 activation and rescued dysmorphogenesis by restoring single lumen formation in Caco-2 ShPTEN glands. Rosiglitazone effects on cdc42 activation and Caco-2 ShPTEN gland development were attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Taken together, these studies show PTEN-cdc42 regulation of lumen formation in a 3D model of human CRC glandular morphogenesis. Treatment by the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone, but not PI3K modulators, rescued colorectal glandular dysmorphogenesis of PTEN deficiency.

  13. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels in glandular stomach of restrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, M R; Sharghi, G; Gerayesh-Nejad, S; Djahanguiri, B

    1977-10-01

    Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were measured in glandular stomach of rats subjected to saline administration, cold (4 degrees C), restraint and restraint+cold after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. All animals subjected to restraint+cold had gastric ulceration after 2 hours. A significant but transient decrease in cAMP was observed 15 minutes after restraint+cold. A marked, sustained and significant decrease of cGMP was observed in the same group of animals. It is concluded that it seems unlikely to be a correlation between cAMP and cGMP changes of the stomach and the restraint-induced gastric ulceration.

  14. Epithelial progesterone receptor exhibits pleiotropic roles in uterine development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather L; Rubel, Cory A; Large, Michael J; Wetendorf, Margeaux; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Spencer, Thomas E; Behringer, Richard R; Lydon, John P; Demayo, Francesco J

    2012-03-01

    The ovarian steroid progesterone, acting through the progesterone receptor (PR), coordinates endometrial epithelial-stromal cell communication, which is critical for its development and function. PR expression in these cellular compartments is under tight temporal and endocrine control. Although ex vivo studies demonstrated the importance of stromal PR expression, they failed to show a role for epithelial PR in uterine function. Here, the in vivo role of PR in the uterine epithelium is defined using floxed PR (PR(f/f)) mice crossed to Wnt7a-Cre mice. Progesterone was unable to stimulate the expression of its epithelial target genes, including Ihh, in the Wnt7a-Cre(+)PR(f/-) mice. Analysis was conducted on Ihh to determine whether PR directly regulates epithelial gene transcription. ChIP-on-chip analysis identified PR binding sites in the 5'-flanking region of Ihh. Cotransfection of the proximal Ihh promoter with PR demonstrated that PR directly regulates Ihh transcription. Female Wnt7a-Cre(+)PR(f/-) mice are infertile due to defects in embryo attachment, stromal cell decidualization, and the inability to cease estrogen-induced epithelial cell proliferation. Finally, progesterone was unable to inhibit neonatal endometrial glandular development in Wnt7a-Cre(+)PR(f/-) mice. Thus, epithelial PR is necessary for the regulation of progesterone epithelial target gene expression, as well as uterine function and development.

  15. Harnessing 3D models of mammary epithelial morphogenesis: An off the beaten path approach to identify candidate biomarkers of early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Stefano; Bshara, Wiam; Reiners, Johanna A; Corlazzoli, Francesca; Miller, Austin; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2016-10-01

    Regardless of the etiological factor, an aberrant morphology is the common hallmark of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which is a highly heterogeneous disease. To test if critical core morphogenetic mechanisms are compromised by different mutations, we performed proteomics analysis of five mammary epithelial HME1 mutant lines that develop a DCIS-like morphology in three dimensional (3D) culture. Here we show first, that all HME1 mutant lines share a common protein signature highlighting an inverse deregulation of two annexins, ANXA2 and ANXA8. Either ANXA2 downregulation or ANXA8 upregulation in the HME1 cell context are per se sufficient to confer a 3D DCIS-like morphology. Seemingly, different mutations impinged on a common mechanism that differentially regulates the two annexins. Second, we show that ANXA8 expression is significantly higher in DCIS tissue samples versus normal breast tissue and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). Apparently, ANXA8 expression is significantly more upregulated in ER-negative versus ER-positive cases, and significantly correlates with tumor stage, grade and positive lymph node. Based on our study, 3D mammary morphogenesis models can be an alternate/complementary strategy for unraveling new DCIS mechanisms and biomarkers.

  16. [Effect of the dose of estradiol and long-term administration of the hormone on the proliferative activity of the epithelium of the cavity, glandular epithelium and stroma of the white rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasenko, I N; Prianishnikov, V A

    1976-09-01

    The duration of S-sphase of the cell cycle in uterine epithelial and stroma tissues of ovariectomised rats, treated with two doses of estradiol-17 beta for 4 days, was estimated by the double labeling technique using H3 -and C14-thymidine. Estrogen treatment induced cyclical changes of S-phase duration in the uterine cell compartments, with maximal values at 72 and 24 hours for 1mcg and 1 mg of estradiol. resp. The high dose of estradiol induced five-fold reduction of the mitotic and labeling indices in luminal epithelium in contrast to the effect of the low dose. In the rat glandular epithelium and stroma cells mitotic and labeling indices are not influenced by eith of the estrogen dosis.

  17. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Whole-exome sequencing reveals an inherited R566X mutation of the epithelial sodium channel β-subunit in a case of early-onset phenotype of Liddle syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfus, Linda M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Metcalf, Ginger; Muzny, Donna; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Grove, Megan; Shete, Sanjay; Wallace, Stephanie; Milewicz, Dianna; Hanchard, Neil; Lupski, James R; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha

    2016-11-01

    To comprehensively evaluate a European-American child with severe hypertension, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the child and parents, which identified causal variation of the proband's early-onset disease. The proband's hypertension was resistant to treatment, requiring a multiple drug regimen including amiloride, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide. We suspected a monogenic form of hypertension because of the persistent hypokalemia with low plasma levels of renin and aldosterone. To address this, we focused on rare functional variants and indels, and performed gene-based tests incorporating linkage scores and allele frequency and filtered on deleterious functional mutations. Drawing upon clinical presentation, 27 genes were selected evidenced to cause monogenic hypertension and matched to the gene-based results. This resulted in the identification of a stop-gain mutation in an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), SCNN1B, an established Liddle syndrome gene, shared by the child and her father. Interestingly, the father also harbored a missense mutation (p.Trp552Arg) in the α-subunit of the ENaC trimer, SCNN1A, possibly pointing to pseudohypoaldosteronism type I. This case is unique in that we present the early-onset disease and treatment response caused by a canonical stop-gain mutation (p.Arg566*) as well as ENaC digenic hits in the father, emphasizing the utility of WES informing precision medicine.

  19. INDUCTION OF GASTRIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA OF GLANDULAR STOMACH OF MONGOLIAN GERBILS BY ELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pin; GU Lian-kun; ZHOU Jing; WANG Ru-ming; ZHAO Zi-hou; DENG Da-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To setup an animal model of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) for basic, prevention and therapeutic research of Hp-related diseases. Methods: 22 young male Mongolian gerbils were administrated with suspension of Hp strain TN2 by intragastric gavage for 5 consecutive times (4×108 CFU/time, 1 time/4 days). 10 male gerbils were used as negative control. Two infected gerbils were killed at 10, 20, and 30 weeks, respectively, after inoculation to monitor the development of gastric lesions. Other animals were killed at 40 experimental weeks.Pathological changes of glandular stomach were examined histologically. Results: Gastric intraepithelial neoplasias (GIN) and low-grade dysplasias were observed only in the pyloric antrum of Hp-treated gerbils (3 and 2 ones,respectively), but not in control group (5/13 vs. 0/10, P<0.04). High incidence of chronic active gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis were observed in Hp-treated animals (10/13, 76.9%). Low incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis was also detected in negative control gerbils (3/10, 30%; P<0.04). Conclusion: Hp inoculation could induce chronic inflammation and malignant lesions of the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils conveniently.

  20. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  1. Biological activity of acyl glucose esters from Datura wrightii glandular trichomes against three native insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, J Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Datura wrightii is dimorphic for leaf trichome type in southern California. "Sticky" plants produce glandular trichomes that secrete acylsugars, whereas velvety plants produce nonglandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes confer resistance to some potential insect herbivores and are associated with reduced feeding in the field by two native coleopteran herbivores: the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix hirtipennis, and a weevil, Trichobaris compacta. In contrast, another native beetle, Lema daturaphila, damages sticky and velvety plants similarly in the field. A series of choice and no-choice "ester removal" and "ester addition" feeding experiments were performed in the laboratory to evaluate the role of acylsugars in feeding by all three insect species. Consumption of sticky leaves after their esters were removed by washing was compared to consumption of unwashed sticky leaves and velvety leaves in ester removal experiments. Consumption of velvety leaves was measured after acylsugars were applied to those leaves in controlled amounts in the ester addition experiments. Consumption by E. hirtipennis was reduced by acylsugars in all experiments. Consumption by T. compacta was reduced by acylsugars in the ester removal experiments, but not in the ester addition experiments. The location of the acylsugars at the tip of a long trichome, rather than simply on the leaf surface, may be an important component of the biological activity of acylsugars against T. compacta in nature. Consumption by L. daturaphila was not significantly reduced by acylsugars in any experiment. The acylsugars caused no significant mortality of any of the three insect species.

  2. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  3. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  4. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  5. A polynomial hyperelastic model for the mixture of fat and glandular tissue in female breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    In the breast of adult women, glandular and fat tissues are intermingled and cannot be clearly distinguished. This work studies if this mixture can be treated as a homogenized tissue. A mechanical model is proposed for the mixture of tissues as a function of the fat content. Different distributions of individual tissues and geometries have been tried to verify the validity of the mixture model. A multiscale modelling approach was applied in a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of tissue, formed by randomly assigning fat or glandular elements to the mesh. Both types of tissues have been assumed as isotropic, quasi-incompressible hyperelastic materials, modelled with a polynomial strain energy function, like the homogenized model. The RVE was subjected to several load cases from which the constants of the polynomial function of the homogenized tissue were fitted in the least squares sense. The results confirm that the fat volume ratio is a key factor in determining the properties of the homogenized tissue, but the spatial distribution of fat is not so important. Finally, a simplified model of a breast was developed to check the validity of the homogenized model in a geometry similar to the actual one.

  6. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue dose for establishment of breast cancer screening using mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences (Japan); Higashida, Yoshiharu [and others

    1999-06-01

    A nationwide survey was performed in an attempt to investigate the distribution of average glandular doses caused by mammography for breast cancer mass screening, and to utilize the data to determine the national guidance level for mammography. A phantom equivalent to a breast with a compressed thickness of 42 mm, and glass radio-photo luminescence dosimeters were sent to 104 institutions and facilities. The dosimeters were exposed using a method based on the protocols described in the Mammography Quality Control Manual. The returned dosimeters were then analyzed, and the beam qualities and the entrance surface exposure were determined. Using these values, the average glandular doses were estimated with an accuracy of {+-}8%. The doses ranged from 0.5 to 3.7 mGy. The mean dose and the standard deviation were 1.48 mGy and 0.52 mGy, respectively. In 91 facilities, the doses were less than 2 mGy. Regarding the technical factors for facilities which presented doses of 2 mGy or over, it seemed that the doses could be easily reduced to less than 2 mGy if the settings of the auto exposure controller (AEC), anti-scatter grid and/or the film-screen system were optimized. (author)

  7. Development and structure of internal glands and external glandular trichomes in Pogostemon cablin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Guo

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands.

  8. The field study of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture. Second report. Investigation of glandular tissue dose and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Kaoru; Nakahara, Hiroko [Social Insurance Kurume Daiichi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Isamu [Hakuaikai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The research of the glandular tissue dose and image quality of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture was performed from April to October 2000 at 50 mammography sites. Effects of the technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions, x-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose and image quality were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for a RMI156 phantom in each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition for obtaining the radiographic density of 1.40{+-}0.15 with RMI156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). In the investigation in Fukuoka prefecture, facilities of 3 mGy or less at the average mammary gland dosage were 98%. In the meantime, image quality of 54% facilities was insufficient. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose and image quality will be useful for the establishment of breast cancer screening system using mammography. (author)

  9. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and extent of the disease are features of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücü, Nilgün; Sidar, Güliz; Başsüllü, Nuray; Türkmen, Ilknur; Dünder, Ilkkan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rate of endocervical glandular involvement, positive surgical margins, multicentricity, and disease extent between low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Pathology medical records of patients who underwent LEEP were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with negative LEEP results were excluded. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure reports of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3 were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with CIN 1 (n=24), CIN 2 (n=27), and CIN 3 (n=64) when age and surgical margin positivity were considered. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and disease extent were higher in patients with CIN 3 (P=.001, P=.002, and P=.001, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend that patients with endocervical glandular involvement, lesions involving more than two-thirds of the LEEP specimen, and multicentricity be followed up more closely.

  10. Overexpression of sICAM-1 in the Alveolar Epithelial Space Results in an Exaggerated Inflammatory Response and Early Death in Gram Negative Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Jeffery L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sizeable body of data demonstrates that membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1 plays a significant role in host defense in a site-specific fashion. On the pulmonary vascular endothelium, mICAM-1 is necessary for normal leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. On alveolar epithelial cells (AECs, we have shown previously that the presence of normal mICAM-1 is essential for optimal alveolar macrophage (AM function. We have also shown that ICAM-1 is present in the alveolar space as a soluble protein that is likely produced through cleavage of mICAM-1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 is abundantly present in the alveolar lining fluid of the normal lung and could be generated by proteolytic cleavage of mICAM-1, which is highly expressed on type I AECs. Although a growing body of data suggesting that intravascular sICAM-1 has functional effects, little is known about sICAM-1 in the alveolus. We hypothesized that sICAM-1 in the alveolar space modulates the innate immune response and alters the response to pulmonary infection. Methods Using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse (SPC-sICAM-1 that constitutively overexpresses sICAM-1 in the distal lung, and compared the responses of wild-type and SPC-sICAM-1 mice following intranasal inoculation with K. pneumoniae. Results SPC-sICAM-1 mice demonstrated increased mortality and increased systemic dissemination of organisms compared with wild-type mice. We also found that inflammatory responses were significantly increased in SPC-sICAM-1 mice compared with wild-type mice but there were no difference in lung CFU between groups. Conclusions We conclude that alveolar sICAM-1 modulates pulmonary inflammation. Manipulating ICAM-1 interactions therapeutically may modulate the host response to Gram negative pulmonary infections.

  11. CD133 Expression in Normal Skin and in Epithelial Cutaneous Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nam-Cha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Expression of human CD133 (human prominin-1 in cancer cells has been postulated to be a marker of stemness and is considered as a putative marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs. We designed a study to describe the expression pattern of CD133 in normal skin and in epithelial cutaneous neoplasms. Methods. The CD133 immunohistochemical expression of forty-three eccrine and apocrine tumors was compared to that observed in other epithelial tumors of the skin. In addition, flow cytometry was used to detect the CD133 expression of four epithelial skin neoplasms, including one porocarcinoma. Results. CD133 immunoreactivity at the apical or at the apicolateral surface of cells forming glandular structures was observed. Cells from solid areas of benign or malignant tumors were not stained. The porocarcinoma derived culture cells showed a 22% of CD133 positive cells using flow cytometry, while squamous cell carcinoma cultures contained less than 0.1%. Conclusions. These observations indicate that CD133 is a specific marker of glandular differentiation that could be included in the diagnostic panel of cutaneous tumors with possible eccrine or apocrine differentiation. However, the use of CD133 expression as a marker of CSCs should be interpreted with caution in experiments of skin.

  12. CYTO - HISTO CORRELATION OF ATYPICAL GLANDULAR CELLS OF ENDOMETRIAL ORIGIN ON CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IN ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Mudra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association has been reported with presence of endometrial cells on cervical smears and clinically significant uterine lesions. Hence for early detection of endometrial pathology , t he 2001 Bethesda system has suggested the mandatory reporting of presence of any atypical endometrial cells regardless of age and menstrual status and out of phase normal looking endometrial cells in women aged 40 years or more. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between atypical glandular cells of endometrial origin in cervical cytology and histopathological findings in abnormal uterine bleeding cases . SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The study was conducted at JSS hospital , Mysore in the department of pathology. This was a descriptive type of study. The sample was collected fro m patients attending the gynecology OPD with the complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding in JSS hospital . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Smears for cervical cytology are collected using either pap smear or manual liquid based smear from 82 patients in the age grou p of 20 - 75 years with complaints of abnormal bleeding history. The results of cervical cytology were compared and confirmed with the endometrial pathology. RESULTS : Out of 82 abnormal uterine bleeding cases 14 showed atypical endometrial cells. On follow u p of these cases , the results indicated an association between atypical endometrial cells in cervical cytology with endometrial carcinoma in 8 cases (60% , 1 case with complex hyperplasia with atypia (10% . CONCLUSION : Presence of atypical endometrial cell s in all women with abnormal uterine bleeding has considerable clinical implications & further diagnostic evaluation by endometrial sampling is of utmost importance.

  13. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  14. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  15. Mammography equipment performance, image quality and mean glandular dose in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Badr, I; Royle, G J

    2013-09-01

    In this first Maltese national mammography survey, the effectiveness of direct digital (DR) mammography in breast cancer screening has been confirmed. Patient data were made available from three clinics out of the participating nine. A dose survey of mean glandular dose (MGD) calculated for 759 patients examined in the state-owned mammography facilities was performed. An MGD national diagnostic reference level was set at 1.87 mGy for patients with breast compression thicknesses (BCT) between 5.0 and 7.0 cm. This range was selected since patient data were retrieved from three clinics only and the results showed that other international BCT reference levels may be unsuitable for the Maltese population. In fact, the overall average BCT was 5.75 ± 1.4 cm. The survey results have shown that the technical standard of mammographic equipment in the Malta National Breast Screening Programme is on a par with other countries, including its Western European counterparts.

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    : 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority......Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...

  17. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. Here...... we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect...... on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion...

  18. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  19. Endometrial stromal sarcoma with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation of the feline uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Maeda, H; Suzuki, A; Shibuya, H; Sakata, A; Shirai, W

    2007-05-01

    The intra-abdominal tumor developing in the uterus and lung of a domestic Shorthair cat was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor showed a proliferation of both endometrial stromal and smooth muscle cells accompanied by prominent vasculature. There were well-differentiated endometrial glands, and tubuli made up a monolayer of eosinophilic cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells and half of the stromal-like cells reacted to caldesmon and desmin antibodies. The neoplastic epithelium expressed AE1/AE3 cytokeratin. Feline endometrial stromal tumor has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported previously and has smooth muscle and glandular components that are a unique variant to the human counterpart.

  20. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  1. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  2. Delay in liver bud development during early embryogenesis leads to violation of epicardium formation and its epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation, but do not affect coronary endothelium formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pototskaya O. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive investigation of heart embryogenesis the origin of coronary endothelium is still under debate. Existence of close interrelation between proepicardium, liver bud, sinus venosus and early coronary vessels is obvious, but the nature of this interconnection is unclear as well as exact source of endothelial cells. Thus, the purpose of our research was to investigate the effect of inhibition of liver bud development on formation of coronary vessels. To inhibit the liver bud we injected aminoguanidine sulfate into the yolk sack of chick embryos on 14 stage of development by HH (first group - to prevent contact between proepicardium and liver, and on 16 stage (second group to allow contact between proepicardium and liver during a short period of time. In the first group it was observed the violation of epicardium formation and early death during first 3 days of incubation. At embryos it was revealed thinning of myocardium and atrio-ventricular cushions, abnormal looping – presumably due to the absence of epicardium. The death was caused by heart insufficiency. In the second group it was observed the beginning of epicardium formation, but the heart defects were the same as in the first group – presumably due to the absence of epicardium-derived cells. At embryos of this group, who survived till 26 stage of development (4.5 day of incubation, despite absence of cellular component in subepicardial space and almost completely absence of liver, we observed formation of coronary vessels. They were concentrated on the dorsal surface of atrio-vetricular channel and were presented by continuation of endothelium of the sinus venosus.

  3. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  4. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  5. Infection of A549 human type II epithelial cells with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces changes in mitochondrial morphology, distribution and mass that are dependent on the early secreted antigen, ESAT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine-Coulson, Kari; Giguère, Steeve; Quinn, Frederick D; Reaves, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involves the invasion of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). We used Mitotracker Red(®) to assess changes in mitochondrial morphology/distribution and mass from 6 to 48 h post infection (hpi) by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in Mtb-infected A549 type II AECs. During early infection there was no effect on mitochondrial morphology, however, by 48 hpi mitochondria appeared fragmented and concentrated around the nucleus. In flow cytometry experiments, the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) decreased by 44% at 48 hpi; double-labelling using antibodies to the integral membrane protein COXIV revealed that these changes were due to a decrease in mitochondrial mass. These changes did not occur with the apathogenic strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. ESAT-6 is a virulence factor present in Mtb Erdman but lacking in M. bovis BCG. We performed similar experiments using Mtb Erdman, an ESAT-6 deletion mutant and its complement. MFI decreased at 48 hpi in the parent and complemented strains versus uninfected controls by 52% and 36% respectively; no decrease was detected in the deletion mutant. These results indicate an involvement of ESAT-6 in the perturbation of mitochondria induced by virulent Mtb in AECs and suggest mitophagy may play a role in the infection process.

  6. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  7. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wirth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. The developmental program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is of potential importance for this rapid tumor progression. During EMT, tumor cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain properties of mesenchymal cells, such as enhanced motility and invasive features. This review will discuss recent findings pertinent to EMT in pancreatic carcinoma. Evidence for and molecular characteristics of EMT in pancreatic carcinoma will be outlined, as well as the connection of EMT to related topics, e.g., cancer stem cells and drug resistance.

  9. Light and electron microscopic study of epithelial cells from the human oviduct and uterus subcultured on extracellular matrix gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ashtiani, Saeed Kazemi; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the structure of epithelial cells from the human oviduct and uterus on extracellular matrix (ECM) gel in the first passage. Human oviducts and endometrial tissues were obtained from patients undergoing total hysterectomy; the epithelial cells, having been isolated by enzyme digestion, were cultured on polystyrene plastic surfaces. The epithelial nature of the cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, and their morphology was examined by microscopy. Cells of an epithelial nature were then trypsinized and cultured on an ECM gel-coated filter insert for 5 days. The cells, in parallel with the tissues, were subsequently prepared for transmission electron microscopy. Plastic-cultured cells had no sign of differentiation and appeared as elongated spindle cells in sections. These cells looked columnar and highly polarized after being cultured on ECM gel surfaces. They were similar to epithelial cells from the corresponding tissue fragment. Cultured on ECM gel, the ciliated epithelial cells of human oviducts appeared ultrastructurally similar to glandular cells from the human uterus. Cilia did not form under culture conditions. It seems that human uterine and oviduct epithelial cells can acquire polarized morphology and differentiated states on ECM gel after having lost it on plastic surfaces and that ECM gel by itself is not enough to induce cilia formation in culture.

  10. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch.

  11. Mean glandular dose estimation using MCNPX for a digital breast tomosynthesis system with tungsten/aluminum and tungsten/aluminum+silver x-ray anode-filter combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Andy K W; Darambara, Dimitra G; Stewart, Alexander; Gunn, Spencer; Bullard, Edward

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer screening with x-ray mammography, using one or two projection images of the breast, is an indispensible tool in the early detection of breast cancer in women. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging technique that promises higher sensitivity and specificity in breast cancer screening at a similar radiation dose to conventional two-view screening mammography. In DBT a 3D volume is reconstructed with anisotropic voxels from a limited number of x-ray projection images acquired over a limited angle. Although the benefit of early cancer detection through screening mammography outweighs the potential risks associated with radiation, the radiation dosage to women in terms of mean glandular dose (MGD) is carefully monitored. This work studies the MGD arising from a prototype DBT system under various parameters. Two anode/filter combinations (W∕Al and W∕Al+Ag) were investigated; the tube potential ranges from 20to50kVp; and the breast size varied between 4 and 10cm chest wall-to-nipple distance and between 3 and 7cm compressed breast thickness. The dosimetric effect of breast positioning with respect to the imaging detector was also reviewed. It was found that the position of the breast can affect the MGD by as much as 5% to 13% depending on the breast size. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Effects of long-term progesterone exposure on porcine uterine gene expression: progesterone alone does not induce secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) in glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Erikson, David W; Patel, Atish K; Bazer, Fuller W; Burghardt, Robert C; Johnson, Greg A

    2010-10-01

    Pigs experience significant conceptus loss near mid-gestation, correlating with increasing glandular epithelial (GE) development and secretory activity. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) increases in GE between days 30 and 40 of pregnancy and is expressed in the GE of day 90 pseudopregnant pigs, suggesting that progesterone (P(4)) from corpora lutea is responsible for induction of SPP1 in GE. In this study, pigs were ovariectomized and treated daily with P(4) to assess effects of 40 days of P(4) exposure on SPP1, P(4) receptor (PGR), uteroferrin (ACP5), and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) expression in porcine endometria. PGR mRNA decreased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with corn oil (CO), and PGRs were downregulated in the luminal epithelium (LE) and GE. ACP5 mRNA increased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and ACP5 was induced in the GE of P(4)-treated pigs. FGF7 mRNA increased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and FGF7 was induced in the LE and GE of P(4)-treated pigs. SPP1 mRNA was not different between pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and SPP1 was not present in the GE of P(4)-treated pigs. Therefore, long-term P(4), in the absence of ovarian and/or conceptus factors, does not induce SPP1 expression in GE. We hypothesize that a servomechanism involving sequential effects of multiple hormones and cytokines, similar to those for sheep and humans, is required for GE differentiation and function, including the synthesis and secretion of SPP1.

  13. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  14. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  15. Impact of the Stem Extract of Thevetia neriifolia on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monika; Gupta, Kamal Kumar; Kumar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%-5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%-37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%-77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%-42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%-0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T. neriifolia stem methanol

  16. Bioenergetics of Monoterpenoid Essential Oil Biosynthesis in Non-Photosynthetic Glandular Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean R; Lange, Iris; Srividya, Narayanan; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2017-08-24

    The commercially important essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and its relatives in the mint family (Lamiaceae) are accumulated in specialized anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). A genome-scale stoichiometric model of secretory phase metabolism in peppermint GTs was constructed based on current biochemical and physiological knowledge. Fluxes through the network were predicted based on metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Using simulated reaction deletions, this model predicted that two processes, the regeneration of ATP and ferredoxin (in its reduced form), exert substantial control over flux toward monoterpenes. Follow-up biochemical assays with isolated GTs indicated that oxidative phosphorylation and ethanolic fermentation were active, and that cooperation to provide ATP depended on the concentration of the carbon source. We also report that GTs with high flux toward monoterpenes express, at very high levels, genes coding for a unique pair of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase isoforms. This study provides the first evidence how bioenergetic processes determine flux through monoterpene biosynthesis in GTs. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Glandular Characteristics of the Stigma During the Development of Cucumis sativus Female Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGYi-Ben; BAIShu-Nong; XUZhi-Hong; LIYi-Qin

    2004-01-01

    The stigma initiation and development of Cucumis sativus L female flower was studied usingelectron microscopy. The differentiation of stigmatic cells could be recognized when the floral bud wasabout 1 mm in length. After the pinnate structure of the stigma appeared, three regions indicating thepapillae, the transmitting tissue and the secretory tissue were observed. The pinnate stigma wascharacterized as a partition structure for naming immature and mature stigma in the following investigation.The ultrastructure of various tissue cells of the stigma during the development was observed usingtransmission electron microscopy. Throughout the whole developmental process the cytoplasm of papillaeand secretory tissue cells was filled with many endoplasmic reticula (ER). Most of the ER was tube-like andrough with enlarged cisterna from which many vesicles were produced. |n the mature stigma, numbers ofplasmodesmata were found between the secretory and the transmitting tissue cells. The papillae andsecretory tissue cells are highly vacuolated and the plasmalemma was invaginated or exvaginated. Thenuclear envelope of secretory tissue cells was enlarged, which led to the formation of plurivalvis nucleusduring stigma development, Apparently, nuclear envelope became more strongly lamellate at mature stage.In different tissue cells of mature stigma, ATPase activity was localized along the plasmalemma andvacuole membrane. The PM-H*-ATPase specific activity increased during stigma deve{opment. Ourresults revealed the glandular characteristics of the developing stigma of cucumber female flowers.

  18. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  19. Parotid sialosis: morphometrical analysis of the glandular parenchyme and stroma among diabetic and alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Carolina; Bohl, Luciana; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Among the agents that cause parotid sialosis, diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic alcoholism are included. In this study, the morphometrical modifications in the diabetic parotid sialosis were determined to compare them with the histopathological characteristics of alcoholic parotid sialosis. Five parotid biopsy samples obtained from patients with diabetic sialosis, 12 samples from patients with alcoholic sialosis and seven from individuals without these pathologies (control group) were analyzed. A morphometrical study of parotid parenchyme and stroma, using a digital image analyzer attached to an optical microscope, was carried out. Dimensions of serous acini and striated ducts, the area occupied by the fatty tissue, and the number of ducts were recorded. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P glandular hypertrophy in the diabetic parotid sialosis is not directly associated with the ductal and acinar size, amount of fatty tissue and ductal hyperplasy. Nevertheless, these findings show that the ductal dimensions and the proportion of adipose tissue are variables that allow us to establish histopathological differences between diabetic and alcoholic sialosis.

  20. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  1. A solitary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is exceedingly rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of mixed papilloma and its associated immunohistochemical and positron emission tomographic (PET) findings. A 60-year-old Japanese male with a smoking history of 40 pack-years presented with a smooth-edged pulmonary lesion in the right S5 segment on computed tomography (CT). F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET revealed abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass (maximum standardized uptake value, 3.4). We performed right middle lobectomy and combined partial resection of the S8 segment. The 1.8-cm tumor that filled the enlarged lumen of the B5b was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK7. p40 positivity was predominant in the basal and squamous cells. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were negative on immunostaining. Malignant features were absent. The postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 months after the surgery. No recurrences were reported after the surgical resection of the mixed papilloma. Therefore, surgical resection may be considered the mainstay of curative treatment.

  2. Cistitis quística glandular presentada como cistopatía quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Orlich-Castelán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 73 años, con historia de hematuria macroscópica de aparición reciente, con presencia de quistes en toda la extensión de la mucosa vesical, y con diagnóstico por biopsias de vejiga, de una cistitis glandular. Se habla de cistopatía quística cuando los quistes se encuentran difusamente en la vejiga, y frecuentemente coexiste con lipomatosis pélvica en pacientes obesas, como la que reportada aquí. Es considerada una lesión premaligna y por eso es importante un seguimiento cuidadoso con cistoscopias periódicas. La cistitis quística se presenta más frecuentemente en hombres y en personas de mayor edad. Macroscópicamente, se manifiesta con nódulos submucosos únicos o múltiples, y los hallazgos histológicos son la presencia de nidos uroteliales redondeados, con dilatación quística dentro de la lámina propia, y paralelos a la superficie urotelial.

  3. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  4. Unilateral high origin of facial artery associated with a variant origin of the glandular branch to the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandas Rao KG

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The variations in the carotid arteries and their branches are common in the anterior triangle of the neck. However, variations in the origin of facial artery and its branches given in the digastric triangle are not very common. A case of high origin of facial artery and abnormal origin of the glandular branch to submandibular gland encountered during routine dissection of anterior triangle of the neck is reported. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery deep in the digastric triangle and the glandular branch to submandibular gland was also arising from the external carotid artery about 1 cm below the origin of facial artery in the digastric triangle. Further, the surgical, importance of the case was discussed.

  5. Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Wenxin; Fadare Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a de...

  6. Activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in glandular cells of uterine endometrium of puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Valocky I.; Krajničakova Maria; Legath J.; Lenhardt L.; Ostro A.; Danko J.; Tkačikova L`udmila; Mojžišova Jana; Fialkovičova Maria; Mardzinova Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The study is focused on the observation of alkaline and acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of uterine endometrium in puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ewes of Slovak merino breed (n=25) divided into 2 groups were included in the experiment. The animals in the experimental group (n=14) and control group (n=11) were euthanised on day 17, 25 and 34 postpartum. The ewes in the experimental group were given per os capsules of the chemical preparation Delor...

  7. Characteristic and functional analysis of a newly established porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of intestine is continuously exposed to both potential pathogens and beneficial commensal microorganisms. Recent findings suggest that intestinal epithelial cells, which once considered as a simple physical barrier, are a crucial cell lineage necessary for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Therefore, establishing a stable and reliable intestinal epithelial cell line for future research on the mucosal immune system is necessary. In the present study, we established a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (ZYM-SIEC02 by introducing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene into small intestinal epithelial cells derived from a neonatal, unsuckled piglet. Morphological analysis revealed a homogeneous cobblestone-like morphology of the epithelial cell sheets. Ultrastructural indicated the presence of microvilli, tight junctions, and a glandular configuration typical of the small intestine. Furthermore, ZYM-SIEC02 cells expressed epithelial cell-specific markers including cytokeratin 18, pan-cytokeratin, sucrase-isomaltase, E-cadherin and ZO-1. Immortalized ZYM-SIEC02 cells remained diploid and were not transformed. In addition, we also examined the host cell response to Salmonella and LPS and verified the enhanced expression of mRNAs encoding IL-8 and TNF-α by infection with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium. Results showed that IL-8 protein expression were upregulated following Salmonella invasion. TLR4, TLR6 and IL-6 mRNA expression were upregulated following stimulation with LPS, ZYM-SIEC02 cells were hyporeponsive to LPS with respect to IL-8 mRNA expression and secretion. TNFα mRNA levels were significantly decreased after LPS stimulation and TNF-α secretion were not detected challenged with S. Typhimurium neither nor LPS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ZYM-SIEC02 cells retained the morphological and functional characteristics typical of primary swine

  8. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  9. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  10. Normalized mean glandular dose computation from mammography using GATE: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronakis, Marios E.; Zvelebil, Marketa; Darambara, Dimitra G.

    2013-04-01

    Mean glandular dose (MGD) is the figure of merit to assess breast dose after a mammographic acquisition. The use of normalized MGD obtained from Monte Carlo computations with measured incident air kerma determines the MGD delivered to patients. The Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) toolkit is a modern Monte Carlo application specifically designed for medical imaging systems modelling. Although there is an increasing number of publications using GATE worldwide for a wide range of medical imaging and therapeutic applications, there is currently no means to obtain normalized MGD. In this work, the GATE toolkit is extended, through the development of two new modules, to provide normalized MGD information for compressed breast phantoms based on simple geometries. The normalized MGD values were validated against published work and provided results at half value layers lower than 0.3 and greater than 0.6 mmAl. In addition, the skin thickness and composition were considered. Normalized MGD was computed after substitution of the adipose layer surrounding the standard breast phantom with skin tissue and the relative difference is reported. Spectrum generation was facilitated by further development of previously published work by other authors. Validation of the new GATE extension showed good agreement with published data and can be used to assess breast dose from mammographic as well as more complex x-ray imaging techniques. Changing skin thickness and composition revealed substantial changes in normalized MGD specifically for compressed breast thickness different than 5 cm and a possible revision of the structure of the standard breast model may be necessary.

  11. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  12. Highly sensitive automated chemiluminometric assay for measuring free human glandular kallikrein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, G G; Goodmanson, M K; Jacobsen, S J; Young, C Y; Finlay, J A; Rittenhouse, H G; Wolfert, R L; Tindall, D J

    1999-06-01

    Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) is a serine protease that has 79% amino acid identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Both free hK2 and hK2 complexed to alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) are present in the blood in low concentrations. We wished to measure hK2 in serum with limited contribution from hK2-ACT for the results. We developed an automated assay for hK2 with use of a select pair of monoclonal antibodies. The prototype assay was implemented on a Beckman Coulter ACCESS(R) analyzer. The detection limit of the assay was 1.5 ng/L, the "functional sensitivity" (day-to-day CV <15%) was <4 ng/L, cross-reactivity with PSA and PSA-ACT was negligible, and cross-reactivity with hK2-ACT was 2%. After surgical removal of prostate glands, serum hK2 was <7 ng/L and was <15 ng/L in most healthy women. The median serum concentration of hK2 in healthy men without prostate cancer was 26 ng/L. The median concentration of hK2 was 72 ng/L for men having prostate cancer with lower Gleason scores compared with 116 ng/L for men with more advanced cancer. The concentration of hK2 correlated weakly with PSA, with the mean hK2 concentrations generally 30- to 80-fold lower than PSA concentrations. The availability of a robust, high sensitivity automated assay for hK2 should facilitate further investigations of the role of hK2 measurements in the management of patients with prostate disease.

  13. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  14. Glandular odontogenic cyst – Literature review and report of a paediatric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Ansar; Ansari, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an extremely rare lesion occurring in the jawbones. The present paper is a review of 181 cases of GOCs reported in English literature, since it was first reported by Padayache and Van Wyk in 1987. Mandible was involved in 130 cases and maxilla in 51 cases. Anterior mandible was the most common area of involvement. Radiographic appearance was that of a unilocular radiolucency in 98 of 176 reported cases. Rest presented as multilocular radiolucency. Cortical expansion was observed in 136 of the 180 reported cases while cortex breach or perforation was seen in 81 cases. The treatment of choice was that of minor procedures that included enucleation with or without curettage, peripheral ostectomy, cryotherapy, etc. in 157 of the total 177 reported cases. Marginal jaw resection, segmental mandibulectomy etc. was reported in 20 cases. Although minor surgical procedures were the treatment of choice in most studies, two major studies of Kaplan et al. and Fowler et al. involving 111 and 46 cases, recorded a recurrence rate of 35.9 and 19.6%, respectively. The age range was between 11 and 82 years. The respective mean age of patients in the above mentioned studies was 45.7 for Kaplan's and 51 years for Fowler's whereas in our study, the mean age was 45.9 years. Very rarely does GOC presents itself in a paediatric patient. The paper also reports a case of an 11-year-old child whose histopathogy came out to be a case of a GOC. PMID:26587384

  15. MYC overexpression induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and loss of Nkx3.1 in mouse luminal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Iwata

    Full Text Available Lo-MYC and Hi-MYC mice develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma as a result of MYC overexpression in the mouse prostate. However, prior studies have not determined precisely when, and in which cell types, MYC is induced. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC to localize MYC expression in Lo-MYC transgenic mice, we show that morphological and molecular alterations characteristic of high grade PIN arise in luminal epithelial cells as soon as MYC overexpression is detected. These changes include increased nuclear and nucleolar size and large scale chromatin remodeling. Mouse PIN cells retained a columnar architecture and abundant cytoplasm and appeared as either a single layer of neoplastic cells or as pseudo-stratified/multilayered structures with open glandular lumina-features highly analogous to human high grade PIN. Also using IHC, we show that the onset of MYC overexpression and PIN development coincided precisely with decreased expression of the homeodomain transcription factor and tumor suppressor, Nkx3.1. Virtually all normal appearing prostate luminal cells expressed high levels of Nkx3.1, but all cells expressing MYC in PIN lesions showed marked reductions in Nkx3.1, implicating MYC as a key factor that represses Nkx3.1 in PIN lesions. To determine the effects of less pronounced overexpression of MYC we generated a new line of mice expressing MYC in the prostate under the transcriptional control of the mouse Nkx3.1 control region. These "Super-Lo-MYC" mice also developed PIN, albeit a less aggressive form. We also identified a histologically defined intermediate step in the progression of mouse PIN into invasive adenocarcinoma. These lesions are characterized by a loss of cell polarity, multi-layering, and cribriform formation, and by a "paradoxical" increase in Nkx3.1 protein. Similar histopathological changes occurred in Hi-MYC mice, albeit with accelerated kinetics. Our results using IHC provide novel

  16. Asymmetric expression of connexins between luminal epithelial- and myoepithelial- cells is essential for contractile function of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroue, Rana; Inman, Jamie; Mott, Joni; Budunova, Irina; Bissell, Mina J

    2015-03-01

    Intercellular communication is essential for glandular functions and tissue homeostasis. Gap junctions couple cells homotypically and heterotypically and co-ordinate reciprocal responses between the different cell types. Connexins (Cxs) are the main mammalian gap junction proteins, and the distribution of some Cx subtypes in the heterotypic gap junctions is not symmetrical; in the murine mammary gland, Cx26, Cx30 and Cx32 are expressed only in the luminal epithelial cells and Cx43 is expressed only in myoepithelial cells. Expression of all four Cxs peaks during late pregnancy and throughout lactation suggesting essential roles for these proteins in the functional secretory activity of the gland. Transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing Cx26 driven by keratin 5 promoter had an unexpected mammary phenotype: the mothers were unable to feed their pups to weaning age leading to litter starvation and demise in early to mid-lactation. The mammary gland of K5-Cx26 female mice developed normally and produced normal levels of milk protein, suggesting a defect in delivery rather than milk production. Because the mammary gland of K5-Cx26 mothers contained excessive milk, we hypothesized that the defect may be in an inability to eject the milk. Using ex vivo three-dimensional mammary organoid cultures, we showed that tissues isolated from wild-type FVB females contracted upon treatment with oxytocin, whereas, organoids from Tg mice failed to do so. Unexpectedly, we found that ectopic expression of Cx26 in myoepithelial cells altered the expression of endogenous Cx43 resulting in impaired gap junction communication, demonstrated by defective dye coupling in mammary epithelial cells of Tg mice. Inhibition of gap junction communication or knock-down of Cx43 in organoids from wild-type mice impaired contraction in response to oxytocin, recapitulating the observations from the mammary glands of Tg mice. We conclude that Cx26 acts as a trans-dominant negative for Cx43 function in

  17. Coronaviruses in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Bekker, C P; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. In this paper the interactions of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) with epithelial cells are compared. Porcine (LLC-PK1) and murine (mTAL) epithelial cells were grown on permeable supp

  18. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted.

  19. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  20. Next generation sequencing unravels the biosynthetic ability of spearmint (Mentha spicata) peltate glandular trichomes through comparative transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Panicker, Deepa; Wang, Qian; Kim, Mi Jung; Liu, Jun; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2014-11-01

    Plant glandular trichomes are chemical factories with specialized metabolic capabilities to produce diverse compounds. Aromatic mint plants produce valuable essential oil in specialised glandular trichomes known as peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Here, we performed next generation transcriptome sequencing of different tissues of Mentha spicata (spearmint) to identify differentially expressed transcripts specific to PGT. Our results provide a comprehensive overview of PGT's dynamic metabolic activities which will help towards pathway engineering. Spearmint RNAs from 3 different tissues: PGT, leaf and leaf stripped of PGTs (leaf-PGT) were sequenced by Illumina paired end sequencing. The sequences were assembled de novo into 40,587 non-redundant unigenes; spanning a total of 101 Mb. Functions could be assigned to 27,025 (67%) unigenes and among these 3,919 unigenes were differentially expressed in PGT relative to leaf - PGT. Lack of photosynthetic transcripts in PGT transcriptome indicated the high levels of purity of isolated PGT, as mint PGT are non-photosynthetic. A significant number of these unigenes remained unannotated or encoded hypothetical proteins. We found 16 terpene synthases (TPS), 18 cytochrome P450s, 5 lipid transfer proteins and several transcription factors that were preferentially expressed in PGT. Among the 16 TPSs, two were characterized biochemically and found to be sesquiterpene synthases. The extensive transcriptome data set renders a complete description of genes differentially expressed in spearmint PGT. This will facilitate the metabolic engineering of mint terpene pathway to increase yield and also enable the development of strategies for sustainable production of novel or altered valuable compounds in mint.

  1. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  2. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  3. Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zheng, Wenxin

    2008-02-08

    In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a descriptor for a supposedly intraepithelial, precancerous lesion. Preliminary evidence is also presented that suggests that there is a morphologically recognizable "clear cell EmGD" that probably represents a precancerous lesion to endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

  4. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  5. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Steiner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  6. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  7. [Immunohistochemical study of human breast tumors using monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins (nonproliferating epithelial structures in breast dysplasia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Litvinova, L V; Ermilova, V D; Bannikov, G A

    1985-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis of nonproliferating epithelial structures was carried out in 10 samples of human breast dysplasia and in 4 samples of tissue surrounding mammary gland carcinoma. Monoclonal mouse antibodies against individual prekeratins of rat monolayer epithelial antibodies of clone C12 against rat prekeratin with the molecular mass 49 kilodalton and antibodies of clone E3 against rat prekeratin with the molecular mass 40 kilodalton-monoclonal antibodies against vimentin (clone 30), as well as polyclonal antibodies against smooth muscle myosin and against the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin were used. The lining epithelium of all glandular structures reacted only with C12 antibodies. Two variants of myoepithelial cells containing myosin were detected. Variant I contains myosin and vimentin and is localized in intralobular ducts. Variant 2 contains myosin and prekeratin, recognized by E3 antibodies and is found in extralobular ducts.

  8. Multipotent Basal Stem Cells, Maintained in Localized Proximal Niches, Support Directed Long-Ranging Epithelial Flows in Human Prostates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells. Rare lineage-restricted luminal stem cells, and their progeny, are confined to proximal ducts and provide only minor contribution to epithelial homeostasis. In situ cell capture from clonal maps identified delta homolog 1 (DLK1 enrichment of basal stem cells, which was validated in functional spheroid assays. This study establishes significant insights into niche organization and function of prostate stem and progenitor cells, with implications for disease.

  9. Human SERPINB12 Is an Abundant Intracellular Serpin Expressed in Most Surface and Glandular Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Jason Z; Good, Misty; Jackson, Laura E; Ozolek, John A; Silverman, Gary A; Luke, Cliff J

    2015-11-01

    The intracellular serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are an important family of proteins that protect cells form proteinase-mediated injury. Understanding the tissue and cellular expression pattern of this protein family can provide important insights into their physiologic roles. For example, high expression in epithelial tissues, such as lung, may suggest a biologic function in cellular defense, secretion, or selective absorption. Although the expression pattern of many of the intracellular serpins has been well described, one member of this class, SERPINB12, has not been carefully examined. We generated a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against human SERPINB12 and delineated its specificity and tissue and cell type distribution pattern through immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. This monoclonal antibody was human specific and did not cross-react with other human intracellular serpins or mouse Serpinb12. SERPINB12 was found in nearly all the tissues investigated. In addition, this serpin was found in multiple cell types within individual tissues but primarily the epithelium. These data suggest that SERPINB12, like some other intracellular serpins, may play a vital role in barrier function by providing protection of epithelial cells.

  10. Role of caspase-3/E-cadherin in helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongmei; Du, Jie; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Yuanjian

    2017-08-29

    This study was designed to investigate the role of caspase-3/E-cadherin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) -induced gastric epithelial apoptosis in cells, animal models and clinical gastritis patients. In cultured gastric mucosal epithelial cells, gastric glandular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice, H. pylori infection significantly induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells, down-regulated full-length E-cadherin and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulated cleaved-caspase-3, E-cadherin/carboxy-terminal fragment 3 and Bax expression. Z-DEVD-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-3, attenuated the effect of H. pylori. E-cadherin overexpression significantly inhibited the apoptosis of GES-1 and SGC-7901 cells induced by the H. pylori. The results from clinical studies also showed down-regulation of E-cadherin, up-regulation of cleaved-caspase-3 expression and increased apoptosis in gastric tissues from gastritis patients with H. pylori infection. These results suggest that the caspase-3/E-cadherin pathway is involved in the apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H. pylori.

  11. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...

  12. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  13. Integration of co-localized glandular morphometry and protein biomarker expression in immunofluorescent images for prostate cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Immunofluorescent (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. However, while biomarker and glandular morphometric features have been combined as separate predictors in multivariate models, there is a lack of integrative features for biomarkers co-localized within specific morphological sub-types; for example the evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression within Gleason 3 glands only. In this work we propose a novel framework employing multiple techniques to generate integrated metrics of morphology and biomarker expression. We demonstrate the utility of the approaches in predicting clinical disease progression in images from 326 prostate biopsies and 373 prostatectomies. Our proposed integrative approaches yield significant improvements over existing IF image feature metrics. This work presents some of the first algorithms for generating innovative characteristics in tissue diagnostics that integrate co-localized morphometry and protein biomarker expression.

  14. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D; Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes.

  15. Sôbre o órgão abdominal glandular de Arilus carinatus (Forster, 1771: (Heteroptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um órgão glandular, encontrado na fêmea de Arilus carinatus, de um tipo ainda desocnhecido em insetos. Localiza-se, em forma de um saco membranoso, nos dois lados da linha ventral, entre os 8º e 9º segmentos abdominais. O órgão é expulso por um aumento da pressão interna da cavidade abdominal e volta ao estado de repouso, no interior do corpo, por meio de contração muscular. A vesícula retal volumosa forma, em direção distal, um amplo divertículo, do qual partem dois "tubos retais" que penetram nas vesículas membranosas, tendo na superfície destas uma abertura em forma de fenda. A hipoderme do divertículo, bem como a de uma região da vesícula retal e da parte basal dos tubos retais é glandular. A secreção possui um cheiro intenso e ardido que lembra o gás de acetileno. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de uma glândula repugnatória. Não se sabe nada sôbra a ocorrência do aparelho no macho e em outras espécies de Reduviídeos.

  16. Trans-nipple removal of fibro-glandular tissue in gynaecomastia surgery without additional scars: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The established techniques that have been used to treat gynaecomastia are said to have relatively less patient satisfaction rate as they leave some visible scars or mild elevation over the nipple areola complex, resulting in aesthetically unsatisfactory results. Even the slightest elevation or smallest scar over nipple areola complex leave patients extremely self conscious and in a dilemma of having a second intervention to get rid of that blemish. Aims: The aim of the study is to achieve - A flat chest without adding a scar and with no chances of re-occurrence of the condition. This article suggests an innovative approach to address the problem. Materials and Methods: The author presents trans-nipple incision approach for the delivery of fibro-glandular tissue component following liposuction for maximum patient satisfaction. This method consists of a unique small criss-cross incision right on the nipple itself for retrieving any volume of tough fibro-glandular tissues. Between the duration of January 2012 to October 2013, 28 male patients of different ages were operated with this technique. Results: The surgery resulted in well-shaped, symmetric chest contour without any visible elevation or additional scars on nipple areola complex. No complications were noticed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The presented technique is proved to have a high patient satisfaction rate and to be promising method to achieve good aesthetic results in gynaecomastia surgery.

  17. Automated Breast Density Computation in Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Influence on Mean Glandular Dose and BIRADS Density Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-García, Maria; Chevalier, Margarita; Garayoa, Julia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; García-Pinto, Diego; Valverde, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to compare the breast density estimates from two algorithms on full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to analyze the clinical implications. We selected 561 FFDM and DBT examinations from patients without breast pathologies. Two versions of a commercial software (Quantra 2D and Quantra 3D) calculated the volumetric breast density automatically in FFDM and DBT, respectively. Other parameters such as area breast density and total breast volume were evaluated. We compared the results from both algorithms using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and the Spearman's rank coefficient for data correlation analysis. Mean glandular dose (MGD) was calculated following the methodology proposed by Dance et al. Measurements with both algorithms are well correlated (r ≥ 0.77). However, there are statistically significant differences between the medians (P BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) b and c categories, respectively. There are no significant differences between the MGD calculated using the breast density from each algorithm. DBT delivers higher MGD than FFDM, with a lower difference (5%) for breasts in the BIRADS d category. MGD is, on average, 6% higher than values obtained with the breast glandularity proposed by Dance et al. Breast density measurements from both algorithms lead to equivalent BIRADS classification and MGD values, hence showing no difference in clinical outcomes. The median MGD values of FFDM and DBT examinations are similar for dense breasts (BIRADS d category). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Chemical composition of scent marks in the ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta): glandular differences, seasonal variation, and individual signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, Elizabeth S; Dubay, George; Drea, Christine M

    2007-06-01

    The apocrine and sebaceous scent glands of ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) appear to serve different social functions. In behavioral experiments, lemurs modulate their responses to scent marks based on the type of odorant, their own physiological state, the signaler's physiological state, and prior social experience. To examine variation in odorant chemistry relative to olfactory behavior, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to analyze over 86 samples of glandular secretion collected over 2 years from 15 adult lemurs. Labial and scrotal secretions contained organic acids and esters, whereas male brachial secretions were composed almost entirely of squalene and cholesterol derivatives. Principal component and linear discriminant analyses revealed glandular, individual-specific, and seasonal variation in chemical profiles but no relationship to the signaler's social status. The chemical composition of the various secretions provides further clues about the function of the different glands: the higher molecular weight compounds in genital and brachial secretions may increase signal longevity and provide lasting information to conspecifics, consistent with a role in advertising resource ownership or reproductive state. Conversely, the lower molecular weight compounds of antebrachial secretions produce ephemeral signals used primarily in social dominance displays and require integration of multiple sensory modalities for effective signal transmission.

  19. A Monte Carlo study of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of model assumptions in GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the calculation of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) in mammography, focussing on the effect of the skin thickness and composition, of the role of compression paddles and of the bremsstrahlung processes. We showed that selecting a skin thickness of 4 mm instead of 1.45 mm produced DgN values with deviations from 9% to 32% for x-ray spectra routinely adopted in mammography. Consideration of the bremsstrahlung radiation had a weak influence on monoenergetic DgN. Simulations (in the range 8-40 kVp) which included consideration of bremsstrahlung radiation, a skin thickness of 1.45 mm and a 2 mm thick compression paddles produced polyenergetic DgN coefficients up to 19% higher than corresponding literature data. Adding a 2 mm thick adipose layer between the skin layer and the radiosensitive portion of the breast produces polyenergetic DgN values up to 15% higher than those routinely adopted. These findings provide a quantitative estimate of the influence of model parameters on the calculation of the mean glandular dose in mammography.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus infection and persistence in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Man Tsang; Wen Deng; Yim Ling Yip; Mu-Sheng Zeng; Kwok Wai Lo; Sai Wah Tsao

    2014-01-01

    develops from a single EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cell, and the establishment of persistent and latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelium may represent an early and critical event for NPC development.

  1. Most multifocal papillary thyroid carcinomas acquire genetic and morphotype diversity through subclonal evolution following the intra-glandular spread of the initial neoplastic clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, L; Delahunt, B; McIver, B; Eberhardt, N L; Grebe, S K G

    2008-06-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently multifocal (mPTC), with synchronous tumour foci often showing varied morphology. The genetic mechanisms underlying the development of multiple and histologically diverse tumour foci remain uncertain. Different tumour foci might develop either through intrathyroidal dissemination of a single malignant clone, with morphotype differentiation occurring as a result of subclonal progression, or they may stem from independent transformational events involving multiple progenitor clones. To determine the clonal derivation of multiple tumour foci and to map their clonal relationships and genetic progression in mPTC, we evaluated genome-wide allelic imbalances (AI) and BRAF V600E mutation status in 55 synchronous tumour foci from 18 mPTC patients. For apparently monoclonal tumours, we calculated the probabilities of monoclonal derivation and used phylogenetic analysis to model clonal evolution. Genome-wide allelotyping and BRAF mutation analysis showed genetic alterations consistent with monoclonal origin in 83% of cases, mostly with evidence of subclonal evolution. BRAF V600E mutations were early events during clonal evolution of most, but not all cases. MPTC with morphologically diverse tumour foci also arose through monoclonal derivation in 75% of cases, demonstrating that morphotype-determining genetic changes can be acquired during clonal diversification, subsequent to the spread of the original malignant progenitor clone. In 17% of patients, discordant AI or BRAF V600E profiles implied that mPTCs can occasionally develop from distinct transformation events. This study suggests that mPTC originates usually from neoplastic transformation and subsequent intrathyroidal spread of a single malignant progenitor clone. Clonal progression and morphotype differentiation occur through progressive acquisition of genetic alterations subsequent to the initial intra-glandular spread. In monoclonal BRAF V600E-positive mPTCs, BRAF V600E

  2. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eRojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes.Over a thirty year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been litlle employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  3. The physiological expression of scavenger receptor SR-B1 in canine endometrial and placental epithelial cells and its potential involvement in pathogenesis of pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C; Becher-Deichsel, A; Hlavaty, J; Mair, G; Walter, I

    2016-06-01

    Pyometra, the purulent inflammation of the uterus, is a common uterine disease of bitches that has potentially life-threatening consequences. The opportunistic bacterial infection of the uterus often progresses into the serious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In a previous study, we characterized epithelial foam cells in the canine endometrial surface occurring in metestrus, and we regularly observed pronounced epithelial foam-cell formations in pyometra-affected uteri. Therefore, it was assumed that the mechanism behind lipid droplet accumulation in surface epithelial cells might even increase bacterial binding capacity and promote pyometra development. Lipid droplet accumulation in epithelial cells is accomplished via specialized lipid receptors called scavenger receptors (SR). Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is an important receptor for lipid accumulation in diverse cell types, but it is also a strong binding partner for bacteria, and thereby enhances bacterial adhesion and clinical signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In the present study, after the isolation of metestrous surface epithelial cells from canine uteri by laser capture microdissection, SR-B1 was identified at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and also at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry. In pyometra-affected uteri, SR-B1 mRNA expression was higher than that in the healthy control samples, and SR-B1 protein was expressed in the surface and crypt epithelial cells. Furthermore, to understand the physiological role of SR-B1 expression in the metestrus surface epithelial cells, we investigated its expression in the epithelial cells of the glandular chambers of canine placenta in different stages of gestation because these cells are also characterized by lipid droplet accumulation. SR-B1 was present in the placental epithelial cells of the glandular chambers from 25 to 30 and 45 to 50 days of gestation

  4. Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedda, Faysal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (COREAH is a benign lesion of the nose and sinuses that is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported in the literature to date. Case report: We present herein the third reported case of COREAH, in a 38-year-old woman who presented with left nasal obstruction and a mass in her left nasal cavity. The mass was completely resected endoscopically. Microscopic examination showed hamartomatous proliferation of respiratory-type glands with mucinous metaplasia admixed with numerous spicules of mature bone, characteristic of COREAH. Conclusion: COREAH is a benign hamartomatous proliferation of respiratory epithelium, submucosal glands, and chondro-osseous mesenchyme. The clinical differential diagnoses for such lesions include glandular hamartoma, inflammatory polyp, inverted papilloma, and low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma. Recognition of this lesion as benign despite its potentially worrisome radiographic appearance is important to avoid an unnecessarily radical surgical procedure.

  5. Effects of EGFR Inhibitor on Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Epithelial Pathology in Vivo

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    Philip A. Robinson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori transactivates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR and predisposes to gastric cancer development in humans and animal models. To examine the importance of EGFR signalling to gastric pathology, this study investigated whether treatment of Mongolian gerbils with a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, EKB-569, altered gastric pathology in chronic H. pylori infection. Gerbils were infected with H. pylori and six weeks later received either EKB-569-supplemented, or control diet, for 32 weeks prior to sacrifice. EKB-569-treated H. pylori-infected gerbils had no difference in H. pylori colonisation or inflammation scores compared to infected animals on control diet, but showed significantly less corpus atrophy, mucous metaplasia and submucosal glandular herniations along with markedly reduced antral and corpus epithelial proliferation to apoptosis ratios. EKB-569-treated infected gerbils had significantly decreased abundance of Cox-2, Adam17 and Egfr gastric transcripts relative to infected animals on control diet. EGFR inhibition by EKB-569 therefore reduced the severity of pre-neoplastic gastric pathology in chronically H. pylori-infected gerbils. EKB-569 increased gastric epithelial apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gerbils which counteracted some of the consequences of increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation. Similar chemopreventative strategies may be useful in humans who are at high risk of developing H.pylori-induced gastric adenocarcinoma.

  6. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    -free EpiLife medium, using a range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations (2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Using immunocytochemistry and advanced fluorescence microscopy, cells were characterized regarding growth, cell cycle distribution, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), phenotypes...... and cytomorphometry. Limbal epithelial cells expanded in 2% O2 exhibited slow growth, low fraction of cells in S/G2 , high CFE, high expression of stem cell markers ABCG2 and p63α, and low fraction of differentiation marker CK3 resembling a LESC phenotype. The effect of hypoxia to maintain LESCs in culture...

  7. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  8. Mean glandular dose coefficients (D(g)N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z; Yaffe, Martin J; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-09-21

    To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients D(g)N for a range of anode-filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Previously published mono-energetic D(g)N values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute D(g)N coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; molybdenum and rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial half value layer (HVL) calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, D(g)N coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (D(g)N) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published D(g)N values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values.Over 200 pages of D(g)N coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values.

  9. Mean Glandular dose coefficients (DgN) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients DgN for a range of anode–filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Methods Previously published mono-energetic DgN values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute DgN coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; Molybdenum and Rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPx Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial HVL calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, DgN coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Results Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published DgN values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values. Conclusion Over 200-pages of DgN coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values. PMID:26348995

  10. Development of the glandular epithelium of the bovine parotid gland during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrückner, A; Fink, C; Kressin, M

    2003-06-01

    The development of the parotid gland was examined in 36 bovine embryos and foetuses with a crown-rump-length (CRL) from 28 up to 1000 mm by light, transmission electron microscopical and actin-immunohistochemical methods. The anlage of the parotid gland in an embryo with 28 mm CRL can be found at the lateral angle of the primitive oral cavity as a local thickening of the epithelium. During the second month, the differentiation of primary ducts and endbuds starts and a lumen develops in the primary ducts. At the end of the second month a lumen appears in the terminal endbuds. In the immature endpiece cells first secretory granules can be seen from a CRL of 240 mm. In the third month differentiation between intra- and inter-lobular ducts is possible. Immature myoepithelial cells present as a basal layer of flattened cells between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane at the end of the second month. During further development they increase in number, become more flattened and form long cellular processes. At the end of the fourth month isolated actin filament bundles are formed, which were also detected by an antibody against smooth muscle actin. The actin filaments condense continuously until they fill the cell processes completely at the end of foetal development.

  11. Forces driving epithelial wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugués, Agustí; Anon, Ester; Conte, Vito; Veldhuis, Jim H.; Gupta, Mukund; Colombelli, Julien; Muñoz, José J.; Brodland, G. Wayne; Ladoux, Benoit; Trepat, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    A fundamental feature of multicellular organisms is their ability to self-repair wounds through the movement of epithelial cells into the damaged area. This collective cellular movement is commonly attributed to a combination of cell crawling and `purse-string’ contraction of a supracellular actomyosin ring. Here we show by direct experimental measurement that these two mechanisms are insufficient to explain force patterns observed during wound closure. At early stages of the process, leading actin protrusions generate traction forces that point away from the wound, showing that wound closure is initially driven by cell crawling. At later stages, we observed unanticipated patterns of traction forces pointing towards the wound. Such patterns have strong force components that are both radial and tangential to the wound. We show that these force components arise from tensions transmitted by a heterogeneous actomyosin ring to the underlying substrate through focal adhesions. The structural and mechanical organization reported here provides cells with a mechanism to close the wound by cooperatively compressing the underlying substrate.

  12. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  13. Transcriptional networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Venkov

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis.Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active during three time points of this transitional process, as epithelial cells become fibroblasts. DNA microarray in cultured epithelia undergoing EMT, validated in vivo, were used to detect various patterns of gene expression. In particular, the promoter sequences of differentially expressed genes and their transcription factors were analyzed to identify potential binding sites and partners. The four most frequent cis-regulatory elements (CREs in up-regulated genes were SRY, FTS-1, Evi-1, and GC-Box, and RNA inhibition of the four transcription factors, Atf2, Klf10, Sox11, and SP1, most frequently binding these CREs, establish their importance in the initiation and propagation of EMT. Oligonucleotides that block the most frequent CREs restrain EMT at early and intermediate stages through apoptosis of the cells.Our results identify new transcriptional interactions with high frequency CREs that modulate the stability of cellular plasticity, and may serve as targets for modulating these transitional states in fibroblasts.

  14. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  15. Micromorphology of glandular hairs, biological activity and composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum fisherae (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Peyman; Nejadsattari, Taher; Maassoumi, Ali Asghar; Mozaffarian, Valiollah; Sonboli, Ali

    2011-02-01

    The essential oil was obtained from the aerial flowering parts of Tanacetum fisherae, a new record from Iran, by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Eleven components representing 99.9% of the total oil were identified. 1,8-Cineole (79.9%) was characterized as the principal compound. The essential oil and its main component were tested against nine microbial strains. The result of the bioassays revealed that the oil possess potent antimicrobial property. This may be associated due to the presence of 1,8-cineole in the oil which tested individually and its high activity was observed. Micromorphological studies of hairs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited the presence of abundant sessile capitate glandular and medifixed T-shaped eglandular trichomes on the leaves, flowers and achene, giving useful diagnostic characters for identification of this medicinal plant.

  16. Trefoil peptides promote restitution of wounded corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, M N; Cook, J R; Kunert, K S; Fini, M E; Gipson, I K; Podolsky, D K

    2001-04-01

    The ocular surface shares many characteristics with mucosal surfaces. In both, healing is regulated by peptide growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. However, these factors are not sufficient to ensure most rapid healing. Trefoil peptides are abundantly expressed epithelial cell products which exert protective effects and are key regulators of gastrointestinal epithelial restitution, the critical early phase of cell migration after mucosal injury. To assess the role of trefoil peptides in corneal epithelial wound healing, the effects of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF/TFF3) and spasmolytic polypeptide (SP/TFF2) on migration and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells were analyzed. Both ITF and SP enhanced restitution of primary rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro. While the restitution-enhancing effects of TGF-alpha and TGF-beta were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TGF-beta-antibodies, trefoil peptide stimulation of restitution was not. Neither trefoil peptide significantly affected proliferation of primary corneal epithelial cells. ITF but not SP or pS2 mRNA was present in rabbit corneal and conjunctival tissues. In summary, the data indicate an unanticipated role of trefoil peptides in healing of ocular surface and demand rating their functional actions beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  18. Intracellular Propionibacterium acnes infection in glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages of the prostate with or without cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes suggest that this bacterium is prevalent in the prostate, is associated with acute and chronic prostatic inflammation, and might have a role in prostate carcinogenesis. METHODS: To evaluate the pathogenic role of this indigenous bacterium, we screened for the bacterium in radical prostatectomy specimens using enzyme immunohistochemistry with a novel P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody, together with an anti-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB antibody. We examined formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of radical prostatectomy specimens from 28 patients with prostate cancer and 18 age-matched control patients with bladder cancer, but without prostate cancer. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry with the PAL antibody revealed small round bodies within some non-cancerous glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages in most prostate samples. Prostate cancer samples had higher frequencies of either cytoplasmic P. acnes or nuclear NF-κB expression of glandular epithelium and higher numbers of stromal macrophages with P. acnes than control samples. These parameters were also higher in the peripheral zone than in the transitional zone of the prostate, especially in prostate cancer samples. Nuclear NF-κB expression was more frequent in glands with P. acnes than in glands without P. acnes. The number of stromal macrophages with the bacterium correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation in both the PZ and TZ areas and with the grade of acute inflammation in the TZ area. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis with a novel monoclonal antibody for detecting P. acnes in the prostate suggested that intraepithelial P. acnes infection in non-cancerous prostate glands and inflammation caused by the bacterium may contribute to the development of prostate cancer.

  19. Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipaty, S A; Lindblom, J; Loftus, P D; Redd, M J; Edes, K; Davey, C F; Krishnegowda, V; Rosenblatt, J

    2017-03-02

    Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state. Here we show that mammalian epithelial cell division occurs in regions of low cell density where cells are stretched. By experimentally stretching epithelia, we find that mechanical stretch itself rapidly stimulates cell division through activation of the Piezo1 channel. To stimulate cell division, stretch triggers cells that are paused in early G2 phase to activate calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, thereby activating the cyclin B transcription that is necessary to drive cells into mitosis. Although both epithelial cell division and cell extrusion require Piezo1 at the steady state, the type of mechanical force controls the outcome: stretch induces cell division, whereas crowding induces extrusion. How Piezo1-dependent calcium transients activate two opposing processes may depend on where and how Piezo1 is activated, as it accumulates in different subcellular sites with increasing cell density. In sparse epithelial regions in which cells divide, Piezo1 localizes to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, whereas in dense regions in which cells extrude, it forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. Because Piezo1 senses both mechanical crowding and stretch, it may act as a homeostatic sensor to control epithelial cell numbers, triggering extrusion and apoptosis in crowded regions and cell division in sparse regions.

  20. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  1. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  2. Reach of NLR and CA-1 25 in the early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer%中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值联合癌抗原-125对上皮性卵巢癌早期诊断的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石纳玉; 邓月月; 吴迪; 石瑞生

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:In order to discuss the significance of the application which combing the NLR with CA -1 25 together about early diagnosis epithelial ovarian cancer.Methods:60 cases with initial ovarian carcinoma from our gynecology and obstetrics were selected as a study group.Selecting the 60 cases of ovarian carcinoma begin and 60 normal women as control groups.to evaluate the NLR to diagnose the critical value of epithelial ovarian cancer by using ROC curves,and the joint application of critical value and CA -1 25 in order to judge that whether it have advantages of improving the susceptibility and specificity of ovarian carcinoma or not.Results:by using ROC curves to evaluate the NLR to diagnose ,the critical value were 2.8.The susceptibility,specificity were 0.72,0.83.By combing NLR with CA -1 25 to diagnose the epithelial ovarian cancer’s susceptibility,specificity, positive predictive value,negative predictive value,correct index.There were 0.87,0.85,0.85,0.86,and 0.72.Conclusions:The application of NLR have higher susceptibility,and specificity about epithelial ovarian cancer.Combing NLR with CA -1 25 can improve the susceptibility and specificity of early diagnosis of epithelial o-varian cancer.%目的:探讨应用外周血中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值(NLR)联合癌抗原-125(CA -125)对上皮性卵巢癌早期诊断的意义。方法:选取来我院妇科初治的卵巢癌患者60例为研究组,选取同期我院60例卵巢良性肿瘤患者与60例健康女性为良性对照组与健康对照组,通过受试者回归曲线(ROC 曲线)测定NLR 诊断上皮性卵巢癌的临界值,并与 CA -125联合诊断判断 NLR 联合 CA -125对提高鉴别卵巢包块良恶性中的敏感性与特异性中是否有优势。结果:通过 ROC 曲线测定 NLR 诊断上皮性卵巢癌的临界值2.8,敏感度0.72、特异度0.83,NLR 联合 CA -125诊断上皮性卵巢癌的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴

  3. THE ROLE OF CHRONIC POLYPOID RHINOSINUSITIS IN OCCURRENCE OF MALIGNANT EPITHELIAL TUMORS OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES AND THE NASAL CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vereshchagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of occurrence of malignant epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity (NC and the paranasal sinuses (PNS is noted. Absolute majority of patients come for treatment with the III and the IV stage of the disease. No trend for decreasing of the untreatedness parameter is observed. Increasing of the efficiency of treatment of patients with cancer depends on timely diagnostics. The main reason of late diagnostics is insufficient oncological alertness of doctors in polyclinics. The issues of therapy tactics at the stage of pre-tumor diseases of the NC and the PNS remain unsolved, while background process that precede development of cancer are morphologically revealed with 56.7 % of patients. One of the most frequently occurred background development processes of the NC and the PNS cancer is chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis (CPR. The degree of occurrence of CPR is high, and the annual growth of its incidence by 2 to 4 % has been observed for the previous 10 years. There are only certain works that view CPR as a pre-cancer disease.The objective of the study is improvement of results of early diagnostics of cancer and optimization of the surgical tactics with pre-cancer diseases of the upper jaw and the PNS.Materials and methods. Retrospective and prospective clinical and morphological analysis of data of 58 patients with benign polypous changes (BPC and of 182 patients with malignant epithelial tumors (MET  of the NC and the PNS treated at the Arkhangelsk Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary from 1980 to 2010 has been performed.Results and discussion The maximum number of patients in both groups is at the age category from 40 to 59 years. Besides, the average age of patients with the BPC was lower than that of the patients with the MET (45.6 ± 2.3 and 54.0 ± 1.5 years old, respectively.Patients of working age prevailed both in the group with the BPC and the group with the MET of the NC and the PNS (19.0 / 81.0 % and 39.6 / 62.1 %, respectively

  4. 非典型腺细胞在宫颈细胞学筛查中的应用价值%Clinical Diagnostic Value of Atypical Glandular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 胡正强; 岳新爱; 唐袁婷; 吴秀丽; 江咏梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过分析宫颈细胞学筛查试验中非典型腺细胞( AGC)病例的组织学结果,讨论AGC诊断的临床应用价值及管理方法。方法:对我院2015年1—6月宫颈细胞学筛查试验中报告为AGC的病例中实施宫颈多点活组织检查、子宫颈电热圈环切术( loop electrosurgical excision procedure,LEEP)、宫颈锥切、宫颈搔刮、分段诊刮、子宫全切术后等组织学结果进行统计分析。结果:我院2015年1—6月宫颈细胞学筛查试验中诊断为AGC病例共108例,92例有组织学检查结果,16例失访。以组织学检查结果报告为上皮非典型增生及以上病变作为阳性结果进行归纳分类。35例组织学检查结果阴性,其中慢性宫颈炎17例,子宫内膜炎4例,宫颈息肉5例,子宫内膜息肉3例,子宫内膜增生6例。57例组织学检查结果阳性,其中宫颈上皮内瘤样变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,CIN)12例(CINⅠ4例,CINⅡ~Ⅲ8例且3例累及腺体),宫颈鳞状细胞癌1例,宫颈腺上皮内瘤样病变( cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia,CGIN)7例,子宫内膜癌17例,宫颈腺癌13例,卵巢腺癌5例和输卵管腺癌2例。结论:AGC与多种癌及癌前病变密切相关,有重要的临床诊断价值。提示对于宫颈细胞学筛查报告为AGC的患者进行定期追踪随访和规范的临床诊疗是非常必要的。%Objective: To analyze histological results of atypical glandular cell ( AGC ) diagnosed by cervical cytology screening, and to discuss the clinical diagnostic value of AGC.Methods: AGC cases diagnosed by cervical cytology screening between January 2015 and June 2015 in our hospital received cervical multiple punch biopsy, cervical loop electrosurgical excision procedure( LEEP) , cervical conization, cervical scoraping, fractional curettage and total hysterectomy, etc..The results were analyzed statistically.Results:A total of 108 cases

  5. Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 in rhesus monkey endometrium during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Haiyan; WANG Hongmei; LI Qinglei; WANG Juan; ZHANG Xuan; LIU Donglin; LIU Huitu; ZHU Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in the endometrium of rhesus monkey on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the normal menstrual cycle and on Days 12, 18 and 26 of early pregnancy was detected using in situ hybridization. The results showed that Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs were mainly localized in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. The expression of Smad2 mRNA in glandular epithelium was sustained at moderate level on Days 8, 20 and 28 of the menstrual cycle, while the expression of Smad4 gradually increased with the menstrual cycle. Both Smad2 and Smad4 mRNAs in functionalis glandular epithelium were expressed at the highest levels on Day 12 of early pregnancy, while in basalis glandular epithelium the most abundant expression of both Smads occurred on Days 12 and 18 of pregnancy. On Day 26, both Smads mRNAs were expressed at the lowest levels either in functionalis or in basalis. The data suggest that the epithelium is the major compartment where TGF-βs/activins exert their biological effects via Smads, and that Smad4 may play a role in the maintenance of endometrial gland function during secreting period of the menstrual cycle. During lacunar stage of early pregnancy, Smad2 and Smad4 are implicated in the tissue remodeling of endometrial functionalis and basalis, and during early villous stage both Smads are functional primarily in basalis.

  6. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  7. Effect of glandular kallikrein on distal bicarbonate transport. Role of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, W; Vallés, P

    1999-12-01

    The luminal membrane of collecting duct cells, specially the intercalated cells, is normally exposed to active kallikrein. This is due to the specific localization of renal kallikrein in the connecting tubule cells. We have previously reported inhibition of distal bicarbonate secretion by renal kallikrein. The present study was performed to evaluate the participation of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and luminal H(+)-ATPase activity of cortical collecting duct segments (CCD) in the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bicarbonate secretion induced by the enzyme. The effect of orthograde injections of 1 microgram/ml (250 U/6.3 mg) pig pancreatic kallikrein, in the absence and presence of 1 mM DIDS (stilbene-disulfonic acid) in the renal tubule system, was evaluated. Urine fractions were collected after two-minutes stop-flow. Changes in the urine fraction (Fr) related to those in free-flow urine samples (Ff) were related to the respective polyfructosan (Inutest) ratio. Renal kallikrein activity (Fr:Ff kallikrein/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) increased significantly in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein, P Bicarbonate secretion rate (Fr:Ff HCO3-/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) of collecting ducts was significantly reduced in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected, related to control, during the first and second stop-flow periods. No difference was shown in bicarbonate excretion between the first 120 microliters urine fractions collected after administration of glandular kallikrein and glandular kallikrein plus DIDS. To measure H(+)-ATPase activity, rat microdissected cortical collector tubules (CCD) were incubated in the presence of increasing glandular kallikrein doses (A: 93, B: 187 and C: 375 mU/200 microL) in the presence of ouabain (4 microM) and omeprazole (100 microM) to inhibit Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-K(+)-ATPase, respectively. In CCD, bafilomycin-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activity (pmol/mm/min) after

  8. Structure and Development of Glandular Trichomes in Pelargonium fragrans%肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛结构及其发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷

    2005-01-01

    肉豆蔻天竺葵是一种含有精油的植物,其精油被广泛应用于香料与化妆品.然而其精油的产生部位腺毛的结构与发育过程尚未有研究,本文应用光学显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、透视电子显微镜对肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛结构及其发育过程进行了研究.结果表明:在肉豆蔻天竺葵叶的表皮上具有腺体毛和非腺体毛两种结构形态.在研究中发现,肉豆蔻天竺葵只有头状腺毛(由头细胞、柄细胞和基细胞三个部分组成),其头状腺毛可以分为两种类型:类型Ⅰ和类型Ⅱ.肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛是由表皮细胞发育而来.%Pelargoniumfragrans is cultivated as a source of essential oil as well as used for food flavouring or cosmetics. However, the structure and development of the organ that produce essential oil, glandular hair, in Pelargonium fragrans is still unknown. In this study, the structure and development of the glandular trichomes in the epidermis of Pelargonium fragrans were studied by light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The surfaces of young leaves were only covered by small number of non-glandular trichomes. As the leaf fully expanding, the amount of the non-glandular trichomes increased. The glandular trichomes are cspitate ones and two morphological types could be distinguished, type Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Development of the glandular trichome started with an outgrowth of an epidermal cell.

  9. Evaluation of Epithelial Integrity with Various Transepithelial Corneal Cross-Linking Protocols for Treatment of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphi Taneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL has been demonstrated to stiffen cornea and halt progression of ectasia. The original protocol requires debridement of central corneal epithelium to facilitate diffusion of a riboflavin solution to stroma. Recently, transepithelial CXL has been proposed to reduce risk of complications associated with epithelial removal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of various transepithelial riboflavin delivery protocols on corneal epithelium in regard to pain and epithelial integrity in the early postoperative period. Methods. One hundred and sixty six eyes of 104 subjects affected by progressive keratoconus underwent transepithelial CXL using 6 different riboflavin application protocols. Postoperatively, epithelial integrity was evaluated at slit lamp and patients were queried regarding their ocular pain level. Results. One eye had a corneal infection associated with an epithelial defect. No other adverse event including endothelial decompensation or endothelial damage was observed, except for epithelial damages. Incidence of epithelial defects varied from 0 to 63%. Incidence of reported pain varied from 0 to 83%. Conclusion. Different transepithelial cross-linking protocols have varying impacts on epithelial integrity. At present, it seems impossible to have sufficient riboflavin penetration without any epithelial disruption. A compromise between efficacy and epithelial integrity has to be found.

  10. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis.

  11. Efficient immortalization of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells for EBV infection study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim Ling Yip

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is common among southern Chinese including the ethnic Cantonese population living in Hong Kong. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is detected in all undifferentiated type of NPC in this endemic region. Establishment of stable and latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells is an early event in NPC development and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Immortalized primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells represent an important tool for investigation of EBV infection and its tumorigenic potential in this special type of epithelial cells. However, the limited availability and small sizes of nasopharyngeal biopsies have seriously restricted the establishment of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells for immortalization. A reliable and effective method to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will provide unrestricted materials for EBV infection studies. An earlier study has reported that Bmi-1 expression could immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. However, its efficiency and actions in immortalization have not been fully characterized. Our studies showed that Bmi-1 expression alone has limited ability to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and additional events are often required for its immortalization action. We have identified some of the key events associated with the immortalization of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Efficient immortalization of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells could be reproducibly and efficiently achieved by the combined actions of Bmi-1 expression, activation of telomerase and silencing of p16 gene. Activation of MAPK signaling and gene expression downstream of Bmi-1 were detected in the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and may play a role in immortalization. Furthermore, these newly immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are susceptible to EBV infection and supported a type II latent EBV infection

  12. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2012-12-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

  13. Potentiation of epithelial innate host responses by intercellular communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Dolowschiak

    Full Text Available The epithelium efficiently attracts immune cells upon infection despite the low number of pathogenic microbes and moderate levels of secreted chemokines per cell. Here we examined whether horizontal intercellular communication between cells may contribute to a coordinated response of the epithelium. Listeria monocytogenes infection, transfection, and microinjection of individual cells within a polarized intestinal epithelial cell layer were performed and activation was determined at the single cell level by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Surprisingly, chemokine production after L. monocytogenes infection was primarily observed in non-infected epithelial cells despite invasion-dependent cell activation. Whereas horizontal communication was independent of gap junction formation, cytokine secretion, ion fluxes, or nitric oxide synthesis, NADPH oxidase (Nox 4-dependent oxygen radical formation was required and sufficient to induce indirect epithelial cell activation. This is the first report to describe epithelial cell-cell communication in response to innate immune activation. Epithelial communication facilitates a coordinated infectious host defence at the very early stage of microbial infection.

  14. Parasitic mites of Surinam : XXVII. Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. from Didelphis marsupialis: adaptation to glandular habitat 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutting, W.B.; Lukoschus, F.S.; Desch, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. is described from the pilocerumen-gland complex within the external auditory meatus of Didelphis marsupialis Linné, 1758. Pathogenesis is limited to epithelial cell destruction, minor orifice occlusion, and some keratinization. Mites occasionally penetrate into the dermis

  15. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Structural re-arrangement of depolymerized sodium alginate enriches peltate glandular trichomes and essential oil production of spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Yawar; Khan, M Masroor A; Shabbir, Asfia; Ahmad, Bilal; Jaleel, Hassan; Uddin, Moin; Varshney, Lalit

    2017-07-25

    Over the past decade, radiation-degraded polysaccharides have been used as regulators of growth and development in several crop plants. In quest of the possible reasons of previously established growth-promotion activity of irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), structural parameters of irradiated and un-irradiated sodium alginate were analysed using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) studies to develop an understanding of structure-property relationship. Using foliar application, response to graded concentrations of ISA was tested in terms of yield and quality attributes of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). Among different concentrations of ISA [0 (control), 40, 80, 120 and 160mgL(-1)], 80mgL(-1) proved to be the optimum foliar-spray treatment for most of the parameters studied including peltate glandular-trichomes density, which was increased from 20 to 44mm(-2). Measurements made at 150days after planting revealed that foliar application of ISA at 80mgL(-1) increased the content and yield of spearmint essential oil (EO) by 36.0 and 122.6%, respectively, in comparison to the control. Compared to the control, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed an increase of 18.7% in the carvone content and a decrease of 15.7% in limonene content of the spearmint EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  18. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  19. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  20. Effects of phenylbutazone on gene expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the oral, glandular gastric, and bladder mucosae of healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jorge E; Aleman, Monica; Anderson, Jonathan D; Fiack, Ciara; Snyder, Jack R

    2012-01-01

    To assess gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in oral, glandular gastric, and urinary bladder mucosae and determine the effect of oral administration of phenylbutazone on those gene expressions in horses. 12 healthy horses. Horses were allocated to receive phenylbutazone or placebo (6 horses/group); 1 placebo-treated horse with a cystic calculus was subsequently removed from the study, and those data were not analyzed. In each horse, the stomach and urinary bladder were evaluated for ulceration via endoscopy before and after experimental treatment. Oral, glandular gastric, and urinary bladder mucosa biopsy specimens were collected by use of a skin punch biopsy instrument (oral) or transendoscopically (stomach and bladder) before and after administration of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg, p.o., q 12 h) in corn syrup or placebo (corn syrup alone) for 7 days. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 gene expressions were determined (via quantitative PCR techniques) in specimens collected before and after the 7-day treatment period and compared within and between groups. Prior to commencement of treatment, biopsy specimens from 7 horses were used to compare gene expressions among tissues. The cyclooxygenase-1 gene was expressed in all tissues collected. The cyclooxygenase-2 gene was expressed in the glandular gastric and bladder mucosae but not in the oral mucosa. Cyclooxygenase gene expressions were unaffected by phenylbutazone administration. Cyclooxygenase-2 was constitutively expressed in glandular gastric and bladder mucosae but not in the oral mucosa of healthy horses. Oral administration of phenylbutazone at the maximum recommended dosage daily for 7 days did not affect cyclooxygenase-1 or -2 gene expression.

  1. Inhibition of regrowth of prostatic glandular cells by epristeride%爱普列特抑制大鼠前列腺细胞的再生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立晖; 王晓麟; 屠曾宏

    2001-01-01

    目的:评价爱普列特抑制前列腺细胞重新生长的能力.方法:正常大鼠去势后注射丙酸睾丸酮刺激前列腺重新生长.HE染色进行形态学观察.测量前列腺上皮细胞高度及腺腔面积.免疫组化测定DHT浓度.结果:大鼠口服爱普列特10 mg/kg前列腺上皮高度和腺腔面积分别仅为对照组的48%和55%.免疫组化表明,大鼠口服爱普列特30天后,DHT浓度显著下降.结论:爱普列特通过降低DHT浓度来抑制前列腺细胞的重新生长.%AIM: To evaluate the ability of epristeride to inhibit the prostatic glandular regrowth. METHODS: Normal rots were castrated. Testosterone was injected to induce the regrowth of glandular cells. HE staining was performed.The height of the glandular epithelium and the acinar luminal areas were determined, and dihydrotestosterone ( DHT ) was detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Both the height and the acinar luminal areas were reduced by 48 % and 55 % in epristeride-treated group compared with control group respectively. The staining of DHT was comparatively strong in the control group. After 30-d of treatment, it turned much weaker.CONCLUSION: The regrowth of glandular cells was inhibited by epristeride via declining of the DHT concentration in the rat prostate.

  2. Reciprocal interactions of Fgf10/Fgfr2b modulate the mouse tongue epithelial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Wern-Joo; Jung, Hye-In; Choi, Min-A; Han, Jin-Hyun; Gwon, Gi-Jeong; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Lee, Sanggyu; Ryoo, Zae Young; Park, Eui-Kyun; Shin, Hong-In; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Young

    2011-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms for epithelial differentiation have been studied by observing skin development in embryogenesis, but the early signaling modulations involved in tongue epithelial differentiation are not completely understood. Based on the gene expression patterns of the Fgf signaling molecules and previous results from Fgf10 and Fgfr2b knockout mice, it was hypothesized that there would be fundamental signaling interactions through the epithelial Fgfr2b and its mesenchymal ligand Fgf10 to regulate tongue epithelium differentiation. To elucidate these reciprocal interactions in tongue epithelial differentiation, this study employed an in vitro tongue organ culture system with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) and recombinant protein-soaked bead implantation for the loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies. Functional analysis of Fgf signaling revealed precise reciprocal interactions, which showed that mesenchymal Fgf10 rather than Fgf7 modulates tongue epithelial differentiation via Fgfr2b in a temporal- and spatial-specific manner.

  3. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  4. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  5. Wnt Signaling Regulates Airway Epithelial Stem Cells in Adult Murine Submucosal Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas J; Anderson, Preston J; Xie, Weiliang; Crooke, Adrianne K; Liu, Xiaoming; Tyler, Scott R; Luo, Meihui; Kusner, David M; Zhang, Yulong; Neff, Traci; Burnette, Daniel C; Walters, Katherine S; Goodheart, Michael J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Engelhardt, John F

    2016-06-24

    Wnt signaling is required for lineage commitment of glandular stem cells (SCs) during tracheal submucosal gland (SMG) morphogenesis from the surface airway epithelium (SAE). Whether similar Wnt-dependent processes coordinate SC expansion in adult SMGs following airway injury remains unknown. We found that two Wnt-reporters in mice (BAT-gal and TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP) are coexpressed in actively cycling SCs of primordial glandular placodes and in a small subset of adult SMG progenitor cells that enter the cell cycle 24 hours following airway injury. At homeostasis, these Wnt reporters showed nonoverlapping cellular patterns of expression in the SAE and SMGs. Following tracheal injury, proliferation was accompanied by dynamic changes in Wnt-reporter activity and the analysis of 56 Wnt-related signaling genes revealed unique temporal changes in expression within proximal (gland-containing) and distal (gland-free) portions of the trachea. Wnt stimulation in vivo and in vitro promoted epithelial proliferation in both SMGs and the SAE. Interestingly, slowly cycling nucleotide label-retaining cells (LRCs) of SMGs were spatially positioned near clusters of BAT-gal positive serous tubules. Isolation and culture of tet-inducible H2B-GFP LRCs demonstrated that SMG LRCs were more proliferative than SAE LRCs and culture expanded SMG-derived progenitor cells outcompeted SAE-derived progenitors in regeneration of tracheal xenograft epithelium using a clonal analysis competition assay. SMG-derived progenitors were also multipotent for cell types in the SAE and formed gland-like structures in xenografts. These studies demonstrate the importance of Wnt signals in modulating SC phenotypes within tracheal niches and provide new insight into phenotypic differences of SMG and SAE SCs. Stem Cells 2016.

  6. SIALOGRAFIA DE PARÓTIDAS CLINICAMENTE NORMAIS: CLASSIFICAÇÃO ANATÔMICA E CORRELAÇÃO COM A FUNÇÃO GLANDULAR SIALOGRAPHY OF CLINICALLY NORMAL PAROTID GLANDS: ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION AND CORRELATION WITH GLANDULAR FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo DI HIPÓLITO JUNIOR

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade analisar e correlacionar as características anatômicas e a atividade funcional de glândulas parótidas saudáveis, empregando técnica sialográfica. O estudo anatômico foi realizado em 55 indivíduos, dos quais 37 participaram do exame funcional, que consistiu na verificação da eliminação da substância de contraste Lipiodol UF,, em glândulas estimuladas e não estimuladas. Os resultados demonstraram que a análise das imagens sialográficas pela observação do sistema de ductos glandulares permitiu a constituição de 5 grupos anatômicos distintos. Na avaliação funcional, as glândulas estimuladas levaram períodos de tempo mais uniformes e curtos para a eliminação do Lipiodol UF em relação às não estimuladas. A correlação dos achados anatômicos e funcionais mostrou que a média do tempo de eliminação da substância de contraste em glândulas estimuladas no Grupo I foi significantemente maior que as médias dos Grupos II e III; o tempo máximo para o esvaziamento de glândulas estimuladas foi de 5 minutos em todos os Grupos, enquanto que as glândulas não estimuladas não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os Grupos. Ao final, concluiu-se que a avaliação conjunta do modelo anatômico e da função excretora de glândulas deve ser realizada com a utilização de estímulo.The aim of the present study was to analyze and correlate anatomical features and the functional activity of healthy parotid glands using a sialographic technic. The anatomical study was performed in 55 subjects, from which 37 took part in the functional exam, which was to verify the elimination of the contrast substance, Lipiodol UF, in stimulated and non-stimulated glands. The results showed that the analysis of the sialographic image by the observation of the glandular duct system allowed the formation of 5 distinct anatomical groups. In the functional evaluation, stimulated glands presented more

  7. Detectability comparison between a high energy x-ray phase sensitive and mammography systems in imaging phantoms with varying glandular-adipose ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Yan, Aimin; Fuh, Janis; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential benefits of using high energy x-rays in comparison with the conventional mammography imaging systems for phase sensitive imaging of breast tissues with varying glandular-adipose ratios. This study employed two modular phantoms simulating the glandular (G) and adipose (A) breast tissue composition in 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A percentage densities. Each phantom had a thickness of 5 cm with a contrast detail test pattern embedded in the middle. For both phantoms, the phase contrast images were acquired using a micro-focus x-ray source operated at 120 kVp and 4.5 mAs, with a magnification factor (M) of 2.5 and a detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch. The mean glandular dose delivered to the 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A phantom sets were 1.33 and 1.3 mGy, respectively. A phase retrieval algorithm based on the phase attenuation duality that required only a single phase contrast image was applied. Conventional low energy mammography images were acquired using GE Senographe DS and Hologic Selenia systems utilizing their automatic exposure control (AEC) settings. In addition, the automatic contrast mode (CNT) was also used for the acquisition with the GE system. The AEC mode applied higher dose settings for the 70 G-30 A phantom set. As compared to the phase contrast images, the dose levels for the AEC mode acquired images were similar while the dose levels for the CNT mode were almost double. The observer study, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit comparisons indicated a large improvement with the phase retrieved images in comparison to the AEC mode images acquired with the clinical systems for both density levels. As the glandular composition increased, the detectability of smaller discs decreased with the clinical systems, particularly with the GE system, even at higher dose settings. As compared to the CNT mode (double dose) images, the observer study also indicated that the phase retrieved images provided

  8. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli J. Unternaehrer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT factor SNAI1 (SNAIL paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse cells, depending on strain. We observed nuclear localization of SNAI1 at an early stage of fibroblast reprogramming and using mouse fibroblasts expressing a knockin SNAI1-YFP reporter found cells expressing SNAI1 reprogrammed at higher efficiency. We further demonstrated that SNAI1 binds the let-7 promoter, which may play a role in reduced expression of let-7 microRNAs, enforced expression of which, early in the reprogramming process, compromises efficiency. Our data reveal an unexpected role for the EMT factor SNAI1 in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency.

  9. Rat Models and Identification of Candidate Early Serum Biomarkers of Battlefield Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-31

    correlation (ΔCn) of 0.08. SEQUEST results were further filtered and analyzed using software developed in-house. Analysis of proteomic data To...0.25 0 0 0.75 0 0.25 Echinoderm m icrotubule associated protein like 1 Q 4V 8C 3 2.249E-05 0.546875 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.5 0.5 2.25...B rain, glandular regions of the stom ach, m ast cells and fetal liver. Y es 34 G -protein coupled sensory epithelial neuropeptide-like receptor

  10. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twite, Nicolas [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Andrei, Graciela [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Kummert, Caroline [ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Donner, Catherine [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasme Hospital, Route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels (Belgium); Perez-Morga, David [Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institut de Biologie et Médecine Moléculaires, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); De Vos, Rita [Pathology Department, U.Z. Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 12, Leuven (Belgium); Snoeck, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Snoeck@Rega.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Marchant, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.marchant@ulb.ac.be [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  11. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  12. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split.

  13. Study of corneal epithelial progenitor origin and the Yap1 requirement using keratin 12 lineage tracing transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Gaddipati, Subhash; Tian, Shifu; Xue, Lei; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2016-01-01

    Key issues in corneal epithelium biology are the mechanism for corneal epithelium stem cells to maintain the corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing responses, and what are the regulatory molecular pathways involved. There are apparent discrepancies about the locations of the progenitor populations responsible for corneal epithelial self-renewal. We have developed a genetic mouse model to trace the corneal epithelial progenitor lineages during adult corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing response. Our data revealed that the early corneal epithelial progenitor cells expressing keratin-12 originated from limbus, and gave rise to the transit amplifying cells that migrated centripetally to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells. Our results support a model that both corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing are mainly maintained by the activated limbal stem cells originating form limbus, but not from the corneal basal epithelial layer. In the present study, we further demonstrated the nuclear expression of transcriptional coactivator YAP1 in the limbal and corneal basal epithelial cells and its essential role for maintaining the high proliferative potential of those corneal epithelial progenitor cells in vivo. PMID:27734924

  14. 东北桤木叶表皮盾状腺毛的形态及其变化过程%The Morphology and Process Changes of Peltate Glandular hairs in Alnus mandshurica Leaf Epidermis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊义; 刘秀岩; 梁宇

    2009-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy techniques to observe the leaves surface of Alnus mandshurica and find it far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs. It made up of two-cells, four stem cells and 20~25 head-cells, with the accumulation of secretion material, cells rupture, finally disappear. Theree is no peltate glandu-lar hairs far axial epidermis, in young leawes only has stoma distribution. The cross section of A. mandshurica leaves showed it belongs to bifacial leaf, cells of far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs connect with leaf vein vascular tissue, the author consider this peltate glandular hairs shoule belong to " Peltate glandular hairs" , and suggest that the nouns of " Glandular scales" , " Peltate gland" , " Peltate scale" , " Peltate glandular hairs" should be normalized. The process of shields-glandular in A. mandshurica leaf epidermis and the component of se-cretion material need to be further studied.%利用电镜扫描技术,观察东北桤木叶片表面,发现其远轴面表皮上具有盾状腺毛.其由2个基细胞、4个柄细胞和20~25个头部细胞组成,随着分泌物质的积累,细胞逐渐破裂.幼叶远轴面表皮无盾状腺毛,仅有气孔分布.观察东北桤木叶片横切面,发现其为异面叶,远轴面表皮上的盾状腺毛细胞与叶脉维管组织相连.外文资料显示用于表述桤木属表皮上的盾状腺毛的名词较多,该毛状体应为"Peltate glandular hairs".同时建议对"Glan-dular scales"、"Peltate gland"、"Peltate scale"、"Peltate glandular hairs"等名词进行规范统一.另外有关东北桤木叶表皮上毛状体从原表皮细胞的发生过程及其分泌物的成份,需进一步研究.

  15. Cytokeratin 18 is necessary for initiation of TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyejung; Kim, Bomin; Moon, Byung In; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2016-12-01

    During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), epithelial cells lose key phenotypic markers (e.g., E-cadherin and cytokeratin 18) and acquire mesenchymal markers (e.g., N-cadherin and vimentin). Although the loss of cytokeratin 18 is a hallmark of EMT, the regulatory role of cytokeratin 18 in EMT is not yet fully understood. Here, we report that cytokeratin 18 is involved in the regulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT in breast epithelial cells. When MCF10A cells were treated with TGF-β1 for 24 h, considerable morphological changes, indicative of the early stages of EMT (e.g., loss of cell-cell contact), were observed and cytokeratin 18 was downregulated. However, E-cadherin levels were not altered until a later time point. This suggests that cytokeratin 18 may play an active role during the earlier stages of EMT. Consistent with this notion, siRNA-mediated knockdown of cytokeratin 18 delayed TGF-β1-mediated EMT, and the associated downregulation of E-cadherin reduced the phosphorylation/nuclear localization of smad 2/3 and decreased the expression levels of snail and slug (which inhibit E-cadherin expression in epithelial cells as an early response to TGF-β1). Taken together, these results suggest that cytokeratin 18 critically contributes to initiating TGF-β1-induced EMT via the smad 2/3-mediated regulation of snail and slug expression in breast epithelial cells.

  16. Ectopic Epithelial Deaminase in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    guide a better understanding of host-commensal microbiota interactions in intestinal inflammation. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4:127-32. PMID: 21248723...Chitinase 3-like-1 exacerbates intestinal inflammation by enhancing bacterial adhesion and invasion in colonic epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:398-411. PMID: 16472595 APPENDICES: None

  17. Epithelial histogenesis during tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesot, H; Brook, A H

    2009-12-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the progressive changes mediating dental epithelial histogenesis as a basis for future collaborative studies. Tooth development involves morphogenesis, epithelial histogenesis and cell differentiation. The consecutive morphological stages of lamina, bud, cap and bell are also characterized by changes in epithelial histogenesis. Differential cell proliferation rates, apoptosis, and alterations in adhesion and shape lead to the positioning of groups of cells with different functions. During tooth histo-morphogenesis changes occur in basement membrane composition, expression of signalling molecules and the localization of cell surface components. Cell positional identity may be related to cell history. Another important parameter is cell plasticity. Independently of signalling molecules, which play a major role in inducing or modulating specific steps, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions regulate the plasticity/rigidity of particular domains of the enamel organ. This involves specifying in space the differential growth and influences the progressive tooth morphogenesis by shaping the epithelial-mesenchymal junction. Deposition of a mineralized matrix determines the final shape of the crown. All data reviewed in this paper were investigated in the mouse.

  18. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    ) and was of the view that reducing the number of choices from 3 to 2 may increase the likelihood of agreement between pathologists. The utility of this need to be tested in future studies. The variables that are likely to affect oral epithelial dysplasia scoring were discussed and are outlined here; these need...

  19. Computational modeling of epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Rod

    2009-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on the computational modeling of epithelial tissues at all levels from subcellular to whole tissue. This review concentrates on behavior at the individual cell to whole tissue level, and particularly on organizational aspects, and provides an indication of where information from other areas, such as the modeling of angiogenesis, is relevant. The skin, and the lining of all of the body cavities (lung, gut, cervix, bladder etc) are epithelial tissues, which in a topological sense are the boundary between inside and outside the body. They are thin sheets of cells (usually of the order of 0.5 mm thick) without extracellular matrix, have a relatively simple structure, and contain few types of cells. They have important barrier, secretory and transport functions, which are essential for the maintenance of life, so homeostasis and wound healing are important aspects of the behavior of epithelial tissues. Carcinomas originate in epithelial tissues.There are essentially two approaches to modeling tissues--to start at the level of the tissue (i.e., a length scale of the order of 1 mm) and develop generalized equations for behavior (a continuum approach); or to start at the level of the cell (i.e., a length scale of the order of 10 µm) and develop tissue behavior as an emergent property of cellular behavior (an individual-based approach). As will be seen, these are not mutually exclusive approaches, and they come in a variety of flavors.

  20. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  1. Adjuvant treatment for early epithelial ovarian cancer: results of two randomised clinical trials comparing cisplatin to no further treatment or chromic phosphate (32P). G.I.C.O.G.: Gruppo Interregionale Collaborativo in Ginecologia Oncologica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, G; Colombo, N; Pecorelli, S; Torri, V; Marsoni, S; Bonazzi, C; Chiari, S; Favalli, G; Mangili, G; Presti, M

    1995-11-01

    From 1983 to 1990, 271 consecutive patients with stage I ovarian cancer entered two randomised trials, aimed at assessing the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery in early stages of ovarian cancer. Trial I compared cisplatin (50 mg/m2 with repeated courses every 28 days for 6 cycles) to no further therapy in F.I.G.O. stage Ia & b Grade II-III patients; trial II compared cisplatin (same dose and schedule) to 32P in Iaii & bii and Ic patients. Both studies were multicentric and centrally randomized. Treatment was allocated by phone and stratified by center. All patients satisfying major eligibility criteria (histological and grade, no previous neoplasms) were analysed according to treatment allocated by randomisation. With a median observation time of 76 months, cisplatin significantly reduced the relapse rate by 65% (HR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.89, p = 0.028; Cox Model) in trial I and 61% (HR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19-0.77, p = 0.007; Cox Model) in trial II. Survival was not significantly different (trial I - Kaplan-Meier overall 5-year survival: cisplatin = 88%, control = 82%, HR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.44-2.98; p = 0.773; Cox Model); trial II - overall 5-year survival: cisplatin = 81%, 32P = 79%, HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.37-1.43; p = 0.354; Cox model). In both studies the risk of dying after relapse increased for patients originally randomized to the cisplatin arms: in trial I, 6 of 7 patients in the cisplatin relapsed arm and died of tumor compared with 8 of 14 patients in the control arm. In trial II 11 of 12 patients on cisplatin, and 18 of 26 on 32P succumbed to tumor recurrence. Adjuvant cisplatin treatment in early ovarian cancer significantly prevents relapse in comparison to 32P in stage IC patients or to no immediate treatment in earlier stage women. The impact of cisplatin adjuvant treatment on survival remains, however, unclear.

  2. Treatment with eCG decreases the vascular density and increases the glandular density of the bovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona e Pinto, J; Pavanelo, V; Alves de Fátima, L; Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, L M; Pacheco Mendes, G; Machado Ferreira, R; Ayres, H; Sampaio Baruselli, P; Palma Rennó, F; de Carvallo Papa, P

    2014-06-01

    The uterus plays an essential role in mammalian reproduction and is a target of several hormonal protocols used to improve fertility in cattle. Many studies highlighted the importance of eCG treatment following fixed-time artificial insemination in improving follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates in cattle. Moreover, eCG has been implicated in angiogenesis, leading to important changes in uterine blood flow and vascularisation. However, there is still a lack of information regarding the specific alterations induced by eCG upon glandular and vascular characteristics of bovine uterus. To investigate the influence of eCG on: uterine thickness and area; uterine artery diameter and area; uterine vascular and gland density; and the expression of the VEGFA-system, the uteri of crossbred beef cows were collected. All cows were submitted to follicular wave emergence synchronization. On day four of protocol, cows submitted to superovulation (n = 6) received 2000 IU eCG, on day eight, after expected follicular deviation, cows submitted to stimulatory treatment (n = 5) received 400 IU eCG. Control cows (n = 5) did not receive eCG. On day five po cows were subjected to ultrassonographic evaluation and slaughtered for uterine tissue sampling on day six po. Uterine vessels and glands were quantified by the counting point stereological method. The VEGFA-system was localized in different cellular types, showing no qualitative or quantitative differences in the site of expression or the intensity of the positive signal among the groups. Vascular density was decreased in the endometrium of stimulated and myometrium of superovulated cows compared with the control ones, which showed higher vascular density in the myometrium and endometrium of the ipsilateral uterine horn. The uterine gland density was higher in superovulated compared with stimulated and control cows. Thus, we can infer that stimulatory or superovulatory treatments with eCG influence the vascular

  3. 早期卵巢上皮性癌和交界性肿瘤保留生育功能相关问题%Fertility-sparing management for early epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芝兰

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we'll discuss the fertility-sparing surgery in EOC and BOT separatelly. The surgical procedures of FSS, the carefully selected patients, the other important factors which should be paid attention to during staging surgery or postopera-tion care and the outcome of pregnancy of FSS are discussed. It is emphasized that the discussion about this conservative treatment with patients should be fully, before surgery, patients have to understand the conservative surgery treatment for EOC early stage, the potential possibility of pregnancy and the safety. The FSS should be performed by a gynecologic oncologist in order to get a staging exactly. Counseling with gynecologic oncologist, reproductive experts, and obstetrician, multi disciplinary treatment and follow up are important factors to get good outcome of FSS and safety for patient.%文章分别对早期卵巢上皮性癌(EOC)及交界性卵巢癌(BOT)年轻患者要求保留生育功能治疗的术式、选择病例标准、术中注意事项、术后相关问题及妊娠结局进行讨论.在对EOC及BOT患者进行保留生育功能手术(FSS)治疗前应与患者充分讨论和交流,使患者充分理解此种术式治疗后的生育潜在可能性和安全性.手术应由有经验的妇瘤医师施行,保证分期手术的准确性;术后多学科(妇科肿瘤医师、生殖医学专家、产科医师)会诊,共同治疗、随访,是获得妊娠良好结局和患者安全的保证.

  4. Survivin和MMP-9在子宫上皮和间质细胞中的表达与子宫内膜异位症间的关系%Expression of Survivin and MMP-9 in endometrium glandular epithelium and interstitial cells and its relationship with endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林红霞; 张弛; 吴庆田; 马淑霞; 杨景云; 罗佳滨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the expression and effect of Survivin and MMP-9 in glandular epithelium and interstitial cells of eutopic and ectopic endomembrane of solenoma, abdominal ectopic and aberrant ovary, and its relationships with endometriosis. Method The expression of Survivin and MMP-9 in each sample were dectected by immunohistochemical method. Result ( 1 ) In normal endometrium, both Survivin and MMP-9 showed weak expression or no expression. In the three EMS groups, the expressions of Survivin and MMP-9 were up in varying degrees respectively, in either eutopic or ectopic endometrium, with significant differences compared to normal endometrium tissue ( P < 0.05 ). (2) In AM, AWEMS and OEMS groups, higher expression of Survivin and MMP-9 only in the proliferative phase of ectopic membrane epithelial cells with statistically significant differences compared to that in the same cells of eutopic endometrium (P <0.05); the expression in secretion phase was irregular.(3) In AM, AWEMS and OEMS groups, the expression levels of Survivin and MMP-9 in proliferative and secretory phases in tissue with same area and cell type were not significantly different ( P > 0. 05 ) and not periodic. ( 4 ) In AM, AWEMS and OEMS groups, by defining the same physical phase and tissues,the expression of Survivin and MMP-9 were much higher in glandular epithelium cells than in interstitiai cells, with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 ). (5) In the three EMS groups, upon defining the same physical phase, tissues and cell type, the Survivin expression showed no significant differences between groups ( P > O. 05); the expression of MMP-9 in ectopic endometrial cell during secretion phase was higher in AWEMS epithelial (4.45 ±0. 18) and AM epithelial cells (4. 68 ± 0. 17) than that in the OEMS ectopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells (2. 13 ± 0. 12 ), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The high expression of Survivin

  5. Cellular systems for epithelial invagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial invagination is a fundamental module of morphogenesis that iteratively occurs to generate the architecture of many parts of a developing organism. By changing the physical properties such as the shape and/or position of a population of cells, invagination drives processes ranging from reconfiguring the entire body axis during gastrulation, to forming the primordia of the eyes, ears and multiple ducts and glands, during organogenesis. The epithelial bending required for invagination is achieved through a variety of mechanisms involving systems of cells. Here we provide an overview of the different mechanisms, some of which can work in combination, and outline the circumstances in which they apply. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware’. PMID:28348256

  6. Epithelial abnormalities of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, F K; Davis, C J

    1984-01-01

    We have called attention to certain epithelial lesions of the bladder characterized as proliferative, metaplastic, and neoplastic. In the first group are included hyperplasia, von Brunn's nests, papillary cystitis, papilloma and inverted papilloma. The second category includes squamous metaplasia, mucous metaplasia, and tubular metaplasia. These two categories, while benign, are indicative of agitated sick mucosa and may progress to neoplasia. The neoplastic changes consist of carcinoma involving the surface epithelium, von Brunn's nests, papillary cystitis, and/or cystitis cystica.

  7. Differential expression of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2 in rat uterus during early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Shi; Ma, X. H.; Diao, H.L.; Ni, H.; Xu, L.B.; Zhu, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Yang, Z. M.

    2005-01-01

    PGE2 is essential for mammalian female reproduction. This study was to examine the expression of EP2 gene in the rat uterus during early pregnancy, delayed implantation and artificial decidualization by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. There was no detectable EP2 mRNA expression in the uterus from days 1 to 4 of pregnancy (day 1 = day of vaginal sperm). A low level of EP2 immunostaining was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelium from da...

  8. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated tumourigenesis in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ammar Natalwala; Robert Spychal; Chris Tselepis

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process that has been well characterised in embryogenesis.Studies have shown that the aberrant activation of EMT in adult epithelia can promote tumour metastasis by repressing cell adhesion molecules,including epithelial (E)-cadherin.Reduced intracellular adhesion may allow tumour cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body.A number of transcription proteins of the Snail superfamily have been implicated in EMT.These proteins have been shown to be overexpressed in advanced gastrointestinal (GI) tumours including oesophageal adenocarcinomas,colorectal carcinomas,gastric and pancreatic cancers,with a concomitant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin.Regulators of EMT may provide novel clinical targets to detect GI cancers early,so that cancers previously associated with a poor prognosis such as pancreatic cancer can be diagnosed before they become inoperable.Furthermore,pharmacological therapies designed to inhibit these proteins will aim to prevent local and distant tumour invasion.

  9. Long-term omeprazole and esomeprazole treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial growth factor receptor expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Istvan Hritz; Laszlo Herszenyi; Bela Molnar; Zsolt Tulassay; Laszlo Pronai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)treatment on patients with reflux esophagitis and its in vivo effect on apoptosis, p53- and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression.METHODS: After informed consent was obtained, gastric biopsies of the antrum were taken from patients with reflux oesophagitis prior to and after 6 mo of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 14) or 40 mg esomeprazole (n = 12) therapy.Patients did not take any other medications known to affect the gastric mucosa. All patients were Helicobacter pylori negative as confirmed by rapid urease test and histology,respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, and p53expression were measured by immunohistochemical techniques. At least 600 glandular epithelial cells were encountered and results were expressed as percentage of total cells counted. Was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Although there was a trend towards increase of cell proliferation and EGFR expression both in omeprazole and esomeprazole treated group, the difference was not statistically significant. Neither apoptosis nor p53 expression was affected.CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and EGFR expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression.

  10. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms.

  11. Striking Natural Diversity in Glandular Trichome Acylsugar Composition Is Shaped by Variation at the Acyltransferase2 Locus in the Wild Tomato Solanum habrochaites1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Kang, Kiyoon; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Barry, Cornelius S.; Last, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Acylsugars are polyesters of short- to medium-length acyl chains on sucrose or glucose backbones that are produced in secretory glandular trichomes of many solanaceous plants, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite their roles in biotic stress adaptation and their wide taxonomic distribution, there is relatively little information about the diversity of these compounds and the genes responsible for their biosynthesis. In this study, acylsugar diversity was assessed for 80 accessions of the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites from throughout the Andes Mountains. Trichome metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry, revealing the presence of at least 34 structurally diverse acylsucroses and two acylglucoses. Distinct phenotypic classes were discovered that varied based on the presence of glucose or sucrose, the numbers and lengths of acyl chains, and the relative total amounts of acylsugars. The presence or absence of an acetyl chain on the acylsucrose hexose ring caused clustering of the accessions into two main groups. Analysis of the Acyltransferase2 gene (the apparent ortholog of Solyc01g105580) revealed differences in enzyme activity and gene expression correlated with polymorphism in S. habrochaites accessions that varied in acylsucrose acetylation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that glandular trichome acylsugar acetylation is under selective pressure in some populations of S. habrochaites and that the gene mutates to inactivity in the absence of selection. PMID:23054567

  12. Expression Profiles of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Associated Proteins in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been suggested to contribute to tumor progression and acquisition of therapeutic resistance. To assess the clinical significance of EMT-associated proteins, we evaluated the expression of Snail and Slug, the key regulators of EMT, in the primary ovarian cancer samples (n=103 by immunohistochemistry. Snail was differentially expressed according to the histologic subtype (P=0.001 and was predominantly expressed in serous and endometrioid types. In the serous and endometrioid adenocarcinomas, the expression of Snail remained high across the stage and grade, suggesting its role in the early phase of carcinogenesis. However, the expression of Snail and Slug was not related to chemoresistance and poor prognosis and did not serve as independent predictive or prognostic marker.

  13. Discussion of Detection Method for Cervical Glandular Intraepithelial Neoplasia%宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变检测方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红荣; 马成斌; 王忠英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈涂片、宫颈活检等的筛选方法在宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变术前检测中的作用。方法对2007.1~2013.6在我院做过宫颈锥切和全子宫切除诊断为宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变(CGIN)的患者进行鉴别。收集宫颈锥切和子宫切除前来自宫颈涂片、宫颈组织活检、颈管搔刮的结果。 Fisher确切概率法用于统计分析。结果经宫颈组织病理证实的67例CGIN患者宫颈细胞学涂片中,23例有细胞病变,未见上皮内瘤样病变44例。宫颈涂片腺体病变检出灵敏度34.3%。23例涂片异常结果中异型的腺上皮有8例(11.9%),高度鳞状上皮内瘤样病变1例(1.5%),低度鳞状上皮瘤样病变的5例(7.5%),不典型鳞状上皮9例(13.4%),。腺上皮异常组与鳞状上皮异常组对单纯性CGIN的检出率无统计学差异(P=0.379)。结论在CGIN锥切前,宫颈涂片检测腺体病变异常的敏感度较低,但加上宫颈组织活检和宫颈管搔刮则明显提高,宫颈疾病的术前精确预测对怀疑有宫颈腺体病变患者治疗计划的制定具有重要意义。%Objective Discuss the role of screening method for cervical smear, cervical biopsy and etc in preoperative detecting of cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN). Methods: Patients with a cervical biopsy or hysterectomy diagnosis of CGIN from 2007.1 to 2013.6 at our institution were identified. Results from Papanicolaou smears or TCT、cervical biopsies and endocervical curet age (ECC) preceding the cone excision or hysterectomy were col ected from medical records. Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The pathology confirmed of 67, found a total of 23 cases had untypical cells, negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) 44 patients (65.7%). Positive predictive value of cervical smear for glandular lesion is 34.3%. Atypical glandular epithelium has 8 cases (11.9%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human uterine epithelial cells: viral shedding and cell contact-mediated infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asin, Susana N; Wildt-Perinic, Dunja; Mason, Sarah I; Howell, Alexandra L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-15

    We examined the mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection of human uterine epithelial cells to gain a clearer understanding of the events by which HIV-1 infects cells within the female reproductive tract. We demonstrated that these cells can be productively infected by HIV-1 and that infection is associated with viral RNA reverse transcription, DNA transcription, and secretion of infectious virus. Levels of viral DNA and secreted virus decreased gradually after infection. Moreover, virus released by the uterine epithelial cells shortly after infection was able to infect human T cell lines, but virus released later did not. In contrast, human CD4(+) T cell lines were infected after cocultivation with epithelial cells at both early and late stages of infection. These data demonstrated that HIV-1 infects human epithelial cells of upper reproductive tract origin and that productive viral infection of epithelial cells may be an important mechanism of transmission of HIV-1 infection in women.

  15. Correlation between epithelial ovarian cancer and thrombocytosis%卵巢上皮性癌和血小板计数增高相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyi Liang; Hong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of platelet (PLT) count in epithelial ovarian cancer, and to inves-tigate the correlation between thrombocytosis and the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: We evaluated 220 epithelial ovarian tumor patients divided into early stage epithelial ovarian cancer group (n = 80), advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer group (n = 50) and benign ovarian tumor group (n = 90) as controls, who underwent primary surgical treatment. Three groups were evaluated with the relationship between platelet counts and preoperative and postoperative CA125, histo-pathology, abdominal edema, residual tumor, and lymph node metastasis. Epithelial ovarian cancer patients were evaluated whether platelet count was decreased after surgery. Results: The mean platelet counts were (234.55±71.51)×109/L in the early stage epithelial ovarian cancer group, (308.12±111.95)×10/L in the advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer group,and (206.28±52.62)×109/L in the benign ovarian tumor group, with a significant difference among the 3 groups (P<0.05).In the early stage epithelial ovarian cancer group, the platelet count was correlated with histopathology. In the advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer group, there was a correlation between thrombocytosis and the incidence of that residual tumor diameter was greater than 2 cm. But there was no relationship between platelet count and histopathology, CA125, abdominal edema, or lymph node metastasis. In general the platelet count was decreased after surgery. Conclusion: An increased platelet count is commonly seen in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, but it usually decreases after surgery. Patients with thrombocytosis have poor prognosis. Platelet count can be used as a marker for the development and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  16. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Bugge, T H;

    2000-01-01

    kallikrein). The pro-uPA converting activity of the mGK-6 enzyme, as well as its ability to cleave a synthetic substrate for glandular kallikrein, was inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor leupeptin but not by other serine proteinase inhibitors such as aprotinin, antithrombin III, or alpha(1...... the cascade by activating pro-uPA. The urine from Plg -/- mice contained active two-chain uPA as well as a proteinase capable of activating exogenously added pro-uPA. The active component was purified and identified by mass spectrometry-based peptide mapping as mouse glandular kallikrein mGK-6 (true tissue...

  17. Cytoskeletal changes induced by allosteric modulators of calcium-sensing receptor in esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Brown, Karen L; Rabon, Edd C; Al-Tawil, Youhanna; Islam, Mohammed T; Schmieg, John J; Nakhoul, Nazih L

    2015-11-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, plays a role in glandular and fluid secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, and regulates differentiation and proliferation of epithelial cells. We examined the expression of CaSR in normal and pathological conditions of human esophagus and investigated the effect of a CaSR agonist, cinacalcet (CCT), and antagonist, calhex (CHX), on cell growth and cell-cell junctional proteins in primary cultures of porcine stratified squamous esophageal epithelium. We used immunohistochemistry and Western analysis to monitor expression of CaSR and cell-cell adhesion molecules, and MTT assay to monitor cell proliferation in cultured esophageal cells. CCT treatment significantly reduced proliferation, changed the cell shape from polygonal to spindle-like, and caused redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, it reduced expression of β-catenin by 35% (P < 0.02) and increased expression of a proteolysis cleavage fragment of E-cadherin, Ecad/CFT2, by 2.3 folds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, CHX treatment enhanced cell proliferation by 27% (P < 0.01), increased the expression of p120-catenin by 24% (P < 0.04), and of Rho, a GTPase involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, by 18% (P < 0.03). In conclusion, CaSR is expressed in normal esophagus as well as in Barrett's, esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Long-term activation of CaSR with CCT disrupted the cadherin-catenin complex, induced cytoskeletal remodeling, actin fiber formation, and redistribution of CaSR to the nuclear area. These changes indicate a significant and complex role of CaSR in epithelial remodeling and barrier function of esophageal cells.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Gheliani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with benign papillomatous lesions on dorsal surface of tongue for 15 years

  20. Undulation Instability of Epithelial Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Basan, Markus; Prost, Jacques; Risler, Thomas; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.158101

    2011-01-01

    Treating the epithelium as an incompressible fluid adjacent to a viscoelastic stroma, we find a novel hydrodynamic instability that leads to the formation of protrusions of the epithelium into the stroma. This instability is a candidate for epithelial fingering observed in vivo. It occurs for sufficiently large viscosity, cell-division rate and thickness of the dividing region in the epithelium. Our work provides physical insight into a potential mechanism by which interfaces between epithelia and stromas undulate, and potentially by which tissue dysplasia leads to cancerous invasion.

  1. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues.

  2. Haemophilia, AIDS and lung epithelial permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Doherty, M.J.; Page, C.J.; Harrington, C.; Nunan, T.; Savidge, G. (Haemophilia Centre and Coagulation Research Unit, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1990-01-01

    Lung {sup 99m}Tc DTPA transfer was measured in HIV antibodypositive haemophiliacs (11 smokers, 26 nonsmokers, 5 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)). Lung {sup 99m}Tc DTPA transfer as a marker of lung epithelial permeability was measured as the half time of transfer (from airspace into blood). This half time was faster in smokers compred to nonsmokers and the transfer curve was monoexponential. In nonsmokers no difference was observed between asymptomatic HIV-positive haemophiliacs and normal subjects, with the exception of the lung bases. At the lung basis in HIV-positive haemophiliac nonsmokers the transfer was faster than in normal individuals, implying increased alveolar permeability. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia resulted in a rapid transfer of {sup 99m}Tc DTPA (mean T50 of 2 minutes) and the transfer curve was biphasic, confirming previous observations in homosexual HIV antibody-positive patients with PCP. These changes returned to a monoexponential profile by 6 weeks following successful treatment. The DTPA lung transfer study may enable clinicians to instigate therapy for PCP without the need for initial bronchoscopy and provide a noninvasive method for the reassessment of patients should further respiratory signs or symptoms develop. This method is considered to be highly cost-effective in that it obviates the use of factor VIII concentrates required to cover bronchoscopic procedures and, with its early application and ease of use as a follow-up investigation, permits the evaluation of patients on an outpatient basis, thus reducing hospital costs. (au).

  3. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  4. Expression of C4.4A, a structural uPAR homolog, reflects squamous epithelial differentiation in the adult mouse and during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Hald, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    by a comprehensive immunohistochemical mapping. This task was accomplished by staining paraffin-embedded tissues with a specific rabbit polyclonal anti-C4.4A antibody. In the adult mouse, C4.4A was predominantly expressed in the suprabasal layers of the squamous epithelia of the oral cavity, esophagus, non-glandular...... expression first appears in the developing squamous epithelium at embryonic day 13.5. This anatomical location of C4.4A is thus concordant with a possible functional role in early differentiation of stratified squamous epithelia....

  5. An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie B; Reinert, Line S; Thomsen, Martin K;

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here...... we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at epithelial surfaces before the IFNs. The pathway is activated independently of known innate sensors of viral infections through a mechanism dependent on viral O-linked glycans, which induce CXCR3 chemokines and stimulate antiviral activity...

  6. Engineering stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo t...

  7. Pancreatic mesenchyme regulates epithelial organogenesis throughout development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Landsman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The developing pancreatic epithelium gives rise to all endocrine and exocrine cells of the mature organ. During organogenesis, the epithelial cells receive essential signals from the overlying mesenchyme. Previous studies, focusing on ex vivo tissue explants or complete knockout mice, have identified an important role for the mesenchyme in regulating the expansion of progenitor cells in the early pancreas epithelium. However, due to the lack of genetic tools directing expression specifically to the mesenchyme, the potential roles of this supporting tissue in vivo, especially in guiding later stages of pancreas organogenesis, have not been elucidated. We employed transgenic tools and fetal surgical techniques to ablate mesenchyme via Cre-mediated mesenchymal expression of Diphtheria Toxin (DT at the onset of pancreas formation, and at later developmental stages via in utero injection of DT into transgenic mice expressing the Diphtheria Toxin receptor (DTR in this tissue. Our results demonstrate that mesenchymal cells regulate pancreatic growth and branching at both early and late developmental stages by supporting proliferation of precursors and differentiated cells, respectively. Interestingly, while cell differentiation was not affected, the expansion of both the endocrine and exocrine compartments was equally impaired. To further elucidate signals required for mesenchymal cell function, we eliminated β-catenin signaling and determined that it is a critical pathway in regulating mesenchyme survival and growth. Our study presents the first in vivo evidence that the embryonic mesenchyme provides critical signals to the epithelium throughout pancreas organogenesis. The findings are novel and relevant as they indicate a critical role for the mesenchyme during late expansion of endocrine and exocrine compartments. In addition, our results provide a molecular mechanism for mesenchymal expansion and survival by identifying β-catenin signaling as an

  8. EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON GLANDULAR STOMACHCARCINOMA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GLANDULAR STOMACH AND PANCREAS POSITIVE CGRP CELLS IN RATS%硒对大鼠腺胃癌的作用及其对腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏衍萍; 唐军民; 唐岩; 朴建华; 夏弈明; 邓大君

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨硒在机体自然抗肿瘤发生过程中的作用。方法:用MNNG(20 mgkg)灌胃诱导大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成(大鼠腺胃癌模型形成)。用流式细胞仪测定硒对大鼠腺胃幽门粘膜异倍体形成的影响,用免疫组织化学ABC法观察硒在大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成过程中,大鼠腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的变化。并对以上结果进行图像分析及统计学处理。结果:((1)硒能抑制MNNG所致大鼠腺胃粘膜细胞异倍体的形成。(2)在MNNG所致大鼠异倍体的形成过程中,其腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的免疫组织化学反应与正常组大鼠相比较均增强(P<0.05,P<0.01);而在加硒饲料组大鼠腺胃、胰中CGRP阳性细胞的免疫组织化学反应与正常组大鼠相比较无显著性差异,但与实验对照组大鼠相比较则分别减弱(P>0.05)和明显减弱(P<0.01)。结论:硒和CGRP阳性细胞可能参与了预防和抑制MNNG所致胃粘膜细胞异倍体的形成。%Objective: To investigate the role of dietary selenium in natural carcinogenesis-resistanta-nce. Methods: In the experiment, Wistar rats stomach carcinogenesis (formation of aneuploidcells in the glandular stomach mucosa) was induced by MNNG (N-methyl-N-nitroso-guanidine,20 mg/kg) gavage. The inhibitory effect of dietary selenium on incidence of aneuploid cells inmucosal epithelium of gastric antrum was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Immunohis-tochemical changes of positive CGRP cells in Wistar rats glandular stomach and pancreas were de-tected by immunohistochemical ABC method in the course of selenium preventing gastric carcino-genesis. Image analysis and statistical analysis were carrived out with all results above. Results:(1)Dietary selenium might inhibit the formation of aneuploid cells in Wistar rats glandular stom-ach. (2)The immunohistochemical reaction of Wistar rat glandular stomach and pancreas positiveCGRP cells were both significantly stronger in

  9. Epithelialization in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie C.; Ramirez, Horacio; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Sawaya, Andrew; Patel, Shailee B.; Khalid, Laiqua; Isseroff, Rivkah R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Keratinocytes, a major cellular component of the epidermis, are responsible for restoring the epidermis after injury through a process termed epithelialization. This review will focus on the pivotal role of keratinocytes in epithelialization, including cellular processes and mechanisms of their regulation during re-epithelialization, and their cross talk with other cell types participating in wound healing. Recent Advances: Discoveries in epidermal stem cells, keratinocyte immune function, and the role of the epidermis as an independent neuroendocrine organ will be reviewed. Novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation important for re-epithelialization, including microRNAs and histone modifications, will also be discussed. Critical Issues: Epithelialization is an essential component of wound healing used as a defining parameter of a successful wound closure. A wound cannot be considered healed in the absence of re-epithelialization. The epithelialization process is impaired in all types of chronic wounds. Future Directions: A comprehensive understanding of the epithelialization process will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to promote wound closure. PMID:25032064

  10. Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on epithelial barrier disruption caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunpeng; Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-04-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play an important role in maintaining the mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) was reported to protect the intestinal barrier function of early-weaned piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 challenge; however, the underlying cellular mechanism of this protection was unclear. Here, an established intestinal porcine epithelia cell (IPEC-J2) model was used to investigate the protective effects and related mechanisms of L. plantarum on epithelial barrier damages induced by ETEC K88. Epithelial permeability, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and abundance of TJ proteins, were determined. Pre-treatment with L. plantarum for 6h prevented the reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) (Pplantarum were higher (Pplantarum was shown to regulate proteins of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicated that L. plantarum may improve epithelial barrier function by maintenance of TEER, inhibiting the reduction of TJ proteins, and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by ETEC K88, possibly through modulation of TLRs, NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  11. Mean glandular doses in mammography: a comparison of values displayed by a mammography unit with in-house values, both using the method proposed by Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasicz, Katarzyna; Fabiszewska, Ewa; Grabska, Iwona; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the mean glandular dose (MGD) displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women. This study also attempts to analyse whether the relationship between the calculated and the displayed values is constant and what factors influence this relationship. Material for this study included data from 1200 exposures (i.e. six series; each series consisting of 200 exposures) performed with one full-field digital mammography unit. Based on collected parameters of exposures, values of the MGD for individual mammography examinations were calculated according to the methods proposed by Dance. Obtained values of the MGD were compared with the values displayed by the mammography system. The MGD displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women are significantly different. This result emphasises the importance of verifying MGD values for patient radiation protection, particularly after machine servicing.

  12. The function and significance of SELENBP1 downregulation in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our quantitative proteomic study showed that selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1 was progressively decreased in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. However, there is little information on expression and function of SELENBP1 during human lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC carcinogenesis. METHODS: iTRAQ-tagging combined with 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. SELENBP1, member of selenoproteins family and progressively downregulated in this process, was selected to further study. Both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect SELENBP1 expression in independent sets of tissues of bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis, and ability of SELENBP1 for discriminating NBE (normal bronchial epithelium from preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC was evaluated. The effects of SELENBP1 downregulation on the susceptibility of benzo(apyrene (B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation were determined. RESULTS: 102 differentially expressed proteins were identified by quantitative proteomics, and SELENBP1 was found and confirmed being progressively decreased in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. The sensitivity and specificity of SELENBP1 were 80% and 79% in discriminating NBE from preneoplastic lesions, 79% and 82% in discriminating NBE from invasive LSCC, and 77% and 71% in discriminating preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC, respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of SELENBP1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE cells significantly increased the efficiency of B[a]P-induced cell transformation. CONCLUSIONS: The present data shows for the first time that decreased SELENBP1 is an early event in LSCC, increases B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation, and might serve as a novel potential biomarker for early detection of LSCC.

  13. Intestinal epithelial apoptosis initiates gut mucosal injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MohanKumar, Krishnan; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Kelly, David R; Garzon, Steven A; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Neonates and young infants exposed to extracorporeal circulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass are at risk of developing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with multi-organ dysfunction. We used a piglet model of ECMO to investigate the hypothesis that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that precedes villous damage during ECMO-related bowel injury. Healthy 3-week-old piglets were subjected to ECMO for up to 8 h. Epithelial apoptosis was measured in histopathological analysis, nuclear imaging, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Intestinal mast cells were isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, phospho-p38 MAPK, and fas ligand expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Piglet ECMO was associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis. Extensive apoptotic changes were noted on villus tips and in scattered crypt cells after 2 h of ECMO. After 8 h, the villi were denuded and apoptotic changes were evident in a majority of crypt cells. Increased circulating I-FABP levels, a marker of gut epithelial injury, showed that epithelial injury occurred during ECMO. We detected increased cleaved caspase-8, but not cleaved caspase-9, in epithelial cells indicating that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was active. ECMO was associated with increased fas ligand expression in intestinal mast cells, which was induced through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that initiates gut mucosal injury in a piglet model of ECMO.

  14. DEAR1 is a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis and an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Lott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1, a novel gene encoding a member of the TRIM (tripartite motif subfamily of RING finger proteins, and provide evidence for its role as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland and as an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Suppression subtractive hybridization identified DEAR1 as a novel gene mapping to a region of high-frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a number of histologically diverse human cancers within Chromosome 1p35.1. In the breast epithelium, DEAR1 expression is limited to the ductal and glandular epithelium and is down-regulated in transition to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, an early histologic stage in breast tumorigenesis. DEAR1 missense mutations and homozygous deletion (HD were discovered in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Introduction of the DEAR1 wild type and not the missense mutant alleles to complement a mutation in a breast cancer cell line, derived from a 36-year-old female with invasive breast cancer, initiated acinar morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D basement membrane culture and restored tissue architecture reminiscent of normal acinar structures in the mammary gland in vivo. Stable knockdown of DEAR1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs recapitulated the growth in 3D culture of breast cancer cell lines containing mutated DEAR1, in that shDEAR1 clones demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of apical basal polarity, diffuse apoptosis, and failure of lumen formation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of a tissue

  15. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  16. Patterning bacterial communities on epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dwidar

    Full Text Available Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions.

  17. Balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required to assemble functional epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lissette A; Vedula, Pavan; Gutierrez, Natasha; Shah, Neel; Rodriguez, Steven; Ayee, Brian; Davis, Justin; Rodriguez, Alexis J

    2015-12-01

    Regulating adherens junction complex assembly/disassembly is critical to maintaining epithelial homeostasis in healthy epithelial tissues. Consequently, adherens junction structure and function is often perturbed in clinically advanced tumors of epithelial origin. Some of the most studied factors driving adherens junction complex perturbation in epithelial cancers are transcriptional and epigenetic down-regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, numerous reports demonstrate that post-translational regulatory mechanisms such as endocytosis also regulate early phases of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic progression. In already assembled healthy epithelia, E-cadherin endocytosis recycles cadherin-catenin complexes to regulate the number of mature adherens junctions found at cell-cell contact sites. However, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, endocytosis negatively regulates adherens junction assembly by removing E-cadherin from the cell surface. By contrast, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, spatially localized β-actin translation drives cytoskeletal remodeling and consequently E-cadherin clustering at cell-cell contact sites and therefore positively regulates adherens junction assembly. In this report we demonstrate that dynamin-mediated endocytosis and β-actin translation-dependent cadherin-catenin complex anchoring oppose each other following epithelial cell-cell contact. Consequently, the final extent of adherens junction assembly depends on which of these processes is dominant following epithelial cell-cell contact. We expressed β-actin transcripts impaired in their ability to properly localize monomer synthesis (Δ3'UTR) in MDCK cells to perturb actin filament remodeling and anchoring, and demonstrate the resulting defect in adherens junction structure and function is rescued by inhibiting dynamin mediated endocytosis. Therefore, we demonstrate balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin

  18. Polarized sorting and trafficking in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwang Cao; Michal A Surma; Kai Simons

    2012-01-01

    The polarized distribution of proteins and lipids at the surface membrane of epithelial cells results in the formation of an apical and a basolateral domain,which are separated by tight junctions.The generation and maintenance of epithelial polarity require elaborate mechanisms that guarantee correct sorting and vectorial delivery of cargo molecules.This dynamic process involves the interaction of sorting signals with sorting machineries and the formation of transport carriers.Here we review the recent advances in the field of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.We especially highlight the role of lipid rafts in apical sorting.

  19. Two distinct steps of immigration of hematopoietic progenitors into the early thymus anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, M; Kawamoto, H; Katsura, Y; Amagai, T

    2001-09-01

    Thymic epithelial cells, which create a three-dimensionally organized meshwork structure peculiar to the thymus, develop from simple epithelia of the third pharyngeal pouch and cleft during organogenesis. We comparatively investigated the thymus anlages of normal and nude mice by immunohistochemical analysis with regard to epithelial organization and distribution of hematopoietic progenitor cells at early stages of organogenesis. Our results show that development of the mouse thymus anlage at early stages can be subdivided into at least two stages by the differences in epithelial organization, i.e. stratified epithelial stage on embryonic day (Ed) 11 and clustered epithelial stage on Ed12. At the former stage, hematopoietic progenitor cells are accumulated in the mesenchymal layer of the thymus anlage, and at the latter stage progenitor cells enter the epithelial cluster and proliferate. In nude mice, hematopoietic progenitor cells are found in the mesenchymal layer on Ed11.5, but they are not observed among epithelial cells on Ed12, even though epithelial cells form a cluster structure. The present results suggest that aberrant development of the nude mouse thymus anlage occurs at the clustered epithelial stage and that epithelial cells of the nude anlage lack the ability to induce the entrance of hematopoietic progenitor cells into the epithelial cluster.

  20. Membrane-Permeable Calpain Inhibitors Promote Rat Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting IL-1α Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    Full Text Available To standardise regenerative medicine using cultured cells, the use of serum-free, chemically defined media will be necessary. We have reported that IL-1α inhibits the growth of epithelial cells in culture and that recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA significantly promotes epithelial cell growth in no feeder layer condition. In this study, we examined inhibitors of calpain, a cysteine proteinase that plays crucial roles in various cellular functions, including IL-1α maturation and secretion. The culturing of epithelial cells in serum-free media supplemented with a membrane-permeable calpain inhibitor significantly promoted growth while suppressing IL-1α maturation and secretion. By contrast, non-membrane-permeable calpain inhibitor treatment did not have these effects. Interestingly, immunoblotting analysis revealed that immature, untruncated, IL-1α expression was also downregulated by cell-permeable calpain inhibitor treatment, and the difference in IL-1α gene expression increased from day 2 to day 6. Although IL-1RA has been reported to promote epithelial cell growth, we detected no synergistic promotion of epithelial cell growth using a calpain inhibitor and IL-1RA. These findings indicate that calpain inhibitors promote epithelial cell proliferation by inhibiting IL-1α maturation at an early phase of epithelial cell culture and by suppressing the positive feedback-mediated amplification of IL-1α signalling.

  1. Minor ipsilateral simple limbal epithelial transplantation (mini-SLET) for pterygium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bogantes, Erick; Amescua, Guillermo; Navas, Alejandro; Garfias, Yonathan; Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo; Lichtinger, Alejandro; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel surgical technique for pterygium removal taking advantage of the properties of amniotic membrane and limbal epithelial stem cells. A total of 10 eyes underwent pterygium excision with amniotic membrane coverage of the bare sclera and placement of pieces of limbal epithelium in a linear fashion in the affected limbal area covered by a second amniotic membrane using fibrin glue. After up to 8 months of follow-up, there were no signs of early recurrence or sight-threatening complications. The minor ipsilateral simple limbal epithelial transplantation technique for the treatment of pterygium requires less tissue than the conventional conjunctival autograft, leaving healthy conjunctiva if needed for another procedure in the future and offers the advantages of epithelial stem cells, which in the long term may reduce the rate of recurrence significantly. PMID:26130669

  2. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....

  3. Dynamic Chromatin Modification Sustains Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition following Inducible Expression of Snail-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Javaid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is thought to contribute to cancer metastasis, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To define early steps in this cellular transformation, we analyzed human mammary epithelial cells with tightly regulated expression of Snail-1, a master regulator of EMT. After Snail-1 induction, epithelial markers were repressed within 6 hr, and mesenchymal genes were induced at 24 hr. Snail-1 binding to its target promoters was transient (6–48 hr despite continued protein expression, and it was followed by both transient and long-lasting chromatin changes. Pharmacological inhibition of selected histone acetylation and demethylation pathways suppressed the induction as well as the maintenance of Snail-1-mediated EMT. Thus, EMT involves an epigenetic switch that may be prevented or reversed with the use of small-molecule inhibitors of chromatin modifiers.

  4. Dynamic Chromatin Modification Sustains Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition following Inducible Expression of Snail-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Sarah; Zhang, Jianmin; Anderssen, Endre; Black, Josh C.; Wittner, Ben S.; Tajima, Ken; Ting, David T.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Zubrowski, Matthew; Desai, Rushil; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Whetstine, Johnathan R.; Haber, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to cancer metastasis, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To define early steps in this cellular transformation, we analyzed human mammary epithelial cells with tightly regulated expression of Snail-1, a master regulator of EMT. After Snail-1 induction, epithelial markers were repressed within 6 hr, and mesenchymal genes were induced at 24 hr. Snail-1 binding to its target promoters was transient (6–48 hr) despite continued protein expression, and it was followed by both transient and long-lasting chromatin changes. Pharmacological inhibition of selected histone acetylation and demethylation pathways suppressed the induction as well as the maintenance of Snail-1-mediated EMT. Thus, EMT involves an epigenetic switch that may be prevented or reversed with the use of small-molecule inhibitors of chromatin modifiers. PMID:24360956

  5. Diffuse epithelial ingrowth after perforating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, M; Kirchhof, B; Hartmann, C

    1987-01-01

    Diffuse epithelial ingrowth was observed in 2 patients after perforating keratoplasty. Both cases involved a corneal graft after perforating injury with aphakia. In the first patient, the epithelial invasion was probably stimulated by a spatula synecholysis. In this case, the diagnosis was only made by histological investigation after enucleation. In the second patient the epithelial ingrowth was observed 8 months after keratoplasty. The clinical diagnosis was made on the basis of the typical slitlamp findings. In this case, the epithelial invasion led to hypotension with high resistance of outflow measured by electrotonography. In a very close chronological relation to the probable fall of chamber fluid secretion, development of a band-shaped keratopathy was observed.

  6. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  7. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay M Nawandar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

  8. The Ets transcription factor EHF as a regulator of cornea epithelial cell identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Denise N; Klein, Rachel Herndon; Salmans, Michael L; Gordon, William; Ho, Hsiang; Andersen, Bogi

    2013-11-29

    The cornea is the clear, outermost portion of the eye composed of three layers: an epithelium that provides a protective barrier while allowing transmission of light into the eye, a collagen-rich stroma, and an endothelium monolayer. How cornea development and aging is controlled is poorly understood. Here we characterize the mouse cornea transcriptome from early embryogenesis through aging and compare it with transcriptomes of other epithelial tissues, identifying cornea-enriched genes, pathways, and transcriptional regulators. Additionally, we profiled cornea epithelium and stroma, defining genes enriched in these layers. Over 10,000 genes are differentially regulated in the mouse cornea across the time course, showing dynamic expression during development and modest expression changes in fewer genes during aging. A striking transition time point for gene expression between postnatal days 14 and 28 corresponds with completion of cornea development at the transcriptional level. Clustering classifies co-expressed, and potentially co-regulated, genes into biologically informative categories, including groups that exhibit epithelial or stromal enriched expression. Based on these findings, and through loss of function studies and ChIP-seq, we show that the Ets transcription factor EHF promotes cornea epithelial fate through complementary gene activating and repressing activities. Furthermore, we identify potential interactions between EHF, KLF4, and KLF5 in promoting cornea epithelial differentiation. These data provide insights into the mechanisms underlying epithelial development and aging, identifying EHF as a regulator of cornea epithelial identity and pointing to interactions between Ets and KLF factors in promoting epithelial fate. Furthermore, this comprehensive gene expression data set for the cornea is a powerful tool for discovery of novel cornea regulators and pathways.

  9. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  10. Study on structure and function of apricot leaf glandular trichomes%杏叶腺毛的结构和功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林

    2012-01-01

    植物腺毛通常分化出柄部和头部,为了解杏叶腺毛柄部和头部的结构与功能,对杏叶腺毛做半薄和超薄切片,用光学与透射电子显微镜观察。结果表明,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部都是多细胞结构,在超微结构水平上柄部与头部有三方面显著区别:(1)柄部质体分化成具发达类囊体和基粒的叶绿体,积累淀粉,而头部质体不分化,为原质体,含大量管状内膜结构,不积累淀粉或其他贮藏物质;(2)柄部液泡少而体积大,液泡内没有可见物质积累,相反,头部液泡多而体积小,液泡内积累电子染色深的酚类物质;(3)与柄部相比,头部具更多内质网。显然,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部有不同的超微结构和生化功能,包括柄部进行光合作用,头部负责酚类物质的合成与积累。%Glandular trichomes of plants usually consist of a stalk and a head. In order to understand the structural and functional features of the two parts, glandular triehomes of apricot leaves were investigated by means of both light and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that both the stem and the head of the glandular triehome were multieellular and eontained rieh organelles. Comparisons revealed differences between the two parts in three aspects: (1) the plastids differentiated into chloroplasts in the stem, whereas remained as proplastids in the head, the chloroplasts contained rieh thylakoids, grana and starch grains, while the proplastids contained numerous tubules without any visual storage; (2) vaeuoles were less in number but larger in size in the stem than in the head, vaeuoles in the stem did not accumulate electron-dense substances, while electron-dense phenolic aceumulation oecurred in vaeuoles in the head; (3) endoplasmic reticula were much rieher in the head than in the stem. It is coneluded that the ultrastruetures of the stem and head are distinct and the

  11. Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H. (M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX); Fayos, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    A total of 176 patients with untreated epithelial cancer of the ovary received postoperative irradiation at the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the University of Michigan from 1955 to 1973. Irradiation was delivered to the pelvis alone or to the pelvis and part of the abdomen, depending on the extent of the disease and the location of the residual tumor. No patient received whole abdominal irradiation. Post-irradiation chemotherapy was administered to patients with advanced disease. Twenty-six patients with Stage III disease were treated according to a protocol consisting of pre- and post-irradiation administration of chlorambucil. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 42%. The 5-year survival rates for patients with Stage I through IV disease were 77%, 31%, 23%, and 0% respectively. Patients whose tumor was grossly removed at the initial surgery did better (63% 5-year survival rate) than patients whose tumor was only partially removed (26% 5-year survival rate). The pathologic grade of the tumor was a major factor determining the prognosis. The 5-year survival rates were 76% for patients with well-differentiated carcinomas, 33% for those with moderately differentiated carcinomas, and 14% for those with poorly differentiated carcinomas. Thirty-four (20%) of the patients were found to have at least a second primary tumor either at the time of the initial surgery or some other time. Autopsy results for 25 patients in this series are presented.

  12. Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P. H. (Univ. of Texas Cancer Center, Houston, TX); Fayos, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    A total of 176 patients with untreated epithelial cancer of the ovary received postoperative irradiation at the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the University of Michigan from 1955 to 1973. Irradiation was delivered to the pelvis alone or to the pelvis and part of the abdomen, depending on the extent of the disease and the location of the residual tumor. No patient received whole abdominal irradiation. Post-irradiation chemotherapy was administered to patients with advanced disease. Twenty-six patients with Stage III disease were treated according to a protocol consisting of pre- and post-irradiation administration of chlorambucil. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 42%. The 5-year survival rates for patients with Stage I through IV disease were 77%, 31%, 23%, and 0% respectively. Patients whose tumor was grossly removed at the initial surgery did better (63% 5-year survival rate) than patients whose tumor was only partially removed (26% 5-year survival rate). The pathologic grade of the tumor was a major factor determining the prognosis. The 5-year survival rates were 76% for patients with well-differentiated carcinomas, 33% for those with moderately differentiated carcinomas, and 14% for those with poor differentiated carcinomas. Thirty-four (20%) of the patients were found to have at least a second primary tumor either at the time of the initial surgery or some other time. Autopsy results for 25 patients in this series are presented.

  13. 乳腺上皮-肌上皮性肿瘤4例临床病理学分析%Epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of breast:a clinicopathologic study in 4 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂芳; 马大伟; 侯宁; 史传兵

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemistry, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of breast.Methods: Clinical characteristics, pathological morphology and immunohistochemical staining in 4 cases of mammary epithelial-myoepithelial tumors were analyzed, and literature was reviewed.Results: The patients included 3 females and 1 male. The age of patients ranged from 27 to 63 years old (median=51 years). The size of the 4 tumors ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 cm in diameter (median=2.0 cm). Gross examination showed that the 4 tumors were gray-white and without true ifbrous capsule. Microscopically, the feature of the tumor was double-layer tubular pattern, which composed of glandular epithelial and myoepithelial cells. hTe glandular epithelial cells were located in the inner layer of the tubular pattern, while the myoepithelial cells were located in the outer layer. Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression of CK8/18 and CK7 in glandular epithelial cells was positive, while the expression of p63, Calponin, CK5/6 in myoepithelial cells was positive. One case was diagnosed as adenomyoepithelioma, and 3 cases were diagnosed as malignant adenomyoepithelioma.Conclusion:Epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of breast is a rare neoplasm, which should be distinguished from intraductal papilloma, metaplastic carcinoma, and others.%目的:探讨乳腺上皮-肌上皮性肿瘤(epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of breast)的临床病理学特点、免疫表型、诊断及鉴别诊断。方法:对4例乳腺上皮-肌上皮性肿瘤的临床特点、组织形态学及免疫组织化学结果进行分析,并复习相关文献。结果:患者:男性1例,女性3例,平均年龄51岁(27~63岁)。4例肿瘤直径1.5~3.0 cm(平均2.0 cm),无包膜,切面灰白色。显微镜下可见肿瘤由双相增生的肌上皮细胞和腺上皮细胞构成,肌上皮细胞环绕腺上皮细胞构成特征的套管结

  14. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Iizuka; Shiho Konno

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events;restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.

  15. Epithelial Histone Deacetylase 3 Instructs Intestinal Immunity by Coordinating Local Lymphocyte Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Navabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal tissues are constantly in direct contact with diverse beneficial and pathogenic microbes, highlighting the need for orchestrating complex microbial signals to sustain effective host defense. Here, we show an essential role for intestinal epithelial cell expression of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in responding to pathogenic microbes and activating protective innate immunity. Mice lacking HDAC3 in intestinal epithelial cells were more susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium when under tonic stimulation by the commensal microbiota. This impaired host defense reflected significantly decreased IFNγ production by intraepithelial CD8+ T cells early during infection. Further, HDAC3 was necessary for infection-induced epithelial expression of the IFNγ-inducing factor IL-18, and administration of IL-18 restored IFNγ activity to resident CD8+ T cells and reduced infection. Thus, HDAC3 mediates communication between intestinal epithelial cells and resident lymphocytes, revealing that epithelial priming by an epigenetic modifier may direct mucosal regulation of host defense against pathogenic microbes.

  16. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne-Badovinac, Sally; Bilder, David

    2008-01-01

    Intense investigation has identified an elaborate protein network controlling epithelial polarity. Although precise subcellular targeting of apical and basolateral determinants is required for epithelial architecture, little is known about how the individual determinant proteins become localized within the cell. Through a genetic screen for epithelial defects in the Drosophila follicle cells, we have found that the cytoplasmic Dynein motor is an essential regulator of apico-basal polarity. Our data suggest that Dynein acts through the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein Stardust (Sdt) to localize the transmembrane protein Crumbs, in part through the apical targeting of specific sdt mRNA isoforms. We have mapped the sdt mRNA localization signal to an alternatively spliced coding exon. Intriguingly, the presence or absence of this exon corresponds to a developmental switch in sdt mRNA localization in which apical transcripts are only found during early stages of epithelial development, while unlocalized transcripts predominate in mature epithelia. This work represents the first demonstration that Dynein is required for epithelial polarity and suggests that mRNA localization may have a functional role in the regulation of apico-basal organization. Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development.

  17. Dynein regulates epithelial polarity and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Horne-Badovinac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense investigation has identified an elaborate protein network controlling epithelial polarity. Although precise subcellular targeting of apical and basolateral determinants is required for epithelial architecture, little is known about how the individual determinant proteins become localized within the cell. Through a genetic screen for epithelial defects in the Drosophila follicle cells, we have found that the cytoplasmic Dynein motor is an essential regulator of apico-basal polarity. Our data suggest that Dynein acts through the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein Stardust (Sdt to localize the transmembrane protein Crumbs, in part through the apical targeting of specific sdt mRNA isoforms. We have mapped the sdt mRNA localization signal to an alternatively spliced coding exon. Intriguingly, the presence or absence of this exon corresponds to a developmental switch in sdt mRNA localization in which apical transcripts are only found during early stages of epithelial development, while unlocalized transcripts predominate in mature epithelia. This work represents the first demonstration that Dynein is required for epithelial polarity and suggests that mRNA localization may have a functional role in the regulation of apico-basal organization. Moreover, we introduce a unique mechanism in which alternative splicing of a coding exon is used to control mRNA localization during development.

  18. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  19. Patterns of epithelial cell abnormalities in Pap smears and its clinicopathological and demographic association: a descriptive study from Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Among the 194 women, in 8 subjects, the smears collected were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Analysis was done in the remaining 186 subjects. Among the latter, in 83.9%, the smears were negative for intraepithelial lesions (NIEL and 16.1% revealed epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA. Among those with ECA, Atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was identified in 66.67%, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions(LSIL in 16.67%, Atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H and Atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS in 6.67% each and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL in 3.33%. Epithelial cell abnormalities were more common in women in the age group of 30-60 years (80%, they were more common in those with age at marriage between 13-18 years (63.3% and in those with age at first child birth between 15-19 years (56.7%. Conclusions: Therefore there is a need for Pap screening at regular intervals through camp based approach in these populations to motivate the women, increase their awareness, ensure follow up and referral and timely intervention in appropriate cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 300-305

  20. Epithelial cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stem cells in airway epithelial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coraux, Christelle; Roux, Jacqueline; Jolly, Thomas; Birembaut, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    In healthy subjects, the respiratory epithelium forms a continuous lining to the airways and to the environment, and plays a unique role as a barrier against external deleterious agents to protect the airways from the insults. In respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, or asthma, the airway epithelium is frequently remodeled and injured, leading to the impairment of its defense functions. The rapid restoration of the epithelial barrier is crucial for these patients. The complete regeneration of the airway epithelium is a complex phenomenon, including not only the epithelial wound repair but also the epithelial differentiation to reconstitute a fully well differentiated and functional epithelium. The regeneration implies two partners: the epithelial stem/progenitor cells and factors able to regulate this process. Among these factors, epithelial cells-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a crucial role. The secretion of a provisional ECM, the cell-ECM relationships through epithelial receptors, and the remodeling of the ECM by proteases (mainly matrix metalloproteinases) contribute not only to airway epithelial repair by modulating epithelial cell migration and proliferation, but also to the differentiation of repairing cells leading to the complete restoration of the wounded epithelium. A better characterization of resident stem cells and of effectors of the regeneration process is an essential prerequisite to propose new regenerative therapeutics to patients suffering from infectious/inflammatory respiratory diseases.

  1. Roles and Regulation of Epithelial Splicing Regulatory Proteins 1 and 2 in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottgens, E.L.; Span, P.N.; Zegers, M.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of polarized epithelial cells into cells with mesenchymal characteristics by the morphogenetic process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-characterized process essential for embryonic development and associated with cancer progression. EMT is a program driven by

  2. Development of an expert system as a diagnostic support of cervical cancer in atypical glandular cells, based on fuzzy logics and image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, Karem R; Aguilar Lasserre, Alberto A; Posada Gómez, Rubén; Palet Guzmán, José A; González Sánchez, Blanca E

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN) precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC). The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1) risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient's clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2) cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM) and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3) determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL) model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  3. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  4. Estimation of mean-glandular dose from monitoring breast entrance skin air kerma using a high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter system in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S L; Chu, T C; Lee, J S; Lan, G Y; Wu, T H; Yeh, Y H; Hwang, J J

    2002-12-01

    Estimation of mean-glandular dose (MGD) has been investigated in recent years due to the potential risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis associated with the mammographic examination for diagnostic radiology. In this study, a new technique for immediate readout of breast entrance skin air kerma (BESAK) using high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter after mammographic projection was introduced and a formula for the prediction of tube output with exposure records was developed. A series of appropriate conversion factors was applied to the MGD determination from the BESAK. The study results showed that signal response of the high sensitivity MOSFET exhibited excellent linearity within mammographic dose ranges, and that the energy dependence was less than 3% for each anode/filter combination at the tube potentials 25-30 kV. Good agreement was observed between the BESAK and the tube exposure output measurement for breasts thicker than 30 mm. In addition, the air kerma estimated from our prediction formula provided sufficient accuracy for thinner breasts. The average MGD from 120 Asian females was 1.5 mGy, comparable to other studies. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter system is a good candidate for immediately readout of BESAK after mammographic procedures.

  5. A Pyloric Gland-Phenotype Ovarian Mucinous Tumor Resembling Lobular Endocervical Glandular Hyperplasia in a Patient with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Na; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, In Ah; Shin, Jin Ho; Chai, Yun; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2017-03-01

    We describe an ovarian mucinous neoplasm that histologically resembles lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) containing pyloric gland type mucin in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Although ovarian mucinous tumors rarely occur in PJS patients, their pyloric gland phenotype has not been clearly determined. The histopathologic features of the ovarian mucinous tumor were reminiscent of LEGH. The cytoplasmic mucin was stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction after diastase treatment but was negative for Alcian blue pH 2.5, suggesting the presence of neutral mucin. Immunohistochemically, the epithelium expressed various gastric markers, including MUC6, HIK1083, and carbonic anhydrase-IX. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification detected a germline heterozygous deletion mutation at exons 1-7 of the STK11 gene (c.1-?_920+?del) in peripheral blood leukocytes and mosaic loss of heterozygosity in ovarian tumor tissue. Considering that LEGH and/or gastric-type cervical adenocarcinoma can be found in patients with PJS carrying germline and/or somatic STK11 mutations, our case indicates that STK11 mutations have an important role in the proliferation of pyloric-phenotype mucinous epithelium at various anatomical locations.

  6. Development of cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium in Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor-pituitary tumor transforming gene transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Shahenda M; Malik, Mohammad T; Martin, Alvin; Moore, Joseph P; Proctor, Mary; Hamid, Tariq; Kakar, Sham S

    2007-07-01

    The pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)/securin is an oncogene that is involved in cell cycle regulation and sister chromatid separation. PTTG is highly expressed in various tumors including ovarian tumors, suggesting that PTTG may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis. Overexpression of PTTG resulted in induction of cellular transformation in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. To ascertain PTTG function in ovarian tumorigenesis, we generated a transgenic mouse model of PTTG by cloning PTTG cDNA downstream of Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor gene promoter (MISIIR) in order to target the ovarian surface epithelium. By screening of transgenic animals, we identified five founders (four males and one female). Using the four male founders, we developed four transgenic lines. PTTG expression was increased in ovarian surface epithelium, ovarian granulosa cells, as well as in the pituitary gland. Transgenic females did not develop any visible ovarian tumors at 8-10 months of age; however, there was an overall increase in the corpus luteum mass in transgenic ovary, suggesting increased luteinization. These changes were associated with an increase in serum LH and testosterone levels. In addition, there was a generalized hypertrophy of the myometrium of MISIIR-PTTG transgenic uteri with cystic glandular and hyperplasia of the endometrium. Based on these results, we conclude that the overexpression of PTTG may be required to initiate precancerous conditions but is not sufficient to induce ovarian tumorigenesis and may require another partner to initiate cellular transformation.

  7. Regulators of epithelial mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eHamada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer related death due to its invasive nature. Despite the improvement of diagnostic strategy, early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is still challenging. Surgical resection is the only curative therapy, while vast majority of patients are not eligible for this therapeutic option. Complex biological processes are involved in the establishment of invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been reported to play crucial role. EMT is part of the normal developmental processes which mobilizes epithelial cells and yields mesenchymal phenotype. Deregulation of EMT inducing molecules in pancreatic cancer is reported, such as multiple cytokines, growth factors and downstream transcriptional factors. In addition to these molecules, non-coding RNA including miRNA also contributes to EMT. EMT of cancer cell also correlates with cancer stem cell properties such as chemoresistance or tumorigenicity, therefore these upstream regulators of EMT could be attractive therapeutic targets and several candidates are examined for clinical application. This review summarizes recent advances in this field, focusing the regulatory molecules of EMT and their downstream targets. Further understanding and research advances will clarify the cryptic mechanism of cancer metastasis and delineate novel therapeutic targets.

  8. Host epithelial geometry regulates breast cancer cell invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghaert, Eline; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast tumor development is regulated in part by cues from the local microenvironment, including interactions with neighboring nontumor cells as well as the ECM. Studies using homogeneous populations of breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D ECM have shown that increased ECM stiffness stimulates tumor cell invasion. However, at early stages of breast cancer development, malignant cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which have been shown to exert a tumor-suppressive effect on cocultured cancer cells. Here we explored how the biophysical characteristics of the host microenvironment affect the proliferative and invasive tumor phenotype of the earliest stages of tumor development, by using a 3D microfabrication-based approach to engineer ducts composed of normal mammary epithelial cells that contained a single tumor cell. We found that the phenotype of the tumor cell was dictated by its position in the duct: proliferation and invasion were enhanced at the ends and blocked when the tumor cell was located elsewhere within the tissue. Regions of invasion correlated with high endogenous mechanical stress, as shown by finite element modeling and bead displacement experiments, and modulating the contractility of the host epithelium controlled the subsequent invasion of tumor cells. Combining microcomputed tomographic analysis with finite element modeling suggested that predicted regions of high mechanical stress correspond to regions of tumor formation in vivo. This work suggests that the mechanical tone of nontumorigenic host epithelium directs the phenotype of tumor cells and provides additional insight into the instructive role of the mechanical tumor microenvironment. PMID:23150585

  9. SERPINB3 in the chicken model of ovarian cancer: a prognostic factor for platinum resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whasun Lim

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs appear to be ubiquitously expressed in a variety of species and play important roles in pivotal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, blood coagulation and fibronolysis. Of these, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1, also known as a SERPINB3, was first identified in squamous cell carcinoma tissue from the cervix of women. However, there is little known about the SERPINB3 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the functional role of SERPINB3 gene in human EOC using chickens, the most relevant animal model. In 136 chickens, EOC was found in 10 (7.4%. SERPINB3 mRNA was induced in cancerous, but not normal ovaries of chickens (P<0.01, and it was abundant only in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries of chickens. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-101, miR-1668 and miR-1681 were discovered to influence SERPINB3 expression via its 3'-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation influences SERPINB3 expression in chickens. SERPINB3 protein was localized predominantly to the glandular epithelium in cancerous ovaries of chickens, and it was abundant in the nucleus of both chicken and human ovarian cancer cell lines. In 109 human patients with EOC, 15 (13.8%, 66 (60.6% and 28 (25.7% patients showed weak, moderate and strong expression of SERPINB3 protein, respectively. Strong expression of SERPINB3 protein was a prognostic factor for platinum resistance (adjusted OR; odds ratio, 5.94; 95% Confidence Limits, 1.21-29.15, and for poor progression-free survival (PFS; adjusted HR; hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI; confidence interval, 1.03-4.41. Therefore, SERPINB3 may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and be a novel biomarker for predicting platinum resistance and a poor prognosis for survival in patients with EOC.

  10. Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Lung Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuyoshi Kuwano

    2007-01-01

    Lung epithelium is the primary site of lung damage in various lung diseases. Epithelial cell apoptosis has been considered to be initial event in various lung diseases. Apoptosis signaling is classically composed of two principle pathways. One is a direct pathway from death receptor ligation to caspase cascade activation and cell death. The other pathway triggered by stresses such as drugs, radiation, infectious agents and reactive oxygen species is mediated by mitochondria. Endoplasmic reticulum has also been shown to be the organelle to mediate apoptosis.Epithelial cell death is followed by remodeling processes, which consist of epithelial and fibroblast activation,cytokine production, activation of coagulation pathway, neoangiogenesis, re-epithelialization and fibrosis.Epithelial and mesenchymal interaction plays important roles in these processes. Further understanding of apoptosis signaling and its regulation by novel strategies may lead to effective treatments against various lung diseases. We review the recent advances in the understanding of apoptosis signaling and discuss the involvement of apoptosis in lung remodeling.

  11. Correlação dos aspectos laparoscópicos com as alterações histológicas glandulares das lesões endometrióticas peritoneais Correlation between laparoscopic aspects and glandular hystological findings of peritoneal endometriotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Antonio Viscomi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os aspectos laparoscópicos com os achados histológicos na endometriose peritoneal para facilitar a compreensão da teoria evolutiva da endometriose. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente para o presente estudo prospectivo 67 pacientes submetidas a laparoscopia, com diagnóstico de endometriose peritoneal. A avaliação laparoscópica foi baseada no aspecto visual do implante suspeito de endometriose peritoneal, submetido a estudo anatomopatológico. De acordo com o aspecto laparoscópico, as lesões foram agrupadas em: grupo V - vermelhas, grupo N - negras, grupo B - brancas. A avaliação histológica foi realizada observando-se as características funcionais do epitélio glandular, a presença de debris intraluminais, o número de mitoses e a relação estroma/glândula. RESULTADOS: As características funcionais do epitélio glandular mostraram associação estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, sendo o epitélio com carcterística secretora encontrado em 68,4% das lesões do grupo V, 15,8% do grupo N e B, enquanto que o epitélio incaracterístico foi encontrado em 19,4% das lesões vermelhas, 38,7% das lesões negras e 41,9% das brancas e o epitélio proliferativo foi observado em 50% das pacientes do grupo B e em 25% dos grupos V e N (p=0,011. Em relação à presença de debris intraluminais, também houve diferença significante entre os grupos, estando presentes em 58,4% das lesões negras, 33,3% das lesões brancas e 8,3% das lesões vermelhas (p=0,016. Quanto ao número de mitoses, não houve diferença significante nos três grupos de estudo (p=0,428. O mesmo foi observado na relação estroma/glândula, não havendo diferença significante nos grupos de estudo (p=0,159. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre atividade funcional nas lesões vermelhas e baixa atividade funcional nas lesões negras e brancas, bem como a presença de debris intraluminais nos diferentes grupos, reforçam a teoria

  12. MicroRNA-145 regulates human corneal epithelial differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Ka-Wai Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic factors, such as microRNAs, are important regulators in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells and progenies. Here we investigated the microRNAs expressed in human limbal-peripheral corneal (LPC epithelia containing corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs and early transit amplifying cells, and their role in corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human LPC epithelia was extracted for small RNAs or dissociated for CEPC culture. By Agilent Human microRNA Microarray V2 platform and GeneSpring GX11.0 analysis, we found differential expression of 18 microRNAs against central corneal (CC epithelia, which were devoid of CEPCs. Among them, miR-184 was up-regulated in CC epithelia, similar to reported finding. Cluster miR-143/145 was expressed strongly in LPC but weakly in CC epithelia (P = 0.0004, Mann-Whitney U-test. This was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization on corneal rim cryosections showed miR-143/145 presence localized to the parabasal cells of limbal epithelium but negligible in basal and superficial epithelia. With holoclone forming ability, CEPCs transfected with lentiviral plasmid containing mature miR-145 sequence gave rise to defective epithelium in organotypic culture and had increased cytokeratin-3/12 and connexin-43 expressions and decreased ABCG2 and p63 compared with cells transfected with scrambled sequences. Global gene expression was analyzed using Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray and GeneSpring GX11.0. With a 5-fold difference compared to cells with scrambled sequences, miR-145 up-regulated 324 genes (containing genes for immune response and down-regulated 277 genes (containing genes for epithelial development and stem cell maintenance. As validated by qPCR and luciferase reporter assay, our results showed miR-145 suppressed integrin β8 (ITGB8 expression in both human corneal epithelial cells

  13. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  14. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  15. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more hydroxylated as required...

  16. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis.

  17. Toxic mechanisms of copper oxide nanoparticles in epithelial kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    2015-01-01

    CuO NPs have previously been reported as toxic to a range of cell cultures including kidney epithelial cells from the frog, Xenopus laevis (A6). Here we examine the molecular mechanisms affecting toxicity of Cu in different forms and particle sizes. A6 cells were exposed to ionic Cu (Cu2+) or Cu......O particles of three different sizes: CuO NPs of 6 nm (NP6), larger Poly-dispersed CuO NPs of toxic than NP6, Micro and Cu2+ to A6 cells, causing DNA damage, decreased cell viability...... and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and eventually cell death. We show that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) generation plays a key role and occurs early in Poly toxicity as Poly-induced DNA damage and cell death could be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine). Here we propose a model...

  18. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  19. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 is expressed in undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells during murine crypt morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrich, Alda; Buzan, Jenny M; Ilo, Chibuzo; Bradley, Leigh; Skaar, Kirstin; Cohn, Steven M

    2004-05-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) regulates proliferation of undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, the function(s) of FGFR-3-mediated signaling during intestinal development and epithelial differentiation in vivo remain unknown. The goal of this study was to define the temporal, regional, and cell-specific patterns of FGFR-3 expression and its ligands during normal intestinal ontogeny and epithelial regeneration. Both the IIIb and IIIc isoforms of FGFR-3 mRNA, which result from differential splicing of the FGFR-3 primary transcript, were detected in mouse small intestine as early as embryonic day 16. FGFR-3 levels peaked in the small intestine from 7 to 21 days after birth and decreased thereafter to reach the low levels observed in adult mice. FGFR-3 IIIb and IIIc mRNA levels were highest in the duodenum and proximal jejunum with lower levels of both seen in the distal jejunum, ileum, and colon. FGFR-3 was expressed in a subset of proliferating undifferentiated crypt epithelial cells located in the intervillous epithelium and in the lower half of nascently forming crypts but not in differentiated epithelial cell types. FGFR-3 IIIb was the dominant isoform expressed in both small intestinal and colonic crypts. Expression of FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9, known ligands of FGFR-3, paralleled patterns of FGFR-3 expression during gut development. These data suggest that signaling through FGFR-3 plays a role in regulating morphogenic events involved in formation of intestinal crypts and/or the fate of epithelial stem cells.

  20. FGF-9 accelerates epithelial invagination for ectodermal organogenesis in real time bioengineered organ manipulation

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    Tai Yun-Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial invagination is important for initiation of ectodermal organogenesis. Although many factors regulate ectodermal organogenesis, there is not any report about their functions in real-time study. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, a non-invasive, real-time surveillance system, had been used to detect changes in organ cell layer thickness through quantitative monitoring of the impedance of a cell-to-microelectrode interface over time. It was shown to be a good method for identifying significant real-time changes of cells. The purpose of this study is to establish a combined bioengineered organ-ECIS model for investigating the real time effects of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9 on epithelial invagination in bioengineered ectodermal organs. We dissected epithelial and mesenchymal cells from stage E14.5 murine molar tooth germs and identified the real-time effects of FGF-9 on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions using this combined bioengineered organ-ECIS model. Results Measurement of bioengineered ectodermal organ thickness showed that Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9 accelerates epithelial invagination in reaggregated mesenchymal cell layer within 3 days. Gene expression analysis revealed that FGF-9 stimulates and sustains early Ameloblastin and Amelogenin expression during odontogenesis. Conclusions This is the first real-time study to show that, FGF-9 plays an important role in epithelial invagination and initiates ectodermal organogenesis. Based on these findings, we suggest FGF-9 can be applied for further study in ectodermal organ regeneration, and we also proposed that the ‘FGF-BMP balancing system’ is important for manipulating the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs. The combined bioengineered organ-ECIS model is a promising method for ectodermal organ engineering and regeneration research.

  1. Hypoxic conditions induce a cancer-like phenotype in human breast epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaapil, Marica; Helczynska, Karolina; Villadsen, René

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Less...... is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis....

  2. 乳腺组织瓣联合真皮帽悬吊术矫正轻中度乳房下垂%Correction of mild and moderate breast ptosis with glandular flap combined with dermal flap suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊凌云; 孙家明; 郭能强; 杨杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺组织瓣旋转联合真皮帽悬吊的垂乳上提技术矫正轻中度乳房下垂的临床效果.方法 根据乳房下垂程度设计形成真皮帽后,分离乳房皮肤和腺体,于乳腺外上方行部分腺体切除或直接纵行切开腺体,并同时形成外侧腺体瓣,掀起腺体瓣向内侧旋转固定,缩小乳房基底,再行真皮帽上提固定和乳房塑形.结果 2006年3月至2010年3月,于临床应用46例,术后效果满意,其中2例出现单侧血肿,无其他严重并发症.对40例患者随访6个月至4年,乳房外形满意,无继发下垂、乳房扁平、乳头乳晕感觉障碍等并发症.结论 乳腺组织瓣旋转联合真皮帽悬吊垂乳上提术可商塑造饱满、坚挺的乳房,术后瘢痕不明显,远期效果满意.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of glandular flap combined with dermal flap suspension for correction of mild and moderate breast ptosis. Methods The dermal flap was formed according to the breast ptosis and dissection was performed between the skin and gland. The superior-lateral gland was partially resected or cutted vertically only to form the lateral glandular flap. Then the glandular flap was rotated medially and fixed to shrink the glandular base area. Then the breast was up-positioned and fixed with dermal flap to remodel the breast shape. Results From Mar. 2006 to Mar. 2010, 46 cases were treated with satisfactory result. There was no severe complication, except for 2 cases of unilateral hematoma. 40 cases were followed up for 6 months to 4 years with good breast shape. No secondary ptosis,breast flatten and NAC sensation disorder was happened. Conclusions Glandular flap combined with dermal flap suspension is a good method for mild and moderate breast ptosis with reliable long-term results.The breasts have busty appearance and good projection with inconspicious scar.

  3. Morphogenesis and Developmental Law of Glandular Hairs of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth%木香薷腺毛形态结构发生发育规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广龙; 赵挺; 康冬冬; 魏学智

    2011-01-01

    采用常规石蜡切片法及扫描电镜技术对木香薷(Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth)腺毛发生发育及其规律进行了研究.结果表明:木香薷表皮上主要有两种表皮毛:无分泌细胞的表皮毛与有分泌细胞的腺毛.前者包括单细胞乳头状毛、2~3细胞管状毛、分枝状毛及多细胞管状毛;后者包括头状腺毛与盾状腺毛.成熟头状腺毛头部由1、2或4个分泌细胞构成,头部呈圆球形或半圆球形;成熟盾状腺毛头部由8~12个分泌细胞构成,分泌细胞横向扩展形成盾状头部.木香薷腺毛主要在茎端幼叶处大量发生,从茎端第一对幼叶处开始产生;从幼叶期到成熟期均有腺毛发生,大部分腺毛在幼叶期发生发育,只有极少部分在叶的成熟期进行发生发育.%The paraffin sectionning and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) were used to study the morphogenesis and law of development of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth. The results showed that glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth has two main types of trichomes: trichomes without secreting cells and trichomes with secreting cells. The former include: single-cell mastoid trichomes ,2-3 cells tubular trichomes ,2-3 cells ramose trichomes and multicellular tubular trichomes. The latter include peltate and capitate hairs. The mature capitate glandular hairs comprise one, two or four secretory cells and its head is spherical or half spherical. The head of mature peltate glandular hairs comprises eight to twelve secretory cells and the secretory cells expand to a shield-shaped head. The glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth mainly occur gready on younger leaves and start to generate from the first pair of younger leaves of stem apex. The morphogenesis of new glandular hairs can be observed to occur from young leaves stage to mature stage, however, only a relatively small amount occurs in maturation stage.

  4. Inflammatory Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor α Confers Precancerous Phenotype in an Organoid Model of Normal Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we established an in vitro organoid model of normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE cells. The spheroids of these normal HOSE cells resembled epithelial inclusion cysts in human ovarian cortex, which are the cells of origin of ovarian epithelial tumor. Because there are strong correlations between chronic inflammation and the incidence of ovarian cancer, we used the organoid model to test whether protumor inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α would induce malignant phenotype in normal HOSE cells. Prolonged treatment of tumor necrosis factor α induced phenotypic changes of the HOSE spheroids, which exhibited the characteristics of precancerous lesions of ovarian epithelial tumors, including reinitiation of cell proliferation, structural disorganization, epithelial stratification, loss of epithelial polarity, degradation of basement membrane, cell invasion, and overexpression of ovarian cancer markers. The result of this study provides not only an evidence supporting the link between chronic inflammation and ovarian cancer formation but also a relevant and novel in vitro model for studying of early events of ovarian cancer.

  5. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Sahai, Sharad; Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare entity and represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Dr. J J Pindborg (1958) first described four cases of this unusual lesion; subsequently Shafer et al coined the term Pindborg tumor. This lesion is a locally aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue. It occurs most commonly in 4th-5th-6th decade of life and bears no gender predilection. A case of CEOT in a 50-year-old male arising in the left body region is described. PMID:22639521

  6. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and his...

  7. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  8. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  9. Cytokine-induced impairment of short-chain fatty acid oxidation and viability in human colonic epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Horn, T;

    2000-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines may directly influence the viability and metabolic function of colonic epithelial cells (CEC) as an early event in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. We report here that TNF-alpha+IFN-gamma induced a synergistic, concentration-dependent decline in butyrate o...

  10. Infection of a human respiratory epithelial cell line with rhinovirus. Induction of cytokine release and modulation of susceptibility to infection by cytokine exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Subauste, M C; Jacoby, D B; Richards, S M; Proud, D

    1995-01-01

    Rhinovirus infections cause over one third of all colds and are a contributing factor to exacerbations of asthma. To gain insights into the early biochemical events that occur in infected epithelial cells, we develop, for the first time, a model in which a pure respiratory epithelial cell population can be routinely infected by rhinovirus. Viral infection was confirmed by demonstrating that viral titers of supernatants and lysates from infected cell increased with time and by PCR. Infection b...

  11. Value of methylene blue chromoendoscopy in detection of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions%亚甲蓝色素内镜对早期胃癌及癌前病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯业全; 陈雪; 陈万宁; 杨清清; 刘倩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of methylene blue chromoendoscopy in the detection of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods 194 outpatients and inpatients in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2011 were divided into the experimental group and the control group according to different endoscopic examinations. The experimental group(104 cases) was performed the methylene blue chromoendoscopy and the control group(90 cases) received the conventional gastroscopic examination. The detection rates of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion were compared between the two kinds of endoscopy. Results The detection rate of glandular epithelial intestinal metaplasia, atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P0. 05). Conclusion The methylene blue chromoendoscopy has high detection rate for early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion and is conducive to find and diagnose early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion with the advantages of simple method, safety and practicability.%目的 探讨色素内镜对早期胃癌及癌前病变的诊断价值.方法 将2010年1月至2011年12月该院消化内科门诊及住院患者194例,根据不同内镜检查分为实验组和对照组,104例行亚甲蓝色素内镜检查的为实验组,对照组90例行普通胃镜检查,比较亚甲蓝色素内镜和普通内镜的早期胃癌及癌前病变的检出率.结果 实验组腺上皮肠化、不典型增生及腺癌检出率明显高于对照组(P<0.05);而腺上皮增生和腺瘤检出率两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 亚甲蓝色素内镜对早期胃癌及癌前病变的检出率更高,有助于早期胃癌及癌前病变的发现及诊断,具有方法简单、安全、实用的特点.

  12. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  13. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  14. The Ultra-structure Observation of Glandular Hairs Secretory Cell of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟腺毛分泌细胞的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓明; 张晶; 于丽杰

    2011-01-01

    为了解和掌握烤烟腺毛分泌细胞中分泌物产生、转运及分泌的过程和规律,通过透射电子显微镜观察了烤烟的长柄腺毛和短柄腺毛分泌细胞的超微结构.结果表明:2种类型腺毛的分泌细胞在超微结构上特性比较相似,但优势细胞器的分布不同,结构完整的发达的叶绿体在长柄腺毛分泌细胞的细胞质内大量存在,可以初步认定叶绿体参与了腺毛分泌产物的生物合成;在2类腺毛中均有大量的内质网、线粒体、液泡和少数的高尔基体,这些细胞器与腺毛的分泌活动有密切的关系.2种腺毛中都观察到细胞间隙和胞质外空间的产生和扩大,以及其中存在的嗜锇物质,2处是分泌产物的临时储藏所,分泌产物在细胞中的分布可得到分泌物的储存和释放途径.%Ultra-structure of the flue-cured tobacco was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand and master the process and regulation of generation, transportation and secretion of the secretion from glandular hairs secretory cell of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that the ultra-structure of the long-stem glandular hairs was very similar to the short-stem glandular hairs, but the distribution of advantageous cell was different and there were plenty of well structured and developed chloroplasts in the long-stem glandular cell. It can be affirmed that chloroplast has been involved in the biosynthesis of glandular secreta. A large amount of endoplasmic, reticulum, mitochondria, vacuole and a few of golgiosome existed in the two kinds of glandular hairs. These organelles were greatly related with the secretory of glandular hairs cell. With the space appearance and expansion of intercellular and cytoplasm external and osmiophilic materials, it was proved that the two places were both temporary storage sites of secreta and the pathway of secreta storage and release can be investigated by observing the secreta's distribution

  15. Morphological Comparison on the Leaf Epidermis and Glandular Hairs in 11 Medical Plants from Labiatae%11种唇形科药用植物叶表及腺毛的形态比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤莲

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为利用叶表面和腺毛形态特征区分唇形科植物奠定基础.[方法] 选取11种常见的唇形科药用植物,利用扫描电镜观察比较其叶表面及腺毛的形态特征.[结果] 叶表皮细胞表面覆有一层厚度适中的角质层,有不同程度的条状纹理.下表皮细胞小于上表皮细胞.叶表面有气孔、腺毛和非腺毛,且下表面的气孔、腺毛和非腺毛比上表面多.气孔呈圆形至椭圆形,副卫细胞表面的角质层常凸起呈苞片状,气孔周围有条状纹理,且常以气孔为中心呈放射状.非腺毛分枝或不分枝;基部的条状角质纹理呈放射状或纵横交错.腺毛呈盾状或头状,腺毛的形态、大小、密度和头细胞的数目有明显的差别.[结论] 该研究为唇形科药用植物的分类和利用提供了新的依据.%[Objective]The purpose of the study was to lay a foundation for distinguishing labiatae plants on the basis of the morphological characters of leaf epidermis and glandular hairs.[Method] Eleven familiar medial plants from labiatae were selected, their morphological characters of leaf epidermis and glandular hairs were observed by scanning electron microscope and compared.[Result] There was a moderately thick cuticle covering the surface of leaf epidermis cells and it had striped texture to different degrees. The lower epidermis cells were smaller than the upper epidermis cells. There were stomata, glandular hairs and non-glandular hairs on leaf epidermis and that on the lower leaf epidermis were more than that on the upper leaf epidermis. The stomata varied from circular to ellipse, the cuticle covering the surface of subsidiary cell often bulged to be bracteal. There was striped texture around stomata and it was often radial with stomata as center. There were branches on non-glandular hairs or not and the striped cuticle textures on their bases were radial or crossing. The glandular hairs were peltate or capitate and the shape, sizes

  16. Oxidant-induced corticosteroid unresponsiveness in human bronchial epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Irene; van Oosterhout, Antoon; Kliphuis, Nathalie; Jonker, Marnix; Hoffmann, Roland; Telenga, Eef; Klooster, Karin; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; ten Hacken, Nick; Postma, Dirkje; van den Berge, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesised that increased oxidative stress, as present in the airways of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, induces epithelial damage and reduces epithelial responsiveness to suppressive effects of corticosteroids on proinflammatory cytokine production

  17. Oxidant-induced corticosteroid unresponsiveness in human bronchial epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Irene; van Oosterhout, Antoon; Kliphuis, Nathalie; Jonker, Marnix; Hoffmann, Roland; Telenga, Eef; Klooster, Karin; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; ten Hacken, Nick; Postma, Dirkje; van den Berge, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesised that increased oxidative stress, as present in the airways of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, induces epithelial damage and reduces epithelial responsiveness to suppressive effects of corticosteroids on proinflammatory cytokine production

  18. Corneal Molecular and Cellular Biology for the Refractive Surgeon: The Critical Role of the Epithelial Basement Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Gustavo K; Santhiago, Marcony R; Torricelli, Andre A M; Santhanam, Abirami; Wilson, Steven E

    2016-02-01

    To provide an overview of the recent advances concerning the corneal molecular and cellular biology processes involved in the wound healing response after excimer laser surface ablation and LASIK surgery. Literature review. The corneal wound healing response is a complex cascade of events that impacts the predictability and stability of keratorefractive surgical procedures such as photorefractive keratectomy and LASIK. The generation and persistence of corneal myofibroblasts (contractile cells with reduced transparency) arise from the interaction of cytokines and growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 1 produced by epithelial and stromal cells in response to the corneal injury. Myofibroblasts, and the opaque extracellular matrix they secrete into the stroma, disturb the precise distribution and spacing of collagen fibers related to corneal transparency and lead to the development of vision-limiting corneal opacity (haze). The intact epithelial basement membrane has a pivotal role as a structure that regulates corneal epithelial-stromal interactions. Thus, defective regeneration of the epithelial basement membrane after surgery, trauma, or infection leads to the development of stromal haze. The apoptotic process following laser stromal ablation, which is proportional to the level of attempted correction, leads to an early decrease in anterior keratocyte density and the diminished contribution of these non-epithelial cells of components such as perlecan and nidogen-2 required for normal regeneration of the epithelial basement membrane. Haze persists until late repair of the defective epithelial basement membrane. Defective regeneration of the epithelial basement membrane has a critical role in determining whether a cornea heals with late haze after photorefractive keratectomy or with scarring at the flap edge in LASIK. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Triage of Atypical Glandular Cell by SOX1 and POU4F3 Methylation: A Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Chang

    Full Text Available Invasive procedures including loop electrosurgical excision, cervical conization, and endometrial sampling are often recommended when atypical glandular cells (AGC are detected on Pap smear with unsatisfactory colposcopy. These invasive procedures may result in patient anxiety, increased medical expense, and increasing the risk of preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. This study was performed to assess methylation biomarkers in the triage of AGC on Pap smear for invasive procedures.We conducted a multicenter study in 13 medical centers in Taiwan from May 2012 to May 2014. A total of 55 samples diagnosed "AGC not otherwise specified" (AGC-NOS were included. All patients with AGC underwent colposcopy, cervical biopsy, endometrial sampling, and conization if indicated. Multiplex quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSPCR was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for detecting CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia.In 55 patients with AGC, the sensitivity for methylated (m SOX1m, PAX1 m, ZNF582m,PTPRRm, AJAP1m, HS3ST2m, and POU4F3m for detecting CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia lesions was 100, 86, 71, 86, 86, 57, and 100%; specificity was 67, 79, 85, 50, 52, 96, and 52%, respectively. Testing for high risk-HPV had a sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 75% for CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia lesions.Methylated (m SOX1m and POU4F3m could be new methylation biomarkers for detection of CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia in AGC. Women with AGC and positive SOX1m / POU4F3m, colposcopy, cervical conization or endometrial sampling should be considered.

  20. Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Berghman, L R; Joyce, M M; Taylor, K M; Stewart, M D; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-10-01

    Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. The positive effects of IFNtau on IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression are mediated by ISG factor 3 (ISGF3), which is composed of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 1, Stat 2, and IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), and by gamma-activated factor (GAF), which is a Stat 1 homodimer. Induction of ISGs, such as ISG17 and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, by IFNtau during pregnancy is limited to the endometrial stroma (S) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the ovine uterus. The IRF-2, a potent transcriptional repressor of ISG expression, is expressed in the luminal epithelium (LE). This study determined effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and IFNtau on expression of Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, IRF-1, and IRF-2 genes in the ovine endometrium. In cyclic ewes, Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-1, and IRF-9 mRNA and protein were detected at low levels in the S and GE. During pregnancy, expression of these genes increased only in the S and GE. Expression of IRF-2 was detected only in the LE and superficial GE (sGE) of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. In cyclic ewes, intrauterine administration of IFNtau stimulated Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, and IRF-1 expression in the endometrium. Ovine IRF-2 repressed transcriptional activity driven by IFN-stimulated response elements that bind ISGF3, but not by gamma-activation sequences that bind GAF. These results suggest that IRF-2 in the LE and sGE restricts IFNtau induction of ISGs to the S and GE. In the S and GE, IFNtau hyperactivation of ISG expression likely involves formation and actions of the transcription factors ISGF3 and, perhaps, IRF-1.

  1. Evaluation of mean glandular dose and modulation transfer function for different tube potentials and target-filter combinations in computed radiography mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Mohd Saparudin, Abdul Khaliq; Harun, Ahmad Zaky

    2013-05-01

    Different target-filter combinations in computed radiography have different impacts on the dose and image quality in digital radiography. This study aims to evaluate the mean glandular dose (MGD) and modulation transfer function (MTF) of various target-filter combinations by investigating the signal intensities of X-ray beams. General Electric (GE) Senographe DMR Plus mammography unit was used for MGD and MTF evaluation. The measured MGD was compared with the dose reference level (DRL), whereas the MTF was evaluated using ImageJ 1.46o software. A modified Mammography Accreditation Phantom RMI 156 was exposed using different target-filter combinations of molybdenum-molybdenum (Mo-Mo), molybdenum-rhodium (Mo-Rh) and rhodium-rhodium (Rh-Rh) at two different tube voltages, 26 kV and 32 kV with 50 mAs. In the MGD evaluations, all target-filters gave an MGD value of filter material used (26 kV: F (2,12) = 49,234, P = 0.001;32 kV: F (2,12) = 89,972, P = 0.001). A Tukey post-hoc test revealed that the MGD for 26 kV and 32 kV was highly affected by the target-filter combinations. The test of homogeneity of variances indicates that the MGD varies significantly for 26 kV and 32 kV images (0.045 and 0.030 (P filter combinations used with 26 kV and 32 kV images either in parallel or perpendicular to the chest wall side F (2,189) = 0.26, P > 0.05). Higher tube voltage and atomic number target-filter yield higher MGD values. However, the MTF is independent of the X-ray energy and the type of target-filter combinations used.

  2. Quantitative pathology of laryngeal epithelial hyperplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cör, A; Gale, N; Kambic, V

    1997-01-01

    We studied 40 laryngeal biopsies samples in order to ascertain the reliability of light microscopical criteria for subdividing laryngeal epithelial hyperplastic lesions (EHL) and carcinoma in situ as well as to determine the relationship between proliferative activity of their epithelial cells and the histological grade. The biopsies were divided into four groups in accordance with the Kambic-Lenart classification: simple, abnormal and atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ. 10 cases in each group were included. The morphometrical analysis was carried out by a semiautomatic image analysis system. The proliferative activity was determined by the high percentage of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 positive epithelial cells and with counting nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) per nucleus. Our results suggest that measuring the nuclear area of the basal cells. augmented with basaloid cells and carcinomatous cells, is the most useful morphometrical method of differentiating three types of laryngeal EHL and carcinoma in situ, while the proliferative activity progressively increased with the degree of epithelial hyperplasia. Morphometrical methods and proliferative activity should be regarded as useful in conjunction with the traditional histopathological methods allowing more of objective grading of EHL.

  3. Coronavirus infection of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first host cells to be infected by incoming c oronaviruses. Recent observations in vitro show that coronaviruses are released from a specific side of these polarized cells, and this polarized release might be important for the spread of the infection in vivo. Mechanisms for

  4. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  5. Identification of epithelialization in high transsphincteric fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Mitalas (Litza); R.S. van Onkelen (Robbert); K. Monkhorst (Kim); D.D.E. Zimmerman (David); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.R. Schouten (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground At present, transanal advancement flap repair (TAFR) is the treatment of choice for transsphincteric fistulas passing through the upper and middle third of the external anal sphincter. It has been suggested that epithelialization of the fistula tract contributes to the failure

  6. Lipid polarity and sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Simons, K.

    1988-01-01

    Apical and basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cell plasma membranes possess unique lipid compositions. The tight junction, the structure separating the two domains, forms a diffusion barrier for membrane components and thereby prevents intermixing of the two sets of lipids. The barrier appar

  7. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia. An unusual clinical aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodokh, I; Lacour, J P; Rainero, C; Orth, G; Perrin, C; Hoffman, P; Santini, J; Ortonne, J P

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a child born in France of Algerian parents. The clinical appearance was unusual in that certain lesions were verrucous and pediculate. A virological study revealed the presence of papillomavirus 32, one of the two types of HPV specifically associated with this entity.

  8. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Report of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Cardiel-Nieves, Maritza; Juárez-Luna, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH) is also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia, Heck's disease or multifocal papillomavirus-induced epithelial hyperplasia. It is characterised by the presence of multiple lesions in the oral mucosa of children and it has been associated with the presence of the human papillomavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the clinico-pathological features of the cases diagnosed as MEH in the Service of Dermatology of the Hospital Manuel Gea González (SDHMGG). The files of the SDHMGG were reviewed and all cases diagnosed as MEH were retrieved. Nine MEH cases were found. Most of the patients were 20 year-old or younger (67%) and females were more commonly affected (78%). All patients presented multiple lesions and always, close relatives with similar lesions were found. Lesions were located most commonly in the buccal mucosa, lower lip and commissures. MEH is a soft tissue intraoral condition that needs treatment solely of the traumatised lesions or those with cosmetic problems. Remaining lesions will disappear with the age of the patients. It is suggested that this entity should be named multifocal epithelial hyperplasia since this name describes better the clinico-pathological and microscopic features of the disease.

  9. Identification of epithelialization in high transsphincteric fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Mitalas (Litza); R.S. van Onkelen (Robbert); K. Monkhorst (Kim); D.D.E. Zimmerman (David); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.R. Schouten (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground At present, transanal advancement flap repair (TAFR) is the treatment of choice for transsphincteric fistulas passing through the upper and middle third of the external anal sphincter. It has been suggested that epithelialization of the fistula tract contributes to the failure

  10. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  11. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial host defense in the airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joost Bastiaan

    2007-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are indispensable for the host defense system in the lungs. Various strategies by which epithelial cells protect the lungs against inhaled pathogens have been described. In spite of that, the molecular mechanisms by which epithelial cells initiate and control the host defense

  13. Hypoxic conditions induce a cancer-like phenotype in human breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Vaapil

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Less is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis. METHODS: Normal human primary breast epithelial cells and immortalized non-malignant mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells were grown in a three-dimensional overlay culture on laminin-rich extracellular matrix for up to 21 days at normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Acinar morphogenesis and expression of markers of epithelial differentiation and cell polarization were analyzed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, qPCR and immunoblot. RESULTS: In large ductal carcinoma in situ patient-specimens, we find that epithelial cells with high HIF-1α levels and multiple cell layers away from the vasculature are immature compared to well-oxygenated cells. We show that hypoxic conditions impaired acinar morphogenesis of primary and immortalized breast epithelial cells grown ex vivo on laminin-rich matrix. Normoxic cultures formed polarized acini-like spheres with the anticipated distribution of marker proteins associated with mammary epithelial polarization e.g. α6-integrin, laminin 5 and Human Milk Fat Globule/MUC1. At hypoxia, cells were not polarized and the sub-cellular distribution pattern of the marker proteins rather resembled that reported in vivo in breast cancer. The hypoxic cells remained in a mitotic state, whereas proliferation ceased with acinar morphogenesis at normoxia. We found induced expression of the differentiation repressor ID1 in the undifferentiated hypoxic MCF-10A cell structures. Acinar

  14. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y. [Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Guangzhou, China, Department of Anesthesia, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Y.; Chen, B. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China); Sun, X. [Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Su, L.; Liu, Z. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-25

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  15. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6 was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS. In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  16. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    Full Text Available Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6 was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS. In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  17. Notch signaling is required for normal prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-De; Leow, Ching Ching; Zha, Jiping; Tang, Zhijun; Modrusan, Zora; Radtke, Freddy; Aguet, Michel; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2006-02-01

    Notch pathway is crucial for stem/progenitor cell maintenance, growth and differentiation in a variety of tissues. Using a transgenic cell ablation approach, we found in our previous study that cells expressing Notch1 are crucial for prostate early development and re-growth. Here, we further define the role of Notch signaling in regulating prostatic epithelial cell growth and differentiation using biochemical and genetic approaches in ex vivo or in vivo systems. Treatment of developing prostate grown in culture with inhibitors of gamma-secretase/presenilin, which is required for Notch cleavage and activation, caused a robust increase in proliferation of epithelial cells co-expressing cytokeratin 8 and 14, lack of luminal/basal layer segregation and dramatically reduced branching morphogenesis. Using conditional Notch1 gene deletion mouse models, we found that inactivation of Notch1 signaling resulted in profound prostatic alterations, including increased tufting, bridging and enhanced epithelial proliferation. Cells within these lesions co-expressed both luminal and basal cell markers, a feature of prostatic epithelial cells in predifferentiation developmental stages. Microarray analysis revealed that the gene expression in a number of genetic networks was altered following Notch1 gene deletion in prostate. Furthermore, expression of Notch1 and its effector Hey-1 gene in human prostate adenocarcinomas were found significantly down-regulated compared to normal control tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that Notch signaling is critical for normal cell proliferation and differentiation in the prostate, and deregulation of this pathway may facilitate prostatic tumorigenesis.

  18. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Ambrogio; Cappellesso, Rocco; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Dalla Via, Lisa; Piccolo, Stefano; Ventura, Laura; Fassan, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a physiopathological process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal shape and properties. Malignant mesothelioma is histologically characterized by the concomitant presence of epithelioid and sarcomatoid features, the latter being associated to worse prognosis, thus suggesting a role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in this dual phenotype. We studied 109 malignant mesotheliomas (58 epithelioid, 26 sarcomatoid, and 25 biphasic) by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR analysis, and demonstrated a substantial switch from epithelial markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cytokeratins 5/6) to mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, Snail, Slug, Twist, ZEB1, ZEB2, S100A4, MMP2, and MMP9) through epithelioid to biphasic and sarcomatoid histotypes. In agreement with these findings, the ectopic expression of miR-205 (a repressor of ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression) in MeT-5A (mesothelial cell line), H2452 (an epithelioid malignant mesothelioma cell line) and MSTO-211H (a biphasic malignant mesothelioma cell line) not only induced a significant reduction of ZEB1 and ZEB2 and a consequent up-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, but also inhibited migration and invasion. Moreover, miR-205 was significantly down-regulated in biphasic and sarcomatoid histotypes (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses). Collectively, our findings indicate that epithelial-mesenchymal transition has a significant part in the morphological features of malignant mesothelioma. In particular, miR-205 down-regulation correlated significantly with both a mesenchymal phenotype and a more aggressive behavior.

  19. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  20. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Wang

    Full Text Available Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1 kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  1. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-11-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing.

  2. Oncogenic pathways implicated in ovarian epithelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong; Cheng, Jin Q; Coppola, Domenico; Kruk, Patricia A

    2003-08-01

    Characterization of intracellular signaling pathways should lead to a better understanding of ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis and provide an opportunity to interfere with signal transduction targets involved in ovarian tumor cell growth, survival, and progression. Challenges toward such an effort are significant because many of these signals are part of cascades within an intricate and likely redundant intracellular signaling network (Fig.1). For instance, a given signal may activate a dual intracellular pathway (ie, MEK1-MAPK and PI3K/Akt required for fibronectin-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9). A single pathway also may transduce more than one biologic or oncogenic signal (ie, PI3K signaling in epithelial and endothelial cell growth and sprouting of neovessels). Despite these challenges, evidence for therapeutic targeting of signal transduction pathways is accumulating in human cancer. For instance, the EGF-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839 (Iressa) may have a beneficial therapeutic effect on ovarian epithelial cancer. Therapy of this cancer may include inhibitors of PI kinase (quercetin), ezrin and PIP kinase (genistein). The G protein-coupled family of receptors, including LPA, also is an attractive target to drugs, although their frequent pleiotropic functions may be at times toxic and lack specificity. Because of the lack of notable toxicity, PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors such as FTIs are a promising targeted therapy of ovarian epithelial cancer. Increasing insight into the oncogenic pathways involved in ovarian epithelial cancer also is helping clinicians to understand better the phenomenon of chemoresistance in this malignancy. Oncogenic activation of gamma-synuclein promotes cell survival and provides resistance to paclitaxel, but such a resistance is partially overcome by an MEK inhibitor that suppresses ERK activity. Ovarian epithelial cancer is a complex group of neoplasms with an overall poor prognosis. Comprehension of

  3. Establishment of Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath/Epithelial Rests of Malassez Cell Line from Human Periodontium

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Won; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Wook; Lee, Gene

    2014-01-01

    Human Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez (HERS/ERM) cells are epithelial remnants of teeth residing in the periodontium. Although the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells have yet to be elucidated, they are a unique epithelial cell population in adult teeth and are reported to have stem cell characteristics. Therefore, HERS/ERM cells might play a role as an epithelial component for the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissues; however, they are very rare populati...

  4. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  5. Endocervical glandular involvement, positive endocervical surgical margin and multicentricity are more often associated with high-grade than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Gozde; Karabulut, Murat Hakan; Topal, Cumhur Selçuk; Yılmaz, Müberra Segmen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relative frequencies of endocervical glandular involvement (EGI), multicentricity, positive endocervical surgical margins (ESM) and positive vaginal surgical margins (VSM), and adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix (AIS) between high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL, respectively). We identified 238 patients with squamous intraepithelial lesions/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) who were treated by loop electrocautery excision (LEEP) or conventional cold-knife conization (CKC). A total of 223 (72 [32.3%] LSIL/CIN I; 85 [38.1%] HSIL/CIN II; 66 [29.6%] HSIL/CIN III; and 151 [67.7%], HSIL/CIN II + III) LEEP/CKC slides were histologically reviewed. The frequencies of EGI, positive ESM, and multicentricity were significantly higher in the HSIL/CIN II + III group than in the LSIL/CIN I group (P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.025, respectively). Eighteen of the 72 (25%) LSIL/CIN I patients, 44 of the 85 (51.8%) HSIL/CIN II patients, and 60 of the 66 (90.9%) HSIL/CIN III patients (P = 0.001) showed EGI. In four of the 72 (5.6%) LSIL/CIN I patients, 18 of the 85 (21.2%) HSIL/CIN II patients, and 42 of the 66 (63.6%) HSIL/CIN III patients (P = 0.001), ESM was positive. Two of the 72 (2.8%) LSIL/CIN I patients, seven of the 85 (8.2%) HSIL/CIN II patients, and 11 of the 66 (16.7%) HSIL/CIN III patients (P = 0.016) were multicentric. The current study showed that EGI, positive ESM and multicentricity were more often associated with HSIL/CIN II + III than with LSIL/CIN I. Moreover, the frequencies of EGI, multicentricity, and positive ESM increased with increasing severity of the cervical lesion. This result may influence the preference for the type of surgical procedure used for patients with cytological diagnosis of HSIL. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions in the colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Sipos; Orsolya Galamb

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions are well established biological events which have an important role in not just normal tissue and organ development,but in the pathogenesis of diseases.Increasing evidence has established their presence in the human colon during colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer invasion,chronic inflammation-related fibrosis and in the course of mucosal healing.A large body of evidence supports the role for transforming growth factor-β and its downstream Smad signaling,the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt/mTOR axis,the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase/Snail/Slug and FOXC2 pathway,and Hedgehog signaling and microRNAs in the development of colorectal cancers via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.C-met and Frizzled-7,among others,seem to be the principle effectors of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition,hence have a role not just in mucosal regeneration but in the progression of colonic wall fibrosis.Here we discuss a role for these pathways in the initiation and development of the transition events.A better understanding of their induction and regulation may lead to the identification of pathways and factors that could be potent therapeutic targets.The inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition using mTOR kinase inhibitors targeting the ATP binding pocket and which inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2,RNA aptamers or peptide mimetics,such as a Wnt5A-mimetic,may all be useful in both cancer treatment and delaying fibrosis,while the induction of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in induced pluripotent stem cells may enhance epithelial healing in the case of severe mucosal damage.The preliminary results of the current studies are promising,but more clinical investigations are needed to develop new and safe therapeutic strategies for diseases of the colon.

  7. Expression analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in epithelialized and non-epithelialized apical periodontitis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Everdan; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Figueira, Rita; Sogayar, Mari; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in apical periodontitis lesions. STUDY DESIGN Nineteen epithelialized and eighteen non-epithelialized apical periodontitis lesions were collected after periapical surgery. After histological processing, serial sectioning, H&E staining and microscopic analysis, 10 epithelialized and 10 non-epithelialized lesions were selected for immunohistochemical analysis for MMP-9 and CD 68. At least 1/3 of each specimen was frozen at −70°C for further mRNA isolation and reverse transcription into cDNA for Real-Time-PCR procedures. The relative expression of a target gene was determined in comparison with reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT, β-actin and BCRP). RESULTS Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were stained for MMP-9 in both types of lesions, and when present, epithelial cells were also stained. The number and the ratio of MMP-9+/total cells were greater in non-epithelialized than epithelialized lesions (p=0.0001) and showed a positive correlation to CD68+/total cells (p=0.045). No significant differences were observed for MMP-9 mRNA expression between ephithelized and non-ephithelized lesions. However, when compared to healthy periapical ligaments, both types of lesions presented increased MMP-9 expression (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION The present data suggest the participation of several inflammatory cells, mainlly CD68+ cells, in the MMP-9 expression in apical periodontitis lesions. MMP-9 could be actively enroled in the ECM degradation in apical periodontitis lesions. PMID:18926740

  8. Mitomycin Irrigation of Bladder Combined with Bladder Mucosa Electrocautery Treating Glandular Cystitis%丝裂霉素膀胱灌注联合膀胱黏膜电灼术治疗腺性膀胱炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳俊敏; 范锐; 张林超

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effects on mitomycin irrigation of bladder combined with bladder mucosa electrocau-tery treating glandular cystitis. Methods:38 patients with glandular cystitis proceeded bladder mucosa electrocautery with spinal-epi-dural anesthesia, 20mg mitomycin or 20ml physiological saline perfused the bladder 7 days later, catheter was removed after kept for 2 hours. Results:32 cases were cured, 6 cases were recurrent, and the curative rate was 84.2%with cystoscoping after 6 months of operation. Conclusion:Therapy of mitomycin bladder perfusion combined with bladder mucosa electrocautery treating glandular cystitis is curative effective of low cost.%  目的:观察丝裂霉素膀胱灌注联合膀胱黏膜电灼术治疗腺性膀胱炎的疗效。方法:38例腺性膀胱炎患者均行腰硬联合麻醉下膀胱黏膜电灼术,术后7天膀胱灌注20mg丝裂霉素/20ml生理盐水,保留2小时后拔除尿管。结果:术后6个月复查膀胱镜,治愈32例,复发6例,治愈率84.2%。结论:丝裂霉素膀胱灌注联合膀胱黏膜电灼术治疗腺性膀胱炎疗效好,费用低廉。

  9. The corneal fibrosis response to epithelial-stromal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Andre A M; Santhanam, Abirami; Wu, Jiahui; Singh, Vivek; Wilson, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The corneal wound healing response, including the development of stromal opacity in some eyes, is a process that often leads to scarring that occurs after injury, surgery or infection to the cornea. Immediately after epithelial and stromal injury, a complex sequence of processes contributes to wound repair and regeneration of normal corneal structure and function. In some corneas, however, often depending on the type and extent of injury, the response may also lead to the development of mature vimentin+ α-smooth muscle actin+ desmin+ myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are specialized fibroblastic cells generated in the cornea from keratocyte-derived or bone marrow-derived precursor cells. The disorganized extracellular matrix components secreted by myofibroblasts, in addition to decreased expression of corneal crystallins in these cells, are central biological processes that result in corneal stromal fibrosis associated with opacity or "haze". Several factors are associated with myofibroblast generation and haze development after PRK surgery in rabbits, a reproducible model of scarring, including the amount of tissue ablated, which may relate to the extent of keratocyte apoptosis in the early response to injury, irregularity of stromal surface after surgery, and changes in corneal stromal proteoglycans, but normal regeneration of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) appears to be a critical factor determining whether a cornea heals with relative transparency or vision-limiting stromal opacity. Structural and functional abnormalities of the regenerated EBM facilitate prolonged entry of epithelium-derived growth factors such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) into the stroma that both drive development of mature myofibroblasts from precursor cells and lead to persistence of the cells in the anterior stroma. A major discovery that has contributed to our understanding of haze development is that keratocytes and corneal

  10. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  11. Epithelial cell identity in hyperplastic precursors of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danila Coradini; Patrizia Boracchi; Saro Oriana; Elia Biganzoli; Federico Ambrogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:In the adult human breast, hyperplastic enlarged lobular unit (HELU) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) are two common abnormalities that frequently coexist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For this reason, they have been proposed as the early steps in a biological continuum toward breast cancer. Methods:We investigated in silico the expression of 369 genes experimentally recognized as involved in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell identity and mammary gland remodeling, in HELUs or ADHs with respect to the corresponding patient-matched normal tissue. Results:Despite the common luminal origin, HELUs and ADHs proved to be characterized by distinct gene profiles that overlap for 5 genes only. While HELUs were associated with the overexpression of progesterone receptor (PGR), ADHs were characterized by the overexpression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) coupled with the overexpression of some proliferation-associated genes. Conclusions:This unexpected finding contradicts the notion that in differentiated luminal cells the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is dissociated from cell proliferation and suggests that the establishing of an ER-dependent signaling is able to sustain cell proliferation in an autocrine manner as an early event in tumor initiation. Although clinical evidence indicates that only a fraction of HELUs and ADHs evolve to invasive cancer, present findings warn that exposure to synthetic progestins, frequently administered as hormone-replacement therapy, and estrogens, when abnormally produced by adipose cells and persistently present in the stroma surrounding the mammary gland, may cause these hyperplastic lesions.

  12. Proinflammatory Cytokines Increase Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

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    James P. Maloney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an endothelial permeability mediator that is highly expressed in lung epithelium. In nonlung cells proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase VEGF expression, but their effects on lung epithelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that increases in alveolar epithelial cell VEGF RNA and protein expression occur after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. We tested this using human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 stimulated with 5 proinflammatory cytokines. VEGF RNA expression was increased 1.4–2.7-fold in response to IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, or TGF-β over 6 hours, with TGF-β having the largest response. TNF-α increased VEGF RNA as early as 1 hour. A mix of IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 had effects similar to IL-1. TNF-α increased protein expression as early as 4 hours and had a sustained effect at 16 hours, whereas IL-1 did not increase protein expression. Only VEGF165 was present in cultured A549 cells, yet other isoforms were seen in human lung tissue. Increased expression of VEGF in alveolar epithelial cells occurs in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Increased VEGF expression likely contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and to the angiogenic phenotype of lung cancer, a disease typically preceded by chronic inflammation.

  13. Sin3a regulates epithelial progenitor cell fate during lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changfu; Carraro, Gianni; Konda, Bindu; Guan, Xiangrong; Mizuno, Takako; Chiba, Norika; Kostelny, Matthew; Kurkciyan, Adrianne; David, Gregory; McQualter, Jonathan L; Stripp, Barry R

    2017-07-15

    Mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific progenitors for maintenance and differentiation during development are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the co-repressor protein Sin3a is crucial for lung endoderm development. Loss of Sin3a in mouse early foregut endoderm led to a specific and profound defect in lung development with lung buds failing to undergo branching morphogenesis and progressive atrophy of the proximal lung endoderm with complete epithelial loss at later stages of development. Consequently, neonatal pups died at birth due to respiratory insufficiency. Further analysis revealed that loss of Sin3a resulted in embryonic lung epithelial progenitor cells adopting a senescence-like state with permanent cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. This was mediated at least partially through upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors Cdkn1a and Cdkn2c. At the same time, loss of endodermal Sin3a also disrupted cell differentiation of the mesoderm, suggesting aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal signaling. Together, these findings reveal that Sin3a is an essential regulator for early lung endoderm specification and differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, a single institution-based study in India

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    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among all cancers of female genital tract in countries where effective cervical cancer screening program exists. As the world's population ages, remarkable increase in the total number of ovarian cancer cases are expected. This is preliminary epidemiological study to decide priorities in ovarian cancer research. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with primary epithelial ovarian cancer cases registered in J. K. Cancer Institute, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' age at diagnosis, clinical feature, parity of patients, tumor histological type, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, chemotherapy regimens, and overall survival data were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty-three cases of primary ovarian epithelial cancer were analyzed. Patients' mean age at diagnosis was 55.98 ± 9.24 (median = 55. Serous adenocarcinoma (49.69% was the most prevalent type of histopathology followed by endometroid (19.1%, mucinous (10.42% and clear cell (4.29%. Combination of taxane and platin was most commonly used first line regimen in newly diagnosed as well as in relapsed patients post 1 year. Survival was not significantly different in various histopathology (log-rank P = 0.7406, but advancing stage demonstrated gradually poor survival (log-rank P < 0.05 when compared with early stage disease. Conclusion: Research efforts should be in the direction to find early diagnostic and effective screening tools as well as better therapeutic approaches for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  15. Analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the initial morphogenesis of the mammalian tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassule, H R; McMahon, A P

    1998-10-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions govern the development of epidermal organs such as teeth. During the early stages of tooth development, a local ectodermal thickening which expresses several signaling molecules appears. It is believed that these in turn signal to the underlying mesenchyme triggering mesenchymal condensation and tooth development. For example, epithelially expressed Bmp4 induces Msx1 and Lef1 as well as itself in the underlying mesenchyme. In this paper we have investigated the role of four epithelial signaling molecules, Bmp2, Shh, Wnt10a, and Wnt10b, in the early inductive cascades that govern tooth development. We show that all four genes are specifically expressed in the epithelium between E11.0 and E12.0 when tooth morphogenesis is first apparent. Although Shh, Bmp2, and Wnt10b have similar, if not identical, expression patterns, each signal has a distinct molecular action on the jaw mesenchyme. Whereas Shh and Wnt10b can induce general Hedgehog and Wnt targets, Ptc and Gli for Shh and Lef1 for Wnt10b, only Bmp2 is able to induce tooth-specific expression of Msx1. Thus, there are distinct targets for all three pathways. Interestingly, both Bmp and Wnt signaling activate Lef1, making it a candidate for integrating the two distinct signaling pathways. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. Epithelial inactivation of Yy1 abrogates lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherat, Olivier; Landry-Truchon, Kim; Bérubé-Simard, Félix-Antoine; Houde, Nicolas; Beuret, Laurent; Lezmi, Guillaume; Foulkes, William D; Delacourt, Christophe; Charron, Jean; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2015-09-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes by selectively activating or repressing transcription, depending upon promoter contextual differences and specific protein interactions. In mice, Yy1 null mutants die early in gestation whereas Yy1 hypomorphs die at birth from lung defects. We studied how the epithelial-specific inactivation of Yy1 impacts on lung development. The Yy1 mutation in lung epithelium resulted in neonatal death due to respiratory failure. It impaired tracheal cartilage formation, altered cell differentiation, abrogated lung branching and caused airway dilation similar to that seen in human congenital cystic lung diseases. The cystic lung phenotype in Yy1 mutants can be partly explained by the reduced expression of Shh, a transcriptional target of YY1, in lung endoderm, and the subsequent derep