WorldWideScience

Sample records for early galaxy evolution

  1. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  2. Topics in Galaxy Evolution: Early Star Formation and Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago Signorini

    In this thesis, we present three projects designed to shed light on yet unanswered questions on galaxy formation and evolution. The first two concern a sample of UV-bright starburst galaxies in the local universe (z ˜0.2). These objects are remarkably similar to star-forming galaxies that were abundant at high redshifts (2 manipulating our observations to mimic our objects at greater distances, we show how low resolution and signal-to-noise ratios can lead to erroneous conclusions, in particular when attempting to diagnose mergers as the origin of the starburst. Then, we present results from a pilot survey to study the cold, molecular gas reservoir in such objects. Again, we show that the observed properties are analogous to those observed at high redshift, in particular with respect to baryonic gas fractions in the galaxy, higher than normally found in low-extinction objects in the local universe. Furthermore, we show how gas surface density and star-formation surface density follow the same relation as local galaxies, albeit at much higher values. Finally, we discuss an observational project designed to measure the mass flux density from the blue sequence to the red sequence across the so-called green valley. We obtain the deepest spectra ever observed of green valley galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z˜0.8) in order to measure spectral features from which we can measure the star formation histories of individual galaxies. We measure a mass flux ratio that is higher than observed in the local universe, indicating the red sequence was growing faster when the universe was half its present age than today.

  3. ON THE SIZE AND COMOVING MASS DENSITY EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wel, Arjen; Bell, Eric F.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Gallazzi, Anna; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple, empirically motivated model that simultaneously predicts the evolution of the mean size and the comoving mass density of massive (>10 11 M sun ) early-type galaxies from z = 2 to the present. First, we demonstrate that some size evolution of the population can be expected simply due to the continuous emergence of early-type galaxies. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data reveal that in the present-day universe more compact early-type galaxies with a given dynamical mass have older stellar populations. This implies that with increasing look-back time, the more extended galaxies will be more and more absent from the population. In contrast, at a given stellar velocity dispersion, SDSS data show that there is no relation between size and age, which implies that the velocity dispersion can be used to estimate the epoch at which galaxies stopped forming stars, turning into early-type galaxies. Based on this, we define an empirically motivated, redshift-dependent velocity dispersion threshold above which galaxies do not form stars at a significant rate, which we associate with the transformation into early-type galaxies. Applying this 'formation' criterion to a large sample of nearby early-type galaxies, we predict the redshift evolution in the size distribution and the comoving mass density. The resulting evolution in the mean size is roughly half of the observed evolution. Then we include a prescription for the merger histories of galaxies between the 'formation' redshift and the present, based on cosmological simulations of the assembly of dark matter halos. Such mergers after the transformation into an early-type galaxy are presumably dissipationless ('dry'), where the increase in size is expected to be approximately proportional to the increase in mass. This model successfully reproduces the observed evolution since z ∼ 2 in the mean size and in the comoving mass density of early-type galaxies with mass M > 10 11 M sun . We conclude that

  4. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H 2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  5. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  6. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF SIZE AND VELOCITY DISPERSION FOR EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, L.; Lapi, A.; Bressan, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Bernardi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Massive (stellar mass M * ∼> 3 x 10 10 M sun ), passively evolving galaxies at redshifts z ∼> 1 exhibit on average physical sizes smaller, by factors ∼3, than local early-type galaxies (ETGs) endowed with the same stellar mass. Small sizes are in fact expected on theoretical grounds, if dissipative collapse occurs. Recent results show that the size evolution at z ∼ 1, where both compact and already extended galaxies are observed and the scatter in size is remarkably larger than it is locally. The presence at high redshift of a significant number of ETGs with the same size as their local counterparts, as well as ETGs with quite small size (∼ H (z). We demonstrate that the projected mass of compact, high-redshift galaxies and that of local ETGs within the same physical radius, the nominal half-luminosity radius of high-redshift ETGs, differ substantially in that the high-redshift ETGs are on average significantly denser. This result suggests that the physical mechanism responsible for the size increase should also remove mass from central galaxy regions (r ∼ 1, we predict the local velocity dispersion distribution function. On comparing it to the observed one, we show that velocity dispersion evolution of massive ETGs is fully compatible with the observed average evolution in size at constant stellar mass. Less massive ETGs (with stellar masses M * ∼ 10 M sun ) are expected to evolve less both in size and in velocity dispersion, because their evolution is essentially determined by supernova feedback, which cannot yield winds as powerful as those triggered by quasars. The differential evolution is expected to leave imprints in the size versus luminosity/mass, velocity dispersion versus luminosity/mass, and central black hole mass versus velocity dispersion relationships, as observed in local ETGs.

  7. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2003-01-01

    It is now a well established fact that galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation during their lifetimes, manifesting as an evolution along the Hubble sequence from the late to the early Hubble types...

  8. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  9. The Dramatic Size and Kinematic Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Zanisi, L.; Shi, J.; Mancuso, C.; Massardi, M.; Shankar, F.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2018-04-01

    We aim to provide a holistic view on the typical size and kinematic evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) that encompasses their high-z star-forming progenitors, their high-z quiescent counterparts, and their configurations in the local Universe. Our investigation covers the main processes playing a relevant role in the cosmic evolution of ETGs. Specifically, their early fast evolution comprises biased collapse of the low angular momentum gaseous baryons located in the inner regions of the host dark matter halo; cooling, fragmentation, and infall of the gas down to the radius set by the centrifugal barrier; further rapid compaction via clump/gas migration toward the galaxy center, where strong heavily dust-enshrouded star formation takes place and most of the stellar mass is accumulated; and ejection of substantial gas amount from the inner regions by feedback processes, which causes a dramatic puffing-up of the stellar component. In the late slow evolution, passive aging of stellar populations and mass additions by dry merger events occur. We describe these processes relying on prescriptions inspired by basic physical arguments and by numerical simulations to derive new analytical estimates of the relevant sizes, timescales, and kinematic properties for individual galaxies along their evolution. Then we obtain quantitative results as a function of galaxy mass and redshift, and compare them to recent observational constraints on half-light size R e , on the ratio v/σ between rotation velocity and velocity dispersion (for gas and stars) and on the specific angular momentum j ⋆ of the stellar component; we find good consistency with the available multiband data in average values and dispersion, both for local ETGs and for their z ∼ 1–2 star-forming and quiescent progenitors. The outcomes of our analysis can provide hints to gauge sub-grid recipes implemented in simulations, to tune numerical experiments focused on specific processes, and to plan

  10. The chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    1986-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies is reviewed with particular attention to the theoretical interpretation of the distribution and abundances of elements in stars and the interstellar medium. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. The metallicity distribution of the solar vicinity, age metallicity relationship, abundance gradients in the galaxy, external galaxies, star formation and evolution, major sites of nucleosynthesis, yields of chemical elements, chemical models, and the galactic disk, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Early-type Galaxy Spin Evolution in the Horizon-AGN Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseung; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien. E. G.; Pichon, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    Using the Horizon-AGN simulation data, we study the relative role of mergers and environmental effects in shaping the spin of early-type galaxies (ETGs) after z ≃ 1. We follow the spin evolution of 10,037 color-selected ETGs more massive than {10}10 {M}ȯ that are divided into four groups: cluster centrals (3%), cluster satellites (33%), group centrals (5%), and field ETGs (59%). We find a strong mass dependence of the slow rotator fraction, f SR, and the mean spin of massive ETGs. Although we do not find a clear environmental dependence of f SR, a weak trend is seen in the mean value of the spin parameter driven by the satellite ETGs as they gradually lose their spin as their environment becomes denser. Galaxy mergers appear to be the main cause of total spin changes in 94% of the central ETGs of halos with {M}vir}> {10}12.5 {M}ȯ , but only 22% of satellite and field ETGs. We find that non-merger-induced tidal perturbations better correlate with the galaxy spin down in satellite ETGs than in mergers. Given that the majority of ETGs are not central in dense environments, we conclude that non-merger tidal perturbation effects played a key role in the spin evolution of ETGs observed in the local (z < 1) universe.

  12. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrad, Hyron

    2005-01-01

    The evolution in the form and structure of galaxies which has taken place since the universe was in its infancy is one of the most closely studied by astrophysicists and cosmologists today. It has profound implications for our understanding of how the universe itself has evolved over the past 12 billion years or so. This book will discuss the evolution of galaxies in detail, emphasising the boundaries of our knowledge about the most distant galaxies, but demonstrating how it is possible to make important comparisons between nearby galaxies and the most distant current observed. The author will also review galaxy morphology and its likely (but as yet unproven) history.

  13. Spectral evolution of galaxies: current views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzual, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of current views on the interpretation of the various evolutionary tests aimed at detecting spectral evolution in galaxies is presented. It is concluded that the evolution taking place in known galaxy samples is a slow process (perhaps consistent with no evolution at all), and that the early phases of rapid spectral evolution in early-type galaxies have not yet been detected. (author)

  14. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  15. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-08

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  16. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.

    1975-01-01

    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  17. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  18. The Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 34-40 ISSN 1220-5168. [Heliospere and galaxy. Sinaia, 03.05.2007-05.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ISM structure * stars formation * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Crockett, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Disney, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: rryan@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z {approx} 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z {approx}> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in {approx}40 arcmin{sup 2} to H < 25 mag. By fitting the 10-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry from 0.22 {mu}m {approx}< {lambda}{sub obs} {approx}< 1.6 {mu}m with stellar population synthesis models, we simultaneously determine photometric redshift, stellar mass, and a bevy of other population parameters. Based on the six galaxies with published spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate a typical redshift uncertainty of {approx}0.033(1 + z). We determine effective radii from Sersic profile fits to the H-band image using an empirical point-spread function. By supplementing our data with published samples, we propose a mass-dependent size evolution model for passively evolving galaxies, where the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) undergo the strongest evolution from z {approx} 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z){sup -{alpha}}, we find a tentative scaling of {alpha} Almost-Equal-To (- 0.6 {+-} 0.7) + (0.9 {+-} 0.4)log (M{sub *}/10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M{sub *}-R{sub e} relation for red galaxies.

  20. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied...

  1. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroczkin, D.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of Truran and Cameron concerning the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is described, as well as the photometric properties obtained from the galactic models calculations. Also few observational facts are given. (author)

  2. THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; McCarthy, P. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Mechtley, M. R.; Windhorst, R. A.; Yan, H.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Bushouse, H.; O'Connell, R. W.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Crockett, R. M.; Disney, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies at z ∼ 2 identified in Wide-Field Camera 3 imaging from the Early Release Science program. Our sample was constructed using an analog to the passive BzK galaxy selection criterion, which isolates galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation at z ∼> 1.5. We identify 30 galaxies in ∼40 arcmin 2 to H obs ∼ * ∼ 10 11 M ☉ ) undergo the strongest evolution from z ∼ 2 to the present. Parameterizing the size evolution as (1 + z) –α , we find a tentative scaling of α ≈ (– 0.6 ± 0.7) + (0.9 ± 0.4)log (M * /10 9 M ☉ ), where the relatively large uncertainties reflect the poor sampling in stellar mass due to the low numbers of high-redshift systems. We discuss the implications of this result for the redshift evolution of the M * -R e relation for red galaxies.

  3. Investigating early-type galaxy evolution with a multiwavelength approach. II. The UV structure of 11 galaxies with Swift-UVOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Uslenghi, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter, A.

    2017-06-01

    Context. GALEX detected a significant fraction of early-type galaxies, in particular S0s, showing far-UV bright structures, sometimes involving an entire galaxy out to its outskirts. These features suggest the presence of either recent ongoing and/or prolonged star formation episodes, shedding new light on the evolution of these systems. Aims: We aim at understanding the evolutionary path[s] of these early-type galaxies and the mechanisms at the origin of their UV-bright structures. We investigate with a multiwavelength approach the link between the inner and outer galaxy regions of a set of 11 early-type galaxies that were selected because of their nearly passive stage of evolution in the nuclear region. Methods: This paper, second of a series, focuses on the information coming from the comparison between UV features detected by Swift-UVOT, which trace recent star formation, and the galaxy optical structure, which maps older stellar populations. We performed a surface photometric study of these early-type galaxies, observed with the Swift-UVOT UV filters W2 2030 Å λ0, M2 2231 Å λ0, W1 2634 Å λ0 and the UBV bands. BVRI photometry from other sources in the literature was also used. Our integrated magnitude measurements were analyzed and compared with corresponding values in the literature. We characterize the overall galaxy structure that best fits the UV and optical luminosity profiles using a single Sérsic law. Results: The galaxies NGC 1366, NGC 1426, NGC 3818, NGC 3962, and NGC 7192 show featureless luminosity profiles. Excluding NGC 1366, which has a clear edge-on disk (n ≈ 1-2), and NGC 3818, the remaining three galaxies have Sérsic's indices n ≈ 3-4 in the optical and a lower index in the UV. Bright ring- or arm-like structures are revealed by UV images and luminosity profiles of NGC 1415, NGC 1533, NGC 1543, NGC 2685, NGC 2974, and IC 2006. The ring- or arm-like structures differ from galaxy to galaxy. Sérsic indices of UV profiles for these

  4. A multi-wavelength study of the evolution of early-type galaxies in groups: the ultraviolet view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Bianchi, L.; Plana, H.; Trinchieri, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Wolter, A.

    2018-04-01

    The ultraviolet-optical colour magnitude diagram of rich galaxy groups is characterised by a well developed Red Sequence, a Blue Cloud and the so-called Green Valley. Loose, less evolved groups of galaxies which are probably not virialised yet may lack a well defined Red Sequence. This is actually explained in the framework of galaxy evolution. We are focussing on understanding galaxy migration towards the Red Sequence, checking for signatures of such a transition in their photometric and morphological properties. We report on the ultraviolet properties of a sample of early-type (ellipticals+S0s) galaxies inhabiting the Red Sequence. The analysis of their structures, as derived by fitting a Sérsic law to their ultraviolet luminosity profiles, suggests the presence of an underlying disk. This is the hallmark of dissipation processes that still must have a role to play in the evolution of this class of galaxies. Smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementations able to match the global properties of our targets are used to derive their evolutionary paths through ultraviolet-optical colour magnitude diagrams, providing some fundamental information such as the crossing time through the Green Valley, which depends on their luminosity. The transition from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence takes several Gyrs, being about 3-5 Gyr for the brightest galaxies and longer for fainter ones, if occurring. The photometric study of nearby galaxy structures in the ultraviolet is seriously hampered by either the limited field of view of the cameras (e.g., in Hubble Space Telescope) or by the low spatial resolution of the images (e.g., in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer). Current missions equipped with telescopes and cameras sensitive to ultraviolet wavelengths, such as Swift- UVOT and Astrosat-UVIT, provide a relatively large field of view and a better resolution than the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. More powerful ultraviolet instruments (size, resolution

  5. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  6. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  7. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE CLUSTER GALAXIES: CONSTRAINTS FROM OPTICAL IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF z = 0.5–0.9 GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    has a mean metallicity [M/H] approximately 0.2 dex below that of the other clusters and our low-redshift sample. We confirm our previous result that RXJ0152.7–1357 has a mean abundance ratio [α/Fe] approximately 0.3 dex higher than that of the other clusters. The differences in [M/H] and [α/Fe] between the high-redshift clusters and the low-redshift sample are inconsistent with a passive evolution scenario for early-type cluster galaxies over the redshift interval studied. Low-level star formation may be able to bring the metallicity of MS0451.6–0305 in agreement with the low-redshift sample, while we speculate whether galaxy mergers can lead to sufficiently large changes in the abundance ratios for the RXJ0152.7–1357 galaxies to allow them to reach the low-redshift sample values in the time available.

  8. The SAURON project : XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star

  9. The SAURON project - XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star

  10. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying......, and sheds light on the AGN-host co-evolution by connecting the fraction and luminosity of AGNs with galaxy properties. By analyzing a large survey in X-ray, AGNs of high and low X-ray luminosity are extracted among massive galaxies at z _ 2 via AGN classification methods, and stacking techniques of non...

  11. Stellar Evolution in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The main thrust of the program was to obtain UV spectroscopy of a number of massive and hot luminous (OB type) stars in the nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The objective was to analyze their atmospheres and winds so as to determine the effect of the lower abundance of the SIVIC on these parameters. Furthermore, the differences in evolution could be investigated. Additionally, the UV spectra themselves would be suitably weighted and systematically combined to provide a template for comparison to very distant galaxies formed in the early history of the Universe which also have a low abundance of elements. The spectra have been obtained and the analysis is proceeding, primarily by the groups in Munich and at STScl who are the leads for this project. Given the important role of the nearby SMC galaxy as a template of low metal abundance, I have begun to investigate the YOUNGEST phases of massive star birth, before the most massive and hottest stars become optically visible. Typically these stars form in clusters, in some cases having tens to hundreds of OB type stars. In this phase, each star is still buried in its natal cloud and visible only in the infrared (IR) from its self-heated dust and/or from radio free-free emission of the surrounding hydrogen (HII) region. Efforts to find and identify these buried clusters were conducted using a large radio telescope. A number of these were found and further analysis of the data is underway. These clusters are not visible optically, but ought to be seen in the IR, and are a likely topic for HST photometry on NICMOS. A proposal to do this will be made next semester. These objects are the precursors of the optically visible clusters that contain massive and hot luminous stars.

  12. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying...

  13. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  14. Elliptical and lenticular galaxies evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Different evolutionnary models for elliptical and lenticular galaxies are discussed. In the first part, we show that, at least some peculiar early types galaxies exhibit some activity. Then we describe the observationnal constraints: the color-magnitude diagram, the color gradient and the high metallicity of intraclusters gas. Among the different models, only the dissipation collapse followed by a hot wind driven by supernovae explosion explain in a natural way these constraints. Finally, the origin of SO is briefly discussed [fr

  15. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  16. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  17. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial conditions are probably set by results of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBNS) without intervening complications affecting the composition of visible matter so that extrapolation of observed abundances to BBNS products seems fairly secure. Primordial helium and deuterium abundances deduced in this way place upper and lower limits on baryonic density implying that both baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter exist and predicting no more than 3 neutrino flavours as recently confirmed in accelerator experiments. The validity of simple galactic chemical evolution models assumed in extrapolating back to the Big Bang is examined in the light of the frequency distribution of iron or oxygen abundances in the Galactic halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  18. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  19. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  20. The resolved history of galaxy evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinchmann, Jarle

    2002-12-15

    We briefly review the study of the evolution of galaxies from an observational point of view, with particular emphasis on the role of the Hubble Space Telescope in probing the evolution of the different morphological types of galaxy. We show how using the stellar mass of galaxies as a tracer of evolution can improve our understanding of the physical process taking place before turning our eyes towards the future and giving an overview of what we can expect from future advances in technology.

  1. WITNESSING THE KEY EARLY PHASE OF QUASAR EVOLUTION: AN OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIR IN THE INTERACTING GALAXY IRAS 20210+1121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair in the interacting galaxy system IRAS 20210+1121 at z = 0.056. An XMM-Newton observation reveals the presence of an obscured (N H ∼ 5 x 10 23 cm -2 ), Seyfert-like (L 2-10keV = 4.7 x 10 42 erg s -1 ) nucleus in the northern galaxy, which lacks unambiguous optical AGN signatures. Our spectral analysis also provides strong evidence that the IR-luminous southern galaxy hosts a Type 2 quasar embedded in a bright starburst emission. In particular, the X-ray primary continuum from the nucleus appears totally depressed in the XMM-Newton band as expected in the case of a Compton-thick absorber, and only the emission produced by Compton scattering ('reflection') of the continuum from circumnuclear matter is seen. As such, IRAS 20210+1121 seems to provide an excellent opportunity to witness a key, early phase in the quasar evolution predicted by the theoretical models of quasar activation by galaxy collisions.

  2. Dwarf galaxy evolution within the environments of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Ceverino, Daniel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structure determined by the ΛCDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have the smallest potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences including the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too-big-to-fail problems. We have run a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations using the ART code to examine the evolution of dwarf galaxies in massive host environments. These are cosmological zoom-in simulations including deterministic star formation and stellar feedback in the form of supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure. We simulates galaxies with final halo masses on the order of 1012 M⊙ with high resolution, allowing us to examine the satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each primary galaxy. We analyzed the abundance and structure of these dwarfs specifically the velocity function, their star formation rates, core creation and the circumgalactic medium. By reproducing observations of dwarf galaxies in simulations we show how including baryons in simulations relieves tensions seen in comparing dark matter only simulations with observations.

  3. The Chemodynamical Evolution of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brad K.; Kawata, Daisuke; Brook, Chris B.; Connors, Tim W.

    GCD+ (Galactic Chemodynamics Plus) is a soon-to-be publically available N-body/SPH code being developed at Swinburne University for modeling the formation and evolution of galaxies within a cosmological framework. A sophisticated chemical evolution module as been incorporated within GCD+ making use of the latest stellar yields on the market; a self-consistent treatment of energy feedback from Type Ia and II supernovae (relaxing the instantaneous recycling approximation) cooling and star formation is standard within GCD+. Spatially resolved synthetic maps can be generated ranging from stellar populations to the hot and warm X-ray emitting properties of clusters. We will demonstrate GCD+'s application to simulating the 7-dimensional phase space (position velocity chemistry) distribution of the oldest stars in the Milky Way in addition to its seemless predictive power in regards to spatial and temporal evolution of the age-metallicty relationship metallicity distribution functions and the disruption of the Magellanic System

  4. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  5. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z=1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    2011-11-01

    It is now 30 years since Alan Dressler published his seminal paper onthe morphology-density relation. Although there is still much to learnon the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, extensive progress has been made since then both observationally and theoretically.Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature'' vs. "nurture'' in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age.Many of the results presented here have been obtainedwithin the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  6. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  7. The SAURON Project - XIV. No escape from V-esc : a global and local parameter in early-type galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Nicholas; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, R.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Pipino, Antonio; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; van Scherpenzeel, Eveline; Krajnović, Davor

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation of the local escape velocity (V-esc) - line strength index relationship for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, the first such study based on a large sample of galaxies with both detailed integral field observations and extensive dynamical

  8. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  9. Looking Wider and Further: The Evolution of Galaxies Inside Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are rare objects in the universe, but on-going wide field optical surveys are identifying many thousands of them to redshift 1.0 and beyond. Using early data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and publicly released data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this dissertation explores the evolution of cluster galaxies in the redshift range from 0 to 1.0. As it is common for deep wide field sky surveys like DES to struggle with galaxy detection efficiency at cluster core, the first component of this dissertation describes an efficient package that helps resolving the issue. The second part focuses on the formation of cluster galaxies. The study quantifies the growth of cluster bright central galaxies (BCGs), and argues for the importance of merging and intra-cluster light production during BCG evolution. An analysis of cluster red sequence galaxy luminosity function is also performed, demonstrating that the abundance of these galaxies is mildly dependent on cluster mass and redshift. The last component of the dissertation characterizes the properties of galaxy filaments to help understanding cluster environments

  10. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.

    2014-12-01

    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  11. A Hybrid Model for the Evolution of Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Infrared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.; , De, Zotti G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the infrared (IR). Based on the observed dichotomy in the ages of stellar populations of early-type galaxies on one side and late-type galaxies on the

  12. ENVIRONMENTALLY DRIVEN GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing high-resolution large-scale galaxy formation simulations of the standard cold dark matter model, we examine global trends in the evolution of galaxies due to gravitational shock heating by collapse of large halos and large-scale structure. We find two major global trends. (1) The mean specific star formation rate (sSFR) at a given galaxy mass is a monotonically increasing function with increasing redshift. (2) The mean sSFR at a given redshift is a monotonically increasing function of decreasing galaxy mass that steepens with decreasing redshift. The general dimming trend with time merely reflects the general decline of gas inflow rate with increasing time. The differential evolution of galaxies of different masses with redshift is a result of gravitational shock heating of gas due to formation of large halos (groups and clusters) and large-scale structure that moves a progressively larger fraction of galaxies and their satellites into environments where gas has too high an entropy to cool to continue feeding resident galaxies. Overdense regions where larger halos are preferentially located begin to be heated earlier and have higher temperatures than lower density regions at any given time, causing sSFR of larger galaxies to fall below the general dimming trend at higher redshift than less massive galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR to gradually shift to lower density environments at lower redshift. We find that several noted cosmic downsizing phenomena are different manifestations of these general trends. We also find that the great migration of galaxies from blue cloud to red sequence as well as color-density relation, among others, may arise naturally in this picture.

  13. Velocity evolution of galaxy clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslaw, W.C.; Aarseth, S.J.

    1982-02-15

    We have examined the changing velocity distribution of galaxies as they cluster in computer models of the expanding universe. The models are 4000-body numerical simulations of galaxies with a large range of masses interacting gravitationally. Clustering in velocity space is measured by calculating the residual peculiar velocities around the Hubble expansion. These form ''Hubble streaks as clustering progresses. We distinguish isolated field galaxies from clustered galaxies. In contrast to the usual belief, the velocity dispersion of the most extreme field galaxies does not decrease adiabatically. Rather, it is dominated by the perturbations of distant large clusters as they form and it decreases much more slowly than the inverse expansion length scale, R/sup -1/. The velocity dispersion of extreme field galaxies is a good cosmological indicator of ..cap omega.. = rho/rho/sub crit/. Preliminary comparison of several simulations with observtions shows that our universe agrees better with low density models, ..cap omega..< or =0.1. The velocity dispersion of cluster centers of mass is a good cosmological marker as well. We also suggest another new method for estimating ..cap omega.., based on the history of extreme field galaxies.

  14. Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [α/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hβ, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [α/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z⊙, and [α/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the α-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ∝ σ0.39 ± 0.22, Z ∝ σ0.80 ± 0.16, and α/Fe ∝ σ0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [α/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[α/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  15. The Role of Galaxy Mergers and Molecular Gas in the Early Phase of Galaxy Cluster Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling

    2017-08-01

    High-redshift protoclusters are ideal places to study the formation of the largest structures in the Universe and the early environmental influences on galaxy evolution. Recent discoveries of z>2 protoclusters with extremely rich populations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs; SFR>100 Msun/yr) represent the most active assembly phases of massive galaxy clusters. Understanding the triggering mechanisms of these unusual concentrations of extreme star-forming galaxies can provide critical insights into the formation of most massive galaxies in these clusters and the assembly of massive clusters themselves. For example, an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply may trigger an excess of DSFGs. Using the extensive ancillary data in the COSMOS field, we study the role of galaxy mergers through measuring the frequency of galaxy pairs in two such DSFG-rich protoclusters at z=2.10 and 2.47, respectively. We also investigate the mean molecular gas content of protocluster galaxies by stacking SCUBA-2 850 micron images. These independent investigations provide complementary views into the physical nature of these DSFG-rich protoclusters.

  16. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  17. Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    the magnetic fields in the foreground protogalaxies.Farnes and collaborators were unable to detect either coherent or random magnetic fields in DLAs. LLSs, however, showed some evidence of coherent magnetic fields and significant evidence of incoherent magnetic fields. The observations show that the magnetized gas in LLSs must be highly turbulent on a scale of 520 parsecs similar to turbulence scales in the Milky Way.Support for DynamosWhat do these observations imply? Both support the dynamo theory of magnetic field growth in galaxies!Polarization fraction distributions (top) and their logarithms (bottom) for sources with and without protogalaxies in the foreground (pink for DLAs, blue for LLSs, and grey for no intervenor). Statistical analysis reveals that the distribution for LLSs differs from the control sample, indicating the presence of magnetized gas. [Adapted from Farnes et al. 2017]The DLAs appear to consist of mostly non-turbulent quiescent gas; no dynamo action is currently occurring in these protogalaxies. The LLSs, on the other hand, appear to be growing their random magnetic fields via a turbulent dynamo. Thefields have not yet had enough time to become ordered like the fields of more evolved galaxies, however.Farnes and collaborators data indicate that magnetic fields are indeed being gradually built up in early galaxies by dynamos. They also suggest that DLAs may represent an earlier galactic evolutionary stage than LLSs, as DLAs havent yet had the time to develop their magnetic fields to a detectable level.A future increase in sample size will certainly help improve our understanding of the field formation process. In the meantime, the data in this study provide the first observational picture of magnetic field evolution in galaxies, lending excellent support to theoretical models.CitationJ. S. Farnes et al 2017 ApJ 841 67. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7060

  18. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-01-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral

  19. Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio; ESO Workshop

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of astronomical observation have dramatically increased over the last decade. Major satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra and XMM Newton, are complemented by numerous large ground-based observatories, from 8m-10m optical telescopes to sub-mm and radio facilities. As a result, observational astronomy has access to virtually the whole electromagnetic spectrum of galaxies, even at high redshifts. Theoretical models of galaxy formation and cosmological evolution now face a serious challenge to match the plethora of observational data. In October 2003, over 170 astronomers from 15 countries met for a 4-day workshop to extensively illustrate and discuss all major observational projects and ongoing theoretical efforts to model galaxy formation and evolution. This volume contains the complete proceedings of this meeting and is therefore a unique and timely overview of the current state of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  20. Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Multi-wavelength observations were performed in order to investigate various phases of interstellar matter in early type galaxies. The IRAS coadding procedure for a large sample of galaxies, the author found that about half of early type galaxies contain detectable amounts of cold interstellar dust. Selecting galaxies with strong far infrared fluxes, he undertook optical imaging and spectroscopy, HI λ21 cm line observations and CO J = 1-0 line observations. He successfully detected cold dust, HI gas, ionized gas and molecular material; proving that the far infrared flux is indeed a good indicator for the presence of interstellar matter. The infrared emission mechanism and origin and fate of interstellar matter are discussed using the data obtained from various phases of interstellar matter. The interstellar matter is also used as a probe of dynamical structure, nuclear activity and star formation in early type galaxies

  1. The ATLAS(3D) project : VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within lambda CDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed

  2. The ATLAS3D project - VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within ΛCDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed via λR. Within

  3. Circumgalactic Matter Matters in Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werk, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM; non-ISM gas within a galaxy virial radius) regulates the gas flows that shape the assembly and evolution of galaxies. Owing to the vastly improved capabilities in space-based UV spectroscopy with the installation of HST/COS, observations and simulations of the CGM have emerged as the new frontier of galaxy evolution studies. In the last decade, we have learned that the CGM of Milky Way mass galaxies likely contains enough material to harbor most of the metals lost in galaxy winds and to sustain star-formation for billions of years. Remarkably, this implies that most of the heavy elements on earth cycled back and forth multiple times through the Milky Way’s own CGM before the formation of the solar system. In this talk, I will describe constraints we have placed on the origin and fate of this material by studying the gas kinematics, metallicity and ionization state. I will conclude by posing several unanswered questions about the CGM that will be addressed with future survey data and hydrodynamic simulations in a cosmological context.

  4. AGES: THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Eisenstein, D. J.; Caldwell, N.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Forman, W. R.; Green, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cool, R. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, Bryant Space Science Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) is a redshift survey covering, in its standard fields, 7.7 deg{sup 2} of the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The final sample consists of 23,745 redshifts. There are well-defined galaxy samples in 10 bands (the B{sub W} , R, I, J, K, IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m, and MIPS 24 {mu}m bands) to a limiting magnitude of I < 20 mag for spectroscopy. For these galaxies, we obtained 18,163 redshifts from a sample of 35,200 galaxies, where random sparse sampling was used to define statistically complete sub-samples in all 10 photometric bands. The median galaxy redshift is 0.31, and 90% of the redshifts are in the range 0.085 < z < 0.66. Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) were selected as radio, X-ray, IRAC mid-IR, and MIPS 24 {mu}m sources to fainter limiting magnitudes (I < 22.5 mag for point sources). Redshifts were obtained for 4764 quasars and galaxies with AGN signatures, with 2926, 1718, 605, 119, and 13 above redshifts of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. We detail all the AGES selection procedures and present the complete spectroscopic redshift catalogs and spectral energy distribution decompositions. Photometric redshift estimates are provided for all sources in the AGES samples.

  5. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: Scientific Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Ninkov, Zoran; Robberto, Massimo; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    GESE is a mission concept consisting of a 1.5-m space telescope and UV multi-object slit spectrograph designed to help understand galaxy evolution in a critical era in the history of the universe, where the rate of star-formation stopped increasing and started to decline. To isolate and identify the various processes driving the evolution of these galaxies, GESE will obtain rest-frame far-UV spectra of 100,000 galaxies at redshifts, z approximately 1-2. To obtain such a large number of spectra, multiplexing over a wide field is an absolute necessity. A slit device such as a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) or a micro-shutter array (MSA) enables spectroscopy of a hundred or more sources in a single exposure while eliminating overlapping spectra of other sources and blocking unwanted background like zodiacal light. We find that a 1.5-m space telescope with a MSA slit device combined with a custom orbit enabling long, uninterrupted exposures (approximately 10 hr) are optimal for this spectroscopic survey. GESE will not be operating alone in this endeavor. Together with x-ray telescopes and optical/near-IR telescopes like Subaru/Prime Focus Spectrograph, GESE will detect "feedback" from young massive stars and massive black holes (AGN's), and other drivers of galaxy evolution.

  6. The influence of environment on galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Dennis William

    We study the influence of environment on galaxy evolution by focusing on two galaxy types known for their connection to dense environments, S0s and Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). Our goal is to identify the mechanisms responsible for the properties of galaxies in groups and clusters. We first examine the effects of environment on S0 formation over the past ~7 Gyr by tracing the increasing S0 fraction in clusters at two mass scales. We find the build-up of S0s driven by groups/clusters with velocity dispersions of σ less-massive halos identified as the site for S0 formation, we test whether another route to S0 formation exists, not in isolated groups but rather in a system of four merging groups (SG1120). We place limits on how recent the S0s in that system could have formed, and finding no star formation, conclude they formed > 1 Gyr prior to SG1120's current configuration, when they were in more isolated groups. We next explore cluster outskirts to constrain the number of infalling galaxies that need to be transformed and whether that process has already begun. We find the red fraction of infalling galaxies is elevated relative to the field, and that red galaxies are more clustered than blue ones, a signature of "pre-processing". We disentangle the relative strength of global versus local environment on galaxy transformation by comparing the correlation of red fraction with radius and local density. We find that both parameters are connected with the red fraction of galaxies. Finally, we measure the frequency of galaxies falling into the cluster that are bright enough to supplant the current BCG and compare the results to models. We find in ~85% of our clusters that the BCG is secure and remains in its priviledged state until z ~ 0. From these analyses, we find that intermediate density environments (groups and cluster outskirts) are the key site to forming S0 galaxies, and that BCGs, while not exclusively a cluster phenomenon, are well established by the

  7. Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, L.; Makarov, D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider star formation properties of dwarf galaxies in Cen A group observed within our HST/ACS projects number 9771 and 10235. We model color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies under consideration and measure star formation rate and metallicity dependence on time. We study environmental dependence of the galaxy evolution and probable origin of the dwarf galaxies in the group.

  8. Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.

  9. Formation and Evolution of Giant Molecular Clouds in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Tan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of stars from gas in disk galaxies is one of the most basic processes controlling galactic evolution. While there are many other important effects, such as galaxy interactions and infall of diffuse gas, ultimately a large fraction of the gas settles into a rotationally supported disk where the majority of the stellar population is born. Due to restrictions in resolution, galactic-scale simulations have largely modeled star formation using empirical correlations between the gas density and star formation rate. While useful, these methods are unable to tell us about the early stages of star formation and the evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). In this talk, we show results from a set of high adaptive mesh resolution ( 15 pc) global galaxy simulations (32 kpc) that follows the birth, evolution and death of star-forming clouds in the ISM. We present a technique to track the clouds through their life and compare the properties of clouds at different ages. Our clouds are defined with a density threshold that should give them similar properties to giant molecular clouds, and this allows us to make detailed comparison of our simulation results to observations of the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  10. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Local Early-type Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, M.; Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Crocker, A. F.; Blitz, L.; Young, L. M.; Combes, F.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P. -A; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P. -Y; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Carignan, Claude; Combes, François; Freeman, Ken C.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular gas content of local early-type galaxies is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution. First, as part of the ATLAS3D survey, we present the first complete, large (260 objects), volume-limited single-dish survey of CO in normal local early-type galaxies. We find a

  11. Galaxy Evolution Over the Past Eleven Billion Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Wing Shan

    Galaxy evolution studies have been revolutionized by the advent of near-infrared observations over the last decade. An intriguingly population of distant red galaxies, only visible at near-infrared wavelengths, was discovered. They were previously overlooked, since they are invisible even...... they must undergo significant size evolution to become present-day giant ellipticals. The need for further evolution lends strong support to the idea that large galaxies form from hierarchal assembly, effective ruling out the monolithic collapse model. It is therefore important to understand the formation...... and evolution of this peculiar population of compact, massive quiescent galaxies, which in turn provides constraints to galaxy formation models. Despite the wealth of observations, the dominant physical mechanisms driving the evolution of galaxies are still fiercely debated. Is galaxy merging a dominant...

  12. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION LIBRARY FOR GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R., E-mail: saitoh@elsi.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users’ simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation—namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models—can use it. This library is named “CELib” after the term “Chemical Evolution Library” and is made available to the community.

  13. The Evolution of Galaxies in Cluster Environment; HI Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujita, A.; van Gorkom, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the degree to which the environment affects the evolution of galaxies in clusters. One way is to study the fate of gas in cluster galaxies by deep HI synthesis imaging. We are interested in the correlation between HI deficiency of galaxies and the dynamical states of clusters/the

  14. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin Lecture: Galaxy Evolution over the Latter Half of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sandra

    2004-05-01

    Several experiments are now gathering data in statistically valid numbers for intermediate-redshift galaxies out to z = 1 for the first time. The speaker will review results from DEEP2 and other surveys to sketch the current picture of the final stages of galaxy evolution. Galaxies are found to be divided into red and blue classes (ellipticals and spirals) as early as z = 1.2, but strong evolution seems to be occurring within each class. Morphologies of spiral-type precursors are highly irregular at z = 1, and the zero point and possibly the slope of the TF relation have changed. The total stellar mass in E/S0s has roughly doubled since that epoch. The processes whereby these events are occurring are not understood, and toy models for galaxy evolution do not fit the data. The key to understanding the Hubble sequence apparently lies in the properties of these galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  15. IMAGES. I. Strong evolution of galaxy kinematics since z = 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.; Neichel, B.; Puech, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Rawat, A.; Cesarsky, C.; Lehnert, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Amram, P.; Balkowski, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Guiderdoni, B.; Kembhavi, A.; Liang, Y. C.; Östlin, G.; Ravikumar, C. D.; Vergani, D.; Vernet, J.; Wozniak, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly half the stellar mass of present-day spiral galaxies has formed since z = 1, and galaxy kinematics is an ideal tool to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the galaxy mass assembly since that epoch. Here, we present the first results of the ESO large program, “IMAGES”, which aims at obtaining robust measurements of the kinematics of distant galaxies using the multi-IFU mode of GIRAFFE on the VLT. 3D spectroscopy is essential to robustly measure the often distorted kinematics of distant galaxies (e.g., Flores et al. 2006, A&A, 455, 107). We derive the velocity fields and σ-maps of 36 galaxies at 0.4 evolution of the galaxy kinematics that we observe. Intermediate MAss Galaxy Evolution Sequence, ESO programs 174.B-0328(A), 174.B-0328(A), 174.B-0328(E).

  16. Enviromental Effects on Internal Color Gradients of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Gal, R. R.; Busarello, G.; Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2007-05-01

    One of the most debated issues of observational and theoretical cosmology is that of how the environment affects the formation and evolution of galaxies. To gain new insight into this subject, we have derived surface photometry for a sample of 3,000 early-type galaxies belonging to 163 clusters with different richness, spanning a redshift range of 0.05 to 0.25. This large data-set is used to analyze how the color distribution inside galaxies depends on several parameters, such as cluster richness, local galaxy density, galaxy luminosity and redshift. We find that the internal color profile of galaxies strongly depends on the environment where galaxies reside. Galaxies in poor and rich clusters are found to follow two distinct trends in the color gradient vs. redshift diagram, with color gradients beeing less steep in rich rather than in poor clusters. No dependence of color gradients on galaxy luminosity is detected both for poor and rich clusters. We find that color gradients strongly depend on local galaxy density, with more shallow gradients in high density regions. Interestingly, this result holds only for low richness clusters, with color gradients of galaxies in rich clusters showing no dependence on local galaxy density. Our results support a reasonable picture whereby young early-type galaxies form in a dissipative collapse process, and then undergo increased (either major or minor) merging activity in richer rather than in poor clusters.

  17. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeck, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    whole optical and infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000Å which are almost completely based on spectra of observed stars (apart from two gaps which were fitted with theoretical stellar spectra) . We analyze the behaviour of the near-infrared (J - K) and the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour calculated from our models. For ages older than 3 Gyr, both colours depend only slightly on age and metallicity. However, for younger ages, both colours become redder which is caused by the asymptotic giant branch stars contributing significantly to the light in the infrared at ages between 0.1 and 3 Gyr. Furthermore, we find a satisfactory agreement between the optical and near-infrared colours measured from our models and the colours observed from various samples of globular clusters and early-type x galaxies. However, our model predictions are only able to reproduce correctly the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours of older, more massive galaxies that resemble a single-burst population. Younger, less massive and more metal-poor galaxies show redder colours than our models. This mismatch can be explained by a more extended star formation history of these galaxies which includes a metal-poor or/and young population. The Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours derived from our models also agree very well with those from most other models available in this wavelength range as long as they also correctly take into account a strong CO absorption band situated at 4.5 μm. The model predictions for colours in the near-infrared, such as (J - K), differ more between the different sets of models, depending on the underlying prescriptions for the asymptotic giant branch stellar evolutionary phase. Compared to other authors, we adopt only a moderate contribution of asymptotic giant branch stars to our models. Our stellar population models allow us also to determine mass-to-light ratios in different infrared bands. Consequently, we can confirm that the massto- light ratio determined in the Spitzer [3

  18. The ATLAS3D Project - XXVIII. Dynamically driven star formation suppression in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Young, Lisa M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Bureau, Martin; Blitz, Leo; Alatalo, Katherine; Emsellem, Eric; Naab, Thorsten; Bayet, Estelle; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) in the early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D sample, based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 μm and Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet emission. We combine these with gas masses estimated from 12CO and H I data in

  19. MINOR MERGERS AND THE SIZE EVOLUTION OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2009-01-01

    Using a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of the formation of a massive spheroidal galaxy we show that elliptical galaxies can be very compact and massive at high redshift in agreement with recent observations. Accretion of stripped infalling stellar material increases the size of the system with time and the central concentration is reduced by dynamical friction of the surviving stellar cores. In a specific case of a spheroidal galaxy with a final stellar mass of 1.5 x 10 11 M sun we find that the effective radius r e increases from 0.7 ± 0.2 kpc at z = 3 to r e = 2.4 ± 0.4 kpc at z = 0 with a concomitant decrease in the effective density of an order of magnitude and a decrease of the central velocity dispersion by approximately 20% over this time interval. A simple argument based on the virial theorem shows that during the accretion of weakly bound material (minor mergers) the radius can increase as the square of the mass in contrast to the usual linear rate of increase for major mergers. By undergoing minor mergers compact high-redshift spheroids can evolve into present-day systems with sizes and concentrations similar to observed local ellipticals. This indicates that minor mergers may be the main driver for the late evolution of sizes and densities of early-type galaxies.

  20. Galaxy evolution in Local Group analogs. I. A GALEX study of nearby groups dominated by late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A.; Bianchi, L.; Rampazzo, R.; Buson, L. M.; Bettoni, D.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Understanding the astrophysical processes acting within galaxy groups and their effects on the evolution of the galaxy population is one of the crucial topics of modern cosmology, as almost 60% of galaxies in the Local Universe are found in groups. Aims: We aim at learning about galaxy evolution within nearby groups dominated by late-type galaxies, specifically by studying their ultraviolet-emitting stellar population. Methods: We imaged in the far (FUV, λ_eff = 1539 Å) and near ultraviolet (NUV, λ_eff = 2316 Å) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) three nearby groups, namely LGG 93, LGG 127 and LGG 225. We obtained the UV galaxy surface photometry and, for LGG 225, the only group covered by the SDSS, the photometry in u, g, r, i, z bands. We discuss galaxy morphologies looking for interaction signatures and we analyze the spectral energy distribution of galaxies to infer their luminosity-weighted ages. The UV and optical photometry was also used to perform a luminosity-weighted kinematical and dynamical analysis of each group and to evaluate the stellar mass. Results: A few member galaxies in LGG 225 show a distorted UV morphology due to ongoing interactions. (FUV-NUV) colors suggest that spirals in LGG 93 and LGG 225 host stellar populations in their outskirts younger than that of M 31 and M 33 in the Local Group or with less extinction. The irregular interacting galaxy NGC 3447A has a significantly younger stellar population (a few Myr old) than the average of the other irregular galaxies in LGG 225 suggesting that the encounter triggered star formation. The early-type members of LGG 225, NGC 3457 and NGC 3522, have masses of the order of a few 10^9~M_⊙, comparable to the Local Group ellipticals. For the most massive spiral in LGG 225, we estimate a stellar mass of ≈4 × 1010~M_⊙, comparable to M 33 in the Local Group. Ages of stellar populations range from a few to ≈7 Gyr for the galaxies in LGG 225. The kinematical and dynamical

  1. Island universes structure and evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    DE JONG, R. S

    2007-01-01

    This book contains an up-to-date review of the structure and evolution of disk galaxies from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The book is the proceedings of the "Island Universes" conference held at the island of Terschelling, The Netherlands in July 2005, which attracted about 130 experts and students in the field. The conference was organized as a tribute to Dr. Piet C. van der Kruit for receiving the honorary Jacobus C. Kapteyn Professorship in Astronomy. The eight topical themes discussed at the meeting are reflected in these proceedings: 1) Properties of Stellar Disks, 2) Kinematics and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies, 3) Bars, Spiral Structure, and Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies, 4) The Outskirts and Environment of Disk Galaxies, 5) Interstellar Matter, 6) (Evolution of) Star Formation in Galactic Disks, 7) Disk Galaxies through Cosmic Time, and 8) Formation Models of Disk Galaxies. These proceedings are concluded with a conference summary reflecting on the most significant recent pro...

  2. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-09

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies.

  3. Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Luminous compact galaxies (LCGs), Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), and Lyman Break Analog galaxies (LBAs) are all used as proxies for star-forming galaxies in the early Universe (z ≥ 6). The X-ray emission from such galaxies has been found to be elevated compared to other star-forming galaxies in our local Universe. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lower metallicity seen in these proxies to high-redshift galaxies and the elevated X-ray emission may affect the heating and Reionization evolution of the early Universe. Our previous studies have suggested the existence of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for all star-forming galaxies. We present these results in the context of our newest Joint Chandra/HST study containing the first X-ray detection of the Green Pea galaxies, a population of compact starburst galaxies discovered by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Project (Cardamone+2009). The galaxies were given the name Green Peas due to their compact size and green appearance in the gri composite images from SDSS. The green color is caused by a strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line, an indicator of recent star formation. We observed a few of the most promising candidates with joint Chandra/HST observation and discuss our findings here.

  4. Numerical simulations of galaxy evolution in cosmological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Marie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Teyssier, Romain

    2009-03-01

    Large volume cosmological simulations succeed in reproducing the large-scale structure of the Universe. However, they lack resolution and may not take into account all relevant physical processes to test if the detail properties of galaxies can be explained by the CDM paradigm. On the other hand, galaxy-scale simulations could resolve this in a robust way but do not usually include a realistic cosmological context. To study galaxy evolution in cosmological context, we use a new method that consists in coupling cosmological simulations and galactic scale simulations. For this, we record merger and gas accretion histories from cosmological simulations and re-simulate at very high resolution the evolution of baryons and dark matter within the virial radius of a target galaxy. This allows us for example to better take into account gas evolution and associated star formation, to finely study the internal evolution of galaxies and their disks in a realistic cosmological context. We aim at obtaining a statistical view on galaxy evolution from z ≃ 2 to 0, and we present here the first results of the study: we mainly stress the importance of taking into account gas accretion along filaments to understand galaxy evolution.

  5. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  6. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; De Swardt, Bonita; Comerón, Sébastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; De Paz, Armando Gil

    2012-01-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T ≤ 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes ∼3%-10% to the total 3.6 μm luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  7. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution: an EMIR survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; I. Rodriguez, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telescope...

  8. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energetic, it is extremely short-lived. This justify focussing on transitio- nal galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT,. LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of ...

  9. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... These galaxies have very massive dark matter halos that also contribute to their stability and lack of evolution. In this paper we briefly review the properties of this unique class of galaxies and conclude that both their isolation and their massive dark matter halos have led to the low star formation rates and ...

  10. Evolution of the atomic and molecular gas content of galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Gergö; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trager, Scott C.

    We study the evolution of atomic and molecular gas in galaxies in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include new modelling of the partitioning of cold gas in galactic discs into atomic, molecular, and ionized phases. We adopt two scenarios for the formation of molecules: one pressure

  11. Tracing galaxy evolution through resolved stellar populations and star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Villa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Field stars and star clusters contain a big part of the galaxy’s history. To understand galaxy formation and evolution we need then to understand the parts of which galaxies are composed. It has commonly been assumed that most stars formed in clusters. However, the connection between these two

  12. Galaxy evolution in dense environments: a concise HI perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2004-01-01

    Observing the neutral hydrogen in galaxy clusters provides crucial insights in the physical processes that influence the evolution of gas-rich galaxies as they migrate from the lower-density filaments through the cluster outskirts into to the higher-density central regions. The morphology-density

  13. Galaxy Collisions, Gas Stripping and Star Formation in the Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2006), s. 125-146 ISSN 0941-1445. [From Cosmological Structures to the Milky Way. Praha, 20.09.2004-25.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies * evolution of galaxies * interstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-04-25

    Much of our knowledge of galaxies comes from analysing the radiation emitted by their stars, which depends on the present number of each type of star in the galaxy. The present number depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which describes the distribution of stellar masses when the population formed, and knowledge of it is critical to almost every aspect of galaxy evolution. More than 50 years after the first IMF determination, no consensus has emerged on whether it is universal among different types of galaxies. Previous studies indicated that the IMF and the dark matter fraction in galaxy centres cannot both be universal, but they could not convincingly discriminate between the two possibilities. Only recently were indications found that massive elliptical galaxies may not have the same IMF as the Milky Way. Here we report a study of the two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the large representative ATLAS(3D) sample of nearby early-type galaxies spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, using detailed dynamical models. We find a strong systematic variation in IMF in early-type galaxies as a function of their stellar mass-to-light ratios, producing differences of a factor of up to three in galactic stellar mass. This implies that a galaxy's IMF depends intimately on the galaxy's formation history.

  15. Colors and the evolution of amorphous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and H-alpha photometric observations are presented for 16 amorphous galaxies and a comparison sample of Magellanic irregular (Im) and Sc spiral galaxies. These data are analyzed in terms of star-formation rates and histories in amorphous galaxies. Amorphous galaxies have mean global colors and star-formation rates per unit area that are similar to those in giant Im systems, despite differences in spatial distributions of star-forming centers in these two galactic structural classes. Amorphous galaxies differ from giant Im systems in having somewhat wider scatter in relationships between B - V and U - B colors, and between U - B and L(H-alpha)/L(B). This scatter is interpreted as resulting from rapid variations in star-formation rates during the recent past, which could be a natural consequence of the concentration of star-forming activity into centrally located, supergiant young stellar complexes in many amorphous galaxies. While the unusual spatial distribution and intensity of star formation in some amorphous galaxies is due to interactions with other galaxies, several amorphous galaxies are relatively isolated and thus the processes must be internal. The ultimate evolutionary fate of rapidly evolving amorphous galaxies remains unknown. 77 references

  16. Galaxy mergers and active nuclei. II. Cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1985-01-01

    Galaxy mergers may produce active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by repopulating stellar loss-cone orbits around a central black hole. In the companion paper we derived a local bolometric luminosity function of AGNs based on this process. In this paper we interpret the observed cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of AGNs as due to evolution of the merging rate among galaxies after their formation at a redshift of approx.3. An important difference between our model and previous (empirical) models is that the evolution depends on galactic (stellar) luminosity instead of central nonthermal luminosity. The radio counts at 1.4 GHz and optical counts are reproduced by the model if the merging rate of the galaxies at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function evolves considerably faster than the merging rate of the smaller galaxies. The theoretical and observed luminosity functions at high redshift have similar characteristics: (i) at high luminosity the evolution is best described by luminosity evolution, and (2) the luminosity function has a maximum at approx.10 3 Gpc -3 , which is the space density of the most massive galaxies. A large fraction of these galaxies are presumably formed in the precursors of rich clusters. Their merger rate is high initially and declines rapidly on a time scale of a few billion years. If the initial density fluctuation spectrum for protoclusters of mass M/sub cl/ has the form deltarho/rhoproportionalM/sup( -1+n//3)/2/sub cl/, then the steep evolution of the most luminous galaxies suggests nroughly-equal-1.3 at a redshift of approx.3, which is consistent with the observed clustering of galaxies

  17. Analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1993-01-01

    The EINSTEIN galaxy catalog contains x-ray data for 148 early-type (E and SO) galaxies. A detailed analysis of the global properties of this sample are studied. By comparing the x-ray properties with other tracers of the ISM, as well as with observables related to the stellar dynamics and populations of the sample, we expect to determine more clearly the physical relationships that determine the evolution of early-type galaxies. Previous studies with smaller samples have explored the relationships between x-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and luminosities in other bands. Using our larger sample and the statistical techniques of survival analysis, a number of these earlier analyses were repeated. For our full sample, a strong statistical correlation is found between L(sub X) and L(sub B) (the probability that the null hypothesis is upheld is P less than 10(exp -4) from a variety of rank correlation tests. Regressions with several algorithms yield consistent results.

  18. Evolution of dwarf galaxy properties in local group environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza Sigrid

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structures determined by the ACDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have smaller potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of tidal stripping and gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences such as the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too big to fail problems. We have run suites of collisionless and hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies evolution in massive host environments to address these issues. We performed controlled, numerical simulations, which mimic the effects of baryons, in order to examine the assumptions implicitly made by dark matter-only simulations. The too big to fail problem is due to the overabundance of relatively massive, dense satellite galaxies found in simulations of Milky Way-like environments. We found that the removal of a small baryonic component from the central regions of forming dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the inclusion of a disk component in the host galaxy can substantially reduce the central dark matter density of satellites, bringing simulations and observations of satellites into agreement. Additionally, we studied hydrodynamical simulations of massive host galaxies and their surrounding dwarf galaxy populations. The VELA simulation suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations is run with the ART code, stochastic star formation, and stellar feedback (supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure). The suite includes host galaxies with Mvir(z=0)=1011-10 12M ⊙ and their satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each

  19. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Moustakas, John

    2012-01-01

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 2 in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z) (0.54±0.64) for red galaxies and (1 + z) (1.64±0.39) for blue galaxies.

  20. Herschel Spectroscopy of Early-type Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, Ryen Carl; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Crocker, Alison, E-mail: ryen.lapham@student.nmt.edu, E-mail: lyoung@physics.nmt.edu, E-mail: crockera@reed.edu [Physics Department, Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present Herschel spectroscopy of atomic lines arising in photodissociation regions as well as ionization regions of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), focusing on the volume-limited Atlas3D sample. Our data include the [C ii], [O i], and [N ii] 122 and 205 μ m lines, along with ancillary data including CO and H i maps. We find that ETGs have [C ii]/FIR ratios slightly lower than spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample, and several ETGs have unusually large [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratios. The [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratio is correlated with UV colors and there is a strong anti-correlation of [C ii]/FIR with NUV-K seen in both spirals and ETGs, likely due to a softer radiation field with fewer photons available to ionize carbon and heat the gas. The correlation thus makes a [C ii] deficit in galaxies with redder stellar populations. The high [N ii] 122/[C ii] (and low [C ii]/FIR) line ratios could also be affected by the removal of much of the diffuse, low-density gas, which is consistent with the low H i/H{sub 2} ratios. [C ii] is now being used as a star-formation indicator, and we find that it is just as good for ETGs as in spirals. The [C ii]/CO ratios found are also similar to those found in spiral galaxies. Through the use of the [N ii] 205 μ m line, estimates of the percentage of [C ii] emission arising from ionized gas indicate that a significant portion could arise in ionized regions.

  1. The Tully-Fisher relationship for isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Trisha L.; Marcum, Pamela M.; Fanelli, Michael N.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs), which are virtually free of galaxy harassment that is typical in galaxy clusters and groups, offer insight into the evolution of the broader class of early-type galaxies (ETGs). Here, we present analysis of single-dish atomic hydrogen (HI) line profiles for twelve IEGs observed with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These IEGs are separated in comoving distance by at least 2.5 Mpc from galaxies brighter than MV =-16.5. We present a Tully-Fisher diagram for our IEG sample using measured HI line profile velocity widths. The derived Tully-Fisher relationship and HI line profile properties of the isolated sample are compared to those of ETGs from the literature.

  2. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  3. The Evolution of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Koleva, M; Prugniel, P; Vauglin,

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star. The Colour-Magnitude Diagram synthesis analysis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine the detailed star formation history of galaxies going back to the earliest times. This approach has

  4. Cosmic evolution and metal aversion in superluminous supernova host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, S.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Gorosabel, J.; Mehner, A.; Buchner, J.; Kim, S.; Ibar, E.; Amorín, R.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Christensen, L.; de Pasquale, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gallazzi, A.; Hjorth, J.; Morrell, N.; Malesani, D.; Sparre, M.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Thöne, C. C.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    The SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES survey aims to provide strong new constraints on the progenitors of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) by understanding the relationship to their host galaxies. We present the photometric properties of 53 H-poor and 16 H-rich SLSN host galaxies out to z ∼ 4. We model their spectral energy distributions to derive physical properties, which we compare with other galaxy populations. At low redshift, H-poor SLSNe are preferentially found in very blue, low-mass galaxies with high average specific star formation rates. As redshift increases, the host population follows the general evolution of star-forming galaxies towards more luminous galaxies. After accounting for secular evolution, we find evidence for differential evolution in galaxy mass, but not in the B band and the far-ultraviolet luminosity (3σ confidence). Most remarkable is the scarcity of hosts with stellar masses above 1010 M⊙ for both classes of SLSNe. In case of H-poor SLSNe, we attribute this to a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.4 solar metallicity. However, we argue that, in addition to low metallicity, a short-lived stellar population is also required to regulate the SLSN production. H-rich SLSNe are found in a very diverse population of star-forming galaxies. Still, the scarcity of massive hosts suggests a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.8 solar metallicity. The large dispersion of the H-rich SLSNe host properties is in stark contrast to those of gamma-ray burst, regular core-collapse SN, and H-poor SLSNe host galaxies. We propose that multiple progenitor channels give rise to this subclass.

  5. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  6. EVOLUTION OF GALAXY GROUPS IN THE ILLUSTRIS SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Khosroshahi, Habib G. [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, 19395-5746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dariush, A., E-mail: m.raouf@ipm.ir [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    We present the first study of the evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation. We focus on dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups representing dynamically evolved and evolving galaxy systems, respectively. The evolutionary state of a group is probed from its luminosity gap and separation between the brightest group galaxy and the center of mass of the group members. We find that the Illustris simulation overproduces galaxy systems with a large luminosity gap, known as fossil systems, in comparison to observations and the probed semi-analytical predictions. However, this simulation is just as successful as the probed semi-analytic model in recovering the correlation between luminosity gap and offset of the luminosity centroid. We find evolutionary tracks based on luminosity gap that indicate that a group with a large luminosity gap is rooted in one with a small luminosity gap, regardless of the position of the brightest group galaxy within the halo. This simulation helps to explore, for the first time, the black hole mass and its accretion rate in galaxy groups. For a given stellar mass of the brightest group galaxies, the black hole mass is larger in dynamically relaxed groups with a lower rate of mass accretion. We find this to be consistent with the latest observational studies of radio activity in the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups. We also find that the intragalactic medium in dynamically evolved groups is hotter for a given halo mass than that in evolving groups, again consistent with earlier observational studies.

  7. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  8. EVOLUTION OF GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION USING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, B. H. F.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; De Simoni, F.; Benoist, C.; Makler, M.; Mesquita, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end, we compare the LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ∼4800 galaxies. We find that for z ≤ 2.0, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of the CFHTLS comprising ∼386,000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and directly estimate the error in the parameters based on the field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ∼0.7 mag from z ∼ 1.8 to z ∼ 0.3, while the characteristic density φ* increases by a factor of ∼4 in the same redshift interval. We use the galaxy classification provided by the template fitting program used to compute photometric redshifts and split the sample into galaxy types. We find that these Schechter parameters evolve differently for each galaxy type, an indication that their evolution is a combination of several effects: galaxy merging, star formation quenching, and mass assembly. All these results are compatible with those obtained by different spectroscopic surveys such as VVDS, DEEP2, and zCosmos, which reinforces the fact that photometric redshifts can be used to study galaxy evolution, at least for the redshift bins adopted so far. This is of great interest since future very large imaging surveys containing hundreds of millions of galaxies will allow us to obtain important precise measurements to constrain the evolution of the LF and to explore the dependence of this evolution on morphology and/or color helping constrain the mechanisms of galaxy evolution.

  9. Not Dead Yet: Low-Level Star Formation and Active Nuclei in the Continued Evolution of Nearby Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa; Wrobel, Joan; Morganti, Raffaella; Atlas-3D

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of sensitive Jansky Very Large Array continuum observations of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 1.4 and 5 GHz. Our sample comprises a subset of the volume- and magnitude-limited ATLAS-3D survey of ETGs, which has a rich database of ancillary data including CO observations. The 1.4 GHz observations were designed to explore the properties of star formation (SF) in ETGs at ~5' (~300 pc) spatial resolution. Here, we find that some CO-rich ETGs have radio luminosities consistent with extrapolations from H2 mass-derived SF rates (SFRs) and standard radio-SFR calibrations. However, at low H2 masses, many have weaker radio emission than expected. The infrared-radio relation shows similar behavior at low luminosities, with a systematic tendency for ETGs to lie below the standard infrared-radio relation developed for spirals, even when substantial reservoirs of H2 are available. Thus, many nearby ETGs are radio deficient compared to both their H2 and infrared emission. Several mechanisms likely conspire to cause this, but evidence is most compelling for a combination of decreased SF efficiency, a bottom-heavy IMF, weak magnetic fields, and higher incidence of environmental effects compared to spirals.We also study the prevalence and properties of 5~GHz radio cores at subarcsecond (~30 pc) resolution for two distinct kinematic classes: slow rotators (SRs) and fast rotators (FRs). SRs preferentially host nuclear radio emission compared to FRs, and they also host the most powerful radio sources in our sample, consistent with previous findings for ellipticals. In contrast to FRs, SRs also show signs of relationships between radio luminosity and stellar mass. In both FRs and SRs, the presence of dust and ionized gas are strong predictors of the detection of a radio core. All of this suggests that the nuclear activity in ETGs is related to their formation histories. In this picture, FRs are built-up by minor mergers and interactions that leave behind

  10. On the evolution of the disk of our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1977-01-01

    We present two aspects of the history of our galaxy as derived from modeorig.calculations (Smith, Biermann and Mezger 1977). First, the scalelength of the exponential surface brightness distribution is increasing with time. If this is true generally for disk galaxies, it affects derivations of cosmological parameters (Petrosian 1976, Tinsley 1976a). Second, we describe the evolution of the enrichment in heavy elements and helium in the gas and young stars. (orig.) [de

  11. Spectro-polarimetric study of the early evolutionary phases of the most massive galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernet, Joel

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the early phases of evolution of the most massive galaxies (giant elliptic), a fundamental process which is a matter of study for various reasons exposed by the author in his introduction. While presented results are based on spectro-polarimetric observations, the author first presents specific instruments and methods used by spectropolarimetry which provides access to variations of all vectorial properties of light, without loss of information. Then, he reports the study of a near powerful radio-galaxy, Cygnus A, the study of nine radio-galaxies with a high redshift, and the study of a far ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (SMM J02399-0136). Results are then discussed and perspectives of research are proposed. Appendices present the theoretical study of the contribution of massive stars to the diffuse extragalactic ionizing background, and observations made on a near radio-galaxy (NGC 6251)

  12. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  13. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  14. The SAURON project - XIII. SAURON-GALEX study of early-type galaxies : the ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations and Fundamental Planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; Peletier, Reynier F.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We present Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) imaging of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON representative sample of 48 E/S0 galaxies, all of which have ground-based optical imaging from the MDM Observatory. The surface brightness profiles of nine

  15. New Methods for Tracking Galaxy and Black Hole Evolution Using Post-Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katheryn Decker

    2017-08-01

    Galaxies in transition from star-forming to quiescence are a natural laboratory for exploring the processes responsible for this evolution. Using a sample of post-starburst galaxies identified to have recently experienced a recent burst of star formation that has now ended, I explore both the fate of the molecular gas that drives star formation and the increased rate of stars disrupted by the central supermassive black hole. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to galaxy evolution through the post-starburst phase and to tidal disruption events, which surprisingly favor post-starburst galaxy hosts. In Chapter 2, I present a survey of the molecular gas properties of 32 post-starburst galaxies traced by CO (1-0) and CO (2-1). In order to accurately put galaxies on an evolutionary sequence, we must select likely progenitors and descendants. We do this by identifying galaxies with similar starburst properties, such as the amount of mass produced in the burst and the burst duration. In Chapter 3, I describe a method to determine the starburst properties and the time elapsed since the starburst ended, and discuss trends in the molecular gas properties of these galaxies with time. In Chapter 4, I present the results of followup observations with ALMA of HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) in two post-starburst galaxies. CO (1-0) is detected in over half (17/32) the post-starburst sample and the molecular gas mass traced by CO declines on ˜100 Myr timescales after the starburst has ended. HCN (1-0) is not detected in either galaxy targeted, indicating the post-starbursts are now quiescent because of a lack of the denser molecular gas traced by HCN. In Chapter 5 I quantify the increase in TDE rate in quiescent galaxies with strong Balmer absorption to be 30 - 200x higher than in normal galaxies. Using the stellar population fitting method from Chapter 3, I examine possible reasons for the increased TDE rate in post-starburst galaxies in Chapter 6. The TDE rate could be boosted due to a

  16. Estimating precise metallicity and stellar mass evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies can be conveniently broken down into the evolution of their contents. The changing dust, gas, and stellar content in addition to the changing dark matter potential and periodic feedback from a super-massive blackhole are some of the key ingredients. We focus on the stellar content that can be observed, as the stars reflect information about the galaxy when they were formed. We approximate the stellar content and star formation histories of unresolved galaxies using stellar population modeling. Though simplistic, this approach allows us to reconstruct the star formation histories of galaxies that can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution. These models, however, suffer from degeneracies at large lookback times (t > 1 Gyr) as red, low luminosity stars begin to dominate a galaxy’s spectrum. Additionally, degeneracies between stellar populations at different ages and metallicities often make stellar population modeling less precise. The machine learning technique diffusion k-means has been shown to increase the precision in stellar population modeling using a mono-metallicity basis set. However, as galaxies evolve, we expect the metallicity of stellar populations to vary. We use diffusion k-means to generate a multi-metallicity basis set to estimate the stellar mass and chemical evolution of unresolved galaxies. Two basis sets are formed from the Bruzual & Charlot 2003 and MILES stellar population models. We then compare the accuracy and precision of these models in recovering complete (stellar mass and metallicity) histories of mock data. Similarities in the groupings of stellar population spectra in the diffusion maps for each metallicity hint at fundamental age transitions common to both basis sets that can be used to identify stellar populations in a given age range.

  17. Collateral Damage: the Implications of Utrecht Star Cluster Astrophysics for Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijssen, J. M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until the early 2000s, the research portfolio of the Astronomical Institute in Utrecht (SIU) did not include galaxy evolution. Somewhat serendipitously, this changed with the advent of the star cluster group. In only a few years, a simple framework was developed to describe and quantify the properties of dynamically evolving star cluster populations. Since then, the ‘Utrecht cluster disruption model’ has shown that the galactic environment plays an important role in setting the evolution of stellar clusters. From this simple result, it follows that cluster populations bear some imprint of the characteristics and histories of their host galaxies, and that star clusters can be used to trace galaxy evolution—an aim for which the Utrecht star cluster models were never designed, but which they are well-capable of fulfilling. I review some of the work in this direction, with a strong emphasis on the contributions from the SIU.

  18. The evolution of the cold interstellar medium in galaxies following a starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, K.; Wild, V.; Nesvadba, N.; Sibthorpe, B.; Mortier, A.; Lehnert, M.; da Cunha, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the evolution of dust and molecular gas properties in a sample of 11 z ˜ 0.03 starburst to post-starburst (PSB) galaxies selected to span an age sequence from ongoing starburst to 1 Gyr after the starburst ended. All PSBs harbour significant molecular gas and dust reservoirs and residual star formation, indicating that complete quenching of the starburst due to exhaustion or expulsion of gas has not occurred during this timespan. As the starburst ages, we observe a clear decrease in the star formation efficiency, molecular gas and star formation rate (SFR) surface density, and effective dust temperature, from levels coincident with starburst galaxies to those of normal star-forming galaxies. These trends are consistent with a natural decrease in the SFR following consumption of molecular gas by the starburst, and corresponding decrease in the interstellar radiation field strength as the starburst ages. The gas and dust contents of the PSBs are coincident with those of star-forming galaxies and molecular gas-rich early-type galaxies, and are not consistent with galaxies on the red sequence. We find no evidence that the global gas reservoir is expelled by stellar winds or active galactic nuclei feedback. Our results show that although a strong starburst in a low-redshift galaxy may cause the galaxy to ultimately have a lower specific SFR and be of an earlier morphological type, the galaxy will remain in the `green valley' for an extended time. Multiple such episodes may be needed to complete migration of the galaxy from the blue- to red sequence.

  19. A fundamental problem in our understanding of low-mass galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; Pasquali, Anna; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Finlator, Kristian; Mendel, J. Trevor; Crain, Robert A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have found a dramatic difference between the observed number density evolution of low-mass galaxies and that predicted by semi-analytic models. Whilst models accurately reproduce the z = 0 number density, they require that the evolution occurs rapidly at early times, which is incompatible with the strong late evolution found in observational results. We report here the same discrepancy in two state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which is evidence that the problem is fundamental. We search for the underlying cause of this problem using two complementary methods. First, we consider a narrow range in stellar mass of log (Mstar/(h-2 M⊙)) = 9-9.5 and look for evidence of a different history of today's low-mass galaxies in models and observations. We find that the exclusion of satellite galaxies from the analysis brings the median ages and star formation rates of galaxies into reasonable agreement. However, the models yield too few young, strongly star-forming galaxies. Secondly, we construct a toy model to link the observed evolution of specific star formation rates with the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function. We infer from this model that a key problem in both semi-analytic and hydrodynamical models is the presence of a positive instead of a negative correlation between specific star formation rate and stellar mass. A similar positive correlation is found between the specific dark matter halo accretion rate and the halo mass, indicating that model galaxies are growing in a way that follows the growth of their host haloes too closely. It therefore appears necessary to find a mechanism that decouples the growth of low-mass galaxies, which occurs primarily at late times, from the growth of their host haloes, which occurs primarily at early times. We argue that the current form of star formation-driven feedback implemented in most galaxy formation models is unlikely to achieve this goal, owing to its fundamental dependence

  20. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E; van der Hulst, T; Sancisi, R; Swaters, R; Ryder, SD; Pisano, DJ; Walker, MA; Freeman, KC

    2004-01-01

    We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens SO and Sab and absolute magnitudes M-B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  1. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J. M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens S0 and Sab and absolute magnitudes M_B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  2. Nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy: Progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Chemical imprints left by the first stars in the oldest stars of the Milky Way gives clues of the stellar nucleosynthesis responsible for the creation of elements heavier than iron. Recent progress in astronomical observations and in the modeling of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy have shown that multiple nucleosynthesis processes may operate at those early times. In this talk I will review some of that evidence along with the important role that nuclear reactions play in those processes. I will focus in progress in our understanding of the rapid neutron capture process (r-process) and in new results on nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and neutrino-driven winds that produce elements up to silver. I will show some examples of recent nuclear physics measurements addressing the need for better nuclear data and give an outlook of the remaining challenges and future plans to continue those measurements.

  3. On the Evolution of the Central Density of Quiescent Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella; Faber, S. M.; Cibinel, Anna; Dekel, Avishai; Koo, David C.; Renzini, Alvio; Woo, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the origin of the evolution of the population-averaged central stellar mass density (Σ1) of quiescent galaxies (QGs) by probing the relation between stellar age and Σ1 at z ˜ 0. We use the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS), which is a survey of galaxy groups with a large fraction of satellite galaxies. QGs shape a narrow locus in the Σ1-M ⋆ plane, which we refer to as Σ1 ridgeline. Colors of (B - I) and (I - J) are used to divide QGs into three age categories: young (4 Gyr). At fixed stellar mass, old QGs on the Σ1 ridgeline have higher Σ1 than young QGs. This shows that galaxies landing on the Σ1 ridgeline at later epochs arrive with lower Σ1, which drives the zeropoint of the ridgeline down with time. We compare the present-day zeropoint of the oldest population at z = 0 with the zeropoint of the quiescent population 4 Gyr back in time, at z = 0.37. These zeropoints are identical, showing that the intrinsic evolution of individual galaxies after they arrive on the Σ1 ridgeline must be negligible, or must evolve parallel to the ridgeline during this interval. The observed evolution of the global zeropoint of 0.07 dex over the last 4 Gyr is thus largely due to the continuous addition of newly quenched galaxies with lower Σ1 at later times (“progenitor bias”). While these results refer to the satellite-rich ZENS sample as a whole, our work suggests a similar age-Σ1 trend for central galaxies.

  4. Models of hot galactic coronae around early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Tucker, W.

    1994-01-01

    We have computed simple non-steady state models of X-ray-emitting, hot galactic coronae which are observed around early-type galaxies. Our models, appropriate for elliptical galaxies, include the effect of the formation of new stars which occurs as the gas radiatively cools and the effect of supernova explosions which serve to heat the cooling gas component from which the stars are forming. We develop scaling relations for the galaxy parameters including the optical galaxy as well as a dark matter halo which we use to generate galaxy models spanning a range of absolute magnitudes from -19.5 to -22.5. We compare our models to a sample of approximately 150 galaxies with measured X-ray luminosities. We show that our simple model does exhibit the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosity. However, the model cannot explain the broad range in X-ray luminosity at a given optical luminosity.

  5. Chemical Evolution of Mn in Three Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... SNeIa and CCSNe, we studied Mn evolution for three local dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), considering the detailed SNe yield and explosion rates for different types of progenitors. The results can explain the main observation ofMn abundance for tens stars in those dSphs, and give some constraints ...

  6. HI in Early Type Galaxies as Gaseous Merger History Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Hibbard, J. E.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    The presence of gaseous merger histories in early type galaxies was tested through a detection survey of 21cm hydrogen emission in the environments of two samples of early type galaxies. The test sample consisted of early type galaxies with central spikes in their surface brightness profiles which may indicate a former dense star formation region. The control sample consisted of early type galaxies without central spikes (and presumably without as recent or as densely located star formation events) and covered a similar range of distances and sizes. Both samples were chosen to be free of dust and active galactic nuclei. The two samples (17 test galaxies and 19 controls) were observed with the Green Bank Telescope with the spectrometer. The spectra were reduced by removing the radio frequency inteference, calibrating via the noise diode and position switching, averaging the multi-integrated spectra, baselining, and calibrating the flux via the observation of a standard source (3C295). The spectra of three galaxies were contaminated by continuum sources in the beam. The spectra of nine more galaxies displayed one or more 21cm lines. Three of these galaxies are members of the test sample and 6 are controls. After comparing the positions and velocities of neighboring galaxies which may have contaminated the beam to the observed spectral features, the probability that environmental gas can be associated with early type galaxies with central spikes is slightly higher. However, the numbers are too low for an adequate statistical analysis and mapping may be required to determine better positions for the detected gas. This work has been funded by NSF REU for NRAO's Summer Student Research Assistantship Program.

  7. The early ISM and galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Current ideas about galaxy formation are reviewed, with particular attention to when and how it occurred, and what it might have looked like. It is argued that galaxy formation is more recent than originally predicted. Suggestions are presented as to how current observations of distant objects may be interpreted within the cold dark matter theory for the origin of structure.

  8. Early-type galaxies with extended HI reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    I will present observations of NGC 404 and ESO 381-47, both early-type galaxies known for hosting extended HI rings and recent star formation in their outskirts. Thanks to the Green Bank Telescope, an instrument uniquely suited to observing diffuse, low column density HI around nearby galaxies, we report new measurements of the extent of the disk around NGC 404 as well as the presence of a large, coherent HI filament which appears to be accreting onto the ring surrounding the galaxy. We compare the environments of the two systems and interpret the potential utility of such gas-bearing field early-type galaxies as tracers of galaxy accretion and growth.

  9. Metallicity gradients in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schombert, James M.; Hanlan, Patricia C.; Barsony, Mary; Rakos, Karl D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of medium-to-bright early-type galaxies in six bandpasses from 3500 A to 2.2 microns is presented in order to quantify their colors and color gradients and relate these to metallicity and properties of the underlying stellar population. The Stromgren filter system chosen makes it possible to introduce a new calibration to the Mg(2) system from the present narrow-band v - y indices. A comparison is presented of narrow-band colors centered on particular spectral features vs a color dominated by the mean temperature of the giant branch (i.e., J - K) to test the effects of light vs heavy element abundances on knowledge of the total system metallicity, Z, and the effects of reddening. A good correlation is found between v - y and Mg(2); it provides a connection between one light element metallicity indicator (v - y centers on the CN blend) and another, Mg. The color-magnitude relations for all five optical and near-IR colors are shown. The strongest correlation exists for the metallicity colors, v - y and J - K.

  10. Generative Models in Deep Learning: Constraints for Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Maximilian Dennis; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-01-01

    New techniques are essential to make advances in the field of galaxy evolution. Recent developments in the field of artificial intelligence and machine learning have proven that these tools can be applied to problems far more complex than simple image recognition. We use these purely data driven approaches to investigate the process of star formation quenching. We show that Variational Autoencoders provide a powerful method to forward model the process of galaxy quenching. Our results imply that simple changes in specific star formation rate and bulge to disk ratio cannot fully describe the properties of the quenched population.

  11. Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, Sukyoung K; Boselli, Alessandro; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Tim; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alex

    2006-08-24

    Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

  12. Catching a glimpse of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the early Universe by studying nearby low-metallicity galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara; Hornschemeier, Ann; Lehmer, Bret; Ptak, Andrew; Yukita, Mihoko

    2015-09-01

    Deep studies of X-ray emission from galaxies, such as the Chandra Deep Field-South 4 Ms (soon to be 7Ms) survey, have allowed us to peer back in history at X-ray binary formation and evolution over cosmic timescales. X-ray stacking observations of z=1-4 star-forming galaxies reveal that the metallicity evolution of the Universe drives the evolution of the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity per star formation rate (SFR), which is dominated by high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). By finding local (z=0.02-0.2), rare, analogs of these high redshift galaxies, we have found further evidence that the X-ray emission per SFR is elevated compared to typical local star-forming galaxies and this appears to be due to the lower metallicities of these galaxies. Theoretically, metal poor stars produce weaker stellar winds, which results in higher numbers of more massive binaries and therefore leads to higher X-ray luminosities in metal poor populations. Since galaxies in the early universe (and their binaries) formed in a more pristine universe, with few metals, the analogs that we have been studying have cosmological significance. X-ray emission from X-ray binaries and hot gas within galaxies at these early epochs is expected to be important for heating and reionization of the Universe. We will present our current results on the study of HMXB populations in nearby metal-poor starbursts. These primordial analog galaxies represent a challenge for current X-ray facilities, but with modest exposures with Athena, we will obtain high-resolution X-ray spectra permitting detailed study of their properties. We use simulations of the X-ray spectra from these galaxies with Athena to explore the potential capability for measuring column densities (n_H) and metallicities, as well as line shifts to detect outflows that may ultimately enrich the intergalactic medium (IGM).

  13. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  14. Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN) I: survey description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Michael L.; Gilbank, David G.; Muzzin, Adam; Rudnick, Gregory; Cooper, Michael C.; Lidman, Chris; Biviano, Andrea; Demarco, Ricardo; McGee, Sean L.; Nantais, Julie B.; Noble, Allison; Old, Lyndsay; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Bellhouse, Callum; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Simpson, Rane; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ziparo, Felicia; Alonso, María Victoria; Bower, Richard G.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Muriel, Hernan; Parker, Laura C.; Rettura, Alessandro; Valotto, Carlos; Wetzel, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new Large Program in progress on the Gemini North and South telescopes: Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN). This is an imaging and deep spectroscopic survey of 21 galaxy systems at 1 10 in halo mass. The scientific objectives include measuring the role of environment in the evolution of low-mass galaxies, and measuring the dynamics and stellar contents of their host haloes. The targets are selected from the SpARCS, SPT, COSMOS, and SXDS surveys, to be the evolutionary counterparts of today's clusters and groups. The new red-sensitive Hamamatsu detectors on GMOS, coupled with the nod-and-shuffle sky subtraction, allow simultaneous wavelength coverage over λ ˜ 0.6-1.05 μm, and this enables a homogeneous and statistically complete redshift survey of galaxies of all types. The spectroscopic sample targets galaxies with AB magnitudes z΄ cluster members. Combined with existing spectroscopy on the brighter galaxies from GCLASS, SPT, and other sources, GOGREEN will be a large legacy cluster and field galaxy sample at this redshift that spectroscopically covers a wide range in stellar mass, halo mass, and clustercentric radius.

  15. The evolution of C/O in dwarf galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope FOS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, D. R.; Skillman, E. D.; Dufour, R. J.; Peimbert, M.; Torres-Peimbert, S.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Shields, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    We present UV observations of seven H II regions in low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies and the Magellanic Clouds obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in order to measure the C/O abundance ratio in the interstellar medium (ISM) of those galaxies. We measure both O III 1666 A and C III 1909 A in our spectra, enabling us to determine C(+2)/O(+2) with relatively small uncertainties. The results from our HST observations show a continuous increase in C/O with increasing O/H, consistent with a power law having an index of 0.43 +/- 0.09 over the range -4.7 to -3.6 in log (O/H). One possible interpretation of this trend is that the most metal-poor galaxies are the youngest and dominated by the products of early enrichment by massive stars, while more metal-rich galaxies show increasing, delayed contributions of carbon from intermediate-mass stars. Our results also suggest that it may not be appropiate to combine abundances in irregular galaxies with those in spiral galaxies to study the evolution of chemical abundances. Our measured C/O ratios in the most metal-poor galaxies are consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis from massive stars for Weaver & Woosley's best estimate for the 12C(alpha, gamma) 16O nuclear reaction rate, assuming negligible contanmination from carbon produced in intermediate-mass stars in these galaxies. We detect a weak N III 1750 A multiplet in SMC N88A and obtain interesting upper limits for two other objects. Our 2 sigma uppr limits on the 1750 A feature indicate that the N(+2)/O(+2) ratios in these objects are not significantly larger than the N(+)/O(+) ratios measured from optical spectra. This behavior is consistent with predictions of photionization models, although better detections of N III are needed to confirm the results.

  16. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  17. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-04-01

    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  18. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  19. Dissecting Early-type Dwarf Galaxies into Their Multiple Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Salo, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Niemi, S. -M.; den Brok, M.; Toloba, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Boselli, A.; Hensler, G.

    2012-01-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies, once believed to be simple systems, have recently been shown to exhibit an intriguing diversity in structure and stellar content. To analyze this further, we started the SMAKCED project (Stellar content, MAss and Kinematics of Cluster Early-type Dwarfs,

  20. Early galactic evolution and the nature of the first stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    In this paper, the observational data relating to the early evolution of the Galaxy are reviewed in order to assess the plausibility of a number of models that have been proposed for the first stars. On the basis of standard fragmentation models, it is argued that primordial stars were very similar to normal stars, but that in some circumstances the formation of low mass primordial stars may be suppressed through the dissociation of molecular hydrogen by UV radiation. The existence of these conditions at the time of formation of the Galaxy could explain the absence of zero-metal stars. (orig./WL)

  1. Central star formation in early-type galaxies: Images and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, L. L.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    1993-01-01

    We are reporting on an on-going study of strong central star-bursts in early type galaxies. These galaxies are brighter than m(pg) = 14.5 and are classified as type SO, SO/a, or Sa in the Uppsala General Catalog. All of them have unusually warm, bright far infrared sources for early-type galaxies, with F(100 microns)/F(60 microns) less than 2.0 and F(60 microns) greater than 2.5 Jy. Much of the infrared emission comes from the central few arcsec. Most of the galaxies were detected at 2380 MHz at Arecibo, with flux densities between 15 and 33 mJy. They have diffuse radio sources with a variety of morphologies, typically a few kpc in extent. Long slit spectra through the nucleus show that all have Balmer absorption lines, signifying a large B or A star population, and (O2) 3727 and Balmer emission lines, consistent with ionization by hot young stars. We have made optical continuum and emission line images of the galaxies to use in combination with the above data to study the causes and evolution of strong central star-bursts in early-type disk systems.

  2. The early evolution of rhynchosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Daniel Ezcurra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhynchosaurian archosauromorphs are an important and diverse group of fossil tetrapods that first appeared during the Early Triassic and probably became extinct during the early Late Triassic (early Norian. Here, the early evolution of rhynchosaurs during the Early and early Middle Triassic (Induan−Anisian: 252.2−242 Mya is reviewed based on new anatomical observations and the implications of these observations for the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and macroevolutionary history of the group. A quantitative phylogenetic analysis recovered a paraphyletic genus Rhynchosaurus, with Rhynchosaurus brodiei more closely related to hyperodapedontines than to Rhynchosaurus articeps. Therefore, a new genus is erected, resulting in the new combination Langeronyx brodiei. A body size analysis found two independent increases in size in the evolutionary history of rhynchosaurs, one among stenaulorhynchines and the other in the hyperodapedontine lineage. Maximum likelihood fitting of phenotypic evolution models to body size data found ambiguous results, with body size evolution potentially interpreted as either fitting either a non-directional Brownian motion model or a stasis model. A Dispersal−Extinction−Cladogenesis analysis reconstructed the areas that are now South Africa and Europe as the ancestral areas of Rhynchosauria and Rhynchosauridae, respectively. The reconstruction of dispersal events between geographic areas that are broadly separated paleolatitudinally implies that barriers to the dispersal of rhynchosaurs from either side of the paleo-Equator during the Middle Triassic were either absent or permeable.

  3. The Westerbork HI Survey os spiral and irregular galaxies III : HI observations of early-type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J.M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R.A.; Abada, T.S. van

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present HI observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISP survey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absolute B-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive, high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few of which

  4. Evolution of velocity and density fields around clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilje, P.B.; Lahav, O.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the averaged density and infall velocity profiles around clusters of galaxies in several cosmological scenarios based on gravitational instability is explored. The analysis is based on the statistics of peaks in random Gaussian fields and the spherical infall model. This method is shown to give accurate predictions for the cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function when compared with N-body simulations. The predictions for the average infall velocity as function of radius are not as accurate, but are still useful. The discrepancy is probably caused by shear in the velocity field. The predictions for the cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function on large scales are very different for models with little power on large scales (like the Cold Dark Matter and the Hot Dark Matter models) and models with much power on large scales (like the Primordial Isocurvature Baryon models). The ensemble average infall velocity as a function of radius, if it would be possible to measure it, provides a useful method of for distinguishing between models with different levels of biasing of the galaxy number density fluctuations relative to mass fluctuations. Observations of the density and velocity profiles in one supercluster (i.e., the Local Supercluster) are of limited value for setting constraints on models of structure formation in the Universe. However, the r -1 dependence of the velocity field in the Local Supercluster is in good agreement with the predictions of the Cold Dark Matter model, contrary to some claims. (orig.)

  5. Towards Understanding the Star Formation-Feedback Loop in Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Andrey

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive study of how star formation and feedback loop influences evolution of galaxies using a suite of ultra-high resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) approach implemented in the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code. The simulations will result in the numerical models of galaxy evolution of unprecedented resolution and sophistication of the processes included. Our code includes treatment of a wide spectrum of processes critical for realistic modeling of galaxy formation from the primordial chemistry of hydrogen and helium species, radiative transfer of ionizing radiation, to the metallicity- dependent cooling, chemistry of molecular hydrogen on dust and treatment of radiative transfer of dissociating far ultraviolet radiation. The latter allows us to tie star formation with dense, molecular regions capable of self-shielding from heating radiation and avoid adopting arbitrary density and temperature thresholds for star formation. Simulations will also employ a new model for momentum injection due to radiation pressure exerted by young massive stars onto surrounding dust and gas. This early, pre-supernova feedback is critical to prompt dispersal of natal molecular clouds and regulating star formation efficiency and increasing efficiency of energy release by supernovae. The simulations proposed in this project will therefore treat the most important process to understanding the efficiency of baryon conversion to stars - the star formation - in the way most closely resembling the actual star formation observed in galaxies and stellar feedback model that is firmly rooted in observational evidence on how feedback operates in real molecular clouds. The simulations we propose will provide models of galaxy evolution during three important epochs in the history of the universe: (1) early evolution prior to and during the reionization of the universe (the first billion years of

  6. CENTRAL DARK MATTER TRENDS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM STRONG LENSING, DYNAMICS, AND STELLAR POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, C.; Jetzer, P.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the correlations between central dark matter (DM) content of early-type galaxies and their sizes and ages, using a sample of intermediate-redshift (z ∼ 0.2) gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey, and by comparing them to a larger sample of z ∼ 0 galaxies. We decompose the deprojected galaxy masses into DM and stellar components using combinations of strong lensing, stellar dynamics, and stellar populations modeling. For a given stellar mass, we find that for galaxies with larger sizes, the DM fraction increases and the mean DM density decreases, consistently with the cuspy halos expected in cosmological formation scenarios. The DM fraction also decreases with stellar age, which can be partially explained by the inverse correlation between size and age. The residual trend may point to systematic dependencies on formation epoch of halo contraction or stellar initial mass functions. These results are in agreement with recent findings based on local galaxies by Napolitano et al. and suggest negligible evidence of galaxy evolution over the last ∼2.5 Gyr other than passive stellar aging.

  7. Galaxy Clustering in Early SDSS Redshift Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zehavi, I.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Weinberg, David H.; Mo, Houjun J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Strauss, Michael A.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Briggs, John W.; Brinkmann, Jon; Burles, Scott; Carey, Larry; Castander, Francisco J.; Connolly, J.; Csabai, Istvan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dodelson,Scott; Doi,Mamoru; Eisenstein, Daniel; Evans, Michael L.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Friedman, Scott; Fukugita, Masataka; Gunn, James E.; Hennessy, Greg S.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kent,Stephen; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kron, Richard; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Donald; French Leger, R.; Long, Daniel C.; Loveday, Jon.; Lupton, Robert H.; McKay, Timothy; Meiksin, Avery; Merrelli, Aronne; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Narayanan, Vijay; Newcomb, Matt; Nichol, Robert C.; Owen, Russell; Peoples, John; Pope, Adrian; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Siegmund, Walter; Smee, Stephen; Snir, Yehuda; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Christopher; SubbaRao, Mark; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan; Tegmark, Max; Tucker, Douglas L.; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Dan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Waddell,Patrick; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.; Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael R.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Weinberg, David H.; Mo, Houjun J.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first measurements of clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy redshift survey. Our sample consists of 29,300 galaxies with redshifts 5,700 km/s < cz < 39,000 km/s, distributed in several long but narrow (2.5-5 degree) segments, covering 690 square degrees. For the full, flux-limited sample, the redshift-space correlation length is approximately 8 Mpc/h. The two-dimensional correlation function \\xi(r_p,\\pi) shows clear signatures of both the small-scale, ``fingers-of-God'' distortion caused by velocity dispersions in collapsed objects and the large-scale compression caused by coherent flows, though the latter cannot be measured with high precision in the present sample. The inferred real-space correlation function is well described by a power law, \\xi(r)=(r/6.1+/-0.2 Mpc/h)^{-1.75+/-0.03}, for 0.1 Mpc/h < r < 16 Mpc/h. The galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion is \\sigma_{12} ~ 600+/-100 km/s for projected separations 0.15 Mpc/h < r_p < 5 Mpc/h. When we divide the...

  8. The Evolution of Star Formation Activity in Cluster Galaxies Over 0.15 < z < 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cory R.

    In this thesis, we explore 7.5 billion years of evolution in cluster galaxy star formation activity using a sample of 11 high-redshift (1 1 show enhanced star formation activity relative to the field, and account for nearly 90% of the overall star formation activity in high-redshift clusters. While high-redshift early-type galaxies are substantially quenched relative to cluster late-types, they still contribute 13% of the total cluster star formation activity. With early-type fractions increasing from 34 to 56% from z 1.5 → 1.16, we find that new cluster early-type galaxies are likely being formed around z 1.4. The fraction of early-type galaxies that are star-forming drops from 29 to 11% over this period, yet their specific star formation rates are roughly constant. These factors suggest that the events that created these new galaxies, possibly mergers, were both recent and gas-rich. With typical coverages of 50% of z Alberts et al. (2014), who fit the mean star formation rate evolution over 0.3 < z < 1.5, and measured star formation rates by stacking 250 mum Herschel images. We find excellent agreement between the Herschel-based fit and both our Spitzer-derived and ultraviolet→infrared star formation rates.

  9. CALIFA reveals prolate rotation in massive early-type galaxies: A polar galaxy merger origin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsatsi, A.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Chang, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Macciò, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present new evidence for eight early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the CALIFA Survey that show clear rotation around their major photometric axis ("prolate rotation"). These are LSBCF560-04, NGC 0647, NGC 0810, NGC 2484, NGC 4874, NGC 5216, NGC 6173, and NGC 6338. Including NGC 5485, a known case of

  10. Evolution of dust extinction curves in galaxy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2017-07-01

    To understand the evolution of extinction curve, we calculate the dust evolution in a galaxy using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations incorporating stellar dust production, dust destruction in supernova shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. The dust species are separated into carbonaceous dust and silicate. The evolution of grain size distribution is considered by dividing grain population into large and small grains, which allows us to estimate extinction curves. We examine the dependence of extinction curves on the position, gas density and metallicity in the galaxy, and find that extinction curves are flat at t ≲ 0.3 Gyr because stellar dust production dominates the total dust abundance. The 2175 Å bump and far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise become prominent after dust growth by accretion. At t ≳ 3 Gyr, shattering works efficiently in the outer disc and low-density regions, so extinction curves show a very strong 2175 Å bump and steep FUV rise. The extinction curves at t ≳ 3 Gyr are consistent with the Milky Way extinction curve, which implies that we successfully included the necessary dust processes in the model. The outer disc component caused by stellar feedback has an extinction curve with a weaker 2175 Å bump and flatter FUV slope. The strong contribution of carbonaceous dust tends to underproduce the FUV rise in the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve, which supports selective loss of small carbonaceous dust in the galaxy. The snapshot at young ages also explains the extinction curves in high-redshift quasars.

  11. Spatially resolved molecular gas in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Bureau, M.; Young, L.; Blitz, L.; Crocker, A.; Bayet, E.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Duc, P.-A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    In around ~25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is

  12. Mass distributions in early-type galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, KC; Taylor, K; Bender, T; Renzini, A

    2003-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for determining the distribution of mass in the outer parts of early-type galaxies is through the kinematics of planetary nebulae (PNe). We have used new techniques and instrumentation on the WHT and the VLT to obtain velocities for hundreds of PNe around several

  13. Extended, regular HI structures around early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, T.; Morganti, R.; Sadler, E. M. Van der; Hulst, J. M. van der; Serra, P.

    Abstract: We discuss the morphology and kinematics of the HI of a sample of 30 southern gas-rich early-type galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). This is the largest collection of high-resolution HI data of a homogeneously selected sample. Given the sensitivity of HIPASS,

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES IN A HIERARCHICAL UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, Chiara; Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC 3122 (Australia); Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from redshift z {approx} 1.6 to z = 0. We upgrade the hierarchical semi-analytic model of Croton et al. with a new spectro-photometric model that produces realistic galaxy spectra, making use of the Maraston stellar populations and a new recipe for the dust extinction. We compare the model predictions of the K-band luminosity evolution and the J - K, V - I, and I - K color evolution with a series of data sets, including those of Collins et al. who argued that semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation cannot reproduce the red colors and high luminosity of BCGs at z > 1. We show instead that the model is well in range of the observed luminosity and correctly reproduces the color evolution of BCGs in the whole redshift range up to z {approx} 1.6. We argue that the success of the semi-analytic model is in large part due to the implementation of a more sophisticated spectro-photometric model. An analysis of the model BCGs shows an increase in mass by a factor of 2-3 since z {approx} 1, and star formation activity down to low redshifts. While the consensus regarding BCGs is that they are passively evolving, we argue that this conclusion is affected by the degeneracy between star formation history and stellar population models used in spectral energy distribution fitting, and by the inefficacy of toy models of passive evolution to capture the complexity of real galaxies, especially those with rich merger histories like BCGs. Following this argument, we also show that in the semi-analytic model the BCGs show a realistic mix of stellar populations, and that these stellar populations are mostly old. In addition, the age-redshift relation of the model BCGs follows that of the universe, meaning that given their merger history and star formation history, the ageing of BCGs is always dominated by the ageing of their stellar populations. In a {Lambda}CDM universe, we define such evolution as &apos

  15. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    galaxies: ISM—galaxies: spiral—cosmology: dark matter. 1. Introduction. Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are some of the largest spiral galax- ies in our nearby universe. However, for decades these galaxies remained undetected in galaxy surveys. This is because their optically dim stellar disks have a bright-.

  16. The Influence of Galaxy Environment on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al. and used their optical SDSS spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths to predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and "bimodal" (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky-Way-like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3″ SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.

  17. Euroconference on the appropriate modellings of galaxy evolution from their cosmological formation to their presently observable structures

    CERN Document Server

    Stasińska, Grażyna; Harfst, Stefan; Kroupa, Pavel; Theis, Christian; THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES

    2003-01-01

    Galaxies have a history This has become clear from recent sky surveys which have shown that distant galaxies, formed early in the life of the Universe, differ from the nearby ones New observational windows at ultraviolet, infrared and millimetric wavelengths (provided by ROSAT, IRAM, IUE, IRAS, ISO) have revealed that galaxies contain a wealth of components very hot gas, atomic hydrogen, molecules, dust, dark matter A significant advance is expected from the results of new instruments (VLT, FIRST, XMM) which will allow one to explore the most distant Universe Three Euroconferences were planned to punctuate this new epoch in galactic research, bringing together specialists in various fields of Astronomy This book contains the proceedings of the third conference and presents the actual state-of-the-art of modelling galaxy evolution

  18. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  19. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  20. MOLECULAR DISK PROPERTIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.; Walker, C.; Narayanan, D.

    2010-01-01

    We study the simulated CO emission from elliptical galaxies formed in the mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies. The cold gas not consumed in the merger-driven starburst quickly resettles into a disk-like configuration. By analyzing a variety of arbitrary merger orbits that produce a range of fast- to slow-rotating remnants, we find that molecular disk formation is a fairly common consequence of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Hence, if a molecular disk is observed in an early-type merger remnant, it is likely the result of a 'wet merger' rather than a 'dry merger'. We compare the physical properties from our simulated disks (e.g., size and mass) and find reasonably good agreement with recent observations. Finally, we discuss the detectability of these disks as an aid to future observations.

  1. Optical nebulosity in X-ray-selected, early type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an H-alpha + N II forbidden line narrowband imaging survey of X-ray-selected E and S0 galaxies. A novel technique is described for objectively optimizing the removal of stellar continuum light while providing well-defined estimates of systematic errors. The procedure has the additional benefit of eliminating sky contamination, specifically in image regions occupied by galaxy light. Consideration of the measured spectral energy distributions is included in the flux calibration procedure, and emission-line luminosities (or upper limits), corrected for Galactic foreground extinction, are tabulated for metric apertures. No connection is found between the 'boxiness' or 'diskiness' of stellar isophotes and emission-line or far-infrared luminosity. It is suggested that optical nebulosity in early-type galaxies contains a significant multiparameter dependence on active Galactic nuclei behavior, accretion from the hot interstellar medium, and mass injection from external sources.

  2. Dusty starburst galaxies in the early Universe as revealed by gravitational lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J D; Marrone, D P; Chapman, S C; De Breuck, C; Hezaveh, Y D; Weiβ, A; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-03-21

    In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimetres, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetre-wave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.

  3. The Evolution of Galaxies: Unsolved Problems and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchra, John

    We've had an extremely interesting conference covering the observational aspects of galaxy evolution near and far. We've come a very long way since the earliest papers in the 1960's by Tinsley and others first quantified the photometric evolution of galaxies. In this summary, I will first go over some of the things that we know, such as the background that is often not discussed but which is important to keep in mind while looking at new evidence. These include the great progress that has been made on the cosmological model and the identification of fluctuations in the Cosmic microwave background. I'll follow that with a description of what we have learned at this Granadian Euroconference and the questions that either have been newly raised or have remained to be solved in the future, many of which are not at all new and are decidedly non-trivial to attack. The article finishes with a description of some promises for the future plus some general caveats about the way we do research, including Tarzan's dilemma.

  4. Evolution of Extragalactic Radio Sources and Quasar/Galaxy Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, C. I.; Ubachukwu, A. A.; Odo, F. C.; Onuchukwu, C. C.

    2018-04-01

    We use a large sample of radio sources to investigate the effects of evolution, luminosity selection and radio source orientation in explaining the apparent deviation of observed angular size - redshift (θ - z) relation of extragalactic radio sources (EGRSs) from the standard model. We have fitted the observed θ - z data with standard cosmological models based on a flat universe (Ω0 = 1). The size evolution of EGRSs has been described as luminosity, temporal and orientation-dependent in the form DP,z,Φ ≍ P±q(1 + z)-m sinΦ, with q=0.3, Φ=59°, m=-0.26 for radio galaxies and q=-0.5, Φ=33°, m=3.1 for radio quasars respectively. Critical points of luminosity, logPcrit=26.33 WHz-1 and logDc=2.51 kpc (316.23 kpc) of the present sample of radio sources were also observed. All the results were found to be consistent with the popular quasar/galaxy unification scheme.

  5. The evolution of magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckl, J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the observational knowledge base about the properties of magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies has significantly improved in recent years, our understanding of the evolution and influence of the magnetic fields is still limited. We present results from our study on the influence of cluster scale magnetic fields on the structure formation of clusters of galaxies and the evolution of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The high-resolution simulations employ a self-consistent numerical setup, which includes gravity, cosmology, magnetohydrodynamics and radiative cooling. We find that during structure formation cosmological magnetic seed fields of the order of 10 -1 1 to 10 -9 G are amplified by up to six orders of magnitude, which is in good agreement with observations. Furthermore we find that merger shocks during the cluster formation can have a dispersive effect on the magnetic field in the cluster center, and the outgoing shock waves can lead to magnetic fields of the order of [mu]G even at distances of more than 1 Mpc from the center. We highlight this as a possible explanation for the faint or undetectable radio halos that can be observed together with strong radio relics. (author) [de

  6. The Evolution of Galaxies Through the Spatial Distribution of Their Globular Clusters: the Brightest Galaxies in Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, David W.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the evolution of the 10 brightest galaxies in the Fornax Cluster, as reconstructed through their Globular Cluster (GC) populations. GCs can be characterized by their projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution. Over- or under-densities in the GC distribution, can be linked to events in the host galaxy assembly history, and used to constrain the properties of their progenitors. With HST/ACS imaging, we identified significant structures in the GC distribution of the 10 galaxies investigated, with some of the galaxies possessing structures with >10-sigma significance. GC over-densities have been found within the galaxies, with significant differences between the red and blue GC population. For elongated galaxies, structures are preferentially to be aligned along the major axis. Fornax Cluster galaxies appear to be more dynamically relaxed than the Virgo Cluster galaxies previously investigated with the same methodology by D'Abrusco et al. (2016). However, from these observations, the evident imprints left in the spatial distribution of GCs in these galaxies suggest a similarly intense history of interactions.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  7. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We completed and published two papers in the Astrophysical Journal based on research from grant. In the first paper we analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. In the second paper We analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type I1 supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia.

  8. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Gravitational Potential and Surface Density Drive Stellar Populations. I. Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Tania M.; D’Eugenio, Francesco; Colless, Matthew; Scott, Nicholas; van de Sande, Jesse; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.

    2018-03-01

    The well-established correlations between the mass of a galaxy and the properties of its stars are considered to be evidence for mass driving the evolution of the stellar population (SP). However, for early-type galaxies (ETGs), we find that g ‑ i color and stellar metallicity [Z/H] correlate more strongly with gravitational potential Φ than with mass M, whereas SP age correlates best with surface density Σ. Specifically, for our sample of 625 ETGs with integral-field spectroscopy from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field Galaxy Survey, compared to correlations with mass, the color–Φ, [Z/H]–Φ, and age–Σ relations show both a smaller scatter and a lower residual trend with galaxy size. For the star formation duration proxy [α/Fe], we find comparable results for trends with Φ and Σ, with both being significantly stronger than the [α/Fe]–M relation. In determining the strength of a trend, we analyze both the overall scatter, and the observational uncertainty on the parameters, in order to compare the intrinsic scatter in each correlation. These results lead us to the following inferences and interpretations: (1) the color–Φ diagram is a more precise tool for determining the developmental stage of the SP than the conventional color–mass diagram; and (2) gravitational potential is the primary regulator of global stellar metallicity, via its relation to the gas escape velocity. Furthermore, we propose the following two mechanisms for the age and [α/Fe] relations with Σ: (a) the age–Σ and [α/Fe]–Σ correlations arise as results of compactness-driven quenching mechanisms; and/or (b) as fossil records of the {{{Σ }}}SFR}\\propto {{{Σ }}}gas} relation in their disk-dominated progenitors.

  9. The E-MOSAICS project: simulating the formation and co-evolution of galaxies and their star cluster populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Joel; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crain, Robert A.; Bastian, Nate

    2018-04-01

    We introduce the MOdelling Star cluster population Assembly In Cosmological Simulations within EAGLE (E-MOSAICS) project. E-MOSAICS incorporates models describing the formation, evolution, and disruption of star clusters into the EAGLE galaxy formation simulations, enabling the examination of the co-evolution of star clusters and their host galaxies in a fully cosmological context. A fraction of the star formation rate of dense gas is assumed to yield a cluster population; this fraction and the population's initial properties are governed by the physical properties of the natal gas. The subsequent evolution and disruption of the entire cluster population are followed accounting for two-body relaxation, stellar evolution, and gravitational shocks induced by the local tidal field. This introductory paper presents a detailed description of the model and initial results from a suite of 10 simulations of ˜L⋆ galaxies with disc-like morphologies at z = 0. The simulations broadly reproduce key observed characteristics of young star clusters and globular clusters (GCs), without invoking separate formation mechanisms for each population. The simulated GCs are the surviving population of massive clusters formed at early epochs (z ≳ 1-2), when the characteristic pressures and surface densities of star-forming gas were significantly higher than observed in local galaxies. We examine the influence of the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies on their cluster populations, finding that (at similar present-day mass) earlier-forming galaxies foster a more massive and disruption-resilient cluster population, while galaxies with late mergers are capable of forming massive clusters even at late cosmic epochs. We find that the phenomenological treatment of interstellar gas in EAGLE precludes the accurate modelling of cluster disruption in low-density environments, but infer that simulations incorporating an explicitly modelled cold interstellar gas phase will overcome

  10. Does environment affect the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa; Tran, Kim-Vy; Martizzi, Davide; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Anshu Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative significance of gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions on the chemical evolution of cluster galaxies is fascinating and challenging. In this talk, I will present my observation of a cluster-scale gradient in the metallicity of star-forming galaxies as a complementary method to discern the impact of environment on chemical evolution. Our observations for MACS J1115+0129 show that cluster galaxies near the cluster center are more metal-rich compared to galaxies in the cluster outskirts. Using a semi-analytic model of ram pressure stripping, we prove that removal of low-metallicity gas is not sufficient to reproduce the metallicity gradient. I will also present our recent results from IllustrisTNG simulations predicting the "pre-enrichment" of progenitor cluster galaxies. Using tracer particles from IllustrisTNG simulations, we prove that inflow of enriched gas is the prime driver of the higher metal fraction in cluster galaxies compared to field galaxies.

  11. Stochastic effects in the chemical evolution of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.D.M. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Space Sciences Lab.; California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Astronomy); Audouze, J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique)

    1983-05-01

    We use a simple of mixing processes to investigate how fluctuations in element abundance in the interstellar medium may affect the chemical evolution of galaxies. We present a complete solution for the abundance distribution in a schematic inhomogeneous steady-state model in which infalling gas replaces material consumed by star formation. In addition, we give differential equations which describe the evolution of certain moments of the abundance distribution in more general models, together with a Monte Carlo scheme which can be used to simulate this evolution. We compare results for inhomogeneous generalizations of the infall model of Lynden-Bell with data on the abundance distribution of stars and gas in the solar neighbourhood. The relatively small dispersion about the age metallicity relation presented by Twarog constrains mixing of infalling gas and stellar ejecta to be quite efficient. A major difference between homogeneous and moderately inhomogeneous chemical evolution models lies in the relative abundance distributions they predict for primary and secondary nucleosynthesis products. Provided the coherence length for metallicity variations in the interstellar medium is small, inhomogeneous models lead to secondary to primary abundance ratios which are weakly and only statistically related to absolute primary abundance.

  12. Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... They were formed during the early phases, when the ISM might have been polluted only by the Pop-III supernovae. With the recent large spectroscopic surveys (e.g. HK survey by Beers and collaborators, the Hamburg-ESO survey by Christlieb and collaborators and Sloan Digital Sky Survey) it has been ...

  13. Magnetic field evolution in dwarf and Magellanic-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejkowski, H.; Soida, M.; Chyży, K. T.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: Low-mass galaxies radio observations show in many cases surprisingly high levels of magnetic field. The mass and kinematics of such objects do not favour the development of effective large-scale dynamo action. We attempted to check if the cosmic-ray-driven dynamo can be responsible for measured magnetization in this class of poorly investigated objects. We investigated how starburst events on the whole, as well as when part of the galactic disk, influence the magnetic field evolution. Methods: We created a model of a dwarf/Magellanic-type galaxy described by gravitational potential constituted from two components: the stars and the dark-matter halo. The model is evolved by solving a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic equation with an additional cosmic-ray component, which is approximated as a fluid. The turbulence is generated in the system via supernova explosions manifested by the injection of cosmic-rays. Results: The cosmic-ray-driven dynamo works efficiently enough to amplify the magnetic field even in low-mass dwarf/Magellanic-type galaxies. The e-folding times of magnetic energy growth are 0.50 and 0.25 Gyr for the slow (50 km s-1) and fast (100 km s-1) rotators, respectively. The amplification is being suppressed as the system reaches the equipartition level between kinetic, magnetic, and cosmic-ray energies. An episode of star formation burst amplifies the magnetic field but only for a short time while increased star formation activity holds. We find that a substantial amount of gas is expelled from the galactic disk, and that the starburst events increase the efficiency of this process.

  14. MID-INFRARED EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED EVOLUTION IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hibbard, John E.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Compact galaxy groups are at the extremes of the group environment, with high number densities and low velocity dispersions that likely affect member galaxy evolution. To explore the impact of this environment in detail, we examine the distribution in the mid-infrared (MIR) 3.6-8.0 μm color space of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) in comparison with several control samples, including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are strongly bimodal, with statistically significant evidence for a gap in their distribution. In contrast, none of the other samples show such a marked gap, and only galaxies in the Coma infall region have a distribution that is statistically consistent with the HCGs in this parameter space. To further investigate the cause of the HCG gap, we compare the galaxy morphologies of the HCG and LVL+SINGS galaxies, and also probe the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the HCG galaxies. While galaxy morphology in HCG galaxies is strongly linked to position with MIR color space, the more fundamental property appears to be the SSFR, or star formation rate normalized by stellar mass. We conclude that the unusual MIR color distribution of HCG galaxies is a direct product of their environment, which is most similar to that of the Coma infall region. In both cases, galaxy densities are high, but gas has not been fully processed or stripped. We speculate that the compact group environment fosters accelerated evolution of galaxies from star-forming and neutral gas-rich to quiescent and neutral gas-poor, leaving few members in the MIR gap at any time.

  15. EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY-DARK MATTER CONNECTION AND THE ASSEMBLY OF GALAXIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaohu; Zhang Youcai; Han Jiaxin [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Van den Bosch, Frank C., E-mail: xhyang@shao.ac.cn [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    halo; the ratio M{sub *,c}/M initially increases rapidly with time until the halo mass reaches {approx}10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, at which point M{sub *,c}/M {approx} 0.03. Once M {approx}> 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, there is little growth in M{sub *,c}, causing the ratio M{sub *,c}/M to decline. In Milky Way (MW)-sized halos more than half of the central stellar mass is assembled at z {approx}< 0.5. (5) In low-mass halos, the accretion of satellite galaxies contributes little to the formation of their central galaxies, indicating that most of their stars must have formed in situ. In massive halos more than half of the stellar mass of the central galaxy has to be formed in situ, and the accretion of satellites can only become significant at z {approx}< 2. (6) The total mass in halo stars is more than twice that of the central galaxy in massive halos, but less than 10% of M{sub *,c} in MW-sized halos. (7) The 2PCFs of galaxies on small scales hold important information regarding the evolution of satellite galaxies, which at high-z is predicted to be much steeper than at low-z, especially for more massive galaxies. We discuss various implications of our findings regarding the formation and evolution of galaxies in a {Lambda}CDM cosmology.

  16. Kelvin-Helmholtz evolution in subsonic cold streams feeding galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Adrianna; Coffing, S.; Kuranz, C.; Drake, R. P.; Klein, S.; Trantham, M.; Malamud, G.

    2017-10-01

    The most prolific star formers in cosmological history lie in a regime where dense filament structures carried substantial mass into the galaxy to sustain star formation without producing a shock. However, hydrodynamic instabilities present on the filament surface limit the ability of such structures to deliver dense matter deeply enough to sustain star formation. Simulations lack the finite resolution necessary to allow fair treatment of the instabilities present at the stream boundary. Using the Omega EP laser, we simulate this mode of galaxy formation with a cold, dense, filament structure within a hotter, subsonic flow and observe the interface evolution. Machined surface perturbations stimulate the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability due to the resultant shear between the two media. A spherical crystal imaging system produces high-resolution radiographs of the KH structures along the filament surface. The results from the first experiments of this kind, using a rod with single-mode, long-wavelength modulations, will be discussed. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through.

  17. The Evolution of Stellar Velocity Dispersion during Dissipationless Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Nathaniel R.; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2012-03-01

    Using N-body simulations, we studied the detailed evolution of central stellar velocity dispersion, σ*, during dissipationless binary mergers of galaxies. Stellar velocity dispersion was measured using the common mass-weighting method as well as a flux-weighting method designed to simulate the technique used by observers. A toy model for dust attenuation was introduced in order to study the effect of dust attenuation on measurements of σ*. We found that there are three principal stages in the evolution of σ* in such mergers: oscillation, phase mixing, and dynamical equilibrium. During the oscillation stage, σ* undergoes damped oscillations of increasing frequency. The oscillation stage is followed by a phase mixing stage during which the amplitude of the variations in σ* is smaller and more chaotic than in the oscillation stage. Upon reaching dynamical equilibrium, σ* assumes a stable value. We used our data regarding the evolution of σ* during mergers to characterize the scatter inherent in making measurements of σ* in non-quiescent systems. In particular, we found that σ* does not fall below 70% nor exceed 200% of its final, quiescent value during a merger and that a random measurement of σ* in such a system is much more likely to fall near the equilibrium value than near an extremum. Our toy model of dust attenuation suggested that dust can systematically reduce observational measurements of σ* and increase the scatter in σ* measurements.

  18. A Chemical Evolution Model for the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fornax is the brightest Milky Way (MW dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its star formation history (SFH has been derived from observations. We estimate the time evolution of its gas mass and net inflow and outflow rates from the SFH usinga simple star formation law that relates the star formation rate to the gas mass. We present a chemical evolution model on a 2D mass grid with supernovae (SNe as sources of metal enrichment. We find that a key parameter controlling the enrichment is the mass Mx of the gas to mix with the ejecta from each SN. The choice of Mx depends on the evolution of SN remnants and on the global gas dynamics. It differs between the two types of SNe involved and between the periods before and after Fornax became an MW satellite at time t = tsat. Our results indicate that due to the global gas outflow at t > tsat, part of the ejecta from each SN may directly escape from Fornax. Sample results from our model are presented and compared with data.

  19. The evolution of interacting spiral galaxy NGC 5194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    NGC 5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here, we focus on investigating main properties of its star formation history by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disk builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parametrizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time tp = 7.0 Gyr can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disk is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disk of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disk galaxy UGC 8802. In this paper, we also introduce a ‘toy’ model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the star formation rate and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic star formation process.

  20. The Evolution of Interacting Spiral Galaxy NGC\\,5194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruixiang

    2015-08-01

    NGC\\,5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here we focus on investigating main properties of its star-formation history (SFH) by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disc builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parameterizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time $t_{\\rm p}\\,=\\,7.0{\\rm Gyr}$can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disc is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disc of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disc galaxy UGC\\,8802. In this paper, we also introduce a 'toy' model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the SFR and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic SF process.

  1. Flight Calibration of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Patrick; GALEX Science Team

    2006-12-01

    We present current performance results for the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), a NASA mission that is performing a survey of the sky in two ultraviolet bands. The GALEX instrument comprises a 50 cm diameter modified Ritchey-Chretien telescope with imaging and objective-grism spectroscopic modes that feed a pair of large-format microchannel-plate-intensified, delay-line readout detectors. Simultaneous 2-color imaging of the large 1.2 degree field is achieved with an innovative optical system including a thin-film multilayer dichroic beamsplitter, which complements the bandpass-defining characteristics of a Lyman-alpha blocking filter and CsI cathode in the 23 nm-wide FUV band centered at 154 nm, in parallel with a red-blocking filter and CsTe cathode in the 80 nm-wide NUV band centered at 230 nm. Flight calibration based on three years of observations has significantly improved the instrument performance, especially in the areas of astrometric accuracy, photometric precision and image resolution. GALEX continues to meet its requirements for resolution, efficiency, astrometry, bandpass definition and survey sensitivity. Hardware issues with the FUV detector are being managed successfully with impacts to mission efficiency but not data quality. We describe recent results as they pertain to the GR2 and GR3 public data releases and outline plans for further improvement. GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in April 2003. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis for the GALEX mission.

  2. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies observed with the SAURON integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early-types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. (2017) and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analyzed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early-types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal vs. dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  3. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  4. The evolution of low-luminosity AGN and X-ray binaries in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca; Civano, Francesca M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies on the connection between X-ray AGN and their host galaxies are building up a detailed picture of the physical mechanisms regulating AGN activity and star formation as a function of redshift. Most of these works have focused on moderate and high-luminosity AGN with LX > 10^42 erg/s, and only recently the lower-luminosity AGN population in dwarf and early-type galaxies was investigated using stacking techniques. In this talk, we present the redshift evolution of low-luminosity AGN (LX seeds models, and are important for informing future mission studies. We compare our results to other studies of the redshift evolution of XRBs and the observed evolution of higher luminosity AGN.

  5. Wide-field kinematic structure of early-type galaxy halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob Antony

    2013-12-01

    The stellar halos of nearby galaxies bare the signatures of the mass-assembly processes that have driven galaxy evolution over the last ˜10 Gyr. Finding and interpreting these relict clues in galaxies within and beyond the local group offers one of the most promising avenues for understanding how galaxies accumulate their stars over time. To tackle this problem we have performed a systematic study of the wide-field kinematic structure of nearby (Dspectroscopy out to several effective radii (˜3 R e). The 22 galaxies presented here span a range of environments (field, group, and cluster), intrinsic luminosities (-22.4 infrared Calcium II triplet. For each spectrum, we parameterize the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) as a truncated Gauss-Hermite series convolved with an optimally weighted combination of stellar templates. These kinematic measurements (V, sigma, h3, and h4) are combined with literature values to construct spatially resolved maps of large-scale kinematic structure. A variety of kinematic behaviors are observed beyond ~1 Re, potentially reflecting the stochastic and chaotic assembly of stellar bulges and halos in early-type galaxies. Next, we describe a global analysis (out to 5 Re) of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs). Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly. At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically, while the characteristic GC metallicities also decrease with radius. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers. To test this hypothesis

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    2018-01-01

    The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.

  7. Cluster galaxy population evolution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey: brightest cluster galaxies, stellar mass distribution, and active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Oguri, Masamune; Chen, Kai-Feng; Tanaka, Masayuki; Chiu, I.-non; Huang, Song; Kodama, Tadayuki; Leauthaud, Alexie; More, Surhud; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Bundy, Kevin; Lin, Lihwai; Miyazaki, Satoshi; HSC Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The unprecedented depth and area surveyed by the Subaru Strategic Program with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC-SSP) have enabled us to construct and publish the largest distant cluster sample out to z~1 to date. In this exploratory study of cluster galaxy evolution from z=1 to z=0.3, we investigate the stellar mass assembly history of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and evolution of stellar mass and luminosity distributions, stellar mass surface density profile, as well as the population of radio galaxies. Our analysis is the first high redshift application of the top N richest cluster selection, which is shown to allow us to trace the cluster galaxy evolution faithfully. Our stellar mass is derived from a machine-learning algorithm, which we show to be unbiased and accurate with respect to the COSMOS data. We find very mild stellar mass growth in BCGs, and no evidence for evolution in both the total stellar mass-cluster mass correlation and the shape of the stellar mass surface density profile. The clusters are found to contain more red galaxies compared to the expectations from the field, even after the differences in density between the two environments have been taken into account. We also present the first measurement of the radio luminosity distribution in clusters out to z~1.

  8. Neutrino Driven Nucleosynthesis in the Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Projjwal

    2014-03-01

    We discuss a neutrino driven neutron capture mechanism that occurs in the He shell of an early core-collapse supernova. We calculate the nucleosynthesis, both before and after the passage of shock, in recent pre-supernova models of 11 - 15M⊙ stars with an initial metallicity of [ Z ] 200 . This process occurs on a timescale of ~ 100 - 300 s at a temperature of ~108 K which is much longer and colder compared to the conventional hot rapid neutron capture process. The process is uniquely sensitive to the neutron capture cross-sections since (n , γ) (γ , n) equilibrium is not established. We find that variation of neutron capture rates can have a dramatic effect on both the timescale and the final abundance pattern. We also explore the sensitivity of the mechanism on the neutrino emission parameters and oscillations, as well as on explosion energy and progenitor metallicity. We discuss the implications of this process with respect to the observed abundance of neutron capture elements in metal-poor stars.

  9. The Mid-Infrared Fundamental Plane of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin

    2008-05-01

    Three observables of early-type galaxies—size (re), surface brightness (Ie), and velocity dispersion (σ0)—form a tight planar correlation known as the fundamental plane (FP), which has provided great insights into the galaxy formation and the evolution processes. However, the FP has been found to be tilted against the simple virial expectation, prompting debates on its origin. In order to investigate the contribution of systematic stellar population variation to the FP tilt, we study here the FP relations of early-type galaxies in the mid-infrared (MIR), which may represent stellar mass well. We examine the wavelength dependence of the FP coefficients a and b in log re = alog σ0 + blog langle Iranglee + c, using a sample of 56 early-type galaxies for which visible (V band), near-infrared (K band), and MIR (Spitzer IRAC, 3.6-8.0 μm) data are available. We find that the coefficient a increases as a function of wavelength as da/dλ = 0.11 +/- 0.04 μm-1, while the coefficient b reaches the closest to -1 at 3.6-5.8 μm. When applied to the visible FP coefficients derived from a larger sample of nearby early-type galaxies, we get the FP relation with (a, b) ~= (1.6-1.8, -0.9) at 3.6 μm. Our result suggests that the stellar population effect can explain more than half of the FP tilt, closing the gap between the virial expectation and the optical FP. The reduction in the FP tilt is reflected in the dynamical mass-to-light ratio, Mdyn/L, dependence on L which decreases toward 3.6-5.8 μm, suggesting that the MIR light better represents mass than the shorter wavelengths.

  10. The formation and evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Haehnelt, Martin G.; Kauffmann, Guinevere

    1999-01-01

    We discuss constraints on the assembly history of supermassive black holes from the observed remnant black holes in nearby galaxies and from the emission caused by accretion onto these black holes. We also summarize the results of a specific model for the evolution of galaxies and their central black holes which traces their hierachical build-up in CDM-like cosmogonies. The model assumes (i) that black holes, ellipticals and starburts form during major mergers of galaxies (ii) that the gas fr...

  11. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  12. Kinematics and stellar populations of low-luminosity early-type galaxies in the Abell 496 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, I. V.; Cayatte, V.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Balkowski, C.; Chemin, L.; Laganá, T. F.; Prugniel, P.

    2008-07-01

    Context: The morphology and stellar populations of low-luminosity early-type galaxies in clusters have until now been limited to a few relatively nearby clusters such as Virgo or Fornax. Scenarii for the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in clusters are therefore not well constrained. Aims: We investigate here the morphology and stellar populations of low-luminosity galaxies in the relaxed richness class 1 cluster Abell 496 (z = 0.0330). Methods: Deep multiband imaging obtained with the CFHT Megacam allowed us to select a sample of faint galaxies, defined here as objects with magnitudes 18 Giraffe spectrograph with a resolving power R = 6300. We present structural analysis and colour maps for the 48 galaxies belonging to the cluster. We fit the spectra of 46 objects with PEGASE.HR synthetic spectra to estimate the ages, metallicities, and velocity dispersions. We estimated possible biases by similarly analysing spectra of ~1200 early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6). We computed values of α/Fe abundance ratios from the measurements of Lick indices. We briefly discuss effects of the fixed aperture size on the measurements. Results: For the first time, high-precision estimates of stellar population properties have been obtained for a large sample of faint galaxies in a cluster, allowing for the extension of relations between stellar populations and internal kinematics to the low-velocity dispersion regime. We have revealed a peculiar population of elliptical galaxies in the core of the cluster, resembling massive early-type galaxies by their stellar population properties and velocity dispersions, but having luminosities of about 2 mag fainter. Conclusions: External mechanisms of gas removal (ram pressure stripping and gravitational harassment) are more likely to have occurred than internal mechanisms such as supernova-driven winds. The violent tidal stripping of intermediate-luminosity, early-type galaxies in the

  13. The Effects of Environment on the Evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Quadri, Ryan F.; Glazebrook, Karl; Labbé, Ivo; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Forrest, Ben; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Spitler, Lee R.; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Tomczak, Adam R.

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of galaxy environment on the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF) over 0.2 Medium-Band Survey (NMBS) down to the stellar mass completeness limit, {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ > 9.0 (9.5) at z = 1.0 (2.0). We compare the SMFs for quiescent and star-forming galaxies in the highest and lowest environments using a density estimator based on the distance to the galaxies’ third-nearest neighbors. For star-forming galaxies, at all redshifts there are only minor differences with environment in the shape of the SMF. For quiescent galaxies, the SMF in the lowest densities shows no evolution with redshift other than an overall increase in number density (ϕ*) with time. This suggests that the stellar mass dependence of quenching in relatively isolated galaxies both is universal and does not evolve strongly. While at z≳ 1.5, the SMF of quiescent galaxies is indistinguishable in the highest and lowest densities, at lower redshifts, it shows a rapidly increasing number density of lower-mass galaxies, {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ ≃ 9{--}10, in the highest-density environments. We argue that this evolution can account for all the redshift evolution in the shape of the total quiescent galaxy SMF. This evolution in the quiescent galaxy SMF at higher redshift (z > 1) requires an environmental quenching efficiency that decreases with decreasing stellar mass at 0.5 environments. This requires a dominant environmental process such as starvation combined with rapid gas depletion and ejection at z > 0.5–1.0 for galaxies in our mass range. The efficiency of this process decreases with redshift, allowing other processes (such as galaxy interactions and ram-pressure stripping) to become more important at later times, z < 0.5.

  14. Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The Short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, ...

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE SCALING RELATIONS IN GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Peter H.; Burkert, Andreas; Naab, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of black holes (BHs) on the M BH -σ and M BH -M bulge planes as a function of time in disk galaxies undergoing mergers. We begin the simulations with the progenitor BH masses being initially below (Δlog M BH,i ∼ -2), on (Δlog M BH,i ∼ 0), and above (Δlog M BH,i ∼ 0.5) the observed local relations. The final relations are rapidly established after the final coalescence of the galaxies and their BHs. Progenitors with low initial gas fractions (f gas = 0.2) starting below the relations evolve onto the relations (Δlog M BH,f ∼ -0.18), progenitors on the relations stay there (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0), and finally progenitors above the relations evolve toward the relations, but still remain above them (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0.35). Mergers in which the progenitors have high initial gas fractions (f gas = 0.8) evolve above the relations in all cases (Δlog M BH,f ∼ 0.5). We find that the initial gas fraction is the prime source of scatter in the observed relations, dominating over the scatter arising from the evolutionary stage of the merger remnants. The fact that BHs starting above the relations do not evolve onto the relations indicates that our simulations rule out the scenario in which overmassive BHs evolve onto the relations through gas-rich mergers. By implication our simulations thus disfavor the picture in which supermassive BHs develop significantly before their parent bulges.

  16. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E; Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-11-04

    Star-forming galaxies trace cosmic history. Recent observational progress with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest known galaxies, which correspond to a period when the Universe was only ∼800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen.

  17. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark; Schiminovich, David

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  18. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonçalves, Thiago S. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 20080-090 (Brazil); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  19. LUMINOUS SATELLITES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 s = 1.7 +0.9 -0.8 ) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal (γ p = -1.0 +0.3 -0.4 ), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining φ to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of φ = 0 and |φ| less than 42 0 at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  20. The size evolution of star-forming and quenched galaxies in the IllustrisTNG simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Shy; Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Naiman, Jill; Vogelsberger, Mark; Marinacci, Federico; Torrey, Paul

    2018-03-01

    We analyse scaling relations and evolution histories of galaxy sizes in TNG100, part of the IllustrisTNG simulation suite. Observational qualitative trends of size with stellar mass, star formation rate and redshift are reproduced, and a quantitative comparison of projected r band sizes at 0 ≲ z ≲ 2 shows agreement to much better than 0.25 dex. We follow populations of z = 0 galaxies with a range of masses backwards in time along their main progenitor branches, distinguishing between main-sequence and quenched galaxies. Our main findings are as follows. (i) At M*, z = 0 ≳ 109.5 M⊙, the evolution of the median main progenitor differs, with quenched galaxies hardly growing in median size before quenching, whereas main-sequence galaxies grow their median size continuously, thus opening a gap from the progenitors of quenched galaxies. This is partly because the main-sequence high-redshift progenitors of quenched z = 0 galaxies are drawn from the lower end of the size distribution of the overall population of main-sequence high-redshift galaxies. (ii) Quenched galaxies with M*, z = 0 ≳ 109.5 M⊙ experience a steep size growth on the size-mass plane after their quenching time, but with the exception of galaxies with M*, z = 0 ≳ 1011 M⊙, the size growth after quenching is small in absolute terms, such that most of the size (and mass) growth of quenched galaxies (and its variation among them) occurs while they are still on the main sequence. After they become quenched, the size growth rate of quenched galaxies as a function of time, as opposed to versus mass, is similar to that of main-sequence galaxies. Hence, the size gap is retained down to z = 0.

  1. A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Magdis, Georgios; Hezaveh, Yashar; Le Borgne, Damien; Buat, Véronique; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Lagache, Guilaine; Scott, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 μJy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

  2. Evolution in Solitude - Field Galaxies from Half the Age of the Universe to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrum, Charity; Jørgensen, Inger; Oberhelman, Lindsey; Contreras, Taylor; Demarco, Ricardo; Fisher, Robert Scott; Bieker, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the stellar populations and evolutionary history of bulge-dominated (nser ≥ 1.5) field galaxies at redshifts up to z≈1 as part of the Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project (GCP). High signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from Gemini Observatory and imaging from Hubble Space Telescope is used to analyze a total of 44 field galaxies, focusing on 30 passive (EW[OII] ≤ 5Å) field galaxies. Our results indicate that the size-mass and size-velocity dispersion relations for the passive field galaxies show no significant evolution between z≈1 and the present. The passive field galaxies contain younger stellar populations than cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, with a formation redshift zform = 1.2-1.4 compared to zform = 1.8 for the cluster galaxies. We establish the Fundamental Plane and study the M/L ratios, both indicating that the formation redshift for the passive field galaxies is mass dependent. The zero point differences of the scaling relations for the M/L ratios agree with the formation redshift of zform = 1.2-1.4 found from the line indices and are consistent with the passive evolution model.

  3. Near-IR spectral evolution of dusty starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançon, Ariane; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    1996-11-01

    We propose a multicomponent analysis of starburst galaxies, based on a model that takes into account the young and evolved stellar components and the gas emission, with their respective extinction, in the frame of a coherent dust distribution pattern. Near-IR signatures are preferentially investigated, in order to penetrate as deep as possible into the dusty starburst cores. We computed the 1.4-2.5 μm spectra of synthetic stellar populations evolving through strong, short timescale bursts of star formation (continuum and lines, R ≃ 500). The evolution model is specifically sensitive to cool stellar populations (AGB and red supergiant stars). It takes advantage of the stellar library of Lançon & Rocca-Volmerange (1992) [A&ASS, 96, 593], observed with the same instrument (FTS/CFHT) as the analysed galaxy sample, so that the instrumental effects are minimised. The main near-IR observable constraints are the molecular signatures of CO and H2O and the slope of the continuum, observed over a range exceptionally broad for spectroscopic data. The H - K colour determined from the spectra measures the intrinsic stellar energy distribution but also differential extinction, which is further constrained by optical emission line ratios. Other observational constraints are the near-IR emission lines (Brγ, He I 2.06 μm, [Fe II] 1.64 μm, H2 2.12 μm) and the far-IR luminosity. The coherence of the results relies on the interpretation in terms of stellar populations from which all observable properties are derived, so that the link between the various wavelength ranges is secured. The luminosity LK is used for the absolute calibration. We apply this approach to the typical spectrum of the core of NGC 1614. Consistent solutions for the starburst characteristics (star-formation rate, IMF, burst age, morphology) are found and the role of each observational constraint in deriving satisfactory models is extensively discussed. The acceptable contamination of the K band light by the

  4. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, Erik A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set (~ 105 galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy Hα equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around Mr,0.1 = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has Mr,0.1 ~ -21) are well fit by a universal Γ ~ 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These

  5. Dust in the first quasars as a powerful probe of galaxy/BH co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, R.; Schneider, R.

    The origin of the large dust masses (> 108 M ) revealed by millimetre (mm) and sub-mm observations of z > 5 quasars is still hotly debated and interpreting/understanding the strong connection between the formation and growth of the first quasars and their host galaxies represents a challenge for both models and observations. By means of the semi-analytical model GAMETE/QSOdust (Valiante et al. 2011), we reconstruct the hierarchical build-up of high redshift QSOs and their host galaxies in a cosmological context. In addition, the chemical properties of the host galaxies, namely the mass of gas, stars, metals and dust are consistently followed in the model. As a pilot study, we have applied the model to SDSS J1148+5152 (J1148) at z = 6.4, using this source as a template for the general population of high-z QSOs. We show how dust formation and evolution may provide insights on the physical processes driving and regulating the co-evolution of quasars and their hosts in the early Universe: the dust mass produced by stars depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and on the shape of the star formation history (SFH), which is controlled by the evolution of the gas content through mergers and outflows driven by Supernovae (SNe) and by the active galactic nucleus (AGN); the total mass of metals is a tracer of the integrated star formation history (total stellar mass) and it is sensitive to the strength and frequencies of merger-driven starbursts, metal-rich outflows, as well as to the detrimental effect of accretion onto grains in the dense interstellar medium. The above findings, complemented by a detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of J1148 by means of a radiative transfer code, point to an evolutionary scenario where the nuclear BH and the stellar bulge grow hand-in-hand by means of merger-driven gas inflows; when the BH mass exceeds ˜ 108 M , a strong AGNdriven wind drives a powerful outflow that is able to clear-up the ISM of its dust

  6. ngVLA Key Science Goal 3: Charting the Assembly, Structure, and Evolution of Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Carilli, Chris; Casey, Caitlin M.; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Narayanan, Desika; Walter, Fabian; ngVLA Galaxy Assembly through Cosmic Time Science Working Group, ngVLA Galaxy Ecosystems Science Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will fundamentally advance our understanding of the formation processes that lead to the assembly of galaxies throughout cosmic history. The combination of large bandwidth with unprecedented sensitivity to the critical low-level CO lines over virtually the entire redshift range will open up the opportunity to conduct large-scale, deep cold molecular gas surveys, mapping the fuel for star formation in galaxies over substantial cosmic volumes. Imaging of the sub-kiloparsec scale distribution and kinematic structure of molecular gas in both normal main-sequence galaxies and large starbursts back to early cosmic epochs will reveal the physical processes responsible for star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over a broad range in redshifts. In the nearby universe, the ngVLA has the capability to survey the structure of the cold, star-forming interstellar medium at parsec-resolution out to the Virgo cluster. A range of molecular tracers will be accessible to map the motion, distribution, and physical and chemical state of the gas as it flows in from the outer disk, assembles into clouds, and experiences feedback due to star formation or accretion into central super-massive black holes. These investigations will crucially complement studies of the star formation and stellar mass histories with the Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor and the Origins Space Telescope, providing the means to obtain a comprehensive picture of galaxy evolution through cosmic times.

  7. Gas, Dust, and Quenching of Dusty Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Justin Scott

    In this dissertation, I study various aspects related to the gas and star formation in dusty star-forming galaxies in the distant universe. My dissertation is heavily based on observations made by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), observing a sample of gravitationally lensed high-redshift dusty galaxies originally discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). In addition to the introductions to the individual chapters, Chapter 1 provides a broader background to the study of these objects and places them in the overall context of galaxy evolution. In Chapter 2 I describe a technique designed to search for faint molecular lines in the spectrum of high-redshift dusty galaxies. The brightest molecular lines in the spectra of these objects are due to carbon monoxide, but a host of other species are present in the interstellar media. These other molecules trace gas of a wide range of temperatures and densities, but are generally ten times fainter than the brighter CO lines. I detected several other molecular lines, and used them to characterize the conditions of the interstellar gas. This work was published in Spilker et al. (2014). In Chapter 3, I describe a technique for modeling the effects of gravitational lensing which is optimized for data from interferometers such as ALMA. Using these models and data for a large sample of objects from ALMA, I studied the intrinsic properties of the sample such as the source sizes and luminosities. I used these intrinsic properties to revisit topics from the literature which benefit from the additional size information I determined. This work was published in Spilker et al. (2016). In Chapter 4, I use the modeling technique I developed to investigate the relationship between the star formation and the cold molecular gas from which stars form in two objects selected from the SPT sample. Using the models of the source, I was able to determine the mass of molecular gas in these objects using several independent

  8. The Evolution of Neutral Hydrogen in Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Kelly Nicole; Wilcots, Eric; Hess, Kelley M.

    2018-01-01

    The Illustris suite of simulations is held as the standard of large scale gravitational and hydro-dynamical simulations and allows us to make a better comparisons with physical processes at the gaseous level by providing a higher mass resolution than previously available through the Millenium-II simulation. We present a comparison of an analysis on the HI content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their group dark matter halo to the results of a large scale cosmological simulation. From the simulation we select optical group members above a Mr=-18 r-band magnitude and HI group members with HI above 109.5M⊙. We find that 74% of the HI detected galaxies are in groups or clusters and 84% of the optically detected galaxies are in groups or clusters. In the Hess & Wilcots (2013) paper it was found that as group membership, or group dark matter halo mass, increased, the fraction of galaxies detected in HI decreased and the spatial distribution of galaxies in these groups increased. We show the spatial distributions of galaxies, HI and optically detected, in order to reproduce these results. We find that Illustris qualitatively reproduces these trends, however, the simulation seems to be overestimating the mass of HI gas in all of its galaxies as well as the number of galaxies above the 109.5M⊙ limit.

  9. Modeling the Evolution of Galaxy Properties across Cosmic Time with Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul A.

    We present a series of numerical galaxy formation studies which apply new numerical methods to produce increasingly realistic galaxy formation models. We first investigate the metallicity evolution of a large set of idealized hydrodynamical galaxy merger simulations of colliding galaxies. We find that inflows of metal-poor interstellar gas triggered by galaxy tidal interactions can account for the systematically lower central oxygen abundances observed in local interacting galaxies. We show the central metallicity evolution during merger events is determined by a competition between the inflow of low-metallicity gas and enrichment from star formation. We find a time-averaged depression in the galactic nuclear metallicity of ~0.07 dex for gas-poor disk-disk interactions, which explains the observed close pair mass-metallicity and separation-metallicity relationships. We then pioneer the impact of a novel hydro solver in our understanding of galaxy gas disk assembly by comparing the structural properties of galaxies formed in cosmological simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET with those using the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that the cold gas disks formed using the moving mesh approach have systematically larger disk scale lengths and higher specific angular momenta than their GADGET counterparts across a wide range in halo masses. We articulate the numerical origins of these differences, and discuss the impact on large body of galaxy formation literature. We explore the performance of a recently implemented feedback model in AREPO which includes primordial and metal line radiative cooling with self-shielding corrections; stellar evolution with associated mass loss and chemical enrichment; feedback by stellar winds; black hole seeding, growth and merging; and AGN quasar- and radio-mode heating with a phenomenological prescription for AGN electro-magnetic feedback. We demonstrate that our feedback scheme is capable of producing

  10. Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies. II - The relationship between gaseous components and galaxy types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1992-01-01

    Interstellar components of early-type galaxies are established by galactic type and luminosity in order to search for relationships between the different interstellar components and to test the predictions of theoretical models. Some of the data include observations of neutral hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radio continuum emission. An alternative distance model which yields LX varies as LB sup 2.45, a relation which is in conflict with simple cooling flow models, is discussed. The dispersion of the X-ray luminosity about this regression line is unlikely to result from stripping. The striking lack of clear correlations between hot and cold interstellar components, taken together with their morphologies, suggests that the cold gas is a disk phenomenon while the hot gas is a bulge phenomenon, with little interaction between the two. The progression of galaxy type from E to Sa is not only a sequence of decreasing stellar bulge-to-disk ratio, but also of hot-to-cold-gas ratio.

  11. CHEMODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN TIDAL FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Romeo, Alessandro B., E-mail: david-john.williamson.1@ulaval.ca [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    The mass–metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the effect of tides on the mass–metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.

  12. Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-04-24

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FRACTION OF 'UNCONVENTIONAL' GALAXIES: RED LATE TYPES AND BLUE EARLY TYPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinfa; He Jizhou; Wu Ping; Ding Yingping

    2009-01-01

    From the Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we construct two volume-limited samples with the luminosity -20.0 ≤ M r ≤ -18.5 and -22.40 ≤ M r ≤ -20.16, respectively, to explore the environmental dependence of the fraction of 'unconventional' galaxies: red late types and blue early types. We use the density estimator within the distance to the fifth nearest neighbor, and construct two samples at both extremes of density and perform comparative studies between them for each volume-limited sample. Results of two volume-limited samples show the same conclusions: the fraction of red late-type galaxies rises considerably with increasing local density, and that one of the blue early-type galaxies declines substantially with increasing local density. In addition, we note that bluer galaxies preferentially are late types, but the red galaxies are not dominated by early types.

  14. X-Ray Scaling Relations of Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyk, Iu. V.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Russell, H. R.; Pulido, F. A.; Edge, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    X-ray luminosity, temperature, gas mass, total mass, and their scaling relations are derived for 94 early-type galaxies (ETGs) using archival Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. Consistent with earlier studies, the scaling relations, L X ∝ T 4.5±0.2, M ∝ T 2.4±0.2, and L X ∝ M 2.8±0.3, are significantly steeper than expected from self-similarity. This steepening indicates that their atmospheres are heated above the level expected from gravitational infall alone. Energetic feedback from nuclear black holes and supernova explosions are likely heating agents. The tight L X –T correlation for low-luminosity systems (i.e., below 1040 erg s‑1) are at variance with hydrodynamical simulations, which generally predict higher temperatures for low-luminosity galaxies. We also investigate the relationship between total mass and pressure, Y X = M g × T, finding M\\propto {Y}X0.45+/- 0.04. We explore the gas mass to total mass fraction in ETGs and find a range of 0.1%–1.0%. We find no correlation between the gas-to-total mass fraction with temperature or total mass. Higher stellar velocity dispersions and higher metallicities are found in hotter, brighter, and more massive atmospheres. X-ray core radii derived from β-model fitting are used to characterize the degree of core and cuspiness of hot atmospheres.

  15. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  16. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  17. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, extended to the low-σ regime of dEs. The ages in our sample show more scatter at lower σ values, indicative of less massive galaxies being affected by the environment to a higher degree. The shape of the age-σ relations for cluster versus non-cluster galaxies suggests that cluster environment speeds up the placing of galaxies on the red sequence. While the scaling relations are tighter for cluster than for the field/group objects, we find no evidence for a difference in average population characteristics of the two samples. We investigate the properties of our sample in the Virgo cluster as a function of number density (rather than simple clustrocentric distance) and find that dE ages correlate with the local density such that galaxies in regions of lower density are younger, likely because they are later arrivals to the cluster or have experienced less pre-processing in groups, and consequently used up their gas reservoir more recently. Overall, dE properties correlate more strongly with density than those of massive ETGs, which was expected as less massive galaxies are more susceptible to external influences.

  18. The Horizon-AGN simulation: evolution of galaxy properties over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, S.; Laigle, C.; Kimm, T.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Slyz, A.; Chisari, E.; Peirani, S.

    2017-06-01

    We compare the predictions of Horizon-AGN, a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation that uses an adaptive mesh refinement code, to observational data in the redshift range 0 history. We show that Horizon-AGN, which is not tuned to reproduce the local Universe, produces good overall agreement with these quantities, from the present day to the epoch when the Universe was 5 per cent of its current age. By comparison to Horizon-noAGN, a twin simulation without active galactic nuclei feedback, we quantify how feedback from black holes is likely to help shape galaxy stellar-mass growth in the redshift range 0 < z < 6, particularly in the most massive galaxies. Our results demonstrate that Horizon-AGN successfully captures the evolutionary trends of observed galaxies over the lifetime of the Universe, making it an excellent tool for studying the processes that drive galaxy evolution and making predictions for the next generation of galaxy surveys.

  19. The role of major mergers in (obscured) black hole growth and galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, E.; Privon, G.; Ricci, C.; Bauer, F.; Schawinski, K.; MODA Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    A clear picture is emerging in which rapid supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth episodes (luminous AGN) are directly linked to major galaxy mergers. Here, we present the first results from our MODA program aimed to obtain optical and near-IR Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy and mm/sub-mm ALMA maps for a sample of confirmed nearby dual AGN (separation 10 kpc), including the archetypical galaxy NGC6240. Specifically, we will focus here on Mrk 463, a very rich system of two galaxies separated by 3.8 kpc hosting two SMBH growing simultaneously. Clear evidence for complex morphologies and kinematics, outflows and feedback effects can be seen in this system, evidencing the deep connection between major galaxy mergers, SMBH growth and galaxy evolution.

  20. Galaxy evolution in merging clusters: The passive core of the "Train Wreck" cluster of galaxies, A 520

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshev, Boris; Finoguenov, Alexis; Verdugo, Miguel; Ziegler, Bodo; Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Haines, Christopher; Kamphuis, Peter; Tamm, Antti; Einasto, Maret; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2017-11-01

    Aims: The mergers of galaxy clusters are the most energetic events in the Universe after the Big Bang. With the increased availability of multi-object spectroscopy and X-ray data, an ever increasing fraction of local clusters are recognised as exhibiting signs of recent or past merging events on various scales. Our goal is to probe how these mergers affect the evolution and content of their member galaxies. We specifically aim to answer the following questions: is the quenching of star formation in merging clusters enhanced when compared with relaxed clusters? Is the quenching preceded by a (short-lived) burst of star formation? Methods: We obtained optical spectroscopy of >400 galaxies in the field of the merging cluster Abell 520. We combine these observations with archival data to obtain a comprehensive picture of the state of star formation in the members of this merging cluster. Finally, we compare these observations with a control sample of ten non-merging clusters at the same redshift from The Arizona Cluster Redshift Survey (ACReS). We split the member galaxies into passive, star forming or recently quenched depending on their spectra. Results: The core of the merger shows a decreased fraction of star forming galaxies compared to clusters in the non-merging sample. This region, dominated by passive galaxies, is extended along the axis of the merger. We find evidence of rapid quenching of the galaxies during the core passage with no signs of a star burst on the time scales of the merger (≲0.4 Gyr). Additionally, we report the tentative discovery of an infalling group along the main filament feeding the merger, currently at 2.5 Mpc from the merger centre. This group contains a high fraction of star forming galaxies as well as approximately two thirds of all the recently quenched galaxies in our survey. The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; hide

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  2. Chemical Evolution of Mn in Three Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies Men ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∗ & Jie Zhang1. 1Institute of ... for three local dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), considering the detailed. SNe yield and explosion rates for different .... progenitor are two degenerate white dwarfs. Acknowledgements. This work is supported ...

  3. Early death of massive galaxies in the distant universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatman, Caroline Margaretha Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    One of the major unresolved questions in astronomy is: how do galaxies form and evolve? In the local universe we can distinguish between actively star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Quiescent galaxies are typically the most massive, with elliptical morphologies and red optical colors. The

  4. Morphological properties of star-forming galaxies: Connecting the morphological evolution of galaxies and the decline of the star formation rate density of the Universe in the past 9 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamojski, Michel A.

    In this dissertation, we present results connecting the morphological evolution of galaxies and the decline of the star formation rate density in the Universe since z ~ 2. For our study, we used the high-resolution HST/ACS images of the COSMOS survey to perform non-parametric automated morphological measurement s on all objects with brightness I F 814 W rates. By first looking at the morphological properties of a sub-sample of z ~ 0.7 galaxies, we discover that the morphological bimodality is already in place, that z ~ 0.7 galaxies have masses, sizes and morphologies similar to that of local galaxies, but that they have star formation rates higher than local galaxies by a factor 2.5-3.5, independently of their other physical properties. We infer that the decline of the star formation rate density in the past 6 Gyrs can be mostly accounted for by a global fading of the galaxy population. We discover that morphology correlates well with UV-optical color, but that there also exists a population of red and dusty star-forming galaxies with bulge-like morphologies. We conclude that bulge growth is linked with episodes of high star formation, and interpret these objects as late-phase mergers. By studying the evolution of the luminosity function at 1500Å, we confirm the fading of the character istic FUV magnitude of galaxies since z = 2.0, and discover a flattening of the faint-end slope at z birth rate of galaxies. The morphological composition of our UV-sources indicates that disk galaxies dominate the FUV-luminosity function at all redshifts and all luminosities while interacting systems and galaxies with bulges contribute significantly mostly at the bright-end. Early-type disks appear to be the ones to evolve the most since z ~ 0.7, an epoch through which their faint-end slope steepens. We interpret this as an indication that most small to intermediate-size disk galaxies formed their bulges in the last 6 Gyrs. Finally, we observe, at z > 1, a progressive increase

  5. Hα imaging observations of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Pedraglio, S.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Boselli, A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The traditional knowledge of the mechanisms that brought to the formation and evolution of early type galaxies (ETG) in a hierarchical Universe was challenged by the unexpected finding by ATLAS3D that 86% ETGs show signs of a fast rotating disk at their interior, implying an origin common to most spiral galaxies, followed by a quenching phase, while only a minority of the most massive systems are slow rotators and were likely to be the products of merger events. Aims: Our aim is to improve our knowledge on the content and distribution of ionised hydrogen and their usage to form stars in a representative sample of ETGs for which the kinematics and detailed morphological classification were known from ATLAS3D. Methods: Using narrow-band filters centered on the redshifted Hα line along with a broad-band (r-Gunn) filter to recover the stellar continuum, we observed or collected existing imaging observations for 147 ETG (including members of the Virgo cluster), representative of the whole ATLAS3D survey. Results: 55 ETGs (37%) were detected in the Hα line above our detection threshold (HαEW ≤ -1 Å) and 21 harbour a strong source (HαEW ≤ -5 Å) . Conclusions: The strong Hα emitters appear associated with mostly low-mass (M* 1010 M⊙) S0 galaxies which contain conspicuous stellar and gaseous disks, harbouring significant star formation at their interior, including their nuclei. The weak Hα emitters are almost one order of magnitude more massive, contain gas-poor disks and harbour an AGN at their centers. Their emissivity is dominated by [NII] and does not imply star formation. The 92 undetected ETGs constitute the majority in our sample and are gas-free systems which lack a disk and exhibit passive spectra even in their nuclei. These pieces of evidence reinforce the conclusion of Cappellari (2016, ARA&A, 54, 597) that the evolution of ETGs followed the secular channel for the less massive systems and the dry merging channel for the most massive

  6. Galaxy evolution and faint counts in the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Fioc, M.

    The contribution of distant galaxies to the diffuse near-infrared and submillimetric extragalactic backgrounds can be predicted with the help of a multispectral modelling of the faint galaxy counts. In particular, star-forming galaxies have to be taken into account as well as old evolved galaxies implying a coherent simulation of the stellar emission from the blue to the near-infrared with gas and dust contributions. For this reason, an extension of previous UV and visible models is worked out with a detailed synthesis population model for strong, short timescale starbursts in a dusty medium in the near IR (Lançon and Rocca-Volmerange, 1995) by using a spectral library of stars from 1.4 to 2.5 μm observed with the FTS instrument at the 3.60-m/CFHT and fitted on starburst spectra observed with the instrument. Then an extension of the authors' atlas of synthetic galaxies was carried out, the near-IR emission (K band) being carefully normalised to the blue (B, V or J+ bands) emission. Galaxy counts in the K band are modelled in various cosmologies. The comparison with observations raises questions to be discussed with results from visible counts.

  7. Non-instantaneous gas recycling and chemical evolution in N-body disk galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwiert, Bruno; Carraro, G.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, 3-4 (2004), s. 441-444 ISSN 0004-640X. [From observations to self-consistent modelling of the ISM in galaxies. Porto, 03.09.2002-05.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/01/D075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : N-body simulations * galaxy evolution * gas recycling Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2004

  8. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  9. Following the Cosmic Evolution of Pristine Gas. II. The Search for Pop III–bright Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Cohen, Seth

    2018-02-01

    Direct observational searches for Population III (Pop III) stars at high redshift are faced with the question of how to select the most promising targets for spectroscopic follow-up. To help answer this, we use a large-scale cosmological simulation, augmented with a new subgrid model that tracks the fraction of pristine gas, to follow the evolution of high-redshift galaxies and the Pop III stars they contain. We generate rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions for our galaxies and find that they are consistent with current z≥slant 7 observations. Throughout the redshift range 7≤slant z≤slant 15, we identify “Pop III–bright” galaxies as those with at least 75% of their flux coming from Pop III stars. While less than 1% of galaxies brighter than {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag are Pop III–bright in the range 7≤slant z≤slant 8, roughly 17% of such galaxies are Pop III–bright at z = 9, immediately before reionization occurs in our simulation. Moving to z = 10, {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag corresponds to larger, more luminous galaxies, and the Pop III–bright fraction falls off to 5%. Finally, at the highest redshifts, a large fraction (29% at z = 14 and 41% at z = 15) of all galaxies are Pop III–bright regardless of magnitude. While {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag galaxies are extremely rare during this epoch, we find that 13% of galaxies at z = 14 are Pop III–bright with {m}UV,{AB}}≤slant 33 mag, a intrinsic magnitude within reach of the James Webb Space Telescope using lensing. Thus, we predict that the best redshift to search for luminous Pop III–bright galaxies is just before reionization, while lensing surveys for fainter galaxies should push to the highest redshifts possible.

  10. The evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function between z = 0.4 and 0.9 in the DAFT/FADA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Guennou, Loïc; Adami, Christophe; Biviano, Andrea; Ulmer, Melville P.; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Ilbert, Olivier; Márquez, Isabel; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-03-01

    Context. There is some disagreement about the abundance of faint galaxies in high-redshift clusters, with contradictory results in the literature arising from studies of the optical galaxy luminosity function (GLF) for small cluster samples. Aims: We compute GLFs for one of the largest medium-to-high-redshift (0.4 ≤ z evolution of different cluster populations. Methods: We calculated the GLFs for 31 clusters taken from the DAFT/FADA survey in the B,V,R, and I rest-frame bands. We used photometric redshifts computed from BVRIZJ images to constrain galaxy cluster membership. We carried out a detailed estimate of the completeness of our data. We distinguished the red-sequence and blue galaxies using a V - I versus I colour-magnitude diagram. We studied the evolution of these two populations with redshift. We fitted Schechter functions to our stacked GLFs to determine average cluster characteristics. Results: We find that the shapes of our GLFs are similar for the B,V,R, and I bands with a drop at the red GLF faint ends that is more pronounced at high redshift: αred ~ -0.5 at 0.40 ≤ z 0.1 at 0.65 ≤ z evolution of the faint-end slope of the red sequence and the galaxy type evolution that we find. Finally, faint galaxies accreted from the field environment at all redshifts might have replaced the blue late-type galaxies that converted into early types, explaining the lack of evolution in the faint-end slopes of the blue GLFs. Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. ON THE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorin, Ricardo O.; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Vilchez, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with redshifts between ∼0.11 and 0.35, popularly referred to as 'green peas'. Direct and strong-line methods sensitive to the N/O ratio applied to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra reveal that these systems are genuine metal-poor galaxies, with mean oxygen abundances ∼20% solar. At a given metallicity these galaxies display systematically large N/O ratios compared to normal galaxies, which can explain the strong difference between our metallicities measurements and previous ones. While their N/O ratios follow the relation with stellar mass of local SFGs in the SDSS, we find that the mass-metallicity relation of the 'green peas' is offset ∼>0.3 dex to lower metallicities. We argue that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss, driven by supernova winds, may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties, namely high specific star formation rates, extreme compactness, and disturbed optical morphologies. The 'green pea' galaxy properties seem to be uncommon in the nearby universe, suggesting a short and extreme stage of their evolution. Therefore, these galaxies may allow us to study in great detail many processes, such as starburst activity and chemical enrichment, under physical conditions approaching those in galaxies at higher redshifts.

  12. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Star forming galaxies represent a valuable tracer of cosmic history. Recent observational progress with Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest-known galaxies corresponding to a period when the Universe was only ~800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen. New techniques are being developed to understand the properties of these most...

  13. EVOLUTION OF GROUP GALAXIES FROM THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I. H. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Hsieh, B. C. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Gladders, M., E-mail: tli@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: bchsieh@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: gladders@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We study the evolution of the red-galaxy fraction (f{sub red}) in 905 galaxy groups with 0.15 {<=} z < 0.52. The galaxy groups are identified by the 'probability friends-of-friends' algorithm from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1) photometric-redshift sample. There is a high degree of uniformity in the properties of the red sequence of the group galaxies, indicating that the luminous red-sequence galaxies in the groups are already in place by z {approx} 0.5 and that they have a formation epoch of z {approx}> 2. In general, groups at lower redshifts exhibit larger f{sub red} than those at higher redshifts, showing a group Butcher-Oemler effect. We investigate the evolution of f{sub red} by examining its dependence on four parameters, one of which can be classified as intrinsic and three of which can be classified as environmental: galaxy stellar mass (M{sub *}), total group stellar mass (M{sub *,grp}, a proxy for group halo mass), normalized group-centric radius (r{sub grp}), and local galaxy density ({Sigma}{sub 5}). We find that M{sub *} is the dominant parameter such that there is a strong correlation between f{sub red} and galaxy stellar mass. Furthermore, the dependence of f{sub red} on the environmental parameters is also a strong function of M{sub *}. Massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) show little dependence of f{sub red} on r{sub grp}, M{sub *,grp}, and {Sigma}{sub 5} over the redshift range. The dependence of f{sub red} on these parameters is primarily seen for galaxies with lower masses, especially for M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun }. We observe an apparent 'group down-sizing' effect, in that galaxies in lower-mass halos, after controlling for galaxy stellar mass, have lower f{sub red}. We find a dependence of f{sub red} on both r{sub grp} and {Sigma}{sub 5} after the other parameters are controlled. At a fixed r{sub grp}, there is a significant dependence of f{sub red} on {Sigma}{sub 5

  14. E+A Galaxy Properties and Post-Starburst Galaxy Evolution Data through SDSS-IV MaNGA and Illustris: A Co-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Johnson, Amalya; Kerrison, Nicole; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Melchert, Nancy; Liu, Charles; Sloan Collaboration, SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    E+A galaxies (Elliptical + A-type stars) are post-starburst galaxies that have experienced a sudden quenching phase. Using previous research methods, 39 candidates out of 2,812 galaxies observed, or 1.4%, were selected from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. We then identified morphological characteristics of the 39 galaxies including stellar kinematics, Gini coefficient, gas density and distribution and stellar ages. To study the origin of how E+A galaxies evolved to their present state, galaxy simulation data from the Illustris simulation was utilized to identify similar quenched post-starburst candidates. Seven post-starburst candidates were identified through star formation rate histories of Illustris simulated galaxies. The evolution of these galaxies is studied from 0 to 13.8 billion years ago to identify what caused the starburst and quenching of the Illustris candidates. Similar morphological characteristics of Illustris post-starburst candidates are pulled from before, during, and post-starburst and compared to the same morphological characteristics of the E+A galaxies from SDSS-IV MaNGA. The characteristics and properties of the Illustris galaxies are used to identify the possible evolutionary histories of the observed E+A galaxies. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  15. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF OXYGEN AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES IN EMISSION-LINE SDSS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, Trinh X.; Pilyugin, Leonid S.; Zinchenko, Igor A.

    2010-01-01

    The oxygen and nitrogen abundance evolutions with redshift and galaxy stellar mass in emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are investigated. This is the first such study for nitrogen abundances, and it provides an additional constraint for the study of the chemical evolution of galaxies. We have devised a criterion to recognize and exclude from consideration active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies with large errors in the line flux measurements. To select star-forming galaxies with accurate line fluxes measurements, we require that, for each galaxy, the nitrogen abundances derived with various calibrations based on different emission lines agree. Using this selection criterion, subsamples of star-forming SDSS galaxies have been extracted from catalogs of the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University group. We found that the galaxies of highest masses, those with masses ∼>10 11.2 M sun , have not been enriched in both oxygen and nitrogen over the last ∼3 Gyr: they have formed their stars in the so distant past that these have returned their nucleosynthesis products to the interstellar medium before z = 0.25. The galaxies in the mass range from ∼10 11.0 M sun to ∼10 11.2 M sun do not show an appreciable enrichment in oxygen, but do show some enrichment in nitrogen: they also formed their stars before z = 0.25 but later in comparison to the galaxies of highest masses; these stars have not returned nitrogen to the interstellar medium before z = 0.25 because they have not had enough time to evolve. This suggests that stars with lifetimes of 2-3 Gyr, in the 1.5-2 M sun mass range, contribute to the nitrogen production. Finally, galaxies with masses ∼ 11 M sun show enrichment in both oxygen and nitrogen during the last 3 Gyr: they have undergone appreciable star formation and have converted up to ∼20% of their mass into stars over this period. Both oxygen and nitrogen enrichments increase with decreasing

  16. Evolution of galaxies clustering in the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneux, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The recent surveys of the Universe highlighted the presence of structures in the matter distribution, such as filaments and voids. To study the evolution of the galaxy spatial distribution, it is necessary to know their accurate position in a three dimensional space. This thesis took place within the framework of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). Its goal is to measure some 100000 redshifts to study the formation and evolution of the galaxies and large scale structures of the Universe up to z∼5. After having made a review of our knowledge of the galaxies distribution, then introduced the VVDS, I present the measurement and the evolution of the real-space two-point correlation function from the first epoch data of the VVDS, the largest sample of 10759 spectra ever acquired up to I AB = 24. I developed a whole set of programs made available to the VVDS consortium to easily measure the clustering length of galaxies in a given redshift range, with its associated errors, correcting the effects of the VVDS observing strategy. This tool enabled to measure the evolution of the real space correlation function of the global galaxies population up to z=2. I then extended this study dividing the full galaxies sample by spectral type and color. Finally, combining the GALEX data to the VVDS has allowed me to measure the clustering of an ultraviolet-selected sample of galaxies up to z∼1. This is the first time that such measurements are carried out on such a so long range of cosmic time. The results presented in this thesis are thus establishing a new reference in the field. (author) [fr

  17. The SAURON project - IX. A kinematic classification for early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsellem, Eric; Cappellari, Michele; Krajnovic, Davor; van de Ven, Glenn; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional stellar kinematics of 48 representative elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies obtained with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph reveal that early-type galaxies appear in two broad flavours, depending on whether they exhibit clear large-scale rotation or not. We define a new

  18. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  19. The structure of dark and luminous matter in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we explore new techniques to study the dark and luminous matter in the outskirts of galaxies. To determine the mass and shape of the dark matter halo around the early-type galaxy NGC 2974, we measure the kinematics of its large neutral gas ring. We combine these large-scale kinematics

  20. Early evolution without a tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2011-06-30

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause.

  1. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The very first relic-evidences of a past quasar activity (Hanny's Voorwerp) was discovered in 2007 by a Galaxy Zoo citizen-scientist, a school teacher, in the optical bands. This relic is around a few tens of thousand years old. More discoveries needed to match these time-scales with star formation time-scales in AGN host ...

  2. The dynamical and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revaz, Y.; Jablonka, P.; Sawala, T.; Hill, V.; Letarte, B.; Irwin, M.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Shetrone, M. D.; Tolstoy, E.; Venn, K. A.

    We present a large sample of fully self-consistent hydrodynamical Nbody/Tree-SPH simulations of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). It has enabled us to identify the key physical parameters and mechanisms at the origin of the observed variety in the Local Group dSph properties. The initial

  3. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are much lower than that of normal late type spirals (de Blok et al. 1996). The thinness of the HI distribution has ... 2000) but this is not suprising considering their low star forma- tion rates and low metallicities (Schombert ... normal galaxies in surface brightness and structure (Barth 2007). Galex UV obser- vations of the disks ...

  4. INTRINSIC ALIGNMENT OF CLUSTER GALAXIES: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiangang; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Feldmann, Robert; Annis, James; Johnston, David E.; Lin Huan; McKay, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of two types of cluster galaxy alignments based on a volume limited and highly pure (≥90%) sample of clusters from the GMBCG catalog derived from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). We detect a clear brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) alignment (the alignment of major axis of the BCG toward the distribution of cluster satellite galaxies). We find that the BCG alignment signal becomes stronger as the redshift and BCG absolute magnitude decrease and becomes weaker as BCG stellar mass decreases. No dependence of the BCG alignment on cluster richness is found. We can detect a statistically significant (≥3σ) satellite alignment (the alignment of the major axes of the cluster satellite galaxies toward the BCG) only when we use the isophotal fit position angles (P.A.s), and the satellite alignment depends on the apparent magnitudes rather than the absolute magnitudes of the BCGs. This suggests that the detected satellite alignment based on isophotal P.A.s from the SDSS pipeline is possibly due to the contamination from the diffuse light of nearby BCGs. We caution that this should not be simply interpreted as non-existence of the satellite alignment, but rather that we cannot detect them with our current photometric SDSS data. We perform our measurements on both SDSS r-band and i-band data, but do not observe a passband dependence of the alignments.

  5. Scaling relations for galaxy clusters: Properties and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giodini, S.; Lovisari, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ettori, S.; Reiprich, T.H.; Hoekstra, H.

    2013-01-01

    Well-calibrated scaling relations between the observable properties and the total masses of clusters of galaxies are important for understanding the physical processes that give rise to these relations. They are also a critical ingredient for studies that aim to constrain cosmological parameters

  6. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Schluns, Kyle; Greene, Jenny E.; Cool, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6 -1.9 % to 18 +5 -5 %). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9 +3 -2 % to 29 -19 +26 %). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs

  7. Emission line gas in early-type galaxies: Kinematics and physical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, S. E.; Koratkar, A. P.; Macalpine, G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have found line emission gas in nearby early-type galaxies, but the properties of the emission-line gas in these 'normal' galaxies remain enigmatic. In terms of activity in the nucleus, these LINER-like galaxies form an important link between giant H 2 region galaxies and low-luminosity Seyferts. Despite their large numbers and evolutionary significance, we do not know whether these galaxies form a homogeneous class of objects; nor do we know how the distribution and kinematics of the line emission gas are affected by the host galaxy's environment or by the properties of the central engine, if present. To address these issues we are conducting a magnitude and volume limited survey of nearby early-type galaxies at Lick Observatory and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory. We have selected approximately 100 galaxies from radio catalogs. A large sample is necessary because while studies of individual 'LINERS' have led to a certain understanding of the phenomenon, these studies have not provided a global framework. Here we present results from our first run of medium resolution (approximately 5 A FWHM) spectroscopy. Kinematic data and line ratios determined along the major and minor axes of 6 galaxies are discussed. The information gleaned from spectroscopic data, when combined with data at other wavelengths, will enable a thorough investigation into the nature of low luminosity nuclear activity.

  8. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  9. When galaxy clusters collide : the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroe, Andra

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage'

  10. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the

  11. Galaxy evolution in the metric of the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljic, K.; Arnouts, S.; Pichon, C.; Laigle, C.; de la Torre, S.; Vibert, D.; Cadiou, C.; Dubois, Y.; Treyer, M.; Schimd, C.; Codis, S.; de Lapparent, V.; Devriendt, J.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Borgne, D.; Malavasi, N.; Milliard, B.; Musso, M.; Pogosyan, D.; Alpaslan, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Wright, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    The role of the cosmic web in shaping galaxy properties is investigated in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey in the redshift range 0.03 ≤ z ≤ 0.25. The stellar mass, u - r dust corrected colour and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of galaxies are analysed as a function of their distances to the 3D cosmic web features, such as nodes, filaments and walls, as reconstructed by DisPerSE. Significant mass and type/colour gradients are found for the whole population, with more massive and/or passive galaxies being located closer to the filament and wall than their less massive and/or star-forming counterparts. Mass segregation persists among the star-forming population alone. The red fraction of galaxies increases when closing in on nodes, and on filaments regardless of the distance to nodes. Similarly, the star-forming population reddens (or lowers its sSFR) at fixed mass when closing in on filament, implying that some quenching takes place. These trends are also found in the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulation HORIZON-AGN. These results suggest that on top of stellar mass and large-scale density, the traceless component of the tides from the anisotropic large-scale environment also shapes galactic properties. An extension of excursion theory accounting for filamentary tides provides a qualitative explanation in terms of anisotropic assembly bias: at a given mass, the accretion rate varies with the orientation and distance to filaments. It also explains the absence of type/colour gradients in the data on smaller, non-linear scales.

  12. Early-type galaxy archeology: Ages, abundance ratios, and effective temperatures from full-spectrum fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s{sup –1} to 300 km s{sup –1}. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å{sup –1}, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å –8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T {sub eff}, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ; (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ∼0.25 at high σ; Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ; and (6) the variation in Δ T {sub eff} with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0.05 dex or

  13. The effects of stellar dynamics on the X-ray emission of flat early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrea; Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    Past observational and numerical studies indicated that the hot gaseous haloes of early-type galaxies may be sensitive to the stellar kinematics. With high-resolution ZEUS 2D hydrosimulations, we study the hot gas evolution in flat early-type galaxies of fixed (stellar plus dark) mass distribution, but with variable amounts of azimuthal velocity dispersion and rotational support, including the possibility of a (counter) rotating inner disc. The hot gas is fed by stellar mass-losses, and heated by supernova explosions and thermalization of stellar motions. The simulations provide γth, the ratio between the heating due to the relative velocity between the stellar streaming and the interstellar medium bulk flow, and the heating attainable by complete thermalization of the stellar streaming. We find that (1) X-ray emission-weighted temperatures and luminosities match observed values and are larger in fully velocity dispersion supported systems; X-ray isophotes are boxy where rotation is significant; (2) γth ≃ 0.1-0.2 for isotropic rotators and (3) γth ≃ 1 for systems with an inner (counter) rotating disc. The lower X-ray luminosities of isotropic rotators are not explained just by their low γth but by a complicated flow structure and evolution, consequence of the angular momentum stored at large radii. Rotation is therefore important to explain the lower average X-ray emission and temperature observed in flat and more rotationally supported galaxies.

  14. A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Sune; Zabl, Johannes; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Zibetti, Stefano; Prescott, Moire; Grillo, Claudio; Man, Allison W S; Lee, Nicholas Y; Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Stockmann, Mikkel; Magdis, Georgios; Steinhardt, Charles L

    2017-06-21

    At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies. Here we report an analysis of the stellar populations and kinematics of a lensed z = 2.1478 compact galaxy, which-surprisingly-turns out to be a fast-spinning, rotationally supported disk galaxy. Its stars must have formed in a disk, rather than in a merger-driven nuclear starburst. The galaxy was probably fed by streams of cold gas, which were able to penetrate the hot halo gas until they were cut off by shock heating from the dark matter halo. This result confirms previous indirect indications that the first galaxies to cease star formation must have gone through major changes not just in their structure, but also in their kinematics, to evolve into present-day elliptical galaxies.

  15. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M. R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K. C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2008-05-01

    We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using planetary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities with best efficiency. The primary scientific objective of this custom-built instrument is the study of the PN kinematics in 12 ordinary round galaxies. Preliminary results showing a dearth of dark matter in ordinary galaxies (Romanowsky et al. 2003) are now confirmed by the first complete PN.S datasets. On the other hand early-type galaxies with a “regular” dark matter content are starting to be observed among the brighter PN.S target sample, thus confirming a correlation between the global dark-to-luminous mass virial ratio (fDM = MDM M*) and the galaxy luminosity and mass.

  16. Very deep IRAS survey - constraints on the evolution of starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, P.; Houck, J.R.; Condon, J.J.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    Counts of sources (primarily starburst galaxies) from a deep 60 microns IRAS survey published by Hacking and Houck (1987) are compared with four evolutionary models. The counts below 100 mJy are higher than expected if no evolution has taken place out to a redshift of approximately 0.2. Redshift measurements of the survey sources should be able to distinguish between luminosity-evolution and density-evolution models and detect as little as a 20 percent brightening or increase in density of infrared sources per billion years ago (H/0/ = 100 km/s per Mpc). Starburst galaxies cannot account for the reported 100 microns background without extreme evolution at high redshifts. 21 references

  17. Speculations on Bar-Driven Evolution of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, M. N.

    The Galaxy's has a weak Bar, of SAB-type, and the corotation radius is near 3.5 kpc with the inner-ultra-harmonic resonance near 2.5 kpc, as derived from an unbiased set of stellar positions and losa velocities. I speculate upon - and present some evidence for - a scenario in which the Bar formed about 5 Gyr ago and induced an inward flow of gas that increased the galactic-centre metallicity. The central concentration of the density distribution of the Galaxy may have increased enough to trigger periodic star bursts and the formation of an inner-Lindblad resonance near 1.5 kpc, which may now and in future be the cause for the ongoing dissolution of the Bar.

  18. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Sato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM of galaxy clusters to outer regions observed with Suzaku. The observed temperature dropped by about ~30% from the central region to the virial radius of the clusters. The derived entropy profile agreed with the expectation from simulations within r500, while the entropy profile in r > r500 indicated a flatter slope than the simulations. This would suggest that the cluster outskirts were out of hydrostatic equilibrium. As for the metallicity, we studied the metal abundances from O to Fe up to ~0.5 times the virial radius of galaxy groups and clusters. Comparing the results with supernova nucleosynthesis models, the number ratio of type II to Ia supernovae is estimated to be ~3.5. We also calculated not only Fe, but also O and Mg mass-to-light ratios (MLRs with K-band luminosity. The MLRs in the clusters had a similar feature.

  19. An integral constraint for the evolution of the galaxy two-point correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, P.J.E.; Groth, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Under some conditions an integral over the galaxy two-point correlation function, xi(x,t), evolves with the expansion of the universe in a simple manner easily computed from linear perturbation theory.This provides a useful constraint on the possible evolution of xi(x,t) itself. We test the integral constraint with both an analytic model and numerical N-body simulations for the evolution of irregularities in an expanding universe. Some applications are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Active galactic nuclei and their role in galaxy evolution : The infrared perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.

    The remarkable progress made in infrared (IR) astronomical instruments over the last 10-15 years has radically changed our vision of the extragalactic IR sky, and overall understanding of galaxy evolution. In particular, this has been the case for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), for which

  1. Interpreting the evolution of galaxy colours from z = 8 to 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, Mattia; Schneider, Raffaella; Graziani, Luca; Valiante, Rosa; Dayal, Pratika; Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to interpret existing data on the evolution of the UV luminosity function and UV colours, β, of galaxies at 5 ≤ z ≤ 8, to improve our understanding of their dust content and interstellar medium properties. To this aim, we post-process the results of a cosmological hydrodynamical

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES TO REDSHIFT 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Paul; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) population in a large sample of clusters of galaxies and find evidence for a substantial increase in the cluster AGN population from z ∼ 0.05 to z ∼ 1.3. The present sample now includes 32 clusters of galaxies, including 15 clusters above z = 0.4, which corresponds to a three-fold increase compared to our previous work at high redshift. At z R R (z) + 1 that host AGNs with rest-frame, hard X-ray [2-10 keV] luminosities L X,H ≥ 10 43 erg s -1 . The AGN fraction increases from f A = 0.134 +0.18 -0.087 % at a median z = 0.19 to f A = 1.00 +0.29 -0.23 % at a median z = 0.72. Our best estimate of the evolution is a factor of 8 increase to z = 1 and the statistical significance of the increase is 3.8σ. This dramatic evolution is qualitatively similar to the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population in clusters known as the Butcher-Oemler effect. We discuss the implications of this result for the coevolution of black holes and galaxies in clusters, the evolution of AGN feedback, searches for clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and the possible detection of environment-dependent downsizing.

  3. The Chemical Evolution of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies: the Key to their Formation Processes The Chemical Evolution of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies: the Key to their Formation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ortega-Minakata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando la mayor muestra de galaxias con líneas de emisión angostas disponible hasta el momento, se muestra que sus características espectrales están correlacionadas con diferentes parámetros físicos, como las abundancias químicas, las morfologías, las masas del bulbo, y la edad estelar promedio de las poblaciones estelares de la galaxia anfitriona. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que las variaciones espectrales observadas en diagramas de diagnóstico estándares no se deben únicamente a las variaciones de los parámetros o las estructuras de ionización, sino que reflejan también la evolución química de las galaxias, relacionada con diferentes procesos de formación.  Using the largest sample of narrow emission line galaxies available so far, we show that their spectral characteristics are correlated with different physical parameters, like the chemical abundances, the morphologies, the masses of the bulge and the mean stellar age of the stellar populations of the host galaxies. It suggests that the spectral variations observed in standard spectroscopic diagnostic diagrams are not due solely to variations of ionization parameters or structures but reflect also the chemical evolution of the galaxies, which in turn can be explained by different galaxy formation processes.

  4. Report on the ESO Workshop "Early Stages of Galaxy Cluster Formation 2017 (GCF2017)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, T.; Stroe, A.; Andreani, P.; Arnaud, M.; Arrigoni Battaia, F..; De Breuck, C..; Sobral, D.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of the largest gravitationally bound structures in the Universe, clusters of galaxies, and how these environments affect the galaxies within them are major themes in cosmology and galaxy evolution. The high-redshift progenitors of clusters, called "protoclusters", are still in the process of hierarchical assembly. The transition from protocluster to cluster is gradual, driven by accretion and spectacular mergers that are expected to last roughly one billion years. This workshop aimed to address open questions in protocluster and cluster formation, to define the similarities and distinctions between the two, and to evaluate the best tools and methods for their detection and study.

  5. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Gradients of Stellar Population Properties and Evolution Clues in a Nearby Galaxy M101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zou, Hu; Kong, Xu; Lin, Xuanbin; Mao, Yewei; Cheng, Fuzhen; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zhou, Xu

    2013-06-01

    Multiband photometric images from ultraviolet and optical to infrared are collected to derive spatially resolved properties of the nearby Scd-type galaxy M101. With evolutionary stellar population synthesis models, two-dimensional distributions and radial profiles of age, metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation timescale in the form of the Sandage star formation history are obtained. When fitting with the models, we use the IRX-A FUV relation, found to depend on a second parameter of birth rate b (ratio of present- and past-averaged star formation rates), to constrain the dust attenuation. There are obvious parameter gradients in the disk of M101, which supports the theory of an "inside-out" disk growth scenario. Two distinct disk regions with different gradients of age and color are discovered, similar to another late-type galaxy, NGC 628. The metallicity gradient of the stellar content is flatter than that of H II regions. The stellar disk is optically thicker inside than outside and the global dust attenuation of this galaxy is lower compared with galaxies of similar and earlier morphological type. We note that a variational star formation timescale describes the real star formation history of a galaxy. The timescale increases steadily from the center to the outskirt. We also confirm that the bulge in this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, whose evolution is likely to be induced by some secular processes of the small bar which is relatively young, metal-rich, and contains much dust.

  7. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.{sup 5} sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  8. What drives the evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Clusters vs. the Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Present-day galaxy clusters consist chiefly of low-mass dwarf elliptical galaxies, but the progenitors of this dominant population remain unclear. A prime candidate is the class of objects known as Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies, common in intermediate-reshift clusters but virtually extinct today. Recent cosmological simulations suggest that the present-day dwarfs galaxies begin as irregular field galaxies, undergo an environmentally-driven starburst phase as they enter the cluster, and stop forming stars earlier than their counterparts in the field. This model predicts that cluster dwarfs should have lower stellar mass per unit dynamical mass than their counterparts in the field. We propose a two-pronged archival research program to test this key prediction using the combination of precision photometry from space and high-quality spectroscopy. First, we will combine optical HST/ACS imaging of five z=0.55 clusters (including two HST Frontier Fields) with Spitzer IR imaging and publicly-released Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to measure stellar-to-dynamical-mass ratios for a large sample of cluster LCBGs. Second, we will exploit a new catalog of LCBGs in the COSMOS field to gather corresponding data for a significant sample of field LCBGs. By comparing mass ratios from these datasets, we will test theoretical predictions and determine the primary physical driver of cluster dwarf-galaxy evolution.

  9. Predictions of ΛCDM eulerian hydrodynamic simulations on galaxy formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the validity of the cold dark matter (CDM) model by comparing the predictions of large-scale hydrodynamic simulations with variety of available astronomical data on galaxies. The simulations we use include a heuristic star formation recipe which allows us to study galaxy formation without making any ad hoc assumptions on the bias of galaxy distribution relative to underlying dark matter distribution. Our simulation also have additional unique features of self-consistent treatment of supernovae feedback, ultra-violet radiation field, radiation shielding, metal enrichment and metal cooling. Furthermore, a population synthesis model is used to make predictions in terms of observable light. Firstly, we discuss star formation history, stellar metallicity distribution, mass function, luminosity function, and colors of galaxies in a ΛCDM universe, both in the local universe and as functions of time. Secondly, we study the evolution of Lyman Break Galaxies at redshift 3, with particular emphasis on their star formation history, merger history, and metallicity distribution. Finally, the cosmic Mach number and its environmental dependence on overdensity and galaxy mass and age is studied. The overall picture is that there is an impressive, though imperfect match between theory, numerical simulations, and observations.

  10. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Lácteas, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMT Observatory, P.O. Box 210065, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Holwerda, Benne [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Sheth, Kartik, E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  11. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths

  12. Simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies: multi-phase description of the interstellar medium, star formation, and energy feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Modelling the gaseous component of the interstellar medium (ISM) by Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics in N-Body simulations (NB-TSPH) is still very crude when compared to the complex real situation. In the real ISM, many different and almost physically decoupled components (phases) coexist for long periods of time, and since they spread over wide ranges of density and temperature, they cannot be correctly represented by a unique continuous fluid. This would influence star formation which is thought to take place in clumps of cold, dense, molecular clouds, embedded in a warmer, neutral medium, that are almost freely moving throughout the tenuous hot ISM. Therefore, assuming that star formation is simply related to the gas content without specifying the component in which this is both observed and expected to occur may not be physically sound. Aims: We consider a multi-phase representation of the ISM in NB-TSPH simulations of galaxy formation and evolution with particular attention to the case of early-type galaxies. Methods: Cold gas clouds are described by the so-called sticky particles algorithm. They can freely move throughout the hot ISM medium; stars form within these clouds and the mass exchange among the three baryonic phases (hot gas, cold clouds, stars) is governed by radiative and Compton cooling and energy feedback by supernova (SN) explosions, stellar winds, and UV radiation. We also consider thermal conduction, cloud-cloud collisions, and chemical enrichment. Results: Our model agrees with and improves upon previous studies on the same subject. The results for the star formation rate agree with recent observational data on early-type galaxies. Conclusions: These models lend further support to the revised monolithic scheme of galaxy formation, which has recently been strengthened by high redshift data leading to the so-called downsizing and top-down scenarios.

  13. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe: Probing the Star Formation History of Galaxies by Their Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the approximately 4 x 10(exp 8) Solar Mass of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae, could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass AGB stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios. ^N;"(,, show that the AGB scenario is sensitive to the details of the galaxy's star formation history (SFH), which must consist of an early intense starburst followed by a period of low stellar activity. The presence or absence of massive amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies can therefore be used to infer their SFH. However, a problem with the AGB scenario is that it produces a stellar mass that is significantly larger than the inferred dynamical mass of J1148+5251, an yet unresolved discrepancy. If this problem persists, then additional sites for the growth or formation of dust, such as molecular clouds or dense clouds around active galactic nuclei, must be considered.

  14. ATLAS Probe: Exploring Frontiers in Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Milky Way Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Robberto, Massimo; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hirata, Christopher M.; Cimatti, Andrea; Bartlett, James; Barkhouser, Robert; Benjamin, Robert A.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Conroy, Charlie; Daddi, Emanuele; Donahue, Megan; Dore, Olivier; Eisenhardt, Peter; Fraser, Wesley C.; Helou, George; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Moscardini, Lauro; Ninkov, Zoran; Ressler, Michael; Rhoads, James; Rhodes, Jason; Shapley, Alice; Smee, Stephen; ATLAS Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS (Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy) Probe is a concept for a NASA probe-class space mission that leverages WFIRST imaging for targeted spectroscopy. ATLAS Probe will obtain spectra of 90% of all galaxies imaged by the WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5, with slit spectra of 300 million galaxies to z = 7. ATLAS Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe with Mpc resolution over 2200 sq deg, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modification of general relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way.ATLAS Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionize galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from the local group to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionization through the peak era of galaxy assembly. (2) Open a new window into the Universe by mapping the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts to unveil the nature of the dark Universe, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and possible modification of general relativity using cosmic large-scale structure. (3) Probe the Milky Way's dust-shrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy. (4) Characterize asteroids and comets in the outer Solar System.ATLAS Probe is a 1.5m telescope with a field of view (FoV) of 0.4 sq deg, and uses Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 600, and a wavelength range of 1-4μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide FoV is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; ATLAS fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor of 5000-10000). It has an estimated cost under $1B, with a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology

  15. ULTRAVIOLET COLOR-COLOR RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT 0.05 < z < 0.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, Chang H.; Jeong, Hyunjin; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Oh, Kyuseok; Chung, Chul

    2012-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) to investigate the properties of hot stellar populations responsible for the UV excess (UVX). The initial sample of ETGs is selected by the spectroscopic redshift and the morphology parameter from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, and then cross-matched with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) GR6 data. The cross-matched ETG sample is further classified by their emission line characteristics in the optical spectra into quiescent, star-forming, and active galactic nucleus categories. Contaminations from early-type spiral galaxies, mergers, and morphologically disturbed galaxies are removed by visual inspection. By drawing the FUV-NUV (as a measure of UV spectral shape) versus FUV – r (as a measure of UVX strength) diagram for the final sample of ∼3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the 'old and dead' ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the 'UV red sequence', so that the stronger UVX galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical stellar population models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. Moreover, 2 mag of color spreads both in FUV-NUV and FUV – r appear to be ubiquitous among any subsets in distance or luminosity. This implies that the UVX in ETGs could be driven by yet another parameter which might be even more influential than age or metallicity.

  16. Chemical Evolution of Mn in Three Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies Men ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thesis and explosion rate of SNeIa and CCSNe, we studied Mn evolution for three local dwarf ... Wasserburg's model, the evolution of Fe in a homogeneous system of condensed gas is governed by the following .... SNeIa is almost equivalent to that of CCSNe in the low metallicity case; it becomes dominant in high ...

  17. Strong Stellar-driven Outflows Shape the Evolution of Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella; Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    We study galaxy mass assembly and cosmic star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift (z ≳ 4), by comparing data from multiwavelength surveys with predictions from the GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly (gaea) model. gaea implements a stellar feedback scheme partially based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which features strong stellar-driven outflows and mass-dependent timescales for the re-accretion of ejected gas. In previous work, we have shown that this scheme is able to correctly reproduce the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) up to z ∼ 3. We contrast model predictions with both rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) and optical luminosity functions (LFs), which are mostly sensitive to the SFR and stellar mass, respectively. We show that gaea is able to reproduce the shape and redshift evolution of both sets of LFs. We study the impact of dust on the predicted LFs, and we find that the required level of dust attenuation is in qualitative agreement with recent estimates based on the UV continuum slope. The consistency between data and model predictions holds for the redshift evolution of the physical quantities well beyond the redshift range considered for the calibration of the original model. In particular, we show that gaea is able to recover the evolution of the GSMF up to z ∼ 7 and the cosmic SFR density up to z ∼ 10.

  18. Dynamical effects in the formation and evolution of galaxies and clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1977-01-01

    The development of computer programs capable of simulating the self-consistent evolution of systems of a thousand or more self-gravitating particles has opened to experiment many aspects of problems concerning the dissipationless formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters which could previously only be treated at the cost of extreme oversimplification. As a result of experiments now being carried out, the range of validity, the inadequacies and the mistaken emphasis of many previous analyses are becoming evident. The applications of numerical experiments are discussed and illustrated. (U.K.)

  19. Galaxy evolution: black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, E; Reeves, JN; Gofford, J; Harrison, FA; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, MT; Matzeu, GA; Walton, DJ; Behar, E; Boggs, SE; Christensen, FE; Craig, WW; Hailey, CJ; Matt, G

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband X-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic spe...

  20. SDSS-IV MaNGA: global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv

    2018-05-01

    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity, and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centre < outer), while the gradients for most massive galaxies are negative. The metallicity gradients show a clear peak around velocity dispersion log10 σe ≈ 2.0, which corresponds to the critical mass ˜3 × 1010 M⊙ of the break in the mass-size relation. Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass Mcrit ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  1. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: On the Evolution of M* Galaxy Progenitors from z = 3 to 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Labbé, I.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Behroozi, P.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Spitler, L.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Tran, K.-V.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Inami, H.; Faber, S. M.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Koo, D. C.; Kurczynski, P.; Lotz, J. M.; Lu, Y.; Lucas, R. A.; McIntosh, D.; Mehrtens, N.; Mobasher, B.; Monson, A.; Morrison, G.; Nanayakkara, T.; Persson, S. E.; Salmon, B.; Simons, R.; Tomczak, A.; van Dokkum, P.; Weiner, B.; Willner, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 1010 M ⊙ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 1011 M ⊙ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ~ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ~ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the growth

  2. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: ON THE EVOLUTION OF M* GALAXY PROGENITORS FROM z = 3 TO 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Spitler, L.; Cowley, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davé, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, A. [Center of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, M.; Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Faber, S. M., E-mail: papovich@tamu.edu [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2015-04-10

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the S

  3. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: ON THE EVOLUTION OF M* GALAXY PROGENITORS FROM z = 3 TO 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V.; Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Spitler, L.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Inami, H.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Faber, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10 10 M ☉ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10 11 M ☉ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the

  4. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and the Origin and Fate of the Hot Gas in Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca; Negri, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2018-04-01

    A recent determination of the relationships between the X-ray luminosity of the ISM (L X) and the stellar and total mass for a sample of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) is used to investigate the origin of the hot gas, via a comparison with the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the ISM evolution for a large set of isolated ETGs. After the epoch of major galaxy formation (after z ≃ 2), the ISM is replenished by stellar mass losses and SN ejecta, at the rate predicted by stellar evolution, and is depleted by star formation; it is heated by the thermalization of stellar motions, SNe explosions, and the mechanical (from winds) and radiative AGN feedback. The models agree well with the observed relations, even for the largely different L X values at the same mass, thanks to the sensitivity of the gas flow to many galaxy properties; this holds for models including AGN feedback, and those without. Therefore, the mass input from the stellar population is able to account for a major part of the observed L X; and AGN feedback, while very important to maintain massive ETGs in a time-averaged quasi-steady state, keeping low star formation and the black hole mass, does not dramatically alter the gas content originating in stellar recycled material. These conclusions are based on theoretical predictions for the stellar population contributions in mass and energy, and on a self-consistent modeling of AGN feedback.

  5. The Greater Impact of Mergers on the Growth of Massive Galaxies: Implications for Mass Assembly and Evolution since z sime 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Kevin; Fukugita, Masataka; Ellis, Richard S.; Targett, Thomas A.; Belli, Sirio; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2009-06-01

    Using deep infrared observations conducted with the MOIRCS imager on the Subaru Telescope in the northern GOODS field combined with public surveys in GOODS-S, we investigate the dependence on stellar mass, M *, and galaxy type of the close pair fraction (5 h -1 kpc implied merger rate. In terms of combined depth and survey area, our publicly available mass-limited sample represents a significant improvement over earlier infrared surveys used for this purpose. In common with some recent studies, we find that the fraction of paired systems that could result in major mergers is low (~4%) and does not increase significantly with redshift to z ≈ 1.2, with vprop(1 + z)1.6±1.6. Our key finding is that massive galaxies with M *>1011 M sun are more likely to host merging companions than less massive systems (M * ~ 1010 M sun). We find evidence for a higher pair fraction for red, spheroidal hosts compared to blue, late-type systems, in line with expectations based on clustering at small scales. The so-called "dry" mergers between early-type galaxies devoid of star formation (SF) represent nearly 50% of close pairs with M *>3 × 1010 M sun at z ~ 0.5, but less than 30% at z ~ 1. This result can be explained by the increasing abundance of red, early-type galaxies at these masses. We compare the volumetric merger rate of galaxies with different masses to mass-dependent trends in galaxy evolution. Our results reaffirm the conclusion of Bundy et al. that major mergers do not fully account for the formation of spheroidal galaxies since z ~ 1. In terms of mass assembly, major mergers contribute little to galaxy growth below M * ~ 3 × 1010 M sun but play a more significant role among galaxies with M * gsim 1011 M sun ~ 30% of which have undergone mostly dry mergers over the observed redshift range. Overall, the relatively rapid and recent coalescence of high-mass galaxies mirrors the expected hierarchical growth of halos and is consistent with recent model predictions, even if

  6. Early gas stripping as the origin of the darkest galaxies in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Mastropietro, C; Wadsley, J

    2007-02-15

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  7. Early Gas Stripping as the Origin of the Darkest Galaxies in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich, ETH /Zurich U.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /KICP, Chicago; Mastropietro, Chiara; /Munich U. Observ.; Wadsley, James; /McMaster U.

    2007-02-28

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  8. The MASSIVE survey - VIII. Stellar velocity dispersion profiles and environmental dependence of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; Thomas, Jens; Blakeslee, John P.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Ito, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    We measure the radial profiles of the stellar velocity dispersions, σ(R), for 90 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the MASSIVE survey, a volume-limited integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) galaxy survey targeting all northern-sky ETGs with absolute K-band magnitude MK galaxies with sufficient radial coverage to determine γouter we find 36 per cent to have rising outer dispersion profiles, 30 per cent to be flat within the uncertainties and 34 per cent to be falling. The fraction of galaxies with rising outer profiles increases with M* and in denser galaxy environment, with 10 of the 11 most massive galaxies in our sample having flat or rising dispersion profiles. The strongest environmental correlations are with local density and halo mass, but a weaker correlation with large-scale density also exists. The average γouter is similar for brightest group galaxies, satellites and isolated galaxies in our sample. We find a clear positive correlation between the gradients of the outer dispersion profile and the gradients of the velocity kurtosis h4. Altogether, our kinematic results suggest that the increasing fraction of rising dispersion profiles in the most massive ETGs are caused (at least in part) by variations in the total mass profiles rather than in the velocity anisotropy alone.

  9. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. THE ROLE OF DUST IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. I. PROTOGALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasawa, Daisuke; Habe, Asao; Kozasa, Takashi; Nozawa, Takaya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    We develop one-zone galaxy formation models in the early universe, taking into account dust formation and evolution by supernova (SN) explosions. We focus on the time evolution of dust size distribution, because H 2 formation on the dust surface plays a critical role in the star formation process in the early universe. In the model, we assume that star formation rate (SFR) is proportional to the total amount of H 2 . We consistently treat (1) the formation and size evolution of dust, (2) the chemical reaction networks including H 2 formation both on the surface of dust and in gas phase, and (3) the SFR in the model. First, we find that, because of dust destruction due to both reverse and forward shocks driven by SNe, H 2 formation is more suppressed than in situations without such dust destruction. At the galaxy age of ∼0.8 Gyr, for galaxy models with virial mass M vir = 10 9 M sun and formation redshift z vir = 10, the molecular fraction is 2.5 orders of magnitude less in the model with dust destruction by both shocks than that in the model without dust destruction. Second, we show that the H 2 formation rate strongly depends on the interstellar medium (ISM) density around SN progenitors. The SFR in higher ISM density is lower, since dust destruction by reverse shocks is more effective in higher ISM density. We conclude that not only the amount but also the size distribution of dust related to star formation activity strongly affects the evolution of galaxies in the early universe.

  11. Rapidly growing black holes and host galaxies in the distant Universe from the Herschel Radio Galaxy Evolution Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Vernet, J.; Seymour, N.; Lehnert, M.; Barthel, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Ibar, E.; Galametz, A.; Haas, M.; Hatch, N.; Mullaney, J. R.; Nesvadba, N.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stern, D.; Wylezalek, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive survey of 70 radio galaxies at redshifts 1 2.5 are higher than the sSFR of typical star forming galaxies over the same redshift range, but are similar or perhaps lower than the galaxy population for radio galaxies at z<2.5. By comparing the sSFR and the

  12. MUFASA: the strength and evolution of galaxy conformity in various tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieferantsoa, Mika; Davé, Romeel

    2018-03-01

    We investigate galaxy conformity using the MUFASA cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We show a bimodal distribution in galaxy colour with radius, albeit with too many low-mass quenched satellite galaxies compared to observations. MUFASA produces conformity in observed properties such as colour, specific star formation rate (sSFR), and H I content, i.e. neighbouring galaxies have similar properties. We see analogous trends in other properties such as in environment, stellar age, H2 content, and metallicity. We introduce quantifying conformity using S(R), measuring the relative difference in upper and lower quartile properties of the neighbours. We show that low-mass and non-quenched haloes have weak conformity (S(R)≲ 0.5) extending to large projected radii R in all properties, while high-mass and quenched haloes have strong conformity (S(R)˜ 1) that diminishes rapidly with R and disappears at R ≳ 1 Mpc. S(R) is strongest for environment in low-mass haloes, and sSFR (or colour) in high-mass haloes, and is dominated by one-halo conformity with the exception of H I in small haloes. Metallicity shows a curious anticonformity in massive haloes. Tracking the evolution of conformity for z = 0 galaxies back in time shows that conformity broadly emerges as a late-time (z ≲ 1) phenomenon. However, for fixed halo mass bins, conformity is fairly constant with redshift out to z ≳ 2. These trends are consistent with the idea that strong conformity only emerges once haloes grow above MUFASA's quenching mass scale of ˜1012 M⊙. A quantitative measure of conformity in various properties, along with its evolution, thus represents a new and stringent test of the impact of quenching on environment within current galaxy formation models.

  13. The Metallicity Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies: New Contraints at Intermediate Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian; Dressler, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z approx. 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10(exp 8) M stellar mass, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10(exp 9)M stellar mass. For the portion of our sample above M is greater than 10(exp 9)M (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M* relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation.We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption.

  14. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution : an EMIR survey I. Presentation of the data and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; Rodriguez, M. I.; Muller, S.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Martin, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lindberg, J. E.; Batejat, F.; Juette, E.; Lahuis, F.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    Aims. We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Methods. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM

  15. The Masses and Stellar Content of Nuclei in Early-Type Galaxies from Multi-Band Photometry and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Chelsea; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel; Ferrarese, Laura; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Liu, Yiqing; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Zirm, Andrew; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Powalka, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    It is now established that most, if not all, massive galaxies host central supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and that these SMBHs are linked to the growth their host galaxies as shown by several scaling relations. Within the last couple of decades, it has become apparent that most lower-mass galaxies without obvious SMBHs nevertheless contain some sort of central massive object in the form of compact stellar nuclei that also follow identical (or similar) scaling relations. These nuclei are challenging to study given their small sizes and relatively faint magnitudes, but understanding their origins and relationship to their hosts is critical to gaining a more complete picture of galaxy evolution. To that end, we highlight selected results from an analysis of 39 nuclei and their early-type hosts in the Virgo Cluster using ten broadband filters: F300W, F475W, F850LP, F160W, u*griz, and Ks. We estimate masses, metallicities and ages using simple stellar population (SSP) models. For 19 nuclei, we compare to SSP parameters derived from Keck and Gemini spectra and find reasonable agreement between the photometric and spectroscopic metallicity: the RMS scatter is 0.3 dex. We reproduce the nucleus-galaxy mass fraction of 0.33 ± 0.08% for galaxy stellar masses 108.4-1010.3 M⊙ with a typical precision of ~35% for the nuclei masses. Based on available model predictions, there is no single preferred formation scenario for nuclei, suggesting that nuclei are formed stochastically through a mix of processes. Nuclei metallicities are statistically identical to those of their hosts, appearing 0.07 ± 0.3 dex more metal-rich on average — although, omitting galaxies with unusual origins (i.e., compact ellipticals), nuclei are 0.20 ± 0.28 dex more metal-rich. We find no clear age difference between nuclei and their galaxies, with nuclei displaying a broad range of ages. Interestingly, we find that the most massive nuclei may be flatter and more closely aligned with the semi

  16. The physical properties and evolution of Lyα emitting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.

    2009-05-01

    A significant fraction of high redshift starburst galaxies presents strong Lyα emission. Understanding the nature of these galaxies is important to assess the role they played in the early Universe and to shed light on the relation between the narrow band selected Lyα emitters and the Lyman break galaxies: are the Lyα emitters a subset of the general LBG population? or do they represent the youngest galaxies in their early phases of formation? We studied a sample of UV continuum selected galaxies from z~2.5 to z~6 (U, B, V and i-dropouts) from the GOODS-South survey, that have been observed spectroscopically. Using the GOODS-MUSIC catalog we investigated their physical properties, such as total masses, ages, SFRs, extinction etc as determined from a spectrophotometric fit to the multi-wavelength (U band to mid-IR) SEDs, and their dependence on the emission line characteristics. In particular we determined the nature of the LBGs with Lyα in emission and compared them to the properties of narrow band selected Lyα emitters. For U and B-dropouts we also compared the properties of LBGs with and without the Lyα emission line.

  17. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova (SN) explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to damped Lyman α (DLA) systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are the following. (I) We can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. (II) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. (III) Concerning DLA systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. (IV) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nanoparticles.

  18. Extreme Host Galaxy Growth in Powerful Early-epoch Radio Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda

    2012-01-01

    During the first half of the universe's life, a heyday of star formation must have occurred because many massive galaxies are in place after that epoch in cosmic history. Our observations with the revolutionary Herschel Space Observatory reveal vigorous optically obscured star formation in the

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VANDELS High-Redshift Galaxy Evolution (McLure+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R.; Pentericci, L.; Vandels Team

    2017-11-01

    This is the first data release (DR1) of the VANDELS survey, an ESO public spectroscopy survey targeting the high-redshift Universe. The VANDELS survey uses the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's VLT to obtain ultra-deep, medium resolution, optical spectra of galaxies within the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) and Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) survey fields (0.2 sq. degree total area). Using robust photometric redshift pre-selection, VANDELS is targeting ~2100 galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0=3. In addition, VANDELS is targeting a substantial number of passive galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0filter, which covers the wavelength range 4800-10000Å at a dispersion of 2.5Å/pix and a spectral resolution of R~600. Each galaxy receives between a minimum of 20-hours and a maximum of 80-hours of on-source integration time. The fundamental aim of the survey is to provide the high signal-to-noise spectra necessary to measure key physical properties such as stellar population ages, metallicities and outflow velocities from detailed absorption-line studies. By targeting two extra-galactic survey fields with superb multi-wavelength imaging data, VANDELS is designed to produce a unique legacy dataset for exploring the physics underpinning high-redshift galaxy evolution. (2 data files).

  20. Tidal interaction, star formation and chemical evolution in blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.; Jaiswal, S.

    2018-02-01

    The optical spectroscopic and radio interferometric H I 21 cm-line observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22 are presented. The Wolf-Rayet (WR) emission-line features corresponding to high ionization lines of He II λ4686 and C IV λ5808 from young massive stars are detected. The ages of two prominent star-forming regions in the galaxy are estimated as ∼10 and ∼ 4 Myr. The galaxy has non-thermal radio deficiency, which also indicates a young starburst and lack of supernovae events from the current star formation activities, consistent with the detection of WR emission-line features. A significant N/O enrichment is seen in the fainter star-forming region. The gas-phase metallicities [12 + log(O/H)] for the bright and faint regions are estimated as 7.98±0.07 and 7.46±0.09, respectively. The galaxy has a large diffuse H I envelop. The H I images reveal disturbed gas kinematics and H I clouds outside the optical extent of the galaxy, indicating recent tidal interaction or merger in the system. The results strongly indicate that Mrk 22 is undergoing a chemical and morphological evolution due to ongoing star formation, most likely triggered by a merger.

  1. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters - III. Properties, evolution and Y-M scaling relation of protoclusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, Federico; De Petris, Marco; Yepes, Gustavo; Foschi, Emma; Lamagna, Luca; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study the properties of protoclusters of galaxies by employing the MultiDark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) set of hydrodynamical simulations, featuring a sample of 282 resimulated clusters with available merger trees up to z = 4. We study the characteristics and redshift evolution of the mass and the spatial distribution for all the protoclusters, which we define as the most massive progenitors of the clusters identified at z = 0. We extend the study of the baryon content to redshifts larger than 1 also in terms of gas and stars budgets: no remarkable variations with redshift are discovered. Furthermore, motivated by the proven potential of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys to blindly search for faint distant objects, we compute the scaling relation between total object mass and integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that the slope of this scaling law is steeper than what expected for a self-similarity assumption among these objects, and it increases with redshift mainly when radiative processes are included. We use three different criteria to account for the dynamical state of the protoclusters, and find no significant dependence of the scaling parameters on the level of relaxation. We exclude the dynamical state as the cause of the observed deviations from self-similarity in protoclusters.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON FEEDBACK PROCESSES DURING THE FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo/IAG, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De La Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); De Carvalho, R. R., E-mail: trevisan@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil)

    2012-06-20

    Galaxies are found to obey scaling relations between a number of observables. These relations follow different trends at the low- and high-mass ends. The processes driving the curvature of scaling relations remain uncertain. In this Letter, we focus on the specific family of early-type galaxies, deriving the star formation histories of a complete sample of visually classified galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.025, covering a stellar mass interval from 10{sup 9} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Our sample features the characteristic 'knee' in the surface brightness versus mass distribution at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} . We find a clear difference between the age and metallicity distributions of the stellar populations above and beyond this knee, which suggests a sudden transition from a constant, highly efficient mode of star formation in high-mass galaxies, gradually decreasing toward the low-mass end of the sample. At fixed mass, our early-type sample is more efficient in building up the stellar content at early times in comparison to the general population of galaxies, with half of the stars already in place by redshift z {approx} 2 for all masses. The metallicity-age trend in low-mass galaxies is not compatible with infall of metal-poor gas, suggesting instead an outflow-driven relation.

  3. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subsequent to the evolution of the simulated stars within each grid the stellar nucleosynthetic yields are homogenized within the grid rather than the traditionally adopted criteria of homogenizing over the entire solar annular ring. This provides a natu- ral mechanism of generating heterogeneities in the elemental abundance.

  4. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dwarf metallicity distribution. Copi (1997) followed the Monte Carlo approach to track the evolution of suc- cessive generations of star formations from a specific mass (105M⊙) of an isolated gas cloud with a spatial dimensions of ∼100 pc in the ...

  5. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... -body numerical simulations of an inhomogeneous Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) of the solar neighbourhood with a high temporal resolution are presented. The solar annular ring is divided into distinct spatial grids of area ∼ 1–2 kpc2. Each grid evolves distinctly in terms of star formation and ...

  6. Star cluster evolution in dark matter dominated galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, Anneke; Hurley, Jarrod; Power, Chris

    We investigate the influence of the external tidal field of a dark matter halo on the dynamical evolution of star clusters using direct N-body simulations, where we assume that the halo is described by a Navarro, Frenk and White mass profile which has an inner density cusp. We assess how varying the

  7. CONNECTING THE GAMMA RAY BURST RATE AND THE COSMIC STAR FORMATION HISTORY: IMPLICATIONS FOR REIONIZATION AND GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S., E-mail: brant@astro.caltech.edu [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    The contemporary discoveries of galaxies and gamma ray bursts (GRBs) at high redshift have supplied the first direct information on star formation when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. The probable origin of long duration GRBs in the deaths of massive stars would link the universal GRB rate to the redshift-dependent star formation rate (SFR) density, although exactly how is currently unknown. As the most distant GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, the potential reward of understanding the redshift-dependent ratio {Psi}(z) of the GRB rate to SFR is significant and includes addressing fundamental questions such as incompleteness in rest-frame UV surveys for determining the SFR at high redshift and time variations in the stellar initial mass function. Using an extensive sample of 112 GRBs above a fixed luminosity limit drawn from the Second Swift Burst Alert Telescope catalog and accounting for uncertainty in their redshift distribution by considering the contribution of 'dark' GRBs, we compare the cumulative redshift distribution N(< z) of GRBs with the star formation density {rho}-dot{sub *}(z) measured from UV-selected galaxies over 0 < z <4. Strong evolution (e.g., {Psi}(z){proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.5}) is disfavored (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test P < 0.07). We show that more modest evolution (e.g., {Psi}(z){proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 0.5}) is consistent with the data (P Almost-Equal-To 0.9) and can be readily explained if GRBs occur primarily in low-metallicity galaxies which are proportionally more numerous at earlier times. If such trends continue beyond z {approx_equal} 4, we find that the discovery rate of distant GRBs implies an SFR density much higher than that inferred from UV-selected galaxies. While some previous studies of the GRB-SFR connection have concluded that GRB-inferred star formation at high redshift would be sufficient to maintain cosmic reionization over 6

  8. CANDELS: THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET COLORS FROM z = 8 TO 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Salmon, Brett; Bassett, Robert; Finlator, Kristian; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Reddy, Naveen A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lai, Kamson; Hathi, Nimish P.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) colors in the epoch 4 ∼ 3.5, including 113 at z ≅ 7-8. We fit the observed spectral energy distribution to a suite of synthetic stellar population models and measure the value of the UV spectral slope (β) from the best-fit model spectrum. We run simulations to show that this measurement technique results in a smaller scatter on β than other methods, as well as a reduced number of galaxies with catastrophically incorrect β measurements (i.e., Δβ > 1). We find that the median value of β evolves significantly from –1.82 +0.00 –0.04 at z = 4 to –2.37 +0.26 –0.06 at z = 7. Additionally, we find that faint galaxies at z = 7 have β –2.68 +0.39 –0.24 (∼ –2.4 after correcting for observational bias); this is redder than previous claims in the literature and does not require 'exotic' stellar populations (e.g., very low metallicities or top-heavy initial mass functions) to explain their colors. This evolution can be explained by an increase in dust extinction, from low amounts at z = 7 to A V ∼ 0.5 mag at z = 4. The timescale for this increase is consistent with low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars forming the bulk of the dust. We find no significant ( UV when measuring M UV at a consistent rest-frame wavelength of 1500 Å. This is particularly true at bright magnitudes, though our results do show evidence for a weak correlation at faint magnitudes when galaxies in the HUDF are considered separately, hinting that dynamic range in sample luminosities may play a role. We do find a strong correlation between β and the stellar mass at all redshifts, in that more massive galaxies exhibit redder colors. The most massive galaxies in our sample have similarly red colors at each redshift, implying that dust can build up quickly in massive galaxies and that feedback is likely removing dust from low-mass galaxies at z ≥ 7. Thus, the stellar-mass—metallicity relation, previously observed up

  9. The Evolution of Galaxies by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ding-Yu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of galaxies is by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Due to the structural difference, baryonic matter and dark matter are incompatible to each other as oil droplet and water in emulsion. In the interfacial zone between dark matter and baryonic matter, this incompatibility generates the modification of Newtonian dynamics to keep dark matter and baryonic matter apart. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of incre...

  10. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2015-12-18

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  12. The SAURON project - XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, HJ; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv

    2018-02-01

    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling (JAM) of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centregalaxies are negative. The metallicity gradients show a clear peak around velocity dispersion log10σe ≈ 2.0, which corresponds to the critical mass ˜3 × 1010M⊙ of the break in the mass-size relation. Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass M_crit≳ 2× 10^{11} M_{\\odot}, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  14. THE EFFECT OF DRY MERGERS ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dry merging on the color-magnitude relation (CMR) of galaxies and find that the amount of merging predicted by a hierarchical model results in a red sequence that compares well with the observed low-redshift relation. A sample of ∼ 29,000 early-type galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 shows that the bright end of the CMR has a shallower slope and smaller scatter than the faint end. This magnitude dependence is predicted by a simple toy model in which gas-rich mergers move galaxies onto a 'creation red sequence' (CRS) by quenching their star formation, and subsequent mergers between red, gas-poor galaxies (so-called 'dry' mergers) move galaxies along the relation. We use galaxy merger trees from a semianalytic model of galaxy formation to test the amplitude of this effect and find a change in slope at the bright end that brackets the observations, using gas fraction thresholds of 10%-30% to separate wet and dry mergers. A more realistic model that includes scatter in the CRS shows that dry merging decreases the scatter at the bright end. Contrary to previous claims, the small scatter in the observed CMR thus cannot be used to constrain the amount of dry merging.

  15. Origin and early evolution of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthesis was well-established on the earth at least 3.5 thousand million years ago, and it is widely believed that these ancient organisms had similar metabolic capabilities to modern cyanobacteria. This requires that development of two photosystems and the oxygen evolution capability occurred very early in the earth's history, and that a presumed phase of evolution involving non-oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms took place even earlier. The evolutionary relationships of the reaction center complexes found in all the classes of currently existing organisms have been analyzed using sequence analysis and biophysical measurements. The results indicate that all reaction centers fall into two basic groups, those with pheophytin and a pair of quinones as early acceptors, and those with iron sulfur clusters as early acceptors. No simple linear branching evolutionary scheme can account for the distribution patterns of reaction centers in existing photosynthetic organisms, and lateral transfer of genetic information is considered as a likely possibility. Possible scenarios for the development of primitive reaction centers into the heterodimeric protein structures found in existing reaction centers and for the development of organisms with two linked photosystems are presented.

  16. The X-ray luminosity functions of field low-mass X-ray binaries in early-type galaxies: Evidence for a stellar age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tzanavaris, P.; Yukita, M. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Berkeley, M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Ptak, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zezas, A. [Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. E. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fragos, T. [IESL, Foundation for Research and Technology, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kalogera, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sivakoff, G. R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183 Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span ≈3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background active galactic nuclei/galaxies. We find that the 'young' early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (≈2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L {sub X} ≳ (5-10) × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) per unit K-band luminosity (L{sub K} ; a proxy for stellar mass) than the 'old' early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (≈8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of ≈2-3 excess of L {sub X}/L{sub K} for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  17. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  18. Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after considering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the early ...

  19. Evolution Of The Galaxy Major Merger Rate Since Z 6 In The Muse Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; MUSE-GTO Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Over the past two decades, strong evidence that galaxies have undergone a significant evolution over cosmic time were found. Do galaxy mergers, one of the main driving mechanisms behind the growth of galaxies, played a key role in their evolution at significant look-back time? Due to the difficulty to identify these violent interactions between galaxies at high redshifts, the major merger rate, involving two galaxies of similar masses, was constrained so far up to redshift z 3, from previous studies of spectrocopic pair counts. Thanks to MUSE, which is perfectly suited to identify close pairs of galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshifts, we are now able to extend such studies up to z 6. I will present the results obtained from deep (10-30h) MUSE observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We provide the first constraints on the galaxy major merger evolution over 12 Gyrs (0.2 < z < 6) and over a broad range of stellar masses, showing that there is a flattening of the major merger rate evolution at very high redshift.

  20. The effects of the initial mass function on the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Carlo; Matteucci, F.; Vincenzo, F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the use of our chemical evolution model to reproduce the abundance patterns observed in a catalogue of elliptical galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The model assumes ellipticals form by fast gas accretion, and suffer a strong burst of star formation followed by a galactic wind, which quenches star formation. Models with fixed initial mass function (IMF) failed in simultaneously reproducing the observed trends with the galactic mass. So, we tested a varying IMF; contrary to the diffused claim that the IMF should become bottom heavier in more massive galaxies, we find a better agreement with data by assuming an inverse trend, where the IMF goes from being bottom heavy in less massive galaxies to top heavy in more massive ones. This naturally produces a downsizing in star formation, favouring massive stars in largest galaxies. Finally, we tested the use of the integrated Galactic IMF, obtained by averaging the canonical IMF over the mass distribution function of the clusters where star formation is assumed to take place. We combined two prescriptions, valid for different SFR regimes, to obtain the Integrated Initial Mass Function values along the whole evolution of the galaxies in our models. Predicted abundance trends reproduce the observed slopes, but they have an offset relative to the data. We conclude that bottom-heavier IMFs do not reproduce the properties of the most massive ellipticals, at variance with previous suggestions. On the other hand, an IMF varying with galactic mass from bottom heavier to top heavier should be preferred.

  1. Evolution of the major merger galaxy pair fraction at z < 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, R. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Lin, L.; Chou, R. C. Y.; Huang, S.; Lin, J. H.; Chang, K. H.; Foucaud, S.; De Propris, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the largest available sample of near-infrared selected (i.e., stellar mass selected) dynamically close pairs of galaxies at low redshifts (z < 0.3). We combine this sample with new estimates of the major merger pair fraction for stellar mass selected galaxies at z < 0.8, from the Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1). We construct our low-redshift K-band selected sample using photometry from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the K band (∼2.2 μm). Combined with all available spectroscopy, our K-band selected sample contains ∼250, 000 galaxies and is >90% spectroscopically complete. The depth and large volume of this sample allow us to investigate the low-redshift pair fraction and merger rate of galaxies over a wide range in K-band luminosity. We find the major merger pair fraction to be flat at ∼2% as a function of K-band luminosity for galaxies in the range 10 8 -10 12 L ☉ , in contrast to recent results from studies in the local group that find a substantially higher low-mass pair fraction. This low-redshift major merger pair fraction is ∼40%-50% higher than previous estimates drawn from K-band samples, which were based on 2MASS photometry alone. Combining with the RCS1 sample, we find a much flatter evolution (m = 0.7 ± 0.1) in the relation f pair ∝(1 + z) m than indicated in many previous studies. These results indicate that a typical L ∼ L* galaxy has undergone ∼0.2-0.8 major mergers since z = 1 (depending on the assumptions of merger timescale and percentage of pairs that actually merge).

  2. THE CFHTLS-DEEP CATALOG OF INTERACTING GALAXIES. I. MERGER RATE EVOLUTION TO z = 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, C. R.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rest-frame optical galaxy merger fraction between 0.2 vega ≤ 22.2 (∼27,000 galaxies) over 2 square degrees, we have compiled the CFHTLS-Deep Catalog of Interacting Galaxies, with ∼ 1600 merging galaxies. We find the merger fraction to be 4.3% ± 0.3% at z ∼ 0.3 and 19.0% ± 2.5% at z ∼ 1, implying evolution of the merger fraction going as (1 + z) m , with m = 2.25 ± 0.24. This result is inconsistent with a mild or non-evolving (m 4σ level of confidence. A mild trend, where by massive galaxies with M * >10 10.7 M sun are undergoing fewer mergers than less massive systems (M * ∼ 10 10 M sun ), consistent with the expectations of galaxy assembly downsizing is observed. Our results also show that interacting galaxies have on average SFRs double that found in non-interacting field galaxies. We conclude that (1) the optical galaxy merger fraction does evolve with redshift, (2) the merger fraction depends mildly on stellar mass, with lower mass galaxies having higher merger fractions at z < 1, and (3) star formation is triggered at all phases of a merger, with larger enhancements at later stages, consistent with N-body simulations.

  3. A Simple Physical Model for Young Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, G.; Mao, J.; Lapi, A.; Granato, G. L.; Danese, L.

    We present a simple physical model featuring an evolutionary link between Lyα emitting (LAE), Lyman break (LBG), sub-millimeter bright (SMB), and passively evolving galaxies, in the framework of the approach by Granato et al. (Astrophys. J. 600:580, 2004), according to which the evolution of massive galaxies is tied to the growth of the supermassive black holes at their centers. A key role in determining the properties of high-z galaxies is played by dust absorption. We model its evolution adopting a power-law relationship between UV extinction, star formation rate and metallicity, whose parameters are determined from a fit to the luminosity-reddening correlation for Lyman Break Galaxies, found by Shapley et al. (Astrophys. J. 562:95, 2001). The model yields quantitative relations between luminosities and basic physical quantities such as stellar and halo masses, star formation rates, galactic ages, metal abundances and dust extinction. It reproduces the luminosity functions (LFs) of LBGs and of LAEs at different redshifts, in the framework of the scenario that was previously shown to account for the wealth of observational data on SMB and passively evolving galaxies, as well as on high redshift quasars.

  4. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    are fitted using parametric dust models to determine the range of dust temperatures and emissivities. We find evidence for colder dust than has previously been found in external galaxies, with T cold temperatures are found using both the standard single temperature dust model with variable...... between the two populations. Fits to SEDs of selected objects using more sophisticated templates derived from radiative transfer models confirm the presence of the colder dust found through parametric fitting. We thus conclude that cold (T

  5. Galaxy Clustering in Early Sloan Digital Sky Survey Redshift Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael R.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Weinberg, David H.; Mo, Houjun J.; Strauss, Michael A.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Briggs, John W.; Brinkmann, Jon; Burles, Scott; Carey, Larry; Castander, Francisco J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, Istvan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dodelson, Scott; Doi, Mamoru; Eisenstein, Daniel; Evans, Michael L.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Friedman, Scott; Fukugita, Masataka; Gunn, James E.; Hennessy, Greg S.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Ivezić, Željko; Kent, Stephen; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kron, Richard; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Donald Q.; Leger, R. French; Long, Daniel C.; Loveday, Jon; Lupton, Robert H.; McKay, Timothy; Meiksin, Avery; Merrelli, Aronne; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Narayanan, Vijay; Newcomb, Matt; Nichol, Robert C.; Owen, Russell; Peoples, John; Pope, Adrian; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Siegmund, Walter; Smee, Stephen; Snir, Yehuda; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Christopher; SubbaRao, Mark; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan; Tegmark, Max; Tucker, Douglas L.; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Dan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Waddell, Patrick; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.

    2002-05-01

    We present the first measurements of clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy redshift survey. Our sample consists of 29,300 galaxies with redshifts 5700kms-1is approximately 8 h-1 Mpc. The two-dimensional correlation function ξ(rp,π) shows clear signatures of both the small-scale, ``fingers-of-God'' distortion caused by velocity dispersions in collapsed objects and the large-scale compression caused by coherent flows, though the latter cannot be measured with high precision in the present sample. The inferred real-space correlation function is well described by a power law, ξ(r)=(r/6.1+/-0.2h-1Mpc)-1.75+/-0.03, for 0.1h-1Mpcis σ12~600+/-100kms-1 for projected separations 0.15h-1Mpcreal-space correlation function and a higher pairwise velocity dispersion than do the blue galaxies. The relative behavior of subsamples defined by high/low profile concentration or high/low surface brightness is qualitatively similar to that of the red/blue subsamples. Our most striking result is a clear measurement of scale-independent luminosity bias at rreal-space correlation functions that are parallel power laws of slope ~-1.8 with correlation lengths of approximately 7.4, 6.3, and 4.7 h-1 Mpc, respectively.

  6. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores......The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  8. Inferring the photometric and size evolution of galaxies from image simulations. I. Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou, Sébastien; de Lapparent, Valérie; Bertin, Emmanuel; Le Borgne, Damien

    2017-09-01

    Context. Current constraints on models of galaxy evolution rely on morphometric catalogs extracted from multi-band photometric surveys. However, these catalogs are altered by selection effects that are difficult to model, that correlate in non trivial ways, and that can lead to contradictory predictions if not taken into account carefully. Aims: To address this issue, we have developed a new approach combining parametric Bayesian indirect likelihood (pBIL) techniques and empirical modeling with realistic image simulations that reproduce a large fraction of these selection effects. This allows us to perform a direct comparison between observed and simulated images and to infer robust constraints on model parameters. Methods: We use a semi-empirical forward model to generate a distribution of mock galaxies from a set of physical parameters. These galaxies are passed through an image simulator reproducing the instrumental characteristics of any survey and are then extracted in the same way as the observed data. The discrepancy between the simulated and observed data is quantified, and minimized with a custom sampling process based on adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Results: Using synthetic data matching most of the properties of a Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep field, we demonstrate the robustness and internal consistency of our approach by inferring the parameters governing the size and luminosity functions and their evolutions for different realistic populations of galaxies. We also compare the results of our approach with those obtained from the classical spectral energy distribution fitting and photometric redshift approach. Conclusions: Our pipeline infers efficiently the luminosity and size distribution and evolution parameters with a very limited number of observables (three photometric bands). When compared to SED fitting based on the same set of observables, our method yields results that are more accurate and free from

  9. The early-type dwarf galaxy population of the Hydra I cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, I.; Mieske, S.; Hilker, M.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We analyse the properties of the early-type dwarf galaxy population (MV > -17 mag) in the Hydra I cluster. We investigate the galaxy luminosity function (LF), the colour-magnitude relation (CMR), and the magnitude-surface brightness relation down to MV ~ -10 mag. Another goal of this study is to find candidates for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in Hydra I. Methods: Two spectroscopic surveys performed with Magellan I/LDSS2 at Las Campanas Observatory and VLT/VIMOS, as well as deep VLT/FORS1 images in V and I bands, covering the central parts of the cluster, were examined. We identify cluster members by radial velocity measurements and select other cluster galaxy candidates by their morphology and low surface brightness. The candidates' total magnitudes and central surface brightnesses were derived from the analysis of their surface brightness profiles. To determine the faint-end slope of the LF, the galaxy number counts are completeness corrected. Results: We obtain radial velocities for 126 objects and identify 32 cluster members, of which 5 are previously uncatalogued dwarf galaxies. One possible UCD candidate with MV = -13.26 mag is found. Our sample of ≃100 morphologically selected dwarf galaxies with M_V>-17 mag defines a CMR that extends the CMR of the giant cluster galaxies to the magnitude limit of our survey (MV ~ -10 mag). It matches the relations found for the Local Group (LG) and the Fornax cluster dwarf galaxies almost perfectly. The Hydra I dwarf galaxies also follow a magnitude-surface brightness relation that is very similar to that of the LG dwarf galaxies. Moreover, we observe a continuous relation for dwarf galaxies and giant early-type galaxies when plotting the central surface brightness μ0 of a Sérsic model vs. the galaxy magnitude. The effective radius is found to be largely independent of the luminosity for MV > -18 mag. It is consistent with a constant value of Re ~ 0.8 kpc. We present the photometric parameters of the

  10. The population of early-type galaxies: how it evolves with time and how it differs from passive and late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburri, S.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Lonoce, I.; Ciocca, F.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: There are two aims to our analysis. On the one hand we are interested in addressing whether a sample of morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) differs from a sample of passive galaxies in terms of galaxy statistics. On the other hand we study how the relative abundance of galaxies, the number density, and, the stellar mass density for different morphological types change over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. Methods: From the 1302 galaxies brighter than Ks(AB) = 22 selected from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, we classified the ETGs, i.e. elliptical (E) and spheroidal galaxies (E/S0), on the basis of their morphology and the passive galaxies on the basis of their specific star formation rate (sSFR ≤ 10-11 yr-1). Since the definition of a passive galaxy depends on the model parameters assumed to fit the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy, in addition to the assumed sSFR threshold, we probed the dependence of this definition and selection on the stellar initial mass function (IMF). Results: We find that spheroidal galaxies cannot be distinguished from the other morphological classes on the basis of their low star formation rate, irrespective of the IMF adopted in the models. In particular, we find that a large fraction of passive galaxies (>30%) are disc-shaped objects and that the passive selection misses a significant fraction (~26%) of morphologically classified ETGs. Using the sample of 1302 galaxies morphologically classified into spheroidal galaxies (ETGs) and non-spheroidal galaxies (LTGs), we find that the fraction of these two morphological classes is constant over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, being 20-30% the fraction of ETGs and 70-80% the fraction of LTGs. However, at z 3-4 × 1011 M⊙) does not increase from z ~ 2.5, contrary to the lower mass galaxies. This suggests that the most massive galaxies formed at z> 2.5-3 and that the assembly of such high-mass galaxies is not effective at lower redshift.

  11. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-Ray Emission Through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 MS Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eurfrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lou, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z (is) approx. 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the approx. 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame (is) less than 1 keV emission at z (is) less than 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z (is) approx. 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with stellar mass and SFR, respectively. We find L2 -10 keV(LMXB)/stellar mass alpha (1+z)(sub 2-3) and L2 -10 keV(HMXB)/SFR alpha (1+z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

  12. Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

  13. Globular cluster formation and evolution in the context of cosmological galaxy assembly: open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Bastian, Nate; Gieles, Mark; Crain, Robert A.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Larsen, Søren S.; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Agertz, Oscar; Trenti, Michele; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Pfeffer, Joel; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss some of the key open questions regarding the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) during galaxy formation and assembly within a cosmological framework. The current state of the art for both observations and simulations is described, and we briefly mention directions for future research. The oldest GCs have ages greater than or equal to 12.5 Gyr and formed around the time of reionization. Resolved colour-magnitude diagrams of Milky Way GCs and direct imaging of lensed proto-GCs at z˜6 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) promise further insight. GCs are known to host multiple populations of stars with variations in their chemical abundances. Recently, such multiple populations have been detected in ˜2 Gyr old compact, massive star clusters. This suggests a common, single pathway for the formation of GCs at high and low redshift. The shape of the initial mass function for GCs remains unknown; however, for massive galaxies a power-law mass function is favoured. Significant progress has been made recently modelling GC formation in the context of galaxy formation, with success in reproducing many of the observed GC-galaxy scaling relations.

  14. The Evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lucas; Pisano, D. J.; Bershady, Matthew; Crawford, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are a class of compact star forming galaxies that are common at z=1 and rare in the local universe. The rapid increase in LCBG number density between z=0.0-1.0 roughly follows the increase in the star formation rate density of the universe over the same redshift range. We present the first study of the evolution of the number density LCBGs using a single data set covering redshifts from z=0.0-1.0. We do this by generating the luminosity function of LCBGs using a reanalysis of COSMOS photometry and spectroscopic redshift information generated by the Galaxy and Mass Assembly team. We find that M* increases by ~0.7 mag, φ* increases by a factor of 6, and the number density of LCBGs increases by a factor of ~10 between z=0.0-10 roughly matching previous studies using small samples over narrow redshift ranges. We find that LCBGs make up ~62% of galaxies brighter than MB=-18.5 at z=0.9 and only ~10% at z=0.1.

  15. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters: X-ray scaling relations and their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, N.; Rasia, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Fabjan, D.; Beck, A. M.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.; Gaspari, M.; Granato, G. L.; Murante, G.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Steinborn, L. K.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to study the X-ray scaling relations between total masses and observable quantities such as X-ray luminosity, gas mass, X-ray temperature, and YX. Three sets of simulations are performed with an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics GADGET-3 code. These consider the following: non-radiative gas, star formation and stellar feedback, and the addition of feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select clusters with M500 > 1014 M⊙E(z)-1, mimicking the typical selection of Sunyaev-Zeldovich samples. This permits to have a mass range large enough to enable robust fitting of the relations even at z ˜ 2. The results of the analysis show a general agreement with observations. The values of the slope of the mass-gas mass and mass-temperature relations at z = 2 are 10 per cent lower with respect to z = 0 due to the applied mass selection, in the former case, and to the effect of early merger in the latter. We investigate the impact of the slope variation on the study of the evolution of the normalization. We conclude that cosmological studies through scaling relations should be limited to the redshift range z = 0-1, where we find that the slope, the scatter, and the covariance matrix of the relations are stable. The scaling between mass and YX is confirmed to be the most robust relation, being almost independent of the gas physics. At higher redshifts, the scaling relations are sensitive to the inclusion of AGNs which influences low-mass systems. The detailed study of these objects will be crucial to evaluate the AGN effect on the ICM.

  16. The role of AGN feedback in galaxy evolution at high-redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that supermassive black holes may play a crucial role for galaxy evolution, in particular during the formation of massive galaxies at high redshift (z ≅ 2 - 3). Our work focuses on quantifying the effects of jets of radiogalaxies and of large bolometric luminosities of quasars on the interstellar gas in their host galaxies. To this end, we studied the kinematics of the ionized gas in 12 moderately powerful radio galaxies and 11 quasars (6 radio-loud and 5 radio-quiet) at high redshifts with rest-frame optical imaging spectroscopy obtained at the VLT with SINFONI. We searched for outflows and other signatures of feedback from the supermassive black holes in the centers of these galaxies to evaluate if the AGN may plausibly quench star formation. In our sample of moderately powerful radiogalaxies, we observe velocity dispersions nearly as large as those observed in the most powerful ones (with FWHM ≅ 1000 km/s), but the quantity of ionized gas is decreased by one order of magnitude (M-ion gas ≅ 10 8 - 10 9 M-sun) and velocity gradients tend to be less dramatic (Δv ≤ 400 km/s), when they are observed. In our sample of quasars, we had to carefully subtract the broad spectral component of emission lines to have access to its narrow, and spatially extended, component. We detect truly extended emission line regions in 4/6 sources of our radio-loud sub-sample and in 1/5 source of our radio-quiet sub-sample. We estimate that masses of ionized gas in these sources are smaller than in our sample of high-redshift radiogalaxies (with Mion gas ≅ 10 7 - 10 8 Msun) and kinematics tend to be more quiescent, akin to what is observed in local quasars. Finally, detailed observations of two outliers among our sample of high-redshift radiogalaxies revealed that one of them is closely surrounded by 14 companions galaxies, hence lying in an over density. We therefore interpret the presence and morphology of ionized gas around these galaxies as evidence

  17. Young, metal-enriched cores in early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on colour gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urich, Linda; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; van de Ven, Glenn; Leaman, Ryan; Boselli, Alessandro; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Peletier, Reynier F.; den Brok, Mark; Hensler, Gerhard; Toloba, Elisa; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2017-01-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies are not simply featureless, old objects, but were found to be much more diverse, hosting substructures and a variety of stellar population properties. To explore the stellar content of faint early-type galaxies, and to investigate in particular those with recent central

  18. The ATLAS3D project - XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Lisa M.; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of

  19. Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André

    2008-02-01

    Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution.

  20. Evolution of the plasma universe: I. Double radio galaxies, quasars, and extragalactic jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peratt, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic plasma physics and our concept of the universe is in a state of rapid revision. This change started with in-situ measurements of plasmas in Earth's ionosphere, cometary atmospheres, and planetary magnetospheres; the translation of knowledge from laboratory experiments to astrophysical phenomena; discoveries of helical and filamentary plasma structures in the Galaxy and double radio sources; and the particle simulation of plasmas not accessible to in-situ measurement. Because of these, Birkeland (field-aligned) currents, double layers, and magnetic-field-aligned electric fields are now known to be far more important to the evolution of space plasma, including the acceleration of charged particles to high energies, than previously thought. This paper and its sequel investigate the observational evidence for a plasma universe threaded by Birkeland currents or filaments. This model of the universe was inspired by the advent of three-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle simulations and their application to the study of laboratory z pinches. This study resulted in totally unexpected phenomena in the data post-processed from the simulation particle, field, and history dumps. In particular, when the simulation parameters were scaled to galactic dimensions, the interaction between pinched filaments led to synchrotron radiation whose emission properties were found to share the following characteristics with double radio galaxies and quasars: power magnitude, isophotal morphology, spectra, brightness along source, polarization, and jets. The evolution of these pinched synchrotron emitting plasmas to elliptical, peculiar, and spiral galaxies by continuing the simulation run is addressed in a sequel paper

  1. The Origin and Evolution of the Galaxy Star Formation Rate-Stellar Mass Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawiser, Eric; Iyer, Kartheik

    2018-01-01

    The existence of a tight correlation between galaxies’ star formation rates and stellar masses is far more surprising than usually noted. However, a simple analytical calculation illustrates that the evolution of the normalization of this correlation is driven primarily by the inverse age of the universe, and that the underlying correlation is one between galaxies’ instantaneous star formation rates and their average star formation rates since the Big Bang.Our new Dense Basis method of SED fitting (Iyer & Gawiser 2017, ApJ 838, 127) allows star formation histories (SFHs) to be reconstructed, along with uncertainties, for >10,000 galaxies in the CANDELS and 3D-HST catalogs at 0.5galaxy formation.

  2. Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after consid- ering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the ...

  3. Measuring size evolution of distant, faint galaxies in the radio regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, L.; Knudsen, K. K.; Stanley, F.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Beswick, R. J.; Conway, J.; Radcliffe, J. F.; Wrigley, N.

    2018-05-01

    We measure the evolution of sizes for star-forming galaxies as seen in 1.4 GHz continuum radio for z = 0-3. The measurements are based on combined VLA+MERLIN data of the Hubble Deep Field, and using a uv-stacking algorithm combined with model fitting to estimate the average sizes of galaxies. A sample of ˜1000 star-forming galaxies is selected from optical and near-infrared catalogues, with stellar masses M⊙ ≈ 1010-1011 M⊙ and photometric redshifts 0-3. The median sizes are parametrized for stellar mass M* = 5 × 1010 M⊙ as R_e = A× {}(H(z)/H(1.5))^{α _z}. We find that the median radio sizes evolve towards larger sizes at later times with αz = -1.1 ± 0.6, and A (the median size at z ≈ 1.5) is found to be 0.26^'' ± 0.07^'' or 2.3±0.6 kpc. The measured radio sizes are typically a factor of 2 smaller than those measure in the optical, and are also smaller than the typical H α sizes in the literature. This indicates that star formation, as traced by the radio continuum, is typically concentrated towards the centre of galaxies, for the sampled redshift range. Furthermore, the discrepancy of measured sizes from different tracers of star formation, indicates the need for models of size evolution to adopt a multiwavelength approach in the measurement of the sizes star-forming regions.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF POST-STARBURST GALAXIES FROM z  ∼ 1 TO THE PRESENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Post-starburst galaxies are in the transitional stage between blue, star-forming galaxies and red, quiescent galaxies and therefore hold important clues for our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we systematically searched for and identified a large sample of post-starburst galaxies from the spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9. In total, we found more than 6000 objects with redshifts between z  ∼ 0.05 and z  ∼ 1.3, making this the largest sample of post-starburst galaxies in the literature. We calculated the luminosity function of the post-starburst galaxies using two uniformly selected subsamples: the SDSS main galaxy sample and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS sample. The luminosity functions are reasonably fit by half-Gaussian functions. The peak magnitudes shift as a function of redshift from M  ∼ −23.5 at z  ∼ 0.8 to M  ∼ −20.3 at z  ∼ 0.1. This is consistent with the downsizing trend, whereby more massive galaxies form earlier than low-mass galaxies. We compared the mass of the post-starburst stellar population found in our sample to the decline of the global star formation rate and found that only a small amount (∼1%) of all star formation quenching in the redshift range z  = 0.2–0.7 results in post-starburst galaxies in the luminosity range our sample is sensitive to. Therefore, luminous post-starburst galaxies are not the place where most of the decline in the star formation rate of the universe is happening.

  5. The H I Tully-Fisher relation of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Milan; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Serra, Paolo; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Kerp, Jürgen; Morganti, Raffaella; Cappellari, Michele; Davis, Timothy A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Torsten; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    We study the H iK-band Tully-Fisher relation and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation for a sample of 16 early-type galaxies, taken from the ATLAS3D sample, which all have very regular H i disks extending well beyond the optical body (≳ 5 Reff). We use the kinematics of these disks to estimate the

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Group of early-type galaxies (Fraix-Burnet+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.; Dugue, M.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Davoust, E.

    2011-03-01

    We thus chose the data compiled and standardized by Hudson et al. (2001, Cat. J/MNRAS/327/265) for 699 early-type galaxies in 56 clusters, in the redshift range from 0.007 to 0.053 (Streaming Motions of Abell Clusters (SMAC) catalogue). (1 data file).

  7. Recent star formation in the Hi dominated outer regions of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    Context According to the ATLAS3D project, about 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies (D <42 Mpc; M K < -21.5 mag; stellar mass M stars >~ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside clusters are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (Hi) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much

  8. Star formation associated with neutral hydrogen in the outskirts of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    About 20 per cent of all nearby early-type galaxies (M⋆≳ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside the Virgocluster are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutralhydrogen (H I) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much larger thanthe stellar body. In order to understand the impact of these gasreservoirs

  9. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  10. The kinematic properties of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M.R.; Gorgas, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pardo, J.R.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster. These data are used to study the origin of dEs inhabiting clusters. Within them we detect two populations: half of the sample (52%) are rotationally supported and the other

  11. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  12. Effects of Galaxy collisions on the structure and evolution of Galaxy clusters. I. Mass and luminosity functions and background light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin)

    1983-01-01

    The role of galaxy collisions in controlling the form of the galaxy mass and luminosity functions and in creating a diffuse background light is investigated by means of a direct computer simulation. Galaxy collisions are treated in a realistic manner, including both galaxy mergers and tidal encounters. A large number of theoretical studies of a galaxy collisions were consulted to formulate the basic input physics of collision cross sections. Despite this large number of studies, there remains considerable uncertainty in the effects of a collision on a galaxy due mainly to our lack of knowledge of the orbital distribution of matter in galaxies. To improve this situation, some methods of semiempirical calibration are suggested: for example, a survey of background light in clusters of different richness and morphological classes. If real galaxies are represented by galaxy models where the bulk of the matter is on radial, rather than circular, orbits, then tidal collisions are more damaging and there are a number of interesting effects: Repeated tidal encounters lead to galaxy mass and luminosity functions which are largely independent of model parameters and the initial galaxy mass function. It appears unlikely that the form of the average present-day luminosity function characteristic of both field and cluster galaxies is due to collisions, but certain observed deviations from the average found by Heiligman and Turner and by Dressler may be a signature of collisions, in particular a flat faint-end slope. The amount of luminous matter stripped from the galaxies in the simulations agrees with the amount of diffuse background light seen in the Coma Cluster

  13. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1998-01-01

    This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

  14. Environment and Climate of Early Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Naomi E.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluating the relationships between climate, the environment, and human traits is a key part of human origins research because changes in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, landscapes, and ecosystems over the past 10 Myr shaped the selection pressures experienced by early humans. In Africa, these relationships have been influenced by a combination of high-latitude ice distributions, sea surface temperatures, and low-latitude orbital forcing that resulted in large oscillations in vegetation and moisture availability that were modulated by local basin dynamics. The importance of both climate and tectonics in shaping African landscapes means that integrated views of the ecological, environmental, and tectonic histories of a region are necessary in order to understand the relationships between climate and human evolution.

  15. A WISE Survey of Star Formation in the Milky Way: New Insight into Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Xavier

    We propose to measure the recent star formation rate (SFR) in the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way galaxy and its relation to the surface density of gas, whether molecular or atomic on a range of scales from star forming clusters through large star forming complexes to the full scale of the Galactic Arm. We will test the connection between the SFR-gas relationship in the Galaxy and comparable measurements made in external galaxies in order to probe its origin and better understand the role and contribution of star formation to cosmological galaxy evolution. We also propose to study star formation that has been triggered by the recent formation of massive star clusters in order to discern the mechanisms of triggering that may be operating on super bubble size scales of more than 100 parsecs. This study will allow us to understand one of the key factors that sets the efficiency with which gas becomes stars as galaxies evolve with time. In order to achieve these goals, we will carry out a census of young stellar objects in the outer Milky Way Perseus Arm, using data gathered by the WISE and 2MASS all-sky surveys, with additional use of archival data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We will develop and refine a young star finding algorithm that uses WISE and 2MASS photometry to identify and classify young stars and filters out contaminating objects such as background galaxies. We will measure the gas content with extinction maps made with data from 2MASS. We will test the triggered star formation models by analyzing the spatial distributions of young stars in super-bubbles and massive star forming regions in the Perseus Arm. This study will produce a key, like-for-like comparison between the extragalactic star formation rate-molecular gas relation and the Galactic relation and will advance the progress in linking Galactic and extragalactic studies of star formation, studying massive star forming regions that are representative of the major mode of star formation. The

  16. Evidence for strong dynamical evolution in disc galaxies through the last 11 Gyr. GHASP VIII - a local reference sample of rotating disc galaxies for high-redshift studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Balkowski, C.; Marcelin, M.

    2010-02-01

    Due to their large distances, high-redshift galaxies are observed at a very low spatial resolution. In order to disentangle the evolution of galaxy kinematics from low-resolution effects, we have used Fabry-Pérot 3D Hα data cubes of 153 nearby isolated galaxies selected from the Gassendi Hα survey of SPirals (GHASP) to simulate data cubes of galaxies at redshift z = 1.7 using a pixel size of 0.125arcsec and a 0.5arcsec seeing. We have derived Hα flux, velocity and velocity dispersion maps. From these data, we show that the inner velocity gradient is lowered and is responsible for a peak in the velocity dispersion map. This signature in the velocity dispersion map can be used to make a kinematical classification, but misses 30 per cent of the regular rotating discs in our sample. Toy models of rotating discs have been built to recover the kinematical parameters and the rotation curves from low-resolution data. The poor resolution makes the kinematical inclination uncertain and the position of galaxy centre difficult to recover. The position angle of the major axis is retrieved with an accuracy higher than 5° for 70 per cent of the sample. Toy models also enable us to retrieve statistically the maximum velocity and the mean velocity dispersion of galaxies with a satisfying accuracy. This validates the use of the Tully-Fisher relation for high-redshift galaxies, but the loss of resolution induces a lower slope of the relation despite the beam smearing corrections. We conclude that the main kinematic parameters are better constrained for galaxies with an optical radius at least as large as three times the seeing. The simulated data have been compared to actual high-redshift galaxy data observed with VLT/SINFONI, Keck/OSIRIS and VLT/GIRAFFE in the redshift range 3 > z > 0.4, allowing us to follow galaxy evolution from 11 to 4Gyr. For rotation-dominated galaxies, we find that the use of the velocity dispersion central peak as a signature of rotating discs may

  17. Early-type galaxies: Automated reduction and analysis of ROSAT PSPC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Kim, D.-W.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Ciliegi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary results of early-type galaxies that will be part of a galaxy catalog to be derived from the complete Rosat data base are presented. The stored data were reduced and analyzed by an automatic pipeline. This pipeline is based on a command language scrip. The important features of the pipeline include new data time screening in order to maximize the signal to noise ratio of faint point-like sources, source detection via a wavelet algorithm, and the identification of sources with objects from existing catalogs. The pipeline outputs include reduced images, contour maps, surface brightness profiles, spectra, color and hardness ratios.

  18. Radio galaxies radiation transfer, dynamics, stability and evolution of a synchrotron plasmon

    CERN Document Server

    Pacholczyk, A G

    1977-01-01

    Radio Galaxies: Radiation Transfer, Dynamics, Stability and Evolution of a Synchrotron Plasmon deals with the physics of a region in space containing magnetic field and thermal and relativistic particles (a plasmon). The synchrotron emission and absorption of this region are discussed, along with the properties of its spectrum; its linear and circular polarization; transfer of radiation through such a region; its dynamics and expansion; and interaction with external medium.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume explores the stability, turbulence, and acceleration of particles in a synchrotro

  19. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Maraston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom heavy IMFs. These bottom heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of black holes and neutron stars based ...

  20. The ATLAS(3D) project : XI. Dense molecular gas properties of CO-luminous early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocker, Alison; Krips, Melanie; Bureau, Martin; Young, Lisa M.; Davis, Timothy A.; Bayet, Estelle; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    Surveying 18 (CO)-C-12-bright galaxies from the ATLAS(3D) early-type galaxy sample with the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30-m telescope, we detect (CO)-C-13(1-0) and (CO)-C-13(2-1) in all 18 galaxies, HCN(1-0) in 12/18 and HCO+(1-0) in 10/18. We find that the line ratios

  1. The Origin and Evolution of Low-Redshift (z<2) Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Prescott, Moire; Brodwin, Mark; Xu, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Low luminosity galaxies contribute significantly to the mass and star-formation density of the universe at early epochs. Ly(alpha) emitting galaxies (LAEs) are powerful probes of the low-luminosity end of the luminosity function, and are also used to place constraints on the reionization epoch and the early mass assembly of galaxies. Most LAE studies have focused primarily on high redshifts (z~3-7) where the physical nature and large-scale context of LAEs remain largely unconstrained. In order to remedy this situation, we have begun a survey for LAEs at 1.8LAEs, and spectroscopically confirmed our selection method. Here, we propose to extend our spectroscopic study to the UDS field, which has existing deep Spitzer imaging, and is targeted for deep near-IR imaging by the Hubble Multi-Cycle Treasury Program. The near- and mid-IR data coupled with spectroscopic redshifts are essential for determining the age and mass distributions of the LAEs. Our study will create the largest sample (~100) of spectroscopically confirmed LAEs with existing deep near- and mid-IR imaging, and will thus provide robust measurements of the stellar masses, ages, and reddening of LAEs, enabling us to directly determine their significance in the z~1.9 universe.

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Uncovering the Angular Momentum Content of Central and Satellite Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Ge, J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Greco, J.; Lin, Y.-T.; Mao, S.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.; Yan, R.; van den Bosch, F.

    2018-01-01

    We study 379 central and 159 satellite early-type galaxies with two-dimensional kinematics from the integral-field survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) to determine how their angular momentum content depends on stellar and halo mass. Using the Yang et al. group catalog, we identify central and satellite galaxies in groups with halo masses in the range {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}ȯ {10}11 {h}-2 {M}ȯ tend to have very little rotation, while nearly all galaxies at lower mass show some net rotation. The ∼30% of high-mass galaxies that have significant rotation do not stand out in other galaxy properties, except for a higher incidence of ionized gas emission. Our data are consistent with recent simulation results suggesting that major merging and gas accretion have more impact on the rotational support of lower-mass galaxies. When carefully matching the stellar mass distributions, we find no residual differences in angular momentum content between satellite and central galaxies at the 20% level. Similarly, at fixed mass, galaxies have consistent rotation properties across a wide range of halo mass. However, we find that errors in classification of central and satellite galaxies with group finders systematically lower differences between satellite and central galaxies at a level that is comparable to current measurement uncertainties. To improve constraints, the impact of group-finding methods will have to be forward-modeled via mock catalogs.

  3. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  4. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  5. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: romanow@ucolick.org [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  6. Timing the formation and assembly of early-type galaxies via spatially resolved stellar populations analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; La Barbera, Francesco; Yıldırım, Akın; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-04-01

    To investigate star formation and assembly processes of massive galaxies, we present here a spatially resolved stellar population analysis of a sample of 45 elliptical galaxies (Es) selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. We find rather flat age and [Mg/Fe] radial gradients, weakly dependent on the effective velocity dispersion of the galaxy within half-light radius. However, our analysis shows that metallicity gradients become steeper with increasing galaxy velocity dispersion. In addition, we have homogeneously compared the stellar population gradients of our sample of Es to a sample of nearby relic galaxies, i.e. local remnants of the high-z population of red nuggets. This comparison indicates that, first, the cores of present-day massive galaxies were likely formed in gas-rich, rapid star formation events at high redshift (z ≳ 2). This led to radial metallicity variations steeper than observed in the local Universe, and positive [Mg/Fe] gradients. Secondly, our analysis also suggests that a later sequence of minor dry mergers, populating the outskirts of early-type galaxies (ETGs), flattened the pristine [Mg/Fe] and metallicity gradients. Finally, we find a tight age-[Mg/Fe] relation, supporting that the duration of the star formation is the main driver of the [Mg/Fe] enhancement in massive ETGs. However, the star formation time-scale alone is not able to fully explain our [Mg/Fe] measurements. Interestingly, our results match the expected effect that a variable stellar initial mass function would have on the [Mg/Fe] ratio.

  7. Evidence for Dark Matter Contraction and a Salpeter Initial Mass Function in a Massive Early-type Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, A.; Treu, T.; Gavazzi, R.; Marshall, P. J.; Auger, M. W.; Suyu, S. H.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Bolton, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Stars and dark matter account for most of the mass of early-type galaxies, but uncertainties in the stellar population and the dark matter profile make it challenging to distinguish between the two components. Nevertheless, precise observations of stellar and dark matter are extremely valuable for testing the many models of structure formation and evolution. We present a measurement of the stellar mass and inner slope of the dark matter halo of a massive early-type galaxy at z = 0.222. The galaxy is the foreground deflector of the double Einstein ring gravitational lens system SDSSJ0946+1006, also known as the "Jackpot." By combining the tools of lensing and dynamics we first constrain the mean slope of the total mass density profile (\\rho _{tot}\\propto r^{-\\gamma ^{\\prime }}) within the radius of the outer ring to be γ' = 1.98 ± 0.02 ± 0.01. Then we obtain a bulge-halo decomposition, assuming a power-law form for the dark matter halo. Our analysis yields γDM = 1.7 ± 0.2 for the inner slope of the dark matter profile, in agreement with theoretical findings on the distribution of dark matter in ellipticals, and a stellar mass from lensing and dynamics M LD * = 5.5-1.3 +0.4 × 1011 M ⊙. By comparing this measurement with stellar masses inferred from stellar population synthesis fitting we find that a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) provides a good description of the stellar population of the lens while the probability of the IMF being heavier than Chabrier is 95%. Our data suggest that growth by accretion of small systems from a compact red nugget is a plausible formation scenario for this object.

  8. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  9. On the Shape of the Light Profiles of Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, N.; Capaccioli, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    1993-12-01

    We have obtained the best fit to the light profiles of a luminosity- limited sample of elliptical and S0 galaxies with a power law r^1/n^, letting the exponent remain free rather than keeping it fixed at 1/n = 1/4 as in the well-known de Vaucouleurs formula. The introduction of a free parameter in the fitting formula (ranging from n = 0.5 for (r_e_) = 0.3 kpc to n = 16 for (r_e_) = 25 kpc) is justified by the existence of a good correlation between n and the global galaxian parameters, such as total luminosity and scale-radius. This result seems to be in line with the segregation of properties between the `ordinary' and `bright' families of early-type galaxies, and has consequences for the claimed independence of the shape of galaxy profiles with respect to the Fundamental Plane parameters.

  10. The extent of CO in the early-type galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchtmeier, W. K.; Bregman, J. N.; Hogg, D. E.; Roberts, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    NGC 4472, and E/SO system, is the earliest type normal galaxy with detected CO emission, and here we present additional radio observations in the lines of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) to determine the distribution and internal properties of this gas. The original detection is reconfirmed, but observations at five surrounding locations and at two other locations in the galaxy do not show the gas to be extended; the total H2 gas mass is estimated to be 4 x 10(exp 7) solar mass. A high CO(1-0)/CO(2-1) brightness temperature ratio is found (greater than 3), which is indicative of subthermal excitation of the CO(2-1) line that can occur at low gas temperatures and low gas densities. Also, upper limits are given for the CO(2-1) fluxes in four other early-type galaxies.

  11. Using the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor to Study Cluster Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; O'Steen, Richard; Yen, Steffi; Kuntz, K. D.; Hammer, Derek

    2012-01-01

    We explore the application of XMM Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) ultraviolet (UV) data to study galaxy evolution. Our sample is constructed as the intersection of all Abell clusters with z < 0.05 and having archival XMM-OM data in either the UVM2 or UVW1 filters, plus optical and UV photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX, respectively. The 11 resulting clusters include 726 galaxies with measured redshifts, 520 of which have redshifts placing them within their parent Abell clusters. We develop procedures for manipulating the XMM-OM images and measuring galaxy photometry from them, and we confirm our results via comparison with published catalogs. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) constructed using the XMM-OM data along with SDSS optical data show promise for evolutionary studies, with good separation between red and blue sequences and real variation in the width of the red sequence that is likely indicative of differences in star formation history. This is particularly true for UVW1 data, as the relative abundance of data collected using this filter and its depth make it an attractive choice. Available tools that use stellar synthesis libraries to fit the UV and optical photometric data may also be used, thereby better describing star formation history within the past billion years and providing estimates of total stellar mass that include contributions from young stars. Finally, color-color diagrams that include XMM-OM UV data appear useful to the photometric identification of both extragalactic and stellar sources.

  12. Gas Removal in the Ursa Minor Galaxy: Linking Hydrodynamics and Chemical Evolution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, Anderson; Lanfranchi, Gustavo Amaral; Baio, Gabriel Henrique Campos; Kowal, Grzegorz [Núcleo de Astrofísica Teórica, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, R. Galvão Bueno 868, Liberdade, 01506-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: anderson.caproni@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, CEP 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a non-cosmological, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of the gas in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Assuming an initial baryonic-to-dark-matter ratio derived from the cosmic microwave background radiation, we evolved the galactic gas distribution over 3 Gyr, taking into account the effects of the types Ia and II supernovae. For the first time, we used in our simulation the instantaneous supernovae rates derived from a chemical evolution model applied to spectroscopic observational data of Ursa Minor. We show that the amount of gas that is lost in this process is variable with time and radius, being the highest rates observed during the initial 600 Myr in our simulation. Our results indicate that types Ia and II supernovae must be essential drivers of the gas loss in Ursa Minor galaxy (and probably in other similar dwarf galaxies), but it is ultimately the combination of galactic winds powered by these supernovae and environmental effects (e.g., ram-pressure stripping) that results in the complete removal of the gas content.

  13. Evolution of Star Formation and H I Gas Content in Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, Adam; Hess, K. M.; Wilcots, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen gas (H I) content, star formation histories, and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us to study the H I properties of 742 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and ALFALFA surveys. The ALFALFA galaxies have been identified with SDSS optical counterparts and we assigned H I detected objects that fall below the limiting optical magnitude-thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group H I mass. We found the gas fraction and the star formation histories as a function of group halo mass to reveal strong evidence for evolution in the gas content and spatial distribution of the high gas fraction members. It is evident that the infall of gas rich objects is important to the continuing growth of large scale structure at the present epoch.

  14. Photometric properties and scaling relations of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. S.; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Wu, Hong; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the photometric properties of the early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) using a carefully selected sample of 85 BCGs from the C4 cluster catalogue with a redshift of less than 0.1. We perform accurate background subtractions and surface photometry for these BCGs to 25magarcsec-2 in the Sloan r band. By quantitatively analysing the gradient of the Petrosian profiles of BCGs, we find that a large fraction of BCGs have extended stellar envelopes in their outskirts; more luminous BCGs tend to have more extended stellar haloes that are likely to be connected with mergers. A comparison sample of elliptical galaxies was chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges, for which the same photometric analysis procedure is applied. We find that BCGs have steeper size-luminosity (R ~ Lα) and Faber-Jackson (L ~ σβ) relations than the bulk of early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the power-law indices (α and β) in these relations increase as the isophotal limits become deeper. For isophotal limits from 22 to 25magarcsec-2, BCGs are usually larger than the bulk of early-type galaxies, and a large fraction (~49 per cent) of BCGs have discy isophotal shapes. The differences in the scaling relations are consistent with a scenario where the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early-type galaxies; in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation. We highlight several possible dry merger candidates in our sample.

  15. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E.; Yan, H.; Kimble, R. A.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 ∼ 11 * [M ☉ ] 12 . By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV–V) = 3.5 and (NUV–V) = 3.3, with 1σ standard deviations ≅1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent (∼<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  16. The scaling relation of early-type galaxies in clusters II. Spectroscopic data for galaxies in eight nearby clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bettoni, D.; Moles, M.; Fasano, G.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticulars, cD, distances and redshifts - clusters: general Udgivelsesdato: June......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticulars, cD, distances and redshifts - clusters: general Udgivelsesdato: June...

  17. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity and Stellar-Mass Functions since $z=1$ with the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, D.; et al.

    2017-07-27

    We present the first study of the evolution of the galaxy luminosity and stellar-mass functions (GLF and GSMF) carried out by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the COMMODORE galaxy catalogue selected from Science Verification images. This catalogue is made of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{6}$ galaxies at $0galaxy catalogues and they enable us to study the evolution of GLF and GSMF at $0galaxies build up their masses over cosmic time. We find that both the ${\\it i}$-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions are characterised by a double-Schechter shape at $z<0.2$. Both functions agree well with those based on spectroscopic redshifts. The DES GSMF agrees especially with those measured for the GAlaxy Mass Assembly and the PRism MUlti-object Survey out to $z\\sim1$. At $0.2galaxies have less stellar mass, their luminosities do not change substantially because of their younger and brighter stellar populations. Finally, we also find evidence for a top-down mass-dependent evolution of the GSMF.

  19. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : VI. Colour gradients in giant and dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, Marc; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    Using deep, high-spatial-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than M-F814W(AB) = -15 mag that are either

  20. The mass distribution in early-type disc galaxies : declining rotation curves and correlations with optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. S.; van Albada, T. S.

    2007-01-01

    We present rotation curves for 19 early-type disc galaxies (S0-Sab). The galaxies span a B-band absolute magnitude range from -17.5 to -22, but the majority have a high luminosity with M-B <-20. Rotation velocities are measured from a combination of H I velocity fields and long-slit optical emission

  1. Understanding the nuclear gas dispersion in early-type galaxies in the context of black hole demographics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, GAV; van der Marel, RP; Noel-Storr, J

    The majority of nearby early-type galaxies contain detectable amounts of emission-line gas at their centers. The nuclear gas kinematics form a valuable diagnostic of the central black hole (BH) mass. Here we analyze and model Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of a sample of 27 galaxies; 16

  2. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1995-10-01

    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  3. Evolution of the mass-metallicity relations in passive and star-forming galaxies from SPH-cosmological simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velonà, A. D Romeo; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2013-01-01

    be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal...... with redshift at given mass, especially at z ≳ 1. The expected increasing trend with mass is recovered when only considering the more massive galaxies. We discuss these results in terms of the mechanisms driving the evolution within the high- and low-mass regimes at different epochs: mergers, feedback...

  4. The zCOSMOS survey : the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Mignoli, M.; Kovac, K.; Lilly, S.; Tresse, L.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Moresco, M.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. An unbiased and detailed characterization of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a basic requirement in many astrophysical issues: it is of particular interest in assessing the role of the environment in the evolution of the LF of different galaxy types. Methods. We studied the evolution in

  5. The zCOSMOS survey: the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Mignoli, M.; Kovač, K.; Lilly, S.; Tresse, L.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Moresco, M.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. An unbiased and detailed characterization of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a basic requirement in many astrophysical issues: it is of particular interest in assessing the role of the environment in the evolution of the LF of different galaxy types. Methods: We studied the evolution in

  6. Early-type galaxies in the Antlia Cluster: Catalogue and isophotal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan P.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Gómez, Matías

    2018-03-01

    We present a statistical isophotal analysis of 138 early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster, located at a distance of ˜ 35 Mpc. The observational material consists of CCD images of four 36 arcmin × 36 arcmin fields obtained with the MOSAIC II camera at the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. Our present work supersedes previous Antlia studies in the sense that the covered area is four times larger, the limiting magnitude is MB ˜ -9.6 mag, and the surface photometry parameters of each galaxy are derived from Sérsic model fits extrapolated to infinity. In a companion previous study we focused on the scaling relations obtained by means of surface photometry, and now we present the data, on which the previous paper is based, the parameters of the isophotal fits as well as an isophotal analysis. For each galaxy, we derive isophotal shape parameters along the semi-major axis and search for correlations within different radial bins. Through extensive statistical tests, we also analyse the behaviour of these values against photometric and global parameters of the galaxies themselves. While some galaxies do display radial gradients in their ellipticity (ɛ) and/or their Fourier coefficients, differences in mean values between adjacent regions are not statistically significant. Regarding Fourier coefficients, dwarf galaxies usually display gradients between all adjacent regions, while non-dwarfs tend to show this behaviour just between the two outermost regions. Globally, there is no obvious correlation between Fourier coefficients and luminosity for the whole magnitude range (-12 ≳ MV ≳ -22); however, dwarfs display much higher dispersions at all radii.

  7. Galaxy evolution in groups. NGC 3447/NGC 3447A: the odd couple in LGG 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.; Plana, H.; Rosado, M.; Arias, L.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Local Group (LG) analogs (LGAs) are galaxy associations dominated by a few bright spirals reminiscent of the LG. The NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system is a member of the LGG 225 group, a nearby LGA. This system is considered a physical pair composed of an intermediate-luminosity late-type spiral, NGC 3447 itself, and an irregular companion, NGC 3447A, linked by a faint, short filament of matter. A ring-like structure in the NGC 3447 outskirts has been emphasised by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations. Aims: This work aims to contribute to the study of galaxy evolution in low-density environments, a favourable habitat to highly effective encounters, shedding light on the evolution of the NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system. Methods: We performed a multi-λ analysis of the surface photometry of this system to derive its spectral energy distribution and structural properties using ultraviolet (UV), Swift UVOT, and optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images complemented with available far-IR observations. We also characterised the velocity field of the pair using two-dimensional Hα kinematical observations of the system obtained with PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (Mexico). All these data are used to constrain smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation to shed light on the evolution of this system. Results: The luminosity profiles, from UV to optical wavelengths, are all consistent with the presence of a disc extending and including NGC 3447A. The overall velocity field does not emphasise any significant rotation pattern, rather a small velocity gradient between NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A. Our simulation, detached from a large grid explored to best-fit the global properties of the system, suggests that this arises from an encounter between two halos of equal mass. Conclusions: NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A belong to the same halo, NGC 3447A being a substructure of the same disk including NGC

  8. Evolution of the stellar-to-dark matter relation: Separating star-forming and passive galaxies from z = 1 to 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, Jeremy L. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Massey, Richard [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Jason, E-mail: jeremy.tinker@nyu.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We use measurements of the stellar mass function, galaxy clustering, and galaxy-galaxy lensing within the COSMOS survey to constrain the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) of star forming and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z = [0.2, 1.0]. For massive galaxies, M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}, our results indicate that star-forming galaxies grow proportionately as fast as their dark matter halos while quiescent galaxies are outpaced by dark matter growth. At lower masses, there is minimal difference in the SHMRs, implying that the majority low-mass quiescent galaxies have only recently been quenched of their star formation. Our analysis also affords a breakdown of all COSMOS galaxies into the relative numbers of central and satellite galaxies for both populations. At z = 1, satellite galaxies dominate the red sequence below the knee in the stellar mass function. But the number of quiescent satellites exhibits minimal redshift evolution; all evolution in the red sequence is due to low-mass central galaxies being quenched of their star formation. At M {sub *} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the fraction of central galaxies on the red sequence increases by a factor of 10 over our redshift baseline, while the fraction of quenched satellite galaxies at that mass is constant with redshift. We define a 'migration rate' to the red sequence as the time derivative of the passive galaxy abundances. We find that the migration rate of central galaxies to the red sequence increases by nearly an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0. These results imply that the efficiency of quenching star formation for centrals is increasing with cosmic time, while the mechanisms that quench the star formation of satellite galaxies in groups and clusters is losing efficiency.

  9. AGN feedback through UFO and galaxy-wide winds in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Bischetti, M.; Zappacosta, L.; Fiore, F.

    2017-10-01

    AGN feedback through massive molecular winds is today routinely observed in local AGN host galaxies, but not as such in the early universe. I will present the first evidence for a massive, AGN-driven molecular wind in the z 4 QSO APM08279, which also hosts the most well studied and persistent nuclear semi-raltivistic wind (UFO). This observation directly probes the expansion mechanism of a nuclear wind into the ISM on galaxy wide scales, that so far was constrained by a couple of other objects only (Feruglio et al. 2015, Tombesi et al. 2015). This result also opens the path toward the exploration of molecular AGN-driven winds at early epochs, close after the end of the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR).

  10. High-z early-type galaxies: mass and light from gravitational lensing and stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, T.; Koopmans, L.

    2002-12-01

    I will report on new results from the Lenses Structure and Dynamics Survey. We have measured spatially resolved velocity dispersion profiles of a sample of 11 distant (up to z=1) early-type galaxies that are gravitational lenses. By combining lensing and dynamical analysis we firmly constrain the dark matter density profile, the controversial inner slope of the dark matter halo, and the total mass distribution, and we give some constraints on the stellar orbits. In particular, I will discuss the implications of this measurement on the epoch and mechanism of formation of early-type galaxies, on the universal dark matter halos predicted by cold dark matter scenarios, and on the measurement of the Hubble Constant from gravitational time-delay observations. Financial support for proposals HST-AR 9222 and HST-AR-09527 provided by NASA through a grant from STScI, which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555 is gratfully acknowledged.

  11. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  12. Star Formation at Low Rates: How a Lack of Massive Stars Impacts the Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In recent years dedicated observations have uncovered star formation at extremely low rates in dwarf galaxies, tidal tails, ram-pressure stripped gas clouds, and the outskirts of galactic disks. At the same time, numerical simulations of galaxy evolution have advanced to higher spatial and mass resolutions, but have yet to account for the underfilling of the uppermost mass bins of stellar initial mass function (IMF) at low star-formation rates. In such situations, simulations may simply scale down the IMF, without realizing that this unrealistically results infractions of massive stars, along with fractions of massive star feedback energy (e.g., radiation and SNII explosions). Not properlyaccounting for such parameters has consequences for the self-regulation of star formation, the energetics of galaxies, as well as for the evolution of chemical abundances.Here we present numerical simulations of dwarf galaxies with low star-formation rates allowing for two extreme cases of the IMF: a "filled" case with fractional massive stars vs. a truncated IMF, at which the IMF is built bottom-up until the gas reservoir allows the formation of a last single star at an uppermost mass. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the different effects on galaxy evolution with respect to self-regulation, feedback, and chemistry. The case of a stochastic sampled IMF is situated somewhere in between these extremes.

  13. Environmental Effects on Galaxy Evolution. II. Quantifying the Tidal Features in NIR Images of the Cluster Abell 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Y.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Mayya, Y. D.; Lobo, C.; Durret, F.; Gamez, V.; Valerdi, M.; Granados-Contreras, A. P.; Navarro-Poupard, F.

    2017-12-01

    This work is part of a series of papers devoted to investigating the evolution of cluster galaxies during their infall. In the present article, we image in NIR a selected sample of galaxies throughout the massive cluster Abell 85 (z = 0.055). We obtain (JHK‧) photometry for 68 objects, reaching ˜1 mag arcsec-2 deeper than 2MASS. We use these images to unveil asymmetries in the outskirts of a sample of bright galaxies and develop a new asymmetry index, {α }{An}, which allows us to quantify the degree of disruption by the relative area occupied by the tidal features on the plane of the sky. We measure the asymmetries for a subsample of 41 large-area objects, finding clear asymmetries in 10 galaxies; most of these are in groups and pairs projected at different clustercentric distances, and some of them are located beyond R 500. Combining information on the H I gas content of blue galaxies and the distribution of substructures across Abell 85 with the present NIR asymmetry analysis, we obtain a very powerful tool to confirm that tidal mechanisms are indeed present and are currently affecting a fraction of galaxies in Abell 85. However, when comparing our deep NIR images with UV blue images of two very disrupted (jellyfish) galaxies in this cluster, we discard the presence of tidal interactions down to our detection limit. Our results suggest that ram-pressure stripping is at the origin of such spectacular disruptions. We conclude that across a complex cluster like Abell 85, environmental mechanisms, both gravitational and hydrodynamical, are playing an active role in driving galaxy evolution.

  14. Exploring Simulated Early Star Formation in the Context of the Ultrafaint Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter halos at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated halos in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modeling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form halos with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  15. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  16. Measuring the Evolution of Stellar Populations And Gas Metallicity in Galaxies with Far-Infrared Space Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Gordon

    power. The rich Herschel/PACS data set is particularly attractive for this study due to its sensitivity and calibration uniformity. We propose to undertake such a study here. An initial search of the Herschel Archive reveals that there are at least 80 galaxies that have been observed in the [NII] 122 µm, [OIII] 52 and/or 88 µm and the [CII] 158 µm line. The primary goal of this proposal is to use these emission lines to study the star formation properties (age, metallicity, initial mass function (IMF) and star formation efficiency) in galaxies in the local Universe. This line of study ties into our overarching research objective which is to understand the evolution of star and galaxy formation over cosmic time. We have begun studying star formation in the early Universe by detecting these lines at high redshifts with our grating spectrometer ZEUS-2 on the APEX telescope, and through ALMA programs. The study we propose here will allow us to confidently apply these spectral probes to studies of high-z galaxies while also providing new insights into the characteristic and process of star-formation of galaxies in the nearby Universe. We will utilize NASA s space astrophysics archives to explore the evolution of stellar populations and the elements over cosmic time. The proposed work is therefore highly relevant to NASA s Strategic goal 1: Expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunity in space. , Objective 1.6 Discover how the Universe works, explore how it began and evolved, and search for life on planets around other stars. Since the program involves both graduate and undergraduate students at a research university, we also address Strategic Goal 2 via Objective 2.4: Advance the Nation s STEM education and workforce pipeline by working collaborative with other agencies to engage students, teachers, and faculty in NASA s missions and unique assets.

  17. OXYGEN METALLICITY DETERMINATIONS FROM OPTICAL EMISSION LINES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athey, Alex E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the oxygen abundances of the warm (T ∼ 10 4 K) phase of gas in seven early-type galaxies through long-slit observations. A template spectra was constructed from galaxies void of warm gas and subtracted from the emission-line galaxies, allowing for a clean measurement of the nebular lines. The ratios of the emission lines are consistent with photoionization, which likely originates from the ultraviolet flux of postasymototic giant branch stars. We employ H II region photoionization models to determine a mean oxygen metallicity of 1.01 ± 0.50 solar for the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in this sample. This warm ISM 0.5-1.5 solar metallicity is consistent with modern determinations of the metallicity in the hot (T ∼ 10 6 -10 7 K) ISM and the upper range of this warm ISM metallicity is consistent with stellar population metallicity determinations. A solar metallicity of the warm ISM favors an internal origin for the warm ISM such as asymptotic giant branch mass loss within the galaxy.

  18. Simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies with EvoL, the Padova N-body Tree-SPH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.; Grassi, T.; Buonomo, U.; Chinellato, S.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of numerical simulations in astrophysics is constantly growing, because of the complexity, the multi-scaling properties and the non-linearity of many physical phenomena. In particular, cosmological and galaxy-sized simulations of structure formation have cast light on different aspects, giving answers to many questions, but raising a number of new issues to be investigated. Over the last decade, great effort has been devoted in Padova to develop a tool explicitly designed to study the problem of galaxy formation and evolution, with particular attention to the early-type ones. To this aim, many simulations have been run on CINECA supercomputers (see publications list below). The next step is the new release of EvoL, a Fortran N-body code capable to follow in great detail many different aspects of stellar, interstellar and cosmological physics. In particular, special care has been paid to the properties of stars and their interplay with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM), as well as to the multiphase nature of the ISM, to the setting of the initial and boundary conditions, and to the correct description of gas physics via modern formulations of the classical Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics algorithms. Moreover, a powerful tool to compare numerical predictions with observables has been developed, self-consistently closing the whole package. A library of new simulations, run with EvoL on CINECA supercomputers, is to be built in the next years, while new physics, including magnetic properties of matter and more exotic energy feedback effects, is to be added.

  19. A New Approach to Galaxy Morphology. I. Analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Roberto G.; van den Bergh, Sidney; Nair, Preethi

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we present a new statistic for quantifying galaxy morphology based on measurements of the Gini coefficient of galaxy light distributions. This statistic is easy to measure and is commonly used in econometrics to measure how wealth is distributed in human populations. When applied to galaxy images, the Gini coefficient provides a quantitative measure of the inequality with which a galaxy's light is distributed among its constituent pixels. We measure the Gini coefficient of local galaxies in the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and demonstrate that this quantity is closely correlated with measurements of central concentration, but with significant scatter. This scatter is almost entirely due to variations in the mean surface brightness of galaxies. By exploring the distribution of galaxies in the three-dimensional parameter space defined by the Gini coefficient, central concentration, and mean surface brightness, we show that all nearby galaxies lie on a well-defined two-dimensional surface (a slightly warped plane) embedded within a three-dimensional parameter space. By associating each galaxy sample with the equation of this plane, we can encode the morphological composition of the entire SDSS g*-band sample using the following three numbers: {22.451, 5.366, 7.010}. The i*-band sample is encoded as {22.149, 5.373, and 7.627}.

  20. Infrared galaxies evolution. From cosmological observations with ISO to a mid-infrared to sub-millimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, Herve

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at λ=170 μm with the Infrared Space Observatory whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modelling of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. The FIRBACK survey covers 3. 89 Sq. Deg. in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at σc=45 mJy. I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4σ) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4 % at 170 μm. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non-negligible part lies above redshift 1. I have developed a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data: deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 μm and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at L=2.0*10 11 Redshift distributions are in agreement with available observations. Predictions are possible

  1. The small-scale structure of the Magellanic stream as a foundation for galaxy evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Magellanic Stream (MS is the nearest example of a gaseous trail formed by interacting galaxies. While the substantial gas masses in these kinds of circumgalactic structures are postulated to represent important sources of fuel for future star formation, the mechanisms whereby this material might be accreted back into galaxies remain unclear. Recent neutral hydrogen (HI observations have demonstrated that the northern portion of the MS, which probably has been interacting with the Milky Way's hot gaseous halo for close to 1000 Myr, has a larger spatial extent than previously recognized, while also containing significant amounts of small-scale structure. After a brief consideration of the large-scale kinematics of the MS as traced by the recently-discovered extension of the MS, we explore the aging process of the MS gas through the operation of various hydrodynamic instabilities and interstellar turbulence. This in turn leads to consideration of processes whereby MS material survives as cool gas, and yet also evidently fails to form stars. Parallels between the MS and extragalactic tidal features are brie'y discussed with an emphasis on steps toward establishing what the MS reveals about the critical role of local processes in determining the evolution of these kinds of systems.

  2. Supernova-driven outflows and chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Zhong; Wasserburg, G J

    2012-03-27

    We present a general phenomenological model for the metallicity distribution (MD) in terms of [Fe/H] for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). These galaxies appear to have stopped accreting gas from the intergalactic medium and are fossilized systems with their stars undergoing slow internal evolution. For a wide variety of infall histories of unprocessed baryonic matter to feed star formation, most of the observed MDs can be well described by our model. The key requirement is that the fraction of the gas mass lost by supernova-driven outflows is close to unity. This model also predicts a relationship between the total stellar mass and the mean metallicity for dSphs in accord with properties of their dark matter halos. The model further predicts as a natural consequence that the abundance ratios [E/Fe] for elements such as O, Mg, and Si decrease for stellar populations at the higher end of the [Fe/H] range in a dSph. We show that, for infall rates far below the net rate of gas loss to star formation and outflows, the MD in our model is very sharply peaked at one [Fe/H] value, similar to what is observed in most globular clusters. This result suggests that globular clusters may be end members of the same family as dSphs.

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE OUTER DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, Stacey; Calzetti, Daniela; Dong Hui; Johnson, L. C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Thilker, David; Chandar, Rupali; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Regan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We investigate recent star formation in the extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks of five nearby galaxies (NGC 0628, NGC 2090, NGC 2841, NGC 3621, and NGC 5055) using a long wavelength baseline comprised of ultraviolet and mid-infrared imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera. We identify 229 unresolved stellar complexes across targeted portions of their XUV disks and utilize spectral energy distribution fitting to measure their stellar ages and masses through comparison with Starburst99 population synthesis models of instantaneous burst populations. We find that the median age of outer-disk associations in our sample is ∼100 Myr with a large dispersion that spans the entire range of our models (1 Myr to 1 Gyr). This relatively evolved state for most associations addresses the observed dearth of Hα emission in some outer disks, as Hα can only be observed in star-forming regions younger than ∼10 Myr. The large age dispersion is robust against variations in extinction (in the range E(B - V) = 0-0.3 mag) and variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). In particular, we demonstrate that the age dispersion is insensitive to steepening of the IMF, up to extreme slopes.

  4. Origins Space Telescope: Galaxy and Black Hole Evolution over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to galaxy formation and evolution. Origins will investigate the connection between black hole growth and star formation, understand the role of feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei, probe the multiphase interstellar medium, and chart the rise of metals over cosmic time.

  5. The Small-Scale Structure of the Magellanic Stream as a Foundation for Galaxy Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigra, L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Magellanic Stream (MS is the nearest example of agaseous trail formed by interacting galaxies. While the substantial gas masses in these kinds of circumgalactic structures are postulated to represent important sources of fuel for future star formation, the mechanisms whereby this material might be accreted back into galaxies remain unclear. Recent neutral hydrogen (HI observations have demonstrated that the northern portion of the MS, which probably has been interacting with the Milky Way's hot gaseous halo for close to 1000~Myr, has a larger spatial extent than previously recognized, while also containing significant amounts of small-scale structure. After a brief consideration of the large-scale kinematics of the MS as traced by the recently-discovered extension of the MS, we explore the aging process of the MS gas through the operation of various hydrodynamic instabilities and interstellar turbulence. This in turn leads to consideration of processes whereby MS material survives as cool gas, and yet also evidently fails to form stars.Parallels between the MS and extragalactic tidal features are briefly discussed with an emphasis on steps toward establishing what the MS reveals about the critical role of local processes in determining the evolution of these kinds of systems.

  6. Exploring the Evolution of Star Formation and Dwarf Galaxy Properties with JWST /MIRI Serendipitous Spectroscopic Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonato, Matteo; Sajina, Anna; McKinney, Jed; Marchesini, Danilo; Roebuck, Eric; Shipley, Heath [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 574 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA (United States); Zotti, Gianfranco De [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Baronchelli, Ivano; Yan, Lin [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Negrello, Mattia [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Kurinsky, Noah [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA (United States); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kirkpatrick, Allison [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-02-20

    The James Webb Space Telescope ’s Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS), will offer nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and >3× improvement in spectral resolution over our previous space-based mid-IR spectrometer, the Spitzer IRS. In this paper, we make predictions for spectroscopic pointed observations and serendipitous detections with the MRS. Specifically, pointed observations of Herschel sources require only a few minutes on source integration for detections of several star-forming and active galactic nucleus lines, out to z = 3 and beyond. But the same data will also include tens of serendipitous 0 ≲ z ≲ 4 galaxies per field with infrared luminosities ranging ∼10{sup 6}–10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}. In particular, for the first time and for free we will be able to explore the L {sub IR} < 10{sup 9} L {sub ☉} regime out to z ∼ 3. We estimate that with ∼ 100 such fields, statistics of these detections will be sufficient to constrain the evolution of the low- L end of the infrared luminosity function, and hence the star formation rate function. The above conclusions hold for a wide range in the potential low- L end of the IR luminosity function, and account for the PAH deficit in low- L , low-metallicity galaxies.

  7. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IX. CONSTRAINING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH EVOLUTION WITH OLD METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, Leo; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Seth, Anil C.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M sun , [Fe/H]∼ sun . This is also in good agreement with recent observations of white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  8. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. IX. Constraining Asymptotic Giant Branch Evolution with Old Metal-poor Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Léo; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R.; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  9. Galaxy Evolution in the Radio Band: The Role of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.; Prandoni, I. [INAF-IRA, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lapi, A.; Obi, I.; Perrotta, F.; Bressan, A.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-06-20

    We investigate the astrophysics of radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and elucidate their statistical properties in the radio band, including luminosity functions, redshift distributions, and number counts at sub-mJy flux levels, which will be crucially probed by next-generation radio continuum surveys. Specifically, we exploit the model-independent approach by Mancuso et al. to compute the star formation rate functions, the AGN duty cycles, and the conditional probability of a star-forming galaxy to host an AGN with given bolometric luminosity. Coupling these ingredients with the radio emission properties associated with star formation and nuclear activity, we compute relevant statistics at different radio frequencies and disentangle the relative contribution of star-forming galaxies and AGNs in different radio luminosity, radio flux, and redshift ranges. Finally, we highlight that radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and AGNs are expected to host supermassive black holes accreting with different Eddington ratio distributions and to occupy different loci in the galaxy main-sequence diagrams. These specific predictions are consistent with current data sets but need to be tested with larger statistics via future radio data with multiband coverage on wide areas, as will become routinely achievable with the advent of the Square Kilometre Array and its precursors.

  10. The Diversity of Atomic Hydrogen in Slow Rotator Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M.; Serra, Paolo; Krajnović, Davor; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2018-02-01

    We present interferometric observations of H I in nine slow rotator early-type galaxies of the ATLAS3D sample. With these data, we now have sensitive H I searches in 34 of the 36 slow rotators. The aggregate detection rate is 32% ± 8%, consistent with previous work; however, we find two detections with extremely high H I masses, whose gas kinematics are substantially different from what was previously known about H I in slow rotators. These two cases (NGC 1222 and NGC 4191) broaden the known diversity of H I properties in slow rotators. NGC 1222 is a merger remnant with prolate-like rotation and, if it is indeed prolate in shape, an equatorial gas disc; NGC 4191 has two counterrotating stellar discs and an unusually large H I disc. We comment on the implications of this disc for the formation of 2σ galaxies. In general, the H I detection rate, the incidence of relaxed H I discs, and the H I/stellar mass ratios of slow rotators are indistinguishable from those of fast rotators. These broad similarities suggest that the H I we are detecting now is unrelated to the galaxies' formation processes and was often acquired after their stars were mostly in place. We also discuss the H I nondetections; some of these galaxies that are undetected in H I or CO are detected in other tracers (e.g. FIR fine structure lines and dust). The question of whether there is cold gas in massive galaxies' scoured nuclear cores still needs work. Finally, we discuss an unusual isolated H I cloud with a surprisingly faint (undetected) optical counterpart.

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 ∼ B(F098M) ≅ 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ≅ 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M) = 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z ∼> 2.

  12. On the evolution of galaxy clustering and cosmological N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of the problem of simulating the evolution of galaxy clustering by N-body computer experiments are discussed. The results of four 1000-body experiments are presented and interpreted on the basis of simple scaling arguments for the gravitational condensation of bound aggregates. They indicate that the internal dynamics of condensed aggregates are negligible in determining the form of the pair-correlation function xi. On small scales the form of xi is determined by discreteness effects in the initial N-body distribution and is not sensitive to this distribution. The experiments discussed here test the simple scaling arguments effectively for only one value of the cosmological density parameter (Ω = 1) and one form of the initial fluctuation spectrum (n = 0). (author)

  13. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE: INCREASED STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCIES IN THE EARLY HISTORIES OF DWARF GALAXIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe

  14. GALAXY EVOLUTION AT HIGH REDSHIFT: OBSCURED STAR FORMATION, GRB RATES, COSMIC REIONIZATION, AND MISSING SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-01-20

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST / Herschel , and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit M {sub UV} ≲ −13 (or SFR limit around 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z {sub ⊙}/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τ {sub es} ≈ 0.058; remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value f {sub esc} ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}; pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of M {sub UV} ≲ −12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST , will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  15. STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Hong Soo; Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) and chemical evolution of the Sextans dSph galaxy as a function of a galactocentric distance. We derive these from the VI photometry of stars in the 42' x 28' field using the SMART model developed by Yuk and Lee and adopting a closed-box model for chemical evolution. For the adopted age of Sextans 15 Gyr, we find that >84% of the stars formed prior to 11 Gyr ago, significant star formation extends from 15 to 11 Gyr ago (∼ 65% of the stars formed 13-15 Gyr ago, while ∼ 25% formed 11-13 Gyr ago), detectable star formation continued to at least 8 Gyr ago, the SFH is more extended in the central regions than the outskirts, and the difference in star formation rates between the central and outer regions is most marked 11-13 Gyr ago. Whether blue straggler stars are interpreted as intermediate-age main-sequence stars affects conclusions regarding the SFH for times 4-8 Gyr ago, but this is at most only a trace population. We find that the metallicity of the stars increased rapidly up to [Fe/H] = -1.6 in the central region and to [Fe/H] = -1.8 in the outer region within the first Gyr, and has varied slowly since then. The abundance ratios of several elements derived in this study are in good agreement with the observational data based on the high-resolution spectroscopy in the literature. We conclude that the primary driver for the radial gradient of the stellar population in this galaxy is the SFH, which self-consistently drives the chemical enrichment history.

  16. Galaxy Evolution Studies with the SPace IR Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA): The Power of IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Armus, L.; Baes, M.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Bianchi, S.; Bocchio, M.; Bolatto, A.; Bradford, C.; Braine, J.; Carrera, F. J.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Doi, Y.; Efstathiou, A.; Egami, E.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Ferrara, A.; Fischer, J.; Franceschini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giard, M.; González-Alfonso, E.; Gruppioni, C.; Guillard, P.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Imanishi, M.; Ishihara, D.; Isobe, N.; Kaneda, H.; Kawada, M.; Kohno, K.; Kwon, J.; Madden, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Marassi, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuura, M.; Miniutti, G.; Nagamine, K.; Nagao, T.; Najarro, F.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Oyabu, S.; Pallottini, A.; Piro, L.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Roelfsema, P.; Sakon, I.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schneider, R.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Shibai, H.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Sobacchi, E.; Sturm, E.; Suzuki, T.; Vallini, L.; van der Tak, F.; Vignali, C.; Yamada, T.; Wada, T.; Wang, L.

    2017-11-01

    IR spectroscopy in the range 12-230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA's large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z 6.

  17. THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, Kevin; Hopkins, Philip; Ma, Chung-Pei; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Carollo, C. M.; Oesch, Pascal; Ellis, Richard S.; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick; Drory, Niv; Leauthaud, Alexie; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Murray, Norman; Ilbert, Olivier; Pozzetti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ∼ 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (∼ 10 M sun ) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ∼ 11 M sun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ∼ 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

  18. MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS IN THE COSMOS FIELD—MASS-DEPENDENT MERGER RATE EVOLUTION SINCE z = 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. Kevin; Zhao, Yinghe; Gao, Y.; Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Drory, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a statistical study of the cosmic evolution of the mass-dependent major-merger rate since z = 1. A stellar mass limited sample of close major-merger pairs (the CPAIR sample) was selected from the archive of the COSMOS survey. Pair fractions at different redshifts derived using the CPAIR sample and a local K-band-selected pair sample show no significant variations with stellar mass. The pair fraction exhibits moderately strong cosmic evolution, with the best-fitting function of f pair = 10 –1.88(±0.03) (1 + z) 2.2(±0.2) . The best-fitting function for the merger rate is R mg (Gyr –1 ) = 0.053 × (M star /10 10.7 M ☉ ) 0.3 (1 + z) 2.2 /(1 + z/8). This rate implies that galaxies of M star ∼ 10 10 -10 11.5 M ☉ have undergone ∼0.5-1.5 major mergers since z = 1. Our results show that, for massive galaxies (M star ≥ 10 10.5 M ☉ ) at z ≤ 1, major mergers involving star-forming galaxies (i.e., wet and mixed mergers) can account for the formation of both ellipticals and red quiescent galaxies (RQGs). On the other hand, major mergers cannot be responsible for the formation of most low mass ellipticals and RQGs of M star ∼ 10.3 M ☉ . Our quantitative estimates indicate that major mergers have significant impact on the stellar mass assembly of the most massive galaxies (M star ≥ 10 11.3 M ☉ ), but for less massive galaxies the stellar mass assembly is dominated by the star formation. Comparison with the mass-dependent (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRG) rates suggests that the frequency of major-merger events is comparable to or higher than that of (U)LIRGs.

  19. The many phases of massive galaxies : a near-infrared spectroscopic study of galaxies in the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriek, Mariska Therese

    2007-01-01

    A key issue in astronomy today is understanding the star-formation and assembly history of massive galaxies. Stellar population studies show that the bulk of the stars in low-redshift massive galaxies is formed at z~2 or even higher. Furthermore, there are strong indications that about 50% of the

  20. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  1. Dark matter distributions in early-type galaxies from strong gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichner, Thomas Martin

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter constitutes a large fraction of the mass of early-type galaxies. However, the exact amount and spatial distribution of the dark matter, especially in the galaxies' center is still unclear. Furthermore, galaxies in dense environments such as the centers of galaxy clusters shrink in size, since parts of their outer dark matter halo is stripped away. The aim of this thesis is to measure the dark matter content in the centers and outskirts of elliptical galaxies by analyzing the strong gravitational lensing effect they produce. Gravitational lensing is well-suited for investigating dark matter, since it is sensitive to all forms of matter, regardless of its dynamical or evolutionary state. We present gravitational lensing studies of the exceptional strong lensing systems SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, identified by the Sloan Lens ACS survey. The lenses are elliptical galaxies at z l =0.143 and z l =0.285, respectively. For SDSS J1538+5817 we show that both multiple imaged sources are located at the same redshift z s =0.531. Its multiple images span a range from 1 to 4 kpc in the plane of the lens. For SDSS J1430+4105, the source at redshift z s =0.575 is imaged into a broad Einstein ring, covering radii from 4 kpc to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. In both cases, the lensed images can be accurately and consistently reproduced with different modeling approaches. We get projected total masses of 8.11 +0.27 -0.59 x 10 10 M s un within the Einstein radius of 2.5 kpc for SDSS J1538+5817 and 5.37±0.06 x 10 11 M s un within 6.5 kpc for SDSS J1430+4105. The luminous and dark matter were traced separately, resulting in dark matter fractions within the Einstein radius of 0.1 +0.2 -0.1 and 0.40 +0.14 -0.10 for SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, respectively. We assume a de Vaucouleurs profile to trace the light distribution of both galaxies. From the stellar mass associated with this light, we can explicitly derive a stellar mass-to-light ratio of (M de

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  3. Abundance patterns in the interstellar medium of early-type galaxies observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konami, Saori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Nagino, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 17 early-type galaxies, 13 ellipticals and 4 S0 galaxies, observed with Suzaku, and investigated metal abundances (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) and abundance ratios (O/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Si/Fe) in the interstellar medium (ISM). The emission from each on-source region, which is four times the effective radius, r e , is reproduced with one-temperature (1T) or two-temperature (2T) thermal plasma models as well as a multi-temperature model, using APEC plasma code version 2.0.1. The multi-temperature model gave almost the same abundances and abundance ratios with the 1T or 2T models. The weighted averages of the O, Mg, Si, and Fe abundances of all the sample galaxies derived from the multi-temperature model fits are 0.83 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.02, and 0.80 ± 0.02 solar, respectively, in solar units according to the solar abundance table by Lodders in 2003. These abundances show no significant dependence on the morphology and environment. The systematic differences in the derived metal abundances between versions 2.0.1 and 1.3.1 of the APEC plasma codes were investigated. The derived O and Mg abundances in the ISM agree with the stellar metallicity within an aperture with a radius of one r e derived from optical spectroscopy. From these results, we discuss the past and present Type Ia supernova rates and star formation histories in early-type galaxies.

  4. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR MORPHOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. In the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0, we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor galaxy, its morphology strongly depends on the neighbor's distance and morphology: the probability for a galaxy to be an early type (f E ) increases as it approaches an early-type neighbor, but decreases as it approaches a late-type neighbor. We find that f E evolves much faster in high-density regions than in low-density regions, and that the morphology-density relation becomes significantly weaker at z ∼ 1. This may be because the rate of galaxy-galaxy interactions is higher in high-density regions, and a series of interactions and mergers over the course of galaxy life eventually transform late types into early types. We find more isolated galaxies are more luminous, which supports luminosity transformation through mergers at these redshifts. Our results are consistent with those from nearby galaxies, and demonstrate that galaxy-galaxy interactions have been strongly affecting the galaxy evolution over a long period of time.

  6. Synthetic nebular emission from massive galaxies - I: origin of the cosmic evolution of optical emission-line ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Charlot, Stephane; Feltre, Anna; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2017-12-01

    Galaxies occupy different regions of the [O III]λ5007/H β-versus-[N II]λ6584/H α emission-line ratio diagram in the distant and local Universe. We investigate the origin of this intriguing result by modelling self-consistently, for the first time, nebular emission from young stars, accreting black holes (BHs) and older, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stellar populations in galaxy formation simulations in a full cosmological context. In post-processing, we couple new-generation nebular-emission models with high-resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulations of massive galaxies to explore which galaxy physical properties drive the redshift evolution of the optical-line ratios [O III]λ5007/H β, [N II]λ6584/H α, [S II]λλ6717, 6731/H α and [O I]λ6300/H α. The line ratios of simulated galaxies agree well with observations of both star-forming and active local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. Towards higher redshifts, at fixed galaxy stellar mass, the average [O III]/H β is predicted to increase and [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α to decrease - widely consistent with observations. At fixed stellar mass, we identify star formation history, which controls nebular emission from young stars via the ionization parameter, as the primary driver of the cosmic evolution of [O III]/H β and [N II]/H α. For [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α, this applies only to redshifts greater than z = 1.5, the evolution at lower redshift being driven in roughly equal parts by nebular emission from active galactic nuclei and post-AGB stellar populations. Instead, changes in the hardness of ionizing radiation, ionized-gas density, the prevalence of BH accretion relative to star formation and the dust-to-metal mass ratio (whose impact on the gas-phase N/O ratio we model at fixed O/H) play at most a minor role in the cosmic evolution of simulated galaxy line ratios.

  7. The formation and early evolution of stars from dust to stars and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Norbert S

    2012-01-01

    Starburst regions in nearby and distant galaxies have a profound impact on our understanding of the early universe. This new, substantially updated and extended edition of Norbert Schulz’s unique book "From Dust to Stars" describes complex physical processes involved in the creation and early evolution of stars. It illustrates how these processes reveal themselves from radio wavelengths to high energy X-rays and gamma–rays, with special reference towards high energy signatures. Several sections devoted to key analysis techniques demonstrate how modern research in this field is pursued and new chapters are introduced on massive star formation, proto-planetary disks and observations of young exoplanets. Recent advances and contemporary research on the theory of star formation are explained, as are new observations, specifically from the three great observatories of the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory which all now operate at the same time and make high r...

  8. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES THROUGHOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2009-01-01

    This analysis uses spectra of ∼16,000 nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey quiescent galaxies to track variations in galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) along and perpendicular to the fundamental plane (FP). We sort galaxies by their FP properties (σ, R e , and I e ) and construct high signal-to-noise ratio mean galaxy spectra that span the breadth and thickness of the FP. From these spectra, we determine mean luminosity-weighted ages, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on single stellar population models using the method described in Graves and Schiavon. In agreement with previous work, the SFHs of early-type galaxies are found to form a two-parameter family. The major trend is that mean age, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] all increase with σ. However, no stellar population property shows any dependence on R e at fixed σ, suggesting that σ and not dynamical mass (M dyn ∝ σ 2 R e ) is the better predictor of past SFH. In addition to the main trend with σ, galaxies also show a range of population properties at fixed σ that are strongly correlated with surface brightness residuals from the FP (Δlog I e ), such that higher surface brightness galaxies have younger mean ages, higher [Fe/H], higher [Mg/H], and lower [Mg/Fe] than lower surface brightness galaxies. These latter trends are a major new constraint on SFHs.

  9. Evolution of the early Antarctic ice ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, Diederik; de Bakker, Anouk T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371573734; Beddow, Helen M; Wilson, Paul A; Bohaty, Steven M; Ruessink, Gerben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360; Pälike, Heiko; Batenburg, Sietske J; Hilgen, Frederik J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Hodell, David A; Huck, Claire E; Kroon, Dick; Raffi, Isabella; Saes, Mischa J M; van Dijk, Arnold E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341412082; Lourens, Lucas J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the stability of the early Antarctic ice cap in the geological past is of societal interest because present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations have reached values comparable to those estimated for the Oligocene and the Early Miocene epochs. Here we analyze a new high-resolution

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE MERGER-INDUCED HYDROSTATIC MASS BIAS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke; Rudd, Douglas H.; Shaw, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine the effects of mergers on the hydrostatic mass estimate of galaxy clusters using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations. We utilize merger trees to isolate the last merger for each cluster in our sample and follow the time evolution of the hydrostatic mass bias as the systems relax. We find that during a merger, a shock propagates outward from the parent cluster, resulting in an overestimate in the hydrostatic mass bias. After the merger, as a cluster relaxes, the bias in hydrostatic mass estimate decreases but remains at a level of –5%-10% with 15%-20% scatter within r 500 . We also investigate the post-merger evolution of the pressure support from bulk motions, a dominant cause of this residual mass bias. At r 500 , the contribution from random motions peaks at 30% of the total pressure during the merger and quickly decays to ∼10%-15% as a cluster relaxes. Additionally, we use a measure of the random motion pressure to correct the hydrostatic mass estimate. We discover that 4 Gyr after mergers, the direct effects of the merger event on the hydrostatic mass bias have become negligible. Thereafter, the mass bias is primarily due to residual bulk motions in the gas which are not accounted for in the hydrostatic equilibrium equation. We present a hydrostatic mass bias correction method that can recover the unbiased cluster mass for relaxed clusters with 9% scatter at r 500 and 11% scatter in the outskirts, within r 200 .

  11. The Origin of Stellar Species: constraining stellar evolution scenarios with Local Group galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhicary, Sumit; Badenes, Carles; Chomiuk, Laura; Maldonado, Jessica; Caprioli, Damiano; Heger, Mairead; Huizenga, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of the progenitors of many stellar species, such as supernovae, massive and low-mass He-burning stars, is limited because of many poorly constrained aspects of stellar evolution theory. For my dissertation, I have focused on using Local Group galaxy surveys to constrain stellar evolution scenarios by measuring delay-time distributions (DTD). The DTD is the hypothetical occurrence rate of a stellar object per elapsed time after a brief burst of star formation. It is the measured distribution of timescales on which stars evolve, and therefore serves as a powerful observational constraint on theoretical progenitor models. The DTD can be measured from a survey of stellar objects and a set of star-formation histories of the host galaxy, and is particularly effective in the Local Group, where high-quality star-formation histories are available from resolved stellar populations. I am currently calculating a SN DTD with supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to provide the strongest constraints on the progenitors of thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae. However, most SNRs do not have reliable age measurements and their evolution depends on the ambient environment. For this reason, I wrote a radio light curve model of an SNR population to extract the visibility times and rates of supernovae - crucial ingredients for the DTD - from an SNR survey. The model uses observational constraints on the local environments from multi-wavelength surveys, accounts for missing SNRs and employs the latest models of shock-driven particle acceleration. The final calculation of the SN DTD in the Local Group is awaiting completion of a systematic SNR catalog from deep radio-continuum images, now in preparation by a group led by Dr. Laura Chomiuk. I have also calculated DTDs for the LMC population of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, which serve as important distance calibrators and stellar population tracers. We find that Cepheids can have delay-times between 10 Myrs - 1 Gyr

  12. Evolution of Early Cenozoic marine temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, James C.; Stott, Lowell D.; Lohmann, Kyger C.

    1994-04-01

    The equator to high southern latitude sea surface and vertical temperature gradients are reconstructed from oxygen isotope values of planktonic and benthic foraminifers for the following five time intervals: late Paleocene, early Eocene, early middle Eocene, late Eocene, and early Oligocene. Paleotemperatures are calculated using standard oxygen isotope/temperature equations with adjustments to account for (1) variations in sea water δ18O related to changes in global ice volume over time and (2) latitudinal gradients in surface water δ18O. These reconstructions indicate that sea-surface temperatures (SST) of the Southern Oceans in the early Eocene were as high as 15°C, whereas temperatures during the late Paleocene and early middle Eocene reached maximum levels of 10°-12°C. By the late Eocene and early Oligocene high latitude SST had declined to 6 and 4°C, respectively. For most of the early Paleogene, low latitude sub-tropical temperatures remained constant and well within the range of Holocene temperatures (24°ndash;25°C) but by the late Eocene and early Oligocene declined to values in the range of 18° to 22°C. The late Paleogene apparent decline in tropical temperatures, however, might be artificial because of dissolution of near-surface foraminifera tests which biased sediment assemblages toward deeper-dwelling foraminifera. Moreover, according to recent plate reconstructions, it appears that the majority of sites upon which the late Eocene and early Oligocene tropical temperatures were previously established were located either in or near regions likely to have been influenced by upwelling. Global deepwater temperature on average paralleled southern ocean SST for most of the Paleogene. We speculate based on the overall timing and character of marine sea surface temperature variation during the Paleogene that some combination of both higher levels of greenhouse gases and increased heat transport was responsible for the exceptional high-latitude warmth

  13. Cosmic reionization on computers. II. Reionization history and its back-reaction on early galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kaurov, Alexander A., E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov, E-mail: kaurov@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We compare the results from several sets of cosmological simulations of cosmic reionization, produced under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, with existing observational data on the high-redshift Lyα forest and the abundance of Lyα emitters. We find good consistency with the observational measurements and previous simulation work. By virtue of having several independent realizations for each set of numerical parameters, we are able to explore the effect of cosmic variance on observable quantities. One unexpected conclusion we are forced into is that cosmic variance is unusually large at z > 6, with both our simulations and, most likely, observational measurements still not fully converged for even such basic quantities as the average Gunn-Peterson optical depth or the volume-weighted neutral fraction. We also find that reionization has little effect on the early galaxies or on global cosmic star formation history, because galaxies whose gas content is affected by photoionization contain no molecular (i.e., star-forming) gas in the first place. In particular, measurements of the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function by the James Webb Space Telescope are unlikely to provide a useful constraint on reionization.

  14. The Magellan Evolution of Galaxies Spectroscopic and Ultraviolet Reference Atlas (MegaSaura). I. The Sample and the Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J. R.; Bayliss, M. B.; Sharon, K.; Gladders, M. D.; Chisholm, J.; Dahle, H.; Johnson, T.; Paterno-Mahler, R.; Wuyts, E.; Kelson, D. D.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce Project MEGaSaURA: the Magellan Evolution of Galaxies Spectroscopic and Ultraviolet Reference Atlas. MEGaSaURA comprises medium-resolution, rest-frame ultraviolet spectroscopy of N = 15 bright gravitationally lensed galaxies at redshifts of 1.68 starburst galaxies in the local universe. This paper describes the sample, the observations, and the data reduction. We compare the measured redshifts for the stars, the ionized gas as traced by nebular lines, and the neutral gas as traced by absorption lines; we find the expected bulk outflow of the neutral gas, and no systemic offset between the redshifts measured from nebular lines and the redshifts measured from the stellar continuum. We provide the MEGaSaURA spectra to the astronomical community through a data release.

  15. Components of mid- and far-infrared emission from S0 and early-type shell galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Bally, J.; Hacking, P.

    1989-01-01

    The IRAS database has been used to study detections of about 150 early-type elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibiting a shell structure. No strong evidence for the expected enhancement of either star formation rates or heating of the interstellar medium is found. It is suggested that for some of the sample galaxies either a contribution from warm dust surrounding evolved stars or emission from an active nucleus may be significant. 40 references

  16. The evolution of X-ray galaxy clusters as a constraint of Omega(0)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oukbir, J.

    1998-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are rare objects and as such, their properties are particularly sensitive to the underlying density fluctuations. Therefore, the cluster population provides very stringent constraints on models of galaxy formation. We here show how self-consistent modeling of X-ray galaxy dus...

  17. Anomalous evolution of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritzl, BJ; Knezek, PM; Gallagher, JS; Grossi, M; Disney, MJ; Minchin, RF; Freeman, KC; Tolstoy, E; Saha, A

    2003-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31. This unusual galaxy lies in the direction of the Centaurus A group of galaxies and has a color-magnitude diagram with a distinctive red plume of luminous stars. This feature could arise from (1) a red giant

  18. The stellar mass-size evolution of galaxies from z=7 to z=0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosleh, Moein

    2013-01-01

    One of the important properties of galaxies is their sizes which correlate with their stellar masses. Evidence is provided by many recent studies that the sizes of galaxies were smaller at higher redshifts compared to galaxies of similar mass in the local Universe. It is essential to understand

  19. EVOLUTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 1.5 AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR VELOCITY DISPERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn

    2012-01-01

    We measure stellar masses and structural parameters for 5500 quiescent and 20,000 star-forming galaxies at 0.3 < z ≤ 1.5 in the Newfirm Medium Band Survey COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields. We combine these measurements to infer velocity dispersions and determine how the number density of galaxies at fixed inferred dispersion, or the velocity dispersion function (VDF), evolves with time for each population. We show that the number of galaxies with high velocity dispersions appears to be surprisingly stable with time, regardless of their star formation history. Furthermore, the overall VDF for star-forming galaxies is constant with redshift, extending down to the lowest velocity dispersions probed by this study. The only galaxy population showing strong evolution are quiescent galaxies with low inferred dispersions, whose number density increases by a factor of ∼4 since z = 1.5. This buildup leads to an evolution in the quiescent fraction of galaxies such that the threshold dispersion above which quiescent galaxies dominate the counts moves to lower velocity dispersion with time. We show that our results are qualitatively consistent with a simple model in which star-forming galaxies quench and are added to the quiescent population. In order to compensate for the migration into the quiescent population, the velocity dispersions of star-forming galaxies must increase, with a rate that increases with dispersion.

  20. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  1. SAGE-SMC: Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally-Disrupted, Low-Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Block, Miwa; Blum, Robert; Bolatto, Alberto; Bot, Caroline; Bracker, Steve; Carlson, Lynn; Churchwell, Ed; Clayton, Geoffrey; Cohen, Martin; Engelbracht, Charles; Fukui, Yasuo; Gorjian, Varoujan; Harris, Jason; Hony, Sacha; Hora, Joseph; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank; Kawamura, Akiko; Leroy, Adam; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne; Markwick-Kemper, Ciska; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Muller, Erik; Oliveira, Joana; Olsen, Knut; Onishi, Toshikazu; Paladini, Roberta; Points, Sean; Reach, William; Robitaille, Thomas; Rubin, Douglas; Sandstrom, Karin; Sato, Shuji; Sewilo, Marta; Shibai, Hiroshi; Simon, Josh; Smith, Linda; Srinivasan, Sundar; Tielens, Xander; van Dyk, Schuyler; van Loon, Jacco; Vijh, Uma; Volk, Kevin; Whitney, Barbara; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The observable properties of galaxy evolution are largely driven by the life-cycle of baryonic matter: stars precipitate out of a complex, multi-phase interstellar medium; and eventually, evolved stellar populations return enriched material back to the ISM via stellar winds or supernova explosions. As demonstrated by the SAGE-LMC survey, comprehensive Spitzer imaging of a nearby galaxy provides an incredibly rich view of this baryonic lifecycle, allowing for an unprecedented understanding of the physical processes which drive galaxy evolution. This proposal will extend the SAGE analysis to the whole SMC (Bar, Wing, and high-density portion of the Magellanic Bridge), a galaxy whose properties are uniquely similar to those of star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Specifically, the SMC's metallicity is below the critical threshold (1/3-1/4 Z_sun) where interstellar medium properties are observed to change dramatically (sharp reduction in the PAH dust mass fraction, reduced dust-to-gas ratio, and extreme ultraviolet extinction curve variations). In addition, the SMC has been profoundly influenced by past interactions with the LMC and Milky Way, allowing us to study the impact of periodic interactions on the structure of the ISM and the physical processes of star formation. We will gain crucial insight into the ISM and star formation in a known tidal debris structure (Bridge portion of SMC), which has a metallicity 4 times lower than the rest of the SMC. When combined with observations of the Milky Way (GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL) and the LMC (SAGE-LMC), our survey of the SMC (SAGE-SMC) will provide a complete and detailed picture of the life-cycle of baryons in galactic environments spanning orders of magnitude in metallicity, and wide ranges in star formation history. This understanding will equip us to properly interpret the infrared properties of more distant galaxies, both in the local (e.g., SINGS) and high-redshift (e.g., GOODS and SWIRE) universe.

  2. Neutral Hydrogen Clouds near Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies of the Local Group

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, A.; Carignan, C.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2006-01-01

    Parkes neutral hydrogen 21 cm line (HI) observations of the surroundings of 9 early-type Local Group dwarfs are presented. We detected numerous HI clouds in the general direction of those dwarfs and these clouds are often offset from the optical center of the galaxies. Although all the observed dwarfs, except Antlia, occupy phase-space regions where the High-Velocity Cloud (HVC) density is well above average, the measured offsets are smaller than one would expect from a fully random cloud dis...

  3. Populating H2 and CO in galaxy simulation with dust evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hsin; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    There are two major theoretical issues for the star formation law (the relation between the surface densities of molecular gas and star formation rate on a galaxy scale): (i) At low metallicity, it is not obvious that star-forming regions are rich in H2 because the H2 formation rate depends on the dust abundance; and (ii) whether or not CO really traces H2 is uncertain, especially at low metallicity. To clarify these issues, we use a hydrodynamic simulation of an isolated disc galaxy with a spatial resolution of a few tens parsecs. The evolution of dust abundance and grain size distribution is treated consistently with the metal enrichment and the physical state of the interstellar medium. We compute the H2 and CO abundances using a subgrid post-processing model based on the dust abundance and the dissociating radiation field calculated in the simulation. We find that when the metallicity is ≲ 0.4 Z⊙ (t < 1 Gyr), H2 is not a good tracer of star formation rate because H2-rich regions are limited to dense compact regions. At Z ≳ 0.8 Z⊙, a tight star formation law is established for both H2 and CO. At old (t ˜ 10 Gyr) ages, we also find that adopting the so-called MRN grain size distribution with an appropriate dust-to-metal ratio over the entire disc gives reasonable estimates for the H2 and CO abundances. For CO, improving the spatial resolution of the simulation is important, while the H2 abundance is not sensitive to subresolution structures at Z ≳ 0.4 Z⊙.

  4. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10–1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts’ post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 in most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%–10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30–200× boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host’s core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10{sup 9.4}–10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}, consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10{sup 5.5}–10{sup 7.5} M {sub ☉}. Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.

  5. Star-formation and stellar feedback recipes in galaxy evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Gerhard; Recchi, Simone; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Kuehtreiber, Matthias; Steyrleithner, Patrick; Liu, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Modeling galaxy formation and evolution is critically depending on star formation (SF). Since cosmological and galaxy-scale simulations cannot resolve the spatial and density scales on which SF acts, a large variety of methods are developed and applied over the last decades. Nonetheless, we are still in the test phase how the choice of parameters affects the models and how they agree with observations.As a simple ansatz, recipes are based on power-law SF dependences on gas density as justified by gas cooling and collapse timescales. In order to prevent SF spread throughout the gas, temperature and density thresholds are also used, although gas dynamical effects, like e.g. gas infall, seem to trigger SF significantly.The formed stars influence their environment immediately by energetic and materialistic feedback. It has been experienced in numerical models that supernova typeII explosions act with a too long time delay to regulate the SF, but that winds and ionizing radiation by massive stars must be included. The implementation of feedback processes, their efficiencies and timescales, is still in an experimental state, because they depend also on the physical state of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM).Combining a SF-gas density relation with stellar heating vs. gas cooling and taking the temperature dependence into account, we have derived an analytical expression of self-regulated SF which is free of arbitrary parameters. We have performed numerical models to study this recipe and different widely used SF criteria in both, particle and grid codes. Moreover, we compare the SF behavior between single-gas phase and multi-phase treatments of the ISM.Since dwarf galaxies (DGs) are most sensitive to environmental influences and contain only low SF rates, we explore two main affects on their models: 1. For external effects we compare SF rates of isolated and ram-pressure suffering DGs. Moreover, we find a SF enhancement in tidal-tail DGs by the compressive tidal

  6. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  7. The MASSIVE Survey. IX. Photometric Analysis of 35 High-mass Early-type Galaxies with HST WFC3/IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullaud, Charles F.; Jensen, Joseph B.; Blakeslee, John P.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; Thomas, Jens

    2018-03-01

    We present near-infrared observations of 35 of the most massive early-type galaxies in the local universe. The observations were made using the infrared channel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the F110W (1.1 μm) filter. We measured surface brightness profiles and elliptical isophotal fit parameters from the nuclear regions out to a radius of ∼10 kpc in most cases. We find that 37% (13) of the galaxies in our sample have isophotal position-angle rotations greater than 20° over the radial range imaged by WFC3/IR, which is often due to the presence of neighbors or multiple nuclei. Most galaxies in our sample are significantly rounder near the center than in the outer regions. This sample contains 6 fast rotators and 28 slow rotators. We find that all fast rotators are either disky or show no measurable deviation from purely elliptical isophotes. Among slow rotators, significantly disky and boxy galaxies occur with nearly equal frequency. The galaxies in our sample often exhibit changing isophotal shapes, sometimes showing both significantly disky and boxy isophotes at different radii. The fact that parameters vary widely between galaxies and within individual galaxies is evidence that these massive galaxies have complicated formation histories, and some of them have experienced recent mergers and have not fully relaxed. These data demonstrate the value of IR imaging of galaxies at high spatial resolution and provide measurements necessary for determining stellar masses, dynamics, and black hole masses in high-mass galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with Program GO-14219.

  8. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 10{sup 11} < M{sub *}[M{sub Sun }]<10{sup 12}. By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV-V) = 3.5 and (NUV-V) = 3.3, with 1{sigma} standard deviations {approx_equal}1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent ({approx}<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  9. The many lives of active galactic nuclei-II: The formation and evolution of radio jets and their impact on galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Croton, Darren J.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Bernyk, Maksym

    2017-10-01

    We describe new efforts to model radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a cosmological context using the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) semi-analytic galaxy model. Our new method tracks the physical properties of radio jets in massive galaxies including the evolution of radio lobes and their impact on the surrounding gas. This model also self consistently follows the gas cooling-heating cycle that significantly shapes star formation and the life and death of many galaxy types. Adding jet physics to SAGE adds new physical properties to the model output, which in turn allows us to make more detailed predictions for the radio AGN population. After calibrating the model to a set of core observations we analyse predictions for jet power, radio cocoon size, radio luminosity and stellar mass. We find that the model is able to match the stellar mass-radio luminosity relation at z ˜ 0 and the radio luminosity function out to z ˜ 1. This updated model will make possible the construction of customised AGN-focused mock survey catalogues to be used for large-scale observing programs.

  10. Dark matter and IMF normalization in Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the dark matter (DM) fraction, fDM, and mass-to-light ratio mismatch parameter, δIMF (computed with respect to a Milky Way-like initial mass function), for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Both fDM and δIMF are estimated within the central (one effective radius) galaxy regions, with a Jeans dynamical analysis that relies on galaxy velocity dispersions, structural parameters, and stellar mass-to-light ratios from the SMAKCED survey. In this first attempt to constrain, simultaneously, the initial mass function (IMF) normalization and the DM content, we explore the impact of different assumptions on the DM model profile. On average, for an Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, the δIMF is consistent with a Chabrier-like normalization ({δ _IMF}˜ 1), with {f_DM}˜ 0.35. One of the main results of this work is that for at least a few systems the δIMF are heavier than the Milky Way-like value (I.e. either top- or bottom-heavy). When introducing tangential anisotropy, larger δIMF and smaller fDM are derived. Adopting a steeper concentration-mass relation than that from simulations, we find lower δIMF ( ≲ 1) and larger fDM. A constant M/L profile with null fDM gives the heaviest δIMF (˜2). In the MONDian framework, we find consistent results to those for our reference NFW model. If confirmed, the large scatter of δIMF for dEs would provide (further) evidence for a non-universal IMF in early-type systems. On average, our reference fDM estimates are consistent with those found for low-σe (˜ 100 km s^{-1}) early-type galaxies (ETGs). Furthermore, we find fDM consistent with values from the SMAKCED survey, and find a double-value behaviour of fDM with stellar mass, which mirrors the trend of dynamical M/L and global star formation efficiency (from abundance matching estimates) with mass.

  11. Accretion and early evolution of Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saji, Nikitha Susan

    in solar system materials is found to be related to selective thermal processing of dust in the early nebula given the correlation observed for these eects with Fe-peak neutron-rich isotope anomalies, whose origin is attributed to distinct nucleosnythetic sites other than classical s-, r- or p...

  12. Merger relics of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. K.; Lee, J.; Jung, I.; Ji, I.; Sheen, Y.-K.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Sheen and collaborators recently found that a surprisingly large portion (38%) of massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters show strong merger-related disturbed features. This contradicts the general understanding that massive clusters are hostile environments for galaxy mergers. Considering the significance of mergers in galaxy evolution, it is important to understand this. Aims: We aim to present a theoretical foundation that explains galaxy mergers in massive clusters. Methods: We used the N-body simulation technique to perform a cosmological-volume simulation and derive dark-halo merger trees. Then, we used the semi-analytic modeling technique to populate each halo with galaxies. We ran hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers to estimate the lifetime of merger features for the imaging condition used by Sheen and collaborators. We applied this merger feature lifetime to our semi-analytic models. Finally, we counted the massive early-type galaxies in heavy model clusters that would show strong merger features. Results: While there still are substantial uncertainties, our preliminary results are remarkably close to the observed fraction of galaxies with merger features. Key ingredients for the success are twofold: firstly, the subhalo motion in dark haloes has been accurately traced, and, second, the lifetime of merger features has been properly estimated. As a result, merger features are expected to last very long in cluster environments. Many massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters therefore show merger features not because they experience mergers in the current clusters in situ, but because they still carry their merger features from their previous halo environments. Conclusions: Investigating the merger relics of cluster galaxies is potentially important, because it uniquely allows us to backtrack the halo merger history.

  13. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stellar populations and massive halos, the properties of individual galaxies, and the clusters of galaxies are discussed. Baade's concept of the two stellar populations in our Galaxy had an important influence on the theories of stellar evolution. In Baade's day, there were two puzzling questions. Population II stars manage to form more rapidly than population I stars. Population II has lower rotational velocity than population I. This story is affected by the presence of an extended, massive halo which was not known in Baade's day. It is known from galaxy rotation curves that massive halos extend much further out. The most striking feature about the variation amongst galaxies is the separation between elliptical and spiral galaxies, with SO-galaxies occupying an intermediate position. The absolute luminosity L of a galaxy provides the second parameter in a two-dimensional classification scheme. In many ways, elliptical galaxies bear the same relationship to late-type spirals as does our stellar population II to population I. Most galaxies occur in some kind of groupings, ranging from a small group such as Local Group to a rich and dense cluster such as the Coma cluster. The formation of galaxies is connected with the formation of clusters. Various models are presented and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  14. Galaxy Clustering and Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.

    2011-09-01

    Cosmic structure formation and galaxy evolution are important subjects in astrophysics. The thesis consists of two parts: (1) identification of galaxy clusters and studies of their properties; (2) identification of the mergers of luminous early-type galaxies and gravitational waves (GWs). Most of the galaxy clusters in the previous catalogs have redshifts z≤0.3 with richnesses not well determined. Using the photometric redshifts of galaxies from the Sixth Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR6), we identify 39716 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05contamination rate and the completeness of member galaxies are found to be ˜20% and ∼90%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the cluster detection rate is larger than 90% for the massive (M_{200}>2×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with z≤0.42. The false detection rate is ˜5%. We obtain the richness, the summed luminosity and the gross galaxy number. They are tightly correlated with the X-ray luminosity and the temperature of clusters. The cluster mass is also found to be tightly related to the richness and summed luminosity in the form of M_{200}∝ R^{1.90±0.04} and M_{200}∝ L_r^{1.64±0.03}, respectively. In addition, 790 new candidates of X-ray clusters are found by cross-identification of our clusters with the unidentified source list of the ROSAT X-ray survey. By visual inspections of the detected clusters, we recognize 13 gravitational lensing candidates. Among all the candidates, four can be sure strong lensing systems even without further spectroscopic identification, five are more probable and four are possible lenses. In the second part, we discuss the merger rates of luminous early-type galaxies and GWs from the mergers of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The merger rates of massive galaxies in the local universe are still not clear so far. We select a large sample (1209) of close pairs of galaxies with projected separations 7 kpc

  15. Silent innovation: corporate strategizing in early nanotechnology evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers a rare opportunity to study the early evolution of a new generic technology in real time. This paper suggests focusing more on the market formation side, rather than technology generation, when seeking to explain technology evolution. Applying an evolutionary capabilities...... perspective, the paper examines how firms organize innovation in the early embryonic stages of a technology and how the market as a selective device undergoes qualitative change as part of economic evolution. The traditional Danish window chain is used as a case. A model of nanotechnology evolution...... is proposed which suggests that nanotechnology commercialization is significantly driven by small and medium-sized firms based on their internal knowhow, with larger firms as important suppliers of know how. These smaller firms are adept at addressing social needs which appear to be key factors in the nano...

  16. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  17. The small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. P.; Sandage, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Two results on the small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies are reported, which were identified in the vicinity of early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies on high-resolution photographic plates. The first result indicates that dwarf galaxies display the same trend of stronger clustering toward earlier morphological type on small scales as their giant counterparts on larger scales. It is suggested that early-type dwarfs can be used as dynamical probes of dark halos around early-type giant galaxies and as tracers of the dynamical evolution of such halos in dense environments. The second result pertains to the trend of increasing early-type dwarf frequency per early-type giant with environment richness previously established for rich groups. It is found that a minimum value of isolated early-type galaxies is approximately 0.25, as compared to a maximum of approximately 8 in rich environments like the Virgo Cluster.

  18. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z ⊙ ). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10 4 M ⊙ pc −3 ) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs

  19. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs

  20. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics

  1. Nearby galaxies as pointers to a better theory of cosmic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J E; Nusser, Adi

    2010-06-03

    The great advances in the network of cosmological tests show that the relativistic Big Bang theory is a good description of our expanding Universe. However, the properties of nearby galaxies that can be observed in greatest detail suggest that a better theory would describe a mechanism by which matter is more rapidly gathered into galaxies and groups of galaxies. This more rapid growth occurs in some theoretical ideas now under discussion.

  2. Constraints on the dynamical evolution of the galaxy group M81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehm, W.; Thies, I.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-05-01

    According to the standard model of cosmology, galaxies are embedded in dark matter haloes that are made of particles beyond the standard model of particle physics, thus extending the mass and the size of the visible baryonic matter by typically two orders of magnitude. The observed gas distribution throughout the nearby M81 group of galaxies shows evidence for past significant galaxy-galaxy interactions but without a merger between the present-day members having occurred. This group is here studied for possible dynamical solutions within the dark matter standard model. In order to cover a comprehensive set of initial conditions, the inner three core members M81, M82 and NGC 3077 are treated as a three-body model based on Navarro-Frenk-White profiles. The possible orbits of these galaxies are examined statistically taking into account dynamical friction. Long living, non-merging initial constellations that allow multiple galaxy-galaxy encounters comprise unbound galaxies only, which are arriving from a far distance and happen to simultaneously encounter each other within the recent 500 Myr. Our results are derived by the employment of two separate and independent statistical methods, namely a Markov chain Monte Carlo method and the genetic algorithm using the sap system environment. The conclusions reached are confirmed by high-resolution simulations of live self-consistent systems (N-body calculations). Given the observed positions of the three galaxies, the solutions found comprise predictions for their proper motions.

  3. Central Structural Parameters of Early-Type Galaxies as Viewed with Nicmos on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Swara; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2001-08-01

    We present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 33 early-type (E, S0, and S0/a) galaxies observed at 1.6 μm (H band) using the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust absorption has less of an impact on the galaxy morphologies in the near-infrared than found in previous work based on observations at optical wavelengths. When present, dust seems to be most commonly associated with optical line emission. We employ a new technique of two-dimensional fitting to extract quantitative parameters for the bulge light distribution and nuclear point sources, taking into consideration the effects of the point-spread function. By parameterizing the bulge profile with a Nuker law, we confirm that the central surface brightness distributions largely fall into two categories, each of which correlates with the global properties of the galaxies. ``Core'' galaxies tend to be luminous elliptical galaxies with boxy or pure elliptical isophotes, whereas ``power-law'' galaxies are preferentially lower luminosity systems with disky isophotes. The infrared surface brightness profiles are very similar to those in the optical, with notable exceptions being very dusty objects. Similar to the study of Faber et al., based on optical data, we find that galaxy cores obey a set of fundamental plane relations wherein more luminous galaxies with higher central stellar velocity dispersions generally possess larger cores with lower surface brightnesses. Unlike most previous studies, however, we do not find a clear gap in the distribution of inner cusp slopes; several objects have inner cusp slopes (0.3law galaxies. The nature of these intermediate objects is unclear. We draw attention to two objects in the sample that appear to be promising cases of galaxies with isothermal cores that are not the brightest members of a cluster. Unresolved nuclear point sources are found in ~50% of the sample galaxies, roughly independent of profile type, with magnitudes in the range mnucH=12.8 to 17.4 mag

  4. Early and Late Evolution of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Gerard

    1996-04-01

    A correlation between stellar orbital eccentricity and metallicity was interpreted by ELS as evidence for rapid collapse of the early halo into the disk. An important assumption of such models is that essentially all the gas which is today in the Milky Way's potential well has always been there. Since the later discovery of dark halos, and the development of dark matter--dominated models of galaxy formation, this assumption becomes unviable. Nonetheless, recent careful photometry by Twarog and Anthony-Twarog has proven that the correlation discussed by ELS is real, and requires an explanation. An important clue comes from determination of the rotation curve of the Galactic bulge, and hence calculation of the distributions of specific angular momentum in the major Galactic structural components. There are nearly identical distributions of specific angular momentum in both the thick disk and the old disk, and in both the metal-poor halo and the bulge, with the two distributions differing from each other substantially. Thus we may interpret the ELS/Twarog/Anthony-Twarog correlation as evidence for an early (monolithic) collapse of the halo, but into the bulge, not the disk. The halo/bulge and thick disk/thin disk parts of the Galaxy are essentially unrelated. The existence of the Sagittarius dSph well inside the Milky Way however raises the question of the importance of later mergers vis-a-vis the contents of the original halo. Perhaps the most remarkable property of the Sgr dSph is that it still exists as a discrete galaxy. Clearly, dSph are very robust against tidal disruption by the Galaxy. This is further evidence for their dominance by very cold dark matter. To test the universality of this conclusion, we have completed an extensive series of numerical calculations, showing, for the first time, that unrecognised binarism cannot explain the observed high velocity dispersion in the local dSph. The dSph really are extremely dark matter dominated, and extremely

  5. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. IX. Evolution of galaxy merger fraction since z ≈ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; Bouché, N.; Epinat, B.; Brinchmann, J.; Bacon, R.; Inami, H.; Lam, D.; Drake, A.; Garel, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Pello, R.; Steinmetz, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Carollo, M.

    2017-11-01

    We provide, for the first time, robust observational constraints on the galaxy major merger fraction up to z ≈ 6 using spectroscopic close pair counts. Deep Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) are used to identify 113 secure close pairs of galaxies among a parent sample of 1801 galaxies spread over a large redshift range (0.2 < z < 6) and stellar masses (107-1011 M⊙), thus probing about 12 Gyr of galaxy evolution. Stellar masses are estimated from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting over the extensive UV-to-NIR HST photometry available in these deep Hubble fields, adding Spitzer IRAC bands to better constrain masses for high-redshift (z ⩾ 3) galaxies. These stellar masses are used to isolate a sample of 54 major close pairs with a galaxy mass ratio limit of 1:6. Among this sample, 23 pairs are identified at high redshift (z ⩾ 3) through their Lyα emission. The sample of major close pairs is divided into five redshift intervals in order to probe the evolution of the merger fraction with cosmic time. Our estimates are in very good agreement with previous close pair counts with a constant increase of the merger fraction up to z ≈ 3 where it reaches a maximum of 20%. At higher redshift, we show that the fraction slowly decreases down to about 10% at z ≈ 6. The sample is further divided into two ranges of stellar masses using either a constant separation limit of 109.5 M⊙ or the median value of stellar mass computed in each redshift bin. Overall, the major close pair fraction for low-mass and massive galaxies follows the same trend. These new, homogeneous, and robust estimates of the major merger fraction since z ≈ 6 are in good agreement with recent predictions of cosmological numerical simulations. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programmes 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045

  6. Early primate evolution in Afro-Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2012-11-01

    The peculiar mammalian fauna that inhabited Afro-Arabia during the Paleogene first came to the attention of the scientific community in the early part of the twentieth century, when Andrews1 and Schlosser2 published their landmark descriptions of fossil mammals from the Fayum Depression in northern Egypt. Their studies revealed a highly endemic assemblage of land mammals that included the first known Paleogene records of hyraxes, proboscideans, and anthropoid primates, but which lacked ancestors of many iconic mammalian lineages that are found in Africa today, such as rhinos, zebras, bovids, giraffes, and cats. Over the course of the last century, the Afro-Arabian Paleogene has yielded fossil remains of several other endemic mammalian lineages,3 as well as a diversity of prosimian primates,4 but we are only just beginning to understand how the continent's faunal composition came to be, through ancient processes such as the movement of tectonic plates, changes in climate and sea level, and early phylogenetic splits among the major groups of placental mammals. These processes, in turn, made possible chance dispersal events that were critical in determining the competitive landscape--and, indeed, the survival--of our earliest anthropoid ancestors. Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid-like adaptations known as adapiforms. Many of the important details of this story would not be known, and could never have been predicted, without the fossil evidence that has recently been unearthed by field paleontologists. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Do You See What I See? Exploring the Consequences of Luminosity Limits in Black Hole-Galaxy Evolution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Ptak, Andrew F.; DiPompeo, Michael A.

    2017-07-01

    In studies of the connection between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and their host galaxies, there is widespread disagreement on some key aspects of the connection. These disagreements largely stem from a lack of understanding of the nature of the full underlying AGN population. Recent attempts to probe this connection utilize both observations and simulations to correct for a missed population, but presently are limited by intrinsic biases and complicated models. We take a simple simulation for galaxy evolution and add a new prescription for AGN activity to connect galaxy growth to dark matter halo properties and AGN activity to star formation. We explicitly model selection effects to produce an “observed” AGN population for comparison with observations and empirically motivated models of the local universe. This allows us to bypass the difficulties inherent in models that attempt to infer the AGN population by inverting selection effects. We investigate the impact of selecting AGNs based on thresholds in luminosity or Eddington ratio on the “observed” AGN population. By limiting our model AGN sample in luminosity, we are able to recreate the observed local AGN luminosity function and specific star formation-stellar mass distribution, and show that using an Eddington ratio threshold introduces less bias into the sample by selecting the full range of growing black holes, despite the challenge of selecting low-mass black holes. We find that selecting AGNs using these various thresholds yield samples with different AGN host galaxy properties.

  8. Do You See What I See? Exploring the Consequences of Luminosity Limits in Black Hole–Galaxy Evolution Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; DiPompeo, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mutch, Simon J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Croton, Darren J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ptak, Andrew F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    In studies of the connection between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and their host galaxies, there is widespread disagreement on some key aspects of the connection. These disagreements largely stem from a lack of understanding of the nature of the full underlying AGN population. Recent attempts to probe this connection utilize both observations and simulations to correct for a missed population, but presently are limited by intrinsic biases and complicated models. We take a simple simulation for galaxy evolution and add a new prescription for AGN activity to connect galaxy growth to dark matter halo properties and AGN activity to star formation. We explicitly model selection effects to produce an “observed” AGN population for comparison with observations and empirically motivated models of the local universe. This allows us to bypass the difficulties inherent in models that attempt to infer the AGN population by inverting selection effects. We investigate the impact of selecting AGNs based on thresholds in luminosity or Eddington ratio on the “observed” AGN population. By limiting our model AGN sample in luminosity, we are able to recreate the observed local AGN luminosity function and specific star formation-stellar mass distribution, and show that using an Eddington ratio threshold introduces less bias into the sample by selecting the full range of growing black holes, despite the challenge of selecting low-mass black holes. We find that selecting AGNs using these various thresholds yield samples with different AGN host galaxy properties.

  9. LOCAL BENCHMARKS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF MAJOR-MERGER GALAXIES-SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF A K-BAND SELECTED SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. Kevin; Cheng Yiwen; Lu Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Cutri, Roc; Domingue, Donovan; Huang Jiasheng; Gao Yu; Sun, W.-H.; Surace, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations for a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs (KPAIR sample) selected from cross-matches between the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. The goals are to study the star formation activity in these galaxies and to set a local bench mark for the cosmic evolution of close major mergers. The Spitzer KPAIR sample (27 pairs, 54 galaxies) includes all spectroscopically confirmed spiral-spiral (S+S) and spiral-elliptical (S+E) pairs in a parent sample that is complete for primaries brighter than K = 12.5 mag, projected separations of 5 h -1 kpc ≤ s ≤ 20 h -1 kpc, and mass ratios ≤2.5. The Spitzer data, consisting of images in seven bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, 24, 70, 160 μm), show very diversified IR emission properties. Compared to single spiral galaxies in a control sample, only spiral galaxies in S+S pairs show significantly enhanced specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR/M), whereas spiral galaxies in S+E pairs do not. Furthermore, the SFR enhancement of spiral galaxies in S+S pairs is highly mass-dependent. Only those with M ∼> 10 10.5 M sun show significant enhancement. Relatively low-mass (M ∼ 10 10 M sun ) spirals in S+S pairs have about the same SFR/M compared to their counterparts in the control sample, while those with 10 11 M sun have on average a ∼3 times higher SFR/M than single spirals. There is evidence for a correlation between the global star formation activities (but not the nuclear activities) of the component galaxies in massive S+S major-merger pairs (the H olmberg effect ) . There is no significant difference in the SFR/M between the primaries and the secondaries, nor between spirals of SEP KPAIR =2.54 x 10 -4 (M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 ).

  10. The Dearth of z ∼ 10 Galaxies in All HST Legacy Fields—The Rapid Evolution of the Galaxy Population in the First 500 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Stefanon, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of all prime HST legacy fields spanning >800 arcmin2 in the search for z ∼ 10 galaxy candidates and the study of their UV luminosity function (LF). In particular, we present new z ∼ 10 candidates selected from the full Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) data set. Despite the addition of these new fields, we find a low abundance of z ∼ 10 candidates with only nine reliable sources identified in all prime HST data sets that include the HUDF09/12, the HUDF/XDF, all of the CANDELS fields, and now the HFF survey. Based on this comprehensive search, we find that the UV luminosity function decreases by one order of magnitude from z ∼ 8 to z ∼ 10 over a four-magnitude range. This also implies a decrease of the cosmic star formation rate density by an order of magnitude within 170 Myr from z ∼ 8 to z ∼ 10. We show that this accelerated evolution compared to lower redshift can entirely be explained by the fast build up of the dark matter halo mass function at z > 8. Consequently, the predicted UV LFs from several models of galaxy formation are in good agreement with this observed trend, even though the measured UV LF lies at the low end of model predictions. The difference is generally still consistent within the Poisson and cosmic variance uncertainties. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission, which is poised to find much larger samples of z ∼ 10 galaxies as well as their progenitors at less than 400 Myr after the big bang. Based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope operated by AURA, Inc. for NASA under contract NAS5-26555.

  11. A multiparametric analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies. 2: Galaxy formation history and properties of the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Kim, Dong-Woo

    1995-01-01

    We have conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis of data measuring the integrated luminosity, shape, and potential depth of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies (presented by Fabbiano et al. 1992). We find significant correlations between the X-ray properties and the axial ratios (a/b) of our sample, such that the roundest systems tend to have the highest L(sub x) and L(sub x)/L(sub B). The most radio-loud objects are also the roundest. We confirm the assertion of Bender et al. (1989) that galaxies with high L(sub x) are boxy (have negative a(sub 4)). Both a/b and a(sub 4) are correlated with L(sub B), but not with IRAS 12 um and 100 um luminosities. There are