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Sample records for early follicular phase

  1. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

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    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  2. The effects of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in early follicular phase on follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate

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    Zahra Raoofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have showed the role of androgens on the follicular maturation. The present study investigated the effect of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in the early follicular phase on the results of the ovulation induction (I/O and intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Materials and methods: This prospective observational cross-sectional study was carried out in the infertility department of a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. The case’s selection was based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and was nonrandomized. 59 patients under the age of 45 who were candidate for induction ovulation (I/O or intrauterine insemination were included. The inclusion criteria consist of infertility for at least one year and at least one open tube in HSG. Patients were excluded if they had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis. The serum concentration of androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, LH and IGF1 was measured on the third day of menstruation. Clomiphene and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG were drugs of induction ovulation. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG was injected when there was at least one follicle with the size of (18 mm. IUI was done 36 h later for eligible patients and the relation of concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 with follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results: There was not any statistical significant link between the number and size of follicles with levels of free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, IGF1 and LH. There was not any statistical significant link between the number of follicles in the ovaries and levels of testosterone (P = 0.090 and r = 0.223, dehydroepiandrosterone (P = 0.642 and r = 0.062 and androstenedione (P = 0.526 and r = 0.084, IGF1 (P = 0.470 and r = 0.096 and LH (P = 0.446 and r = 0.102. There was not any statistical significant link between the mean follicular

  3. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

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    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  4. The relationship of luteinizing hormone secretion to sleep in women during the early follicular phase: effects of sleep reversal and a prolonged three-hour sleep-wake schedule.

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    Kapen, S; Boyar, R; Hellman, L; Weitzman, E D

    1976-06-01

    The relationship of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion to sleep in adult women was investigated in two ways: an acute 180 degrees sleep-wake cycle reversal in a group of six women and a schedule in which a young woman engaged in a three hour sleep-wake cycle (two hours awake, one hour allowed for sleep continuously for ten days--the study was carried out on the eighth day). Each subject in the reversal study had a baseline period during which plasma samples were collected every twenty minutes for twenty-four hours and nocturnal sleep was monitored electrophysiologically during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During a succeeding cycle, the study was repeated after sleep-wake reversal. LH secretory patterns were analyzed by comparing the 24-hour mean plasma LH concentration with the hourly averages in percentage terms, using Stage 2 sleep onset as the zero point. LH secretion was depressed to approximately the same degree in both the baseline and reversal studies. The average hourly percentage difference from the 24-hour mean for the four-hour period following sleep onset was -13.4% and -13.1% for the baseline and reversal, respectively. These percentage deviations represented practically the entire negative deviation for the 24-hour period in both studies. The difference between the first four-hour period after sleep onset and the second was significant. The subject on a three-hour cycle had a baseline in which a large decrease in LH secretion occurred after sleep onset (-52.2% during the third hour). Her LH secretory pattern during the three-hour sleep-wake schedule was characterized by a fall during sleep periods, particularly when slow wave sleep (SWS) predominated. However, no correlation was found between specific sleep stages and LH secretion in the six women of the reversal study. These results confirm a relationship of LH secretion to sleep in adult women, one which is different from that described during puberty.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth.

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    Agnes Bonnet

    Full Text Available The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments.We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9 and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe(WEE2 which play critical roles in follicular development but other biomarkers

  6. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

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    Huber Johannes C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4 is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49 and the luteal (n = 40 phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71% and 27/40 (68% of women, respectively (p = 0.9. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63% samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67% and 23/40 (58% of women, respectively (p = 0.5. Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium.

  7. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

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    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  8. Proliferation in the normal FTE is a hallmark of the follicular phase, not BRCA mutation status.

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    George, Sophia H L; Milea, Anca; Shaw, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    to be in the follicular, or proliferative, preovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle. Finally, we also show an incremental increase in leukocytes invading the STICs and HGSC, implicating a possible role of the leukocytes early in the progression or inhibition of tumor formation, which is independent of ovarian cycle status.

  9. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

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    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  10. Cytokine production by natural killer lymphocytes in follicular and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle in humans

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    Bouman, A.; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; De Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with follicular phase, the cytokine productive capacity of peripheral natural killer (NK)-lymphocytes in humans is shifted towards a "Th2-type"-like response. METHOD OF STUDY:

  11. Follicular carcinoma

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    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is considered as a disease of the elderly with a higher incidence in females as compared to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Some studies have reported its occurrence at an early age, which may be attributed to early diagnosis because of the availability of advanced techniques. The prognosis of the disease is considered poor as compared to that of PTC. The conclusions drawn in this review are based on 663 cases in whom adequate data was available for meaningful analysis followed for a mean period of 9.2 years, median, 7.8 years; range, 1-32 years

  12. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

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    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  13. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

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    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of sheep granulosa cells and oocytes during early follicular development obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection

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    Bonnet Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful achievement of early folliculogenesis is crucial for female reproductive function. The process is finely regulated by cell-cell interactions and by the coordinated expression of genes in both the oocyte and in granulosa cells. Despite many studies, little is known about the cell-specific gene expression driving early folliculogenesis. The very small size of these follicles and the mixture of types of follicles within the developing ovary make the experimental study of isolated follicular components very difficult. The recently developed laser capture microdissection (LCM technique coupled with microarray experiments is a promising way to address the molecular profile of pure cell populations. However, one main challenge was to preserve the RNA quality during the isolation of single cells or groups of cells and also to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA. Using a new LCM method, we describe here the separate expression profiles of oocytes and follicular cells during the first stages of sheep folliculogenesis. Results We developed a new tissue fixation protocol ensuring efficient single cell capture and RNA integrity during the microdissection procedure. Enrichment in specific cell types was controlled by qRT-PCR analysis of known genes: six oocyte-specific genes (SOHLH2, MAEL, MATER, VASA, GDF9, BMP15 and three granulosa cell-specific genes (KL, GATA4, AMH. A global gene expression profile for each follicular compartment during early developmental stages was identified here for the first time, using a bovine Affymetrix chip. Most notably, the granulosa cell dataset is unique to date. The comparison of oocyte vs. follicular cell transcriptomes revealed 1050 transcripts specific to the granulosa cell and 759 specific to the oocyte. Functional analyses allowed the characterization of the three main cellular events involved in early folliculogenesis and confirmed the relevance and potential of LCM-derived RNA. Conclusions

  15. Autologous transplantation versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma experiencing early treatment failure.

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    Smith, Sonali M; Godfrey, James; Ahn, Kwang Woo; DiGilio, Alyssa; Ahmed, Sairah; Agrawal, Vaibhav; Bachanova, Veronika; Bacher, Ulrike; Bashey, Asad; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Cairo, Mitchell; Chen, Andy; Chhabra, Saurabh; Copelan, Edward; Dahi, Parastoo B; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Farooq, Umar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Holmberg, Leona; Inwards, David; Kanate, Abraham S; Karmali, Reem; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Klein, Andreas; Lazarus, Hillard M; Mei, Matthew; Mussetti, Alberto; Nishihori, Taiga; Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Praveen; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Shah, Nirav; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Vij, Ravi; Vose, Julie; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-04-12

    Early treatment failure (ETF) in follicular lymphoma (FL), defined as relapse or progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy, is a newly recognized marker of poor survival and identifies a high-risk group of patients with an expected 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of approximately 50%. Transplantation is an established option for relapsed FL, but its efficacy in this specific ETF FL population has not been previously evaluated. This study compared autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) with either matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as the first transplantation approach for patients with ETF FL (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2002 and 2014. The primary endpoint was OS. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Four hundred forty FL patients had ETF (auto-HCT, 240; MSD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HCT], 105; and MUD HCT, 95). With a median follow-up of 69 to 73 months, the adjusted probability of 5-year OS was significantly higher after auto-HCT (70%) or MSD HCT (73%) versus MUD HCT (49%; P = .0008). The 5-year adjusted probability of NRM was significantly lower for auto-HCT (5%) versus MSD (17%) or MUD HCT (33%; P ETF, undergoing auto-HCT for FL have low NRM and a promising 5-year OS rate (70%). MSD HCT has lower relapse rates than auto-HCT but similar OS. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  16. TERT promoter mutation as an early genetic event activating telomerase in follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and atypical FTA.

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    Wang, Na; Liu, Tiantian; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Xu, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations C228T and C250T have been found in many malignancies, including in thyroid carcinomas. However, it is unclear how early these mutations occur in thyroid tumorigenesis. The study included primary tumors from 58 patients initially diagnosed with follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), a benign entity, 18 with atypical FTA (AFTA) having an uncertain malignant potential, and 52 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the mutational status of the TERT promoter. Telomere length and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Telomerase activity was assessed using a Telomerase PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The C228T mutation was identified in 1 of 58 FTA (2%) and 3 of 18 AFTA (17%) samples. These 4 tumors all expressed TERT mRNA and telomerase activity, whereas the majority of C228T-negative adenomas lacked TERT expression (C228T versus wild-type, P = .008). The C228T mutation was associated with NRAS gene mutations (P = .016). The patient with C228T-mutated FTA later developed a scar recurrence and died of FTC, whereas none of the remaining 57 patients with FTA had recurrence. No recurrence occurred in 3 patients with AFTA who carried C228T during the follow-up period (36-285 months). Nine of the 52 FTCs (17%) exhibited the TERT mutation (8 of 9 C228T and 1 of 9 C250T), and the presence of the mutation was associated with shorter patient survival. TERT promoter mutations may occur as an early genetic event in thyroid follicular tumors that have not developed malignant features on routine histopathological workup. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. Follicular mucinosis

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    Marie Lewars

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that characteristically presents as follicular papules and/or indurated plaques. The face, neck, and scalp are the most frequently affected sites, although lesions may occur on any site of the body. Histologically, the disorder is characterized by mucin deposition in the follicular epithelium. The condition is frequently divided into primary and secondary forms, with the latter form frequently associated with mycosis fungoides. In this case report, we describe a child with follicular mucinosis of the back and trunk and discuss the clinical variants, histopathological pattern, and treatment options.

  18. Rituximab Maintenance Treatment of Relapsed/Resistant Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Long-Term Outcome of the EORTC 20981 Phase III Randomized Intergroup Study

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    van Oers, Marinus H. J.; van Glabbeke, Martine; Giurgea, Livia; Klasa, Richard; Marcus, Robert E.; Wolf, Max; Kimby, Eva; van 't Veer, Mars; Vranovsky, Andrej; Holte, Harald; Hagenbeek, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In 2006, we published the results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial EORTC 20981 on the role of rituximab in remission induction and maintenance treatment of relapsed/resistant follicular lymphoma (FL). At that time, the median follow-up for the

  19. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

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    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  20. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

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    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

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    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  2. Women with dysmenorrhoea are hypersensitive to experimentally induced forearm ischaemia during painful menstruation and during the pain-free follicular phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, S; Avidon, I; Baker, F C

    2015-07-01

    Monthly primary dysmenorrhoeic pain is associated with increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, particularly in deep tissue. We investigated whether women with dysmenorrhoea, compared with controls, have increased sensitivity to experimentally induced deep-tissue muscle ischaemia in a body area distant from that of referred menstrual pain. The sub-maximal effort tourniquet test was used to induce forearm ischaemia in 11 women with severe dysmenorrhoea and in nine control women both during menstruation and in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Von Frey hair assessments confirmed the presence of experimental ischaemia. Women rated the intensity of menstrual and ischaemic pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Women with dysmenorrhoea [mean (SD): 68 (20) mm] reported significantly greater menstrual pain compared with controls [mean (SD): 2 (6) mm; p = 0.0001] during the menstruation phase. They also rated their forearm ischaemic pain as significantly greater than the controls during the menstruation [dysmenorrhoeics vs. controls mean (SD): 58 (19) mm vs. 31 (21) mm, p menstruation phase and pain-free follicular phase. These findings suggest the presence of long-lasting changes in muscle pain sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhoea. Our findings that dysmenorrhoeic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep-muscle ischaemic pain in areas outside of referred menstrual pain confirm other studies showing long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C W; Korsen, T; van Kessel, H; van Dop, P A; Caron, F J; Schoemaker, J

    1985-12-01

    To characterize the oscillations of plasma LH in normally cycling and amenorrheic women, three groups of women were studied: I, normal women during the follicular phase of the cycle (n = 9); II, women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD; n = 11); and III, women with non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea (n = 12). Blood samples were obtained at 10-min intervals for 6 h on 2 separate days. A pulse was defined as an increase in LH at least 20% over the preceding lowest value (nadir). Since LHRH release immediately follows the nadir of the LH levels, the nadir interval (NI) was used for analysis. For analysis, the results from 1 day were selected at random from each subject, and from each day, the same number of NIs also were randomly selected. When two NIs from each patient were selected, the median NI was 75 min in group I, 45 min in group II, and 45 min in group III. When three or four NIs were chosen, the median NI was 60 min in group I, 50 min in group II, and 40 min in group III. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. When three NIs were selected, the mean of the corresponding LH amplitudes was 2.8 U/liter in group I, 6.0 U/liter in group II, and 1.5 U/liter in group III. The differences between these groups were statistically significant. Thus, the NI in PCOD patients was shorter than that during the follicular phase of the cycle, but this short NI is not unique for PCOD, since the NI in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea patients was even smaller. The LH amplitude was higher in PCOD and lower in non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea compared to that during the follicular phase of the cycle. The decrease in NI in PCOD and/or non-PCOD secondary amenorrhea vs. the NI of the follicular phase could be explained by either a higher frequency of LHRH pulses from the hypothalamus or an increased sensitivity of the pituitary leading to a greater response of the pituitary to LHRH pulses.

  4. Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salles, Gilles; Seymour, John Francis; Offner, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab...... plus chemotherapy regimen....

  5. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  6. Autologous Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma with Early Therapy Failure: A National LymphoCare Study and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, Carla; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Ahn, Kwang W; Flowers, Christopher; DiGilio, Alyssa; Smith, Sonali M; Ahmed, Sairah; Inwards, David; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chen, Andy I; Choe, Hannah; Cohen, Jonathon; Copelan, Edward; Farooq, Umar; Fenske, Timothy S; Freytes, Cesar; Gaballa, Sameh; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Jethava, Yogesh; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Lazarus, Hillard; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Olsson, Richard F; Rezvani, Andrew R; Rizzieri, David; Seo, Sachiko; Shah, Gunjan L; Shah, Nina; Solh, Melham; Sureda, Anna; William, Basem; Cumpston, Aaron; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Link, Brian K; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2017-12-11

    Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experiencing early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy have poor overall survival (OS). We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to determine whether autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) can improve outcomes in this high-risk FL subgroup. ETF was defined as failure to achieve at least partial response after frontline chemoimmunotherapy or lymphoma progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy. We identified 2 groups: the non-autoHCT cohort (patients from the NLCS with ETF not undergoing autoHCT) and the autoHCT cohort (CIBMTR patients with ETF undergoing autoHCT). All patients received rituximab-based chemotherapy as frontline treatment; 174 non-autoHCT patients and 175 autoHCT patients were identified and analyzed. There was no difference in 5-year OS between the 2 groups (60% versus 67%, respectively; P = .16). A planned subgroup analysis showed that patients with ETF receiving autoHCT soon after treatment failure (≤1 year of ETF; n = 123) had higher 5-year OS than those without autoHCT (73% versus 60%, P = .05). On multivariate analysis, early use of autoHCT was associated with significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio, .63; 95% confidence interval, .42 to .94; P = .02). Patients with FL experiencing ETF after frontline chemoimmunotherapy lack optimal therapy. We demonstrate improved OS when receiving autoHCT within 1 year of treatment failure. Results from this unique collaboration between the NLCS and CIBMTR support consideration of early consolidation with autoHCT in select FL patients experiencing ETF. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peripheral Inhibitor of AChE, Neostigmine, Prevents the Inflammatory Dependent Suppression of GnRH/LH Secretion during the Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej P. Herman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH/luteinising hormone (LH secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal. An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg. Peripheral treatment with Donepezil and Neostigmine prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0.05 in LHβ gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland (AP and in LH release. Moreover, Donepezil completely abolished (P<0.05 the suppressory effect of inflammation on GnRH synthesis in the preoptic area, when pretreatment with Neostigmine reduced (P<0.05 the decrease in GnRH content in this hypothalamic structure. Moreover, administration of both AChE inhibitors diminished (P<0.05 the inhibitory effect of LPS treatment on the expression of GnRH receptor in the AP. Our study shows that inflammatory dependent changes in the GnRH/LH secretion may be eliminated or reduced by AChE inhibitors suppressing inflammatory reaction only at the periphery such as Neostigmine, without the need for interfering in the central nervous system.

  8. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  9. Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D R; Goldsmith, M R

    2000-04-01

    Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.

  10. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pokora

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F and luteal (L phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity. Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrates, in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Tympanic temperature (Tty, mean skin temperature (Tsk, electrical skin resistance (ESR, oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR as well as blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid (β-HB, glucose (Glu and lactate (LA concentrations were measured. On the basis of ESR, dynamics of sweating was estimated. No differences in Tty and Tsk were found between the C and LCHO during exercise tests. However, Tty was significantly higher during L than F phase. Delay time for sweating was shorter after LCHO (F: 10.8 vs 9.4 min, P<0.05, L: 9.9 vs 9.3 N.S., but temperature threshold for this reaction was unchanged (L: 37.22 vs 37.37 and F: 36.91 vs 36.94 oC. Sweating sensitivity was greater after LCHO during both F and L. Resting blood Glu and LA concentrations were similar in women after C and LCHO diet. Before exercise β-HB level was F: 0.45, L: 0.35 mM after LCHO and F: 0.08, L: 0.09 mM after C diet (P<0.05, respectively. At rest and during exercise HR was significantly higher after LCHO diet in women during F phase. In submaximal exercise loads VO2 after LCHO diet were significantly higher than after C diet in all women. It was concluded that the low-carbohydrate diet ingested by young women in both phases of the menstrual cycle have no effect on body temperature, however, it affects heat dissipation mechanism during exercise.

  11. Emergency management in the early phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: An overview of emergency management is provided from a systems approach with the aim of providing a common understanding for the diverse symposium participants of the elements of the management system required for preparedness and response for the early phase of an emergency at a nuclear installation. The systems approach starts with the recognition of response goals, and using detailed analyses of threats, past experience, international law and principles, a response strategy is developed. This step is illustrated with the case of severe accidents at PWRs and identifies the need for and nature of: emergency classification based an plant conditions; notification; radiological monitoring and assessment strategies; operational criteria for implementing protective action decisions; management of public information. From the strategy, detailed functional requirements can be defined addressing: establishing emergency management and operations; identifying, notifying and activating; taking mitigatory action; taking urgent protective action; providing information and issuing instructions and warnings to the public; protecting emergency workers; assessing the initial phase; managing the medical response; keeping the public informed; taking countermeasures against ingestion; mitigating the non-radiological consequences of the emergency and the response. Meeting these requirements necessitates decisions from competent authorities, the means to implement them, and mechanisms for response co-ordination, which need to be prepared in advance. These are supported by infrastructure, including: clear authorities; organization; coordinated plans and procedures; logistical support, facilities and tools; training and exercises; and a quality assurance programme. Some reflections an the key differences between response to emergencies arising from accidents and these arising from deliberate acts will be provided. An impression will be given of the level of preparedness and

  12. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  13. Early-type galaxy core phase densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-type galaxies have projected central density brightness profile logarithmic slopes, γ', ranging from about 0 to 1. We show that γ' is strongly correlated, r = 0.83, with the coarse grain phase density of the galaxy core, Q 0 ≡ ρ/σ 3 . The luminosity-γ' correlation is much weaker, r = –0.51. Q 0 also serves to separate the distribution of steep core profiles, γ' > 0.5, from shallow profiles, γ' < 0.3, although there are many galaxies of intermediate slope, at intermediate Q 0 , in a volume-limited sample. The transition phase density separating the two profile types is approximately 0.003 M ☉ pc –3 km –3 s 3 , which is also where the relation between Q 0 and core mass shows a change in slope, the rotation rate of the central part of the galaxy increases, and the ratio of the black hole to core mass increases. These relations are considered relative to the globular cluster inspiral core buildup and binary black hole core scouring mechanisms for core creation and evolution. Mass-enhanced globular cluster inspiral models have quantitative predictions that are supported by data, but no single model yet completely explains the correlations.

  14. Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, D.; Lee, J.C.; Devenney-Cakir, B.; Zaim, S.; Ounadjela, S.; Solal-Celigny, P.; Juweid, M.; Guermazi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a unique subtype of NHL, which is indolent, incurable with a high prevalence of residual mass after treatment, and may transform to more aggressive NHL. The aim of this review is to (1) describe the histological and flow cytometry characteristics of follicular NHL; (2) introduce the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index 2 (FLIPI-2), which allows better treatment selection and patient stratification for clinical trials; (3) illustrate the classic and atypical ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT appearance of follicular NHL; and (4) characterize the appearance of nodal and extranodal follicular NHL with pathological correlation. Imaging is essential in every step of the management of patients with follicular lymphoma. Overall survival is improved with better predictive tools and new targeted biological therapies. Radiologists should be aware of possible active residual mass, indolent recurrence, transformation, and association with other primary cancers in patients treated for follicular lymphoma.

  15. [Recovery and light microscopic evaluation of follicular oocytes of swine and relationship between the degeneration rate of oocytes and the estrus phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurrbusch, U; Schmette, C; Elze, K

    1990-10-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were recovered from 25 gilts by aspiration of follicular fluid or cutting of follicles from all Graafian follicles of greater than or equal to 3 mm in diameter during diestrus, proestrus or estrus. In 5 gilts the oocytes were collected post ovulation by flushing of oviducts. The recovery rate of follicular oocytes differed between 75.5% during the late diestrus (days 13-17) and 43.5% during the proestrus (days 18-21). During the proestrus and on day 1 of the estrus the recovery of oocytes was more difficult as a result of the higher viscosity of follicular fluid and the mucification of cumulus-oocyte complexes. The degeneration rate of oocytes was high during the diestrus with a peak at the time of regression of corpora lutea. From diestrus to the estrus the degeneration rate decreased. Following degeneration rates were found in the oocytes during the cycle: days 7-12: 38.8%, days 13-17: 50.0%, days 18-21: 29.6%, day 1 of the estrus: 10.8%, day 2 of the estrus ante ovulation: 11.8%, day 2 of the estrus post ovulation: 6.2%. Signs of degeneration were: Loss of cumulus cells (during diestrus and proestrus), damaged zona pellucida, enlargement of perivitelline space, deformation of oocyte, alteration of structure of the ooplasm, diameter of vitellus less than 100 microns. It was concluded that the selection of dominant follicles takes place in pigs during a long time of the cycle, especially during the diestrus. There were not any indications of a 2-wave hypothesis of follicular growth during the cycle in pig.

  16. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marta; Seppala, Markku; Cravioto, Ma Del Carmen; Koistinen, Hannu; Koistinen, Riitta; González-Macedo, José; Larrea, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    This study examined serum glycodelin concentrations and endometrial expression during the luteal phase following oral administration of levonorgestrel (LNG) at different stages of the ovarian cycle. Thirty women were recruited and allocated into three groups. All groups were studied during two consecutive cycles, a control cycle and the treatment cycle. In the treatment cycle, each woman received two doses of 0.75 mg LNG taken 12 h apart on days 3-4 before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Group 1), at the time of LH rise (Group 2) and 48 h after the rise in LH was detected (Group 3). Serum progesterone (P) and glycodelin were measured daily during the luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was taken at day LH +9 for immunohistochemical glycodelin-A staining. In Group 1, serum P levels were significantly lower, serum glycodelin levels rose earlier and endometrial glycodelin-A expression was weaker than in Groups 2 and 3, in which no differences were found between control and treatment cycles. Levonorgestrel taken for emergency contraception (EC) prior to the LH surge alters the luteal phase secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium. Based on the potent gamete adhesion inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A, the results may account for the action of LNG in EC in those women who take LNG before the LH surge.

  17. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  18. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II early reduction credits. 73.20 Section 73.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.20 Phase II early reduction credits...

  19. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...

  20. Transformation of Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossos, Izidore S.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2011-01-01

    Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21658615

  1. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-10-25

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (22q loss and 1q gain) in follicular tumors. In addition, we found eleven potential cancer-related genes with mutations (EZH1, SPOP, NF1, TCF12, IGF2BP3, KMT2C, CNOT1, BRIP1, KDM5C, STAG2 and MAP4K3) that have not been reported in thyroid follicular tumors. Of note, FTA genomes showed comparable levels of mutations to FTC in terms of the number, sequence composition and functional consequences (potential driver mutations) of mutations. Analyses of evolutionary ages using somatic mutations as molecular clocks further identified that FTA genomes were as old as FTC genomes. Whole-transcriptome sequencing did not find any gene fusions with potential significance. Our data indicate that FTA genomes may be as old as FTC genomes, thus suggesting that follicular thyroid tumor genomes during the transition from FTA to FTC may stand stable at genomic levels in contrast to the discernable changes at pathologic and clinical levels. Also, the data suggest a possibility that the mutational profiles obtained from early biopsies may be useful for the molecular diagnosis and therapeutics of follicular tumor patients.

  2. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which

  3. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  4. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  5. Internalized stigma in adults with early phase versus prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Leonhardt, Bethany; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-03-30

    Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis. Individuals with early phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and social functioning. Controlling for education, race and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged psychosis compared to early phase. Internalized stigma was negatively related to social functioning and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early phase. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences and social withdrawal also differentially related to symptoms and social functioning across the 2 samples. Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Furthermore, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those with early phase psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Generic features of vacuum phase transitions in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kephart, T.W.; Weiler, T.J.; Yuan, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    A simple Higgs model is utilized to show the occurrence of a four-phase pattern of vacuum symmetry. As temperature changes, an interplay of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous symmetry restoration ensues, and resonant field interchange occurs. The generality of models which may contain a sequence of vacuum phase transitions is emphasized. The laboratory for these multi-phase transitions is the early Universe. (orig.)

  7. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  8. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  9. Dual phase helical CT: diagnosis value for early pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bingqi; Zhang Ling; Zheng Keguo; Xu Dasheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study dual-phase helical CT for the evaluation of early pancreatic cacinoma. Methods: Dual-phase helical CT was performed on 21 patients with early pancreatic carcinoma. In the enhanced imaging the contrast material was intravenously injected in a dose of 1.5 ml/kg at a rate of 3 ml/s. The image acquisition of the lesion in pancreatic phase (PP) and portal venous phase (PVP) were started at 35 seconds and 65 seconds after the start of the injection respectively. The enhancement of normal pancreas and tumor during the two phases was observed and compared. All data were statistically analyzed. Results: Tumor-pancreas contrast was significantly greater in PP (45.16±113.23) HU than in PVP (23.15±12.44) HU (t=2.13, P<0.01). Conclusion: Dual-phase helical CT scan for pancreas, including the imaging of the pancreatic and portal , venous phase, can be applied as an optimal selection. It can delineate early pancreatic carcinoma clearly and provide more information for the diagnosis of the lesion. The tumor-pancreas contrast was much higher' in PP than in PVP. (authors)

  10. Therapeutic misconception in early phase gene transfer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail E; Easter, Michele M; Zimmer, Catherine; King, Nancy M P; Davis, Arlene M; Rothschild, Barbra Bluestone; Churchill, Larry R; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Nelson, Daniel K

    2006-01-01

    Many subjects in early phase clinical trials expect to benefit in some way from the research intervention. It is understandable that people hope for improvement in their condition, no matter what the evidence. Yet unreasonable expectation of medical benefit may reflect problems with informed consent: Investigators may not disclose clearly that direct medical benefit from an early phase experimental intervention is unlikely or impossible, or subjects may not appreciate the differences between treatment and research. This paper presents findings from recent interviews with researchers and subjects and analysis of consent forms in early phase gene transfer research, a cutting-edge technology often called 'gene therapy'. We use three variables to construct a composite measure of therapeutic misconception TM, tapping misconceptions about the purposes of early phase research and the potential for direct medical benefit in these trials. Our multivariate model demonstrates the importance of both subject- and study-level factors as predictors of this TM index: education, disease type, and communication by study personnel about the likelihood of benefit. We hope that this work will deepen the discussion of how to define and measure TM, and refine the specification of factors that are related to subjects' TM.

  11. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  12. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  13. Response of thyroid follicular cells to accelerated iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.M.; Bianski, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Suspension cultures of early and later passages thyroid follicular fisher rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) were exposed to iron ions delivered over a dose range of 0-3 Gy and their comparative biological responses measured. Early passage FRTL-5 cultures are slow-growing, connexin32 competent whereas, later passage cultures are relatively rapidly growing and connexin32 defective. The iron-irradiated cells had sustained levels of incorporated dUTP into 3' strand breaks, reflecting DNA damage. There were no significant differences between early and later passage cultures except at 0.5 and 1 Gy, 48-hours (p 0.05). The presence of consistently medium-larger micronuclei was evidence that severe damage was introduced by exposure to iron ions. The levels of apoptosis were not linear with dose, nor was there a marked difference with time. In all cases the 3 Gy levels were less than or equal to the levels measured at 0.5 Gy. When survival characteristics were compared the most significant difference between early and later passage cultures were in the a-components of the survival curves (0.60 Gy -1 for early and 0.71 Gy-1 for the later passage cultures, p<0.014). When cell cycle phase redistribution was measured, both the early and later passage cultures displayed a significant shift toward G2 (p<0.001). In conclusion, these findings suggest that neither the presence of gap junctions, nor the differences in growth rate translated to significant differences in the biological response of thyroid follicles to iron ions

  14. Long-term safety and outcome of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone (FCM) regimen in previously untreated patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: 12 years follow-up of a phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Laura; Montoto, Silvia; González-Barca, Eva; Briones, Javier; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Muntañola, Ana; Salar, Antonio; Besalduch, Joan; Escoda, Lourdes; Moreno, Carol; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Estany, Cristina; Oriol, Albert; Altés, Albert; Pedro, Carmen; Gardella, Santiago; Asensio, Antoni; Vivancos, Pilar; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep María; Colomer, Dolors; Campo, Elias; López-Guillermo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    Fludarabine combinations are very affective in follicular lymphoma (FL) with high rates of complete response and prolonged survival. However, late toxicities could be a concern. The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term impact on survival, relapse and late toxicities of a trial of treatment with fludarabine, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FCM regimen) for untreated patients with advanced stage FL. One hundred and twenty patients enrolled in a phase 2 trial of treatment with FCM regimen between 2000 and 2003 were evaluated. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 52 patients eventually relapsed/progressed with 10 year progression-free survival (PFS) of 46 %. Ten patients showed histological transformation to aggressive lymphoma with a risk of transformation of 2 and 9 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Three patients developed therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) and seven solid neoplasms with an overall risk of 3 and 8 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Twenty-six patients eventually died during the follow-up. Overall survival at 10 years was 83 %. In conclusion, FCM regimen allows excellent long-lasting response in previously untreated patients with FL. The incidence of late events including histological transformation and secondary neoplasia is low but not negligible.

  15. Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Roy, Pascal; Colombat, Philippe; White, Josephine; Armitage, Jim O.; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Au, Wing Y.; Bellei, Monica; Brice, Pauline; Caballero, Dolores; Coiffier, Bertrand; Conde-Garcia, Eulogio; Doyen, Chantal; Federico, Massimo; Fisher, Richard I.; Garcia-Conde, Javier F.; Guglielmi, Cesare; Hagenbeek, Anton; Haïoun, Corinne; LeBlanc, Michael; Lister, Andrew T.; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; McLaughlin, Peter; Milpied, Noël; Morel, Pierre; Mounier, Nicolas; Proctor, Stephen J.; Rohatiner, Ama; Smith, Paul; Soubeyran, Pierre; Tilly, Hervé; Vitolo, Umberto; Zinzani, Pier-Luigi; Zucca, Emanuele; Montserrat, Emili

    2004-01-01

    The prognosis of follicular lymphomas (FL) is heterogeneous and numerous treatments may be proposed. A validated prognostic index (PI) would help in evaluating and choosing these treatments. Characteristics at diagnosis were collected from 4167 patients with FL diagnosed between 1985 and 1992.

  16. Dual QCD and phase transition in early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P.K.; Nandan, Hemwati

    2009-01-01

    The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum with condensed monopoles/ dyons (i.e., a dual Ginzburg- Landau (DGL) type model of QCD or dual QCD) has been quite successful to describe the large-distance behavior of QCD vacuum. Further, such DGL theory of QCD at finite temperature is also found to be useful in studying the phase transition process as believed to occur in early universe. In the present article, we have used the DGL theory of QCD with dyons to study the hadronisation in early universe. The effective potential at finite temperature is calculated. The notions of the phase transition in the background of the dyonically condensed QCD vacuum has been investigated by calculating the critical temperature in view of the temperature dependent couplings

  17. The retention of academics in the early career phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenraad Bester

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent academics in the early career phase at a South African higher education institution are committed to the institution in question and the impact which this commitment has on labour turnover. More than 21% of the original respondents left the institution while this research was still underway. Insufficient financial remuneration was the most important reason why the respondents considered leaving the institution.

  18. Gaia Science Alerts: Early Validation Phase Data from Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nicholas; Hodgkin, Simon; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite launched Dec 2013, and after successful completion of its in orbit commissioning in July 2014, begun routine operations, with the aim to accurately measure the astrometric and astrophysical properties of more than a billion stars in our Milky Way.As a significant by product of its observational scanning law, where each point on the sky is observed multiple times (~80 revisits on average) over the nominal 5 year mission, Gaia has significant utility in detecting new transients, both flux (e.g. Supernovae, Flare stars) and positional (e.g. Asteroids).We will present the current status of the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts (PSA) system that has been developed within the Gaia DPAC. The PSA pipeline provides a quick look analysis of the daily data stream from Gaia, and identifies new photometric alerts, from analysis of the object photometric and the low resolution spectro-photometric data. Via a set of filters, those identified as astrophysical in nature, are published to the community. The information provided currently includes positional and flux information.The Gaia Alerts working group has organised a significant early stage followup campaign, providing access to a wide variety of followup facilities. These have been used to provide classification spectra of the Gaia alert candidates, with the early phase data confirming that the alerts issued are indeed largely astrophysical transients, with only a small contamination rate.The presentation will address the early phase issues that have been addressed in localising and classifying alerts in the early phase of Gaia observations (for instance, how lack of early knowledge of the sky as seen by Gaia was mitigated by reference to external image data), and how the alert rate published by the PSA will ramp up towards the end of 2015, with the availability of more Gaia sky data.Information concerning the Gaia alerts system can be found at http://gaia.ac.uk/selected-gaia-science-alerts

  19. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  20. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  1. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    .12 Gy(-1) for protons), which suggests that the higher level of survival of gamma-irradiated cells could be attributed to the persistence of nonlethally irradiated thyrocytes and/or the capacity to repair damage more effectively than cells exposed to equal physical doses of protons. The final assessment in this study was radiation-induced cell cycle phase redistribution. Gamma rays and protons produced a similar dose-dependent redistribution toward a predominantly G(2)-phase population. From our cumulative results, it seems likely that a majority of the proton-irradiated cells would not continue to divide. In conclusion, these findings suggest that there are quantitative and qualitative differences in the biological effects of proton beams and gamma rays. These differences could be due to structured energy deposition from the tracks of primary protons and the associated high-LET secondary particles produced in the targets. The results suggest that a simple dose-equivalent approach to dosimetry may be inadequate to compare the biological responses of cells to photons and protons.

  2. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    methods, and an industrial case to assess how the use of information about robustness, reliability and safety as practised by current methods influences concept development. Current methods cannot be used in early design phases due to their dependence on detailed design information for the identification...... alternatives. This prompts designers to reuse working principles that are inherently flawed, as they are liable to disturbances, failures and hazards. To address this issue, an approach based upon individual records of early design issues consists of comparing failures and benefits from prior working...... principles, before making a decision, and improving the more suitable alternatives through this feedback. Workshops were conducted with design practitioners to evaluate the potential of the approach and to simulate decision-making and gain feedback on a proof-of-concept basis. The evaluation has demonstrated...

  3. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF and dominant follicle (DF during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318 were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  4. Advances in the management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Till M; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Antibody-based therapy has revolutionized treatment strategies in follicular lymphoma. This review focuses on current standards and recent innovations in the management of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of action of antibodies led to the development of next generation CD20 antibodies, antibodies targeting other molecules and bispecific antibodies. With obinutuzumab, a promising next generation of CD20 antibodies has entered phase III of clinical trials. The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab combines targeted therapy with immunologic activation of T cells exerting cytotoxic activity on the target cells. Apart from antibodies, small molecules targeting key pathways in lymphoma have shown promising activity in vitro and are currently in clinical development. A wealth of new substances has entered various stages of clinical trials and has yet to show superiority over rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. Intelligent therapeutic regimens containing these drugs have to be developed. Large randomized trials comparing promising treatment options are urgently needed.

  5. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  6. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  7. Transformation of follicular lymphoma - Why does it happen and can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Brian K

    2018-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma is a clinical disease with a multitude of presentations and behaviors. Although infrequent, transformation of follicular lymphoma to a more aggressive behaving subtype - prototypically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - confers a substantially adverse prognosis. There is no consensus for optimal management after transformation is recognized. Historically considered a distinct clinical event, this review highlights the multiple subclinical transformational events that either variably or cumulatively result in clinical recognition of transformed follicular lymphoma. Known and suspected events include genetic and epigenetic perturbations, metabolomic changes, and alterations in the microenvironment. This diverse spectrum of pathways leads to heterogeneous clinical presentations and outcomes of transformed follicular lymphoma. Current options for prevention of transformation are limited to known strategies of managing follicular lymphoma before the transformation is recognized. Although most retrospectively analyzed studies suggest an association of lower transformation rates with early systemic therapy, specific components of therapy such as anti-CD20 antibodies, anthracyclines, or purine analogues are less strongly associated with "preventative' value. Thus, the goal of preventing transformation is of limited value among all factors that go into decisions on early management of follicular lymphoma. Future opportunities to prevent clinical evidence of transformation will benefit from early detection of markers of subclinical transformation and development of therapies to specifically target the biology implied by those markers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Significance Ultrasonography on the Evaluation of Ovarian Follicular Maturity and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kab Tae; Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Seok Hong; Kim, Tae Seon; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Ovarian follicular diameter was measured using real time ultrasound in 21 hyperstimulated patients from April to September 1986. And we analyzed the relation between the size measured with ultrasonography and maturity observed under the phased microscopy, the correlation between aspirated dominant follicular volume and the dominant follicular volume calculated by the size measured with ultrasonography. Also we experienced the conditions which showed the ultrasonographic finding similar to that of follicle. The results were as follows: 1. The mean follicular diameter increased in a linear fashion from 7 days after LMP (9.4mm+2.8)to the one day before ovum pick up(18.2+2.8). 2. The mean diameter of the most appropriate dominant follicle was 19.08+1.23mm 3. The correlation between the dominant follicular volume measured with ultrasonography and aspirated follicular volume during ovum pick up was highly significant(r=0.94;0<0.001). 4. during follicular growth and maturity monitoring the conditions which misdiagnosed of follicle were simple ovarian cyst(1 case), hydrosalpinx (1 case), endometriosis(1 case), tubo-ovarian abscess(1 case), Hydatid of Morgagni(1 case)

  9. Steroid hormones content and proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid during the preovulatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Karine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicular fluid contains substances involved in follicle activity, cell differentiation and oocyte maturation. Studies of its components may contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. The canine species is characterized by several ovarian activity features that are not extensively described such as preovulatory luteinization, oocyte ovulated at the GV stage (prophase 1 and poly-oocytic follicles. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the preovulatory LH surge is associated with changes in steroid and protein content of canine follicular fluid prior to ovulation. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from canine ovaries during the preovulatory phase, before (pre-LH; n = 16 bitches and after (post-LH; n = 16 the LH surge. Blood was simultaneously collected. Steroids were assayed by radioimmunoassay and proteomic analyses were carried out by 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone at the pre-LH stage were 737.2 +/- 43.5 ng/ml and 2630.1 +/- 287.2 ng/ml in follicular fluid vs. 53 +/- 4.1 pg/ml and 3.9 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in plasma, respectively. At that stage, significant positive correlations between follicular size and intra-follicular steroid concentrations were recorded. After the LH peak, the intrafollicular concentration of 17beta-estradiol decreased significantly (48.3 +/- 4.4 ng/ml; p Proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid identified 38 protein spots, corresponding to 21 proteins, some of which are known to play roles in the ovarian physiology. The comparison of 2D-PAGE patterns of follicular fluids from the pre- and post-LH stages demonstrated 3 differentially stained single spot or groups of spots. One of them was identified as complement factor B. A comparison of follicular fluid and plasma protein patterns demonstrated a group of 4 spots that were more concentrated in plasma than

  10. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    their knowledge-world in such a radical manner, they start facing problems with making efficient decisions as knowledge generated through experience is mainly useful when the future mimics the past, which is not the case for such radical changes. Therefore, a 3 year long research project within this industry has......The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... early phases of innovation have been explored in a Scandinavian energy-utilities company facing exactly these paradigmatic changes. In the company there are 5500 employees, with the major footprint in Denmark. The company has activities in the full energy value-chain including: production & trade of oil...

  11. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  12. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I G; Scorgie, G C [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained.

  13. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  14. Energy status and ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Female reproduction is tightly linked to body energy status and it has become increasingly clear that disturbed energy metabolism can negatively affect reproductive performance. Nevertheless, the way how a disturbed energy status affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as follicular

  15. Association between follicular tracheitis and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Melanie; Meier, Jeremy; Asfour, Fadi; Jackson, Daniel; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Muntz, Harlan R; Park, Albert H

    2016-03-01

    Follicular tracheitis (also known as tracheal cobblestoning) is an entity that is poorly described and of unclear significance. The objective of this study was to better define follicular tracheitis and determine the association between the clinical finding of follicular tracheitis on bronchoscopy and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrospective chart review of children with recurrent croup having undergone a rigid bronchoscopy and an investigation for gastroesophageal reflux between 2001 and 2013. 117 children with recurrent croup children age 6-144 months were included in the study. Follicular tracheitis was noted on 41% of all bronchoscopies. Fifty-nine percent of all children who underwent bronchoscopy were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux on at least one investigation. Forty-nine of 117 children underwent a pH probe study, and 51% were found to have evidence of reflux on this study. Nine children were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. Three patients underwent a biopsy of the follicular tracheitis lesions, which revealed chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of an association between findings of follicular tracheitis and a positive test for gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.52) or a positive pH probe study (p=0.64). There was no association between follicular tracheitis and subglottic stenosis (p=0.33) or an history of asthma and/or atopy (p=0.19). In children with recurrent croup, follicular tracheitis remains an unspecific finding associated with an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Data assimilation in the early phase: Kalman filtering RIMPUFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrup, P.; Turcanu, C.; Puch, R.O.; Palma, C.R.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2004-09-01

    In the framework of the DAONEM project (Data Assimilation for Off-site Nuclear Emergency Management), a data assimilation module, ADUM (Atmospheric Dispersion Updating Module), for the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion program RIMPUFF (Risoe Mesoscale Puff model) part of the early-phase programs of RODOS (Realtime Online DecisiOn Support system for nuclear emergencies) has been developed. It is built on the Kalman filtering algorithm and it assimilates 10-minute averaged gamma dose rates measured at ground level stations. Since the gamma rates are non-linear functions of the state vector variables, the applied Kalman filter is the so-called Extended Kalman filter. In more ways the implementation is non standard: 1) the number of state vector variables varies with time, and 2) the state vector variables are prediction updated with 1-minute time steps but only Kalman filtered every 10 minutes, and this based on time averaged measurements. Given reasonable conditions, i.e. a spatially dense distribution of gamma monitors and a realistic wind field, the developed ADUM module is found to be able to enhance the prediction of the gamma dose field. Based on some of the Kalman filtering parameters, another module, ToDeMM, has been developed for providing the late-phase DeMM (Deposition Monitoring Module) of RODOS with an ensemble of fields of ground level air concentrations and wet deposited material. This accounts for the uncertainty estimation of this kind of quantities as calculated by RIMPUFF for use by DeMM. (au)

  17. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Manning, David A. [Children' s Hospital of New Orleans, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Liptzin, Deborah R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Aurora, CO (United States); Krausert, Amanda J. [New Orleans Forensic Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  19. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P.; Manning, David A.; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Krausert, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  20. Estrus behavior, ovarian dynamics, and progesterone secretion in Criollo cattle during estrous cycles with two and three follicular waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Ramírez-Godínez, José Alejandro; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo

    2014-04-01

    In beef and dairy cattle, the number of follicular waves affects endocrine, ovarian, and behavioral events during a normal estrous cycle. However, in Mexican-native Criollo cattle, a shortly and recently domesticated breed, the association between wave patterns and follicular development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of follicular waves in an estrous cycle on development of anovulatory and ovulatory follicles, corpus luteum (CL) development and functionality, as well as estrual behavior in Criollo cows. Ovarian follicular activities of 22 cycling multiparous Criollo cows were recorded daily by transrectal ultrasound examinations during a complete estrous cycle. Additionally, blood samples were collected daily to determine serum progesterone concentrations. Only two- (n = 17, 77.3%) and three-wave follicular (n = 5, 22.7%) patterns were observed. Duration of estrus, length of estrous cycle, and length of follicular and luteal phases were similar (P > 0.05) between cycles of two and three waves. Two-wave cows ovulated earlier (P 0.05) by number of waves. Growth rate of first dominant follicle was higher (P 0.05) between two- and three-wave patterns. In conclusion, Criollo cows have two or three follicular waves per estrous cycle, which alters partially ovulatory follicle development and ovulation time after detection of estrus. Length of estrous cycle, as well as CL development and functionality, was not affected by number of follicular waves.

  1. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  2. Preconception folic acid use modulates estradiol and follicular responses to ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigt, John M; Hammiche, Fatima; Sinclair, Kevin D; Beckers, Nicole G; Visser, Jenny A; Lindemans, Jan; de Jong, Frank H; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P

    2011-02-01

    Folate is a methyl donor. Availability of folate affects DNA methylation profiles and thereby gene expression profiles. We investigated the effects of low-dose folic acid use (0.4 mg/d) on the ovarian response to mild and conventional ovarian stimulation in women. In a randomized trial among subfertile women, 24 and 26 subjects received conventional and mild ovarian stimulation, respectively. Blood samples were taken during the early follicular phase of the cycle prior to treatment and on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration for determination of serum total homocysteine, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), estradiol, and folate. Folic acid use was validated by questionnaire and serum folate levels. Preovulatory follicles were visualized, counted, and diameters recorded using transvaginal ultrasound. The relation between folic acid use and ovarian response was assessed using linear regression analysis. Folic acid use modified the ovarian response to ovarian stimulation treatment. The estradiol response was higher in nonfolic acid users receiving conventional treatment [β(interaction) = 0.52 (0.07-0.97); P = 0.03], and this effect was independent of serum AMH levels and the preovulatory follicle count. In the conventional treatment, the mean follicle number was also greater in nonusers compared with the users group (14.1 vs. 8.9, P = 0.03). Low-dose folic acid use attenuates follicular and endocrine responses to conventional stimulation, independent of AMH and follicle count. The nature of this observation suggests that the effect of folic acid is most prominent during early follicle development, affecting immature follicles. Deleterious effects of folate deficiency, like DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress, can help to explain our observations.

  3. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. miR-26b promotes granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting ATM during follicular atresia in porcine ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    Full Text Available More than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo atresia in mammals, but the mechanism of follicular atresia remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored microRNA (miRNA regulation of follicular atresia in porcine ovary. A miRNA expression profile was constructed for healthy, early atretic, and progressively atretic follicles, and the differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed. We found that miR-26b, which was upregulated during follicular atresia, increased the number of DNA breaks and promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene directly in vitro.

  5. A Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma Identified by 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Xiaoping; Xu, Junyan; Huang, Dan

    2018-05-31

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm, which is not lymphoma, but originates from a type of immune cells called follicular dendritic cells. We presented a 37-year-old woman who has suffered from obstructive jaundice, weight loss and right upper abdominal pain for 2 months. The contrast CT revealed masses located in the region of pancreatic head and lots of enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, both of which were enhanced on the artery phase of CT images. Meanwhile, Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT revealed high activity in the corresponding lesions. After biopsy, the masses were pathologically confirmed as retroperitoneal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.

  6. Cell of origin of transformed follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Mottok, Anja; Farinha, Pedro; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Ennishi, Daisuke; Zheng, Yvonne; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Shulha, Hennady P.; Tan, King; Chan, Fong Chun; Boyle, Merrill; Meissner, Barbara; Telenius, Adele; Sehn, Laurie H.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; Steidl, Christian; Connors, Joseph M.; Scott, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease but transforms in 2% to 3% of patients per year into aggressive, large cell lymphoma, a critical event in the course of the disease associated with increased lymphoma-related mortality. Early transformation cannot be accurately predicted at the time of FL diagnosis and the biology of transformed FL (TFL) is poorly understood. Here, we assembled a cohort of 126 diagnostic FL specimens including 40 patients experiencing transformation (transformation for at least 5 years. In addition, we assembled an overlapping cohort of 155 TFL patients, including 114 cases for which paired samples were available, and assessed temporal changes of routinely available biomarkers, outcome after transformation, as well as molecular subtypes of TFL. We report that the expression of IRF4 is an independent predictor of early transformation (Hazard ratio, 13.3; P transformation predicts favorable prognosis. Moreover, applying the Lymph2Cx digital gene expression assay for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell-of-origin determination to 110 patients with DLBCL-like TFL, we demonstrate that TFL is of the germinal-center B-cell–like subtype in the majority of cases (80%) but that a significant proportion of cases is of the activated B-cell–like (ABC) subtype (16%). These latter cases are commonly negative for BCL2 translocation and arise preferentially from BCL2 translocation-negative and/or IRF4-expressing FLs. Our study demonstrates the existence of molecular heterogeneity in TFL as well as its relationship to the antecedent FL. PMID:26307535

  7. Establishing a cost model when estimating product cost in early design phases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Johanna; Sjöberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    About 75% of the total product cost is determined in the early design phase, which means that the possibilities to affect costs are relatively small when the design phase is completed. For companies, it is therefore vital to conduct reliable cost estimates in the early design phase, when selecting between different design choices. When conducting a cost estimate there are many uncertainties. The aim with this study is therefore to explore how uncertainties regarding product cost can be consid...

  8. Follicular dynamics around the recruitment of the first follicular wave in the cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Gadella, B.M.; Vos, P.; Mullaart, E.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the generally accepted view that a follicular wave starts with follicles newly recruited from the population smaller than 3 mm, which later compete for dominance. According to this view, subordinate follicles are expected to be too atretic to join the next follicular

  9. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ......The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced...

  10. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  11. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  12. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  13. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...... with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...... and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...

  14. Evaluation of early-phase [18F]-florbetaben PET acquisition in clinical routine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Daerr

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Early-phase FBB acquisitions correlate on a relative quantitative and visual level with FDG PET scans, irrespective of the amyloid plaque density assessed in late FBB imaging. Thus, early-phase FBB uptake depicts a metabolism-like image, suggesting it as a valid surrogate marker for synaptic dysfunction, which could ultimately circumvent the need for additional FDG PET investigation in diagnosis of dementia.

  15. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (Pproteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of Early Age Concrete. Phase 3: Creep in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the "Road Directorate Concrete" at early ages are studied. Creep in tension at 24 and 72 maturity hours are measured on dogbone shaped specimens. The development of tensile modulus of elasticity and strength are measured with a method developed here. The results...... are compared to compression values and splitting strengths. It is found that the properties of creep in tension are similar to the properties in compression. Further the influence form temperature on creep is found to be significant....

  17. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  18. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.8 Section 76.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1...

  19. Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of Tazemetostat (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Adv. Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas and Tazemetostat in Combination With Prednisolone in Subjects With DLBCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  20. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  1. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  2. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  3. Follicular vitiligo: A report of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Emily Yiping; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Goussot, Jean-Francois; Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Follicular vitiligo, a recently proposed new subtype of vitiligo, has primary involvement of the hair follicle melanocytic reservoir. We sought to characterize follicular vitiligo through a case series of 8 patients. Patients with features of follicular vitiligo who were seen at the vitiligo clinic in the National Center for Rare Skin Disorders in Bordeaux, France, were recruited. A retrospective review of case records and clinical photographs was carried out. There were 8 male patients with a mean age of 48 years. All patients reported significant whitening of their body and, in some, scalp hairs before cutaneous depigmentation. Examination revealed classic generalized depigmented lesions of vitiligo and an impressive presence of leukotrichia, not only in the vitiliginous areas, but also in areas with clinically normal-appearing skin. Punch biopsy specimen of the leukotrichia and vitiligo lesions demonstrated loss of melanocytes and precursors in the basal epidermis and hair follicle. This was a cross-sectional study based on a single-center experience. Follicular vitiligo is a distinct entity within the spectrum of vitiligo. This entity may serve as the missing link between alopecia areata and vitiligo, with probable physiopathological similarities between these conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  5. Mutational burdens and evolutionary ages of thyroid follicular adenoma are comparable to those of follicular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Park, Hyun-Chun; Kim, So Youn; Liu, Jieying; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) precedes follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by definition with a favorable prognosis compared to FTC. However, the genetic mechanism of FTA to FTC progression remains unknown. For this, it is required to disclose FTA and FTC genomes in mutational and evolutionary perspectives. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 14 FTAs and 13 FTCs, which exhibited previously-known gene mutations (NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TSHR and EIF1AX) and copy number ...

  6. Connexin 43 Communication Channels in Follicular Dendritic Cell Development and in Follicular Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular dendritic cells (FDC show homo- and heterocellular metabolic coupling through connexin 43 (Cx43 gap junctions and support B cell selection and maturation in germinal centers. In follicular lymphomas B cells escape apoptosis while FDC develop abnormally. Here we tested Cx43 channels in reactive FDC development and follicular lymphomas. In culture, the treatment of FDC-B cell clusters (resembling to “ex vivo” germinal centers with Gap27 peptide, mimicking the 2nd extracellular loop of Cx43 protein, significantly impaired FDC-B cell cluster formation and cell survival. In untreated cultures of intact clusters, cell proliferation showed a moderate reduction. In tissues, Cx43 protein levels run parallel with the density of FDC both in reactive germinal centers and in malformed follicles of follicular lymphomas and showed strong upregulation in newly generated and/or degrading bi-/multinuclear FDC of rudimentary processes. However, the inverse correlation between Cx43 expression and B cell proliferation seen in reactive germinal centers was not detected in follicular lymphomas. Furthermore, Cx43 levels were not associated with either lymphoma grade or bone marrow involvement. Our results suggest that Cx43 channels are critical in FDC and “ex vivo” germinal center development and in the persistence of FDC in follicular lymphomas but do not affect tumor progression.

  7. Uptake of novel statistical methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the success rate of confirmatory studies has been poor resulting in more emphasis on the conduct of exploratory studies. As one possibility to improve decision-making during the early stages of development, adaptive and Bayesian methods have been recommended. To investigate the current practice in designing early-phase studies in UK public sector research institutions and the use of adaptive and Bayesian methods in particular and to determine factors that hinder the penetration of methodological advances into practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK clinical trials units (CTUs) to gauge their involvement in early-phase studies and to learn about the designs used in these studies. Follow-up visits to units conducting early-phase studies with round-table discussions around the methods used and the obstacles faced when using adaptive methods were undertaken. More than half of the CTUs are involved in early-phase studies, but conservatism in the methods used in these studies is present. Reasons for novel methodology not being used include a lack of expertise, incompatible funding and unit structure, and a lack of software. Information is collected from UK CTUs, which undertake a large portion (but not all) publicly funded trials. The use of adaptive and Bayesian methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector is at present limited. Various different initiatives aim to support and facilitate the use of these methods, however, so that an increased use of these methods can be anticipated in the future.

  8. Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesam, Cristián; Salvatierra, Ana María; Schwartz, Jill L; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can prevent or delay follicular rupture. COX-2 inhibitors, such as meloxicam, may offer advantages over emergency contraception with levonorgestrel, such as extending the therapeutic window for up to 24 h. We assessed the effect of meloxicam administered in the late follicular phase upon ovulation in women. This was a single center, double blind, crossover study designed to assess the effects in 27 eligible women (18-40 years old, surgically sterilized with regular menstrual cycles) of meloxicam, 15 or 30 mg/day, administered orally for five consecutive days during the late follicular phase, starting when the leading follicle reached 18 mm diameter. Volunteers underwent two treatment cycles separated by one resting cycle, with randomization to dose sequence. Main outcomes were follicular rupture; serum LH, progesterone and estradiol (E2) levels; and incidence of adverse events. Twenty-two volunteers completed the study. There were no differences between meloxicam doses in menstrual cycle length. Dysfunctional ovulation was observed in 11/22 (50%) cycles treated with 15 mg/day and 20/22 (90.9%) cycles with 30 mg/day (P = 0.0068). All women had normal luteal phase progesterone levels; mean maximal values +/- SEM were 42 +/- 4.1 and 46.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l for 15 and 30 mg/day groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events, and no changes in LH and E2 levels or in cycle length. Meloxicam 30 mg given for five consecutive days in the late follicular phase is safe, effective and may be an alternative form of emergency contraception.

  9. Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaib M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  10. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in follicular lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dortz, Ludovic; Garin, Etienne; Guibert, Sophie de; Houot, Roch; Bayat, Sahar; Cuggia, Marc; Devillers, Anne; Le Jeune, Florence; Bahri, Haifa; Barge, Marie-Luce; Rolland, Yan; Lamy, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging, prognosis evaluation and restaging of patients with follicular lymphoma. A retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) and CT before and after chemoimmunotherapy induction treatment (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). PET/CT detected more nodal (+51%) and extranodal (+89%) lesions than CT. PET/CT modified Ann Arbor staging in eight patients (18%). Five patients (11%) initially considered as being early stage (I/II) were eventually treated as advanced stage (III/IV). In this study, an initial PET/CT prognostic score was significantly more accurate than the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score in identifying patients with poor prognosis (i.e. patients with incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse). The accuracy of PET/CT for therapeutic response assessment was higher than that of CT (0.97 vs 0.64), especially due to its ability to identify inactive residual masses. In addition, post-treatment PET/CT was able to predict patients' outcomes. The median progression-free survival was 48 months in the PET/CT-negative group as compared with 17.2 months for the group with residual uptake (p -4 ). FDG PET/CT is useful for staging and assessing the prognosis and therapeutic response of patients with follicular lymphoma. (orig.)

  11. New data from Oposisi : implications for Early Papuan pottery phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Summerhayes, G.; Mandui, H.; Leavesley, M.

    2011-01-01

    An apparent colonisation of the Papuan south coast by pottery-making villagers about 2000 years ago let in the 1970s to the development of a regional sequence of first millenium AD decorated pottery styles now known as Early Papuan pottery (EPP). Important in defining this style horizon is the Yule Island site of Oposisi first excavated by Ron Vanderwal in 1969. As part of an on-going re-appraisal of pottery production along this coast by two of us, we took advantage of an opportunity to re-sample the site in 2007. A paper proposing a much earlier starting date for EPP based on dates for sherds in Torres Strait meant that we could also take advantage of this visit to acquire further dating samples. A coherent set of seven new AMS dates strongly supports the Oposisi sequence beginning at c. 2000 BP. Beyond this our sample produced much more obsidian, imported from Fergusson Island 600 km to the east, than had previously been recorded for the site. This attests to stronger and more continuous eastern links than had been previously supposed. Lastly the paper reviews EPP in the light of recent pottery finds that suggest pre-EPP pottery will occur on the south Papuan coast. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. SU119. Internalized Stigma in Adults With Early-Phase vs Prolonged Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Vohs, Jenifer; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip; Leonhardt, Bethany; Lysaker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: While internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one’s illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or quality of life over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with quality of life or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early-phase psychosis. Methods: Individuals with early-phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and quality of life. Results: Controlling for education, race, and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged compared to early-phase psychosis. Internalized stigma was negatively related to quality of life and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early-phase psychosis. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences, and social withdrawal also deferentially related to symptoms and quality of life across the 2 samples. Conclusion: Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Further, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those in their early phase of psychosis.

  13. Immunotherapy with rituximab in follicular lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguna, Carmen; Mut, Ileana Delia; Lupu, Anca Roxana; Tevet, Mihaela; Bumbea, Horia; Dragan, Cornel

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory.The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, BucharestResults and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab.

  14. Assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7/8 (2010), s. 226-228 ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision support * early phase * Gaussian model * radioactive pollution transport Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/hofman-assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident .pdf

  15. Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma of masticator space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Tae In; Heo, Min Suk; An, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Choi, Mi

    2002-01-01

    Follicular carcinomas are the second most common form of thyroid cancer, accounting for 10 to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinomas have a propensity to metastasize via the bloodstream, spreading to bone, lungs, liver, and elsewhere. We described the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with swelling of the left pre auricular area, which was a consequence of a metastatic follicular carcinoma of the masticator space. Plain films showed ill defined erosive bony changes from the left condylar head to the mandibular notch. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well circumscribed round mass with well enhancement within left masticator space. On MR images, the mass was heterogenously hyperintense to the muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense or hyperintense to the muscle on T1-weighted images, and showed good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Upon microscopic examination, the metastatic mass was found to be composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, showing capsular and vascular invasion.

  16. Evaluation of Follicular Synchronization Caused by Estrogen Administration and Its Reproductive Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  17. Evaluation of follicular synchronization caused by estrogen administration and its reproductive outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10 μg/gBW leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation.

  18. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartil...

  19. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  20. Cell kinetic changes in the follicular epithelium of pig skin after irradiation with single and fractionated doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.M.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in cell kinetics of the follicular epithelium of the pig were studied after x-irradiation with single and fractionated doses (30 fractions/39 days) and compared with previous epidermal data. In the follicular epithelium there was an initial degenerative phase, when the rate of cell depletion was independent of radiation dose and mode of administration. Repopulation was seen between the 14th and 18th days after single doses (15 or 20 Gy) and by the 28th day after the start of irradiation with fractionated doses (52.3-80.0 Gy). The degree of cell depletion and subsequent rate of repopulation were independent of dose. The regenerative phase was characterized by an increased cell proliferation. Islands of cells with appearance similar to cells in the normal follicular epithelium, were seen 18 days after a single dose of 20 Gy and 42 days after the start of fractionated irradiation. Compared with the epidermis, the follicular epithelium exhibited considerably less evidence of damage after both single and fractionated doses. There was a lower incidence of degenerate cells and reduced levels of cell depletion in the follicular epithelium. (author)

  1. Pediatric Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    YYYY) 12. REPORT TYPE 19/01/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pediatric -Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis 6. AUTHOR(S...lymphoma is common in older adults but rare in pediatric and young adult patients. Pediatric follicular lymphoma comprises a only 6.5% of childhood... Pediatric follicular lymphoma is defined by a localized high grade appearing lymphoma that lacks these gene rearrangements. Other diagnoses to rule out

  2. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  4. Dealing with subjectivity in early product design phase: a systematic approch to exploit QFD potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raharjo, H.; Brombacher, A.C.; Xie, M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD), as a customer-driven tool, is generally used in the early phase of new or improved products/services design process, and therefore most of the input parameters are highly subjective in nature. The five major input components of the QFD, which are laid in the House

  5. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity and discrepa...

  6. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Tan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage.

  7. A case of a combination of Crocker - Adamson follicular spinulosa, lichen acuminatus and Little - Lassueur syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Slesarenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of a combination of Crocker-Adamson follicular spinulosa, lichen acuminatus and Little-Lassueur syndrome in a young man aged 17. The patient had the onset of atopic manifestations at an early age (atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis along with disorders related to the process of keratosis. The article provides current data on the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases.

  8. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  9. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment refractory advanced cancers. Despite clinical efficacy advancing drug repurposing strategies in the clinical trial trajectory beyond early phase studies has been challenging mainly due to lack of funding and interest from the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we delineate our experience and challenges with drug repurposing strategies.

  10. The value of the phase analysis for the diagnosis of COPD complicated with early cor pulmonale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Binxiang; Zhang Qingxian; Wang Shujun

    1993-01-01

    The phase analysis was examined in 14 cases of COPD complicated with early cor pulmonale, 10 cases of coronary heart disease and 19 cases of normal subjects by the radionuclide gated blood pool imaging. Right heart catheterization was also performed in COPD group. It was shown that RVW (right ventricular phase angle width) in the COPD were significantly increased than that in the coronary heart disease group and the normal group, while LVW (left ventricular phase angle width) in the coronary heart disease group were significantly increased. It was worthy to be pointed out that in 3 of 4 cases of COPD with normal pulmonary artery pressure the RVW definitely prolonged. Therefore, it was suggested that RVW may be taken as an index for diagnosis of COPD complicated with early cor pulmonale

  11. [Explore microcosmic connection between autophagy mechanism and follicular development based on "kidney governing reproduction" theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jun; Wu, Ke-Ming; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2018-03-01

    In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) that "kidney storing essence and governing reproduction", reproductive essence is an important part of the kidney essence and acts as the original material of offspring embryos. Sperm, oocyte and zygote should be all included in the range of reproductive essence. Ovum is the essence of reproduction from inborn. The follicles maturation depends on the quality of oocyte and the vigor of kidney essence. Meanwhile, discharge of mature ovum relies on the stimulation and promotion by kidney Qi. Autophagy almost exists in different cells stages and all various of mammalian cells. Many studies have found that autophagy not only participates in the formation of follicles, but also in every phase of the follicles development, and is involved in the occurrence and development of ovarian diseases. Recently, more and more scholars believe that autophagy is a new field to explore the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and TCM. Kidney-nourishing TCM could promote follicular growth and improve variety clinical symptoms by inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and reducing follicular atresia. Meanwhile, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is closely related to autophagy of ovarian granulosa cells. In order to provide some theoretical foundation for kidney-nourishing therapy's promoting effect on follicular growth and improving effect on ovarian function, also to further explore the molecular mechanism of kidney-nourishing medicine in promoting follicular development, this paper would explain the microcosmic relationship between autophagy and follicular development based on the theory of "kidney governing reproduction". All of these would be of great significance to prevent and intervene the diseases of reproductive system timely and effectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Effect of the time in administration of clomiphene on follicular growth, endometrium and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Zeinalzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate is very successful in inducing ovulation; there is usually a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rate. If treatment is started early in the cycle this negative effect is reduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the time of administration of clomiphene citrate on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was performed on 115 PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome women in Fateme Zahra Fertility and Infertility Research Health Center in April 2012. Patients randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the early group (No. 55 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily starting the next day after finishing medroxyprogesterone acetate tablet for 5 day, whereas the patient in the late group (No. 60 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily for 5 day starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Then on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates by SPSS software, version 16 (Armonk, NY, USA were compared in two groups. Results: 36.4% of patients of early administration of clomiphene and 60% of patients in the later administration of Clomiphene were able to build dominant follicle. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.011. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on age, body mass index, duration of infertility. Findings showed that in the early group 14 (63.6% and in the late groups 8 (36.4% women who made dominant follicle, were pregnant. There was significant difference between these two groups (P<0.001. But, in the number of follicles, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate, there were no significant difference. In the early administration of clomiphene, the pregnancy rate was 25.5%. However in the later administration of clomiphene it was 13.3% (P=0

  13. Prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Ferri, Belén; Martínez-Barba, Enrique; Torregrosa, Núria M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Most prognostic studies in differentiated carcinoma have included a high number of papillary carcinomas and few follicular carcinomas, and not all of their conclusions therefore apply to the latter. To analyze the prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma who had undergone potentially curative surgery, had no disseminated disease at diagnosis, and had been followed up for at least 5 years. Tumor recurrence was defined as: 1) tumor lesions with cytological analysis suggesting malignancy and/or 2) patients with total thyroidectomy with thyroglobulin levels >2 ng/mL. Clinical, therapeutic, and histological parameters were analyzed to assess prognostic factors. Recurrence was found in 25 (38%) of the 66 study patients during a follow-up period of 99 ± 38 months. Most patients with recurrence (n=20) had increased Tg levels without anatomical location, and were initially treated with radioactive I131. In the remaining 5 cases, surgical excision of the lesion was performed, and three patients required surgery during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to the disease (3%), and two other patients (3%) currently have distant metastases. Mean disease-free interval was 154 ± 14 months, and rates of disease-free patients at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 71, 58, 58, and 58% respectively. Clinical factors influencing recurrence included 1) age (p=0.0035); 2) sex (p=0.0114); and 3) cervical pain (p=0.0026). Histological/surgical factors associated with recurrence included 1) infiltration into neighboring structures (p=0.0000); 2) type of carcinoma (p=0.0000); 3) size (p=0.0162); 4) vascular invasion (p=0.0085); and 5) adenopathies (p=0.046). In the multivariate study, cervical pain (p=0.018) and extrathyroid invasion (p=0.045) continued to be significant factors. In follicular carcinoma, rates of disease-free patients are 71% at 5 years and 58% at 10 years, and the main predictive factors are presence

  14. Early phase in e-money development: from Edvard Bellamy to Frank Macknamary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Vysochan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phases of e-money development from the first mentioning of «a credit card» in literary sources to the appearance of Diners Club which preceded modern credit cards. The author has used the historical and geographic method for the decomposition of the early phase in the e-money development concerning the basic motives that induced emitters to develop and implement particular credit-payment systems. The article singles out three stages within the early phase of the e-money development, namely, the beginning of the ХХ-th century (supplying with short-term credits to obtain consumer’s goods, from 1920 to 1940 (guarantee of consumer’s loyalty to a brand, increasing the safety of clearing transactions by payer’s authorization, and 1950-ies (the use of the same credit for payment to various enterprises. It establishes the main features of the early phase in the e-money development; they are such as the absence of the necessary technical supply; emission, sale, guaranty on credits, on the cards issued take place outside the banking system; the lack of corporation credit card segment; the limitation of the application area; the low level of safety of the transactions accomplished.

  15. Retaining older workers: the effect of phased retirement on delaying early retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsmund Hermansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phased retirement involves reducing working time in the final years before retirement. The aim of phased retirement is to extend working careers and retain older workers who would otherwise opt for full early retirement. This article investigates the effect of offering phased retirement on early-retirement behaviour in Norway.Method: The data used in the analysis covers the period between 2000 and 2010 and comprises all employees between 61 and 62 years of age (N= 18 174 who were employed in any of the 442 companies that participated in a 2010 survey carried out by the Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research and Respons Analyse AS, a Norwegian research firm. I use a difference-in-differences approach and logistic regression, which enables the measurement of changes in the individual relative risk of retiring full-time on the contractual pension (AFP, avtalefestet pensjon, contractual early-retirement pension, before and after the introduction of phased retirement as a retention measure.Results: The results show that working in a company that offers reduced working hours for older workers does not have an effect on the relative risk of a 61- or 62-year-old withdrawing a full contractual pension in the next two years of their employment. This result is evident both before and after controlling for a range of known individual risk factors, as well as after controlling for company characteristics.Discussion: In the search for suitable measures for retaining older workers, offering phased retirement may still be part of the answer. Though my analysis does not support the idea that more flexible working hours is a decisive factor for those who choose to opt for full early retirement, a possible next step could be to investigate the impact of offering flexible working hours on the employment duration of those who do remain in employment.

  16. [A transportation vehicle for laparoscopically obtained follicular specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, F R; Sudik, R

    1984-01-01

    Structure, function and first results with a vehicle for transportation were described. This apparatus allows to store laparoscopic harvested follicular fluids for a while in constant temperature and in air condition with 5% CO2 in compressed air. Simultaneously the follicular fluids were transported in this vehicle from operating theatre to the laboratory.

  17. Ovarian follicular dynamics during the interovulatory interval in Najdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated the presence of either four (n = 2 estrus cycles) or five (n = 3 estrus cycles) waves of follicular growth during the interovulatory interval. Each wave was characterized by the development of at least 1 large follicle (dominant) and a variable number of small follicles (subordinate). The mean number of follicular ...

  18. Molecular genetics of follicular cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina D. Yakushina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine malignancy. In the most cases thyroid cancer arises from follicular cells. Diagnosis of the cancer is based on the cytological analysis of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodes. But the accuracy of the cytological diagnosis is about 80% that leads to the false positive and false negative cases and wrong strategy of treatment. Identification of genetic and epigenetic markers in the biopsies will allow to improve diagnostic accuracy. This article describes mutations, aberrant DNA methylation and abnormal microRNA expression constituting the core of molecular genetics of follicular cell thyroid cancer. The mutations given in the article includes point mutations, fusions and copy number variation. Besides frequent and well described driver mutations in genes of МАРK, PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways, as well as TP53 and TERT genes, we introduce here less frequent mutations appeared in the literature during the past two years. In addition the article contains examples of diagnostic panels applying these markers.

  19. Estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de mulheres jovens na fase lútea e folicular do ciclo menstrual Nutritional status and food consumption of young women in the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Almenara Silva dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a ingestão alimentar de mulheres adultas sadias durante o ciclo menstrual. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco voluntárias foram acompanhadas durante três meses. A avaliação do estado nutricional foi baseada no índice de massa corporal, porcentagem de gordura e água corporal. Foram aplicados seis registros alimentares para análise da ingestão dos grupos de alimentos, usando como base o guia alimentar da pirâmide. Para a observação do sintoma "desejos alimentares", foram utilizados três "mapas de sintomas diários". RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de índice de massa corporal e de porcentagem de gordura corporal apresentaram-se normais em ambas as fases, entretanto foi observado maior percentual de mulheres com água corporal acima do padrão na fase lútea (77%. O consumo de alimentos do grupo complementar foi maior na fase lútea. Todos os outros grupos de alimentos, com exceção do grupo de carnes, apresentaram consumo inferior às recomendações, em ambas as fases. A intensidade do sintoma "desejos alimentares" foi leve durante o ciclo menstrual, não sendo observada diferença significativa entre as fases. O sintoma "desejos alimentares" associou-se positivamente com o aumento da ingestão do grupo complementar na fase lútea. CONCLUSÃO: O ciclo menstrual influencia o comportamento alimentar e leva à retenção hídrica, na fase lútea, em mulheres adultas sadias.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the nutritional status and food intake of healthy young women during the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Forty-five volunteers were followed for three months. Their nutritional status was determined by body mass index, body fat and total body water. Six food recall instruments were used to evaluate food group intake according to the food guide pyramid. Food cravings were detected by three daily symptom charts. RESULTS: The mean body mass index and body fat were normal in both phases; however, there was a higher

  20. Usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in follicular lymphoma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dortz, L.; Devillers, A.; Prigent, F.; Bahri, H.; Hervouet, T.; Garin, E.; Guibert, S. de.; Lamy, T.; Rolland, Y.; Bayat, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging, prognosis evaluation and re staging of patients with follicular lymphoma. Patients and methods a retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent F.D.G.-PET/CT and CT before and after chemo-immunotherapy induction treatment (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). Results PET/CT detected more nodal (+51%) and extra nodal (+89%) lesions than CT. PET/CT changed Ann Arbor stage in eight patients (18%). Five patients (11%) initially considered with early stage (I/II) were finally managed as advanced stage (III/IV). In this study, initial PET/CT was significantly more accurate to identify patients with poor prognosis than F.L.I.P.I.. Poor prognosis was defined as incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse. Accuracy of PET/CT for therapeutic response assessment was significantly higher than that of CT (0.97 vs 0.64), especially because of its ability to identify inactive residual masses. Beside, post-treatment PET/CT was able to predict patients outcome. The median progression free survival (P.F.S.) was 48 months in the PET/CT negative group as compared to 17.2 months for the group with residual uptake (P < 10-4). Conclusion F.D.G.-PET/CT is a very useful tool for staging, assessing prognosis and therapeutic response of patients with follicular lymphoma. (authors)

  1. Minimally Invasive Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in Pediatric Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Alfredo; Diaz, Julio; Messa Oscar; Chinchilla, Sandra; Gomez, Constanza; Restrepo, Ligia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare during childhood and adolescence. They have increased recently probably due to a higher frequency radiation over the head, neck and mediastinum. The papillary carcinoma is the most common and true follicular carcinoma is far less common. Follicular thyroid carcinoma is associated with endemic goiter, genetic disorders, and increased TSH levels. Its morphological characteristics are peculiar and have been recently redefined, thus helping the diagnosis. A minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma in 13 years old girl is described, presenting a hypocaptant thyroid nodule in the left lobe lower pole. The fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed a follicular cell lesion suspicious of malignancy. Thyroid lobectomy was performed reporting minimally invasive follicular carcinoma.

  2. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  3. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  4. Line Evolution of the Nova V5587 Sgr from Early to Nebula Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kajikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectral evolution of the nova V5587 Sgr has been monitored at Koyama Astronomical Observatory and Higashi-Hiroshima Observatory, Japan, from the early to nebula phase. The nova rebrightened several times. The spectra during the early phase showed emission lines of H α, H β, O I, He I, He II, N II, Fe II. Nova V5587 Sgr is classified into the Fe II type. The helium abundance of the nova is estimated as N(He/N(H = 0.134 ± 0.09. The light curve, the spectral evolution, and the helium abundance in V5587 Sgr are similar to those of the nova PW Vul.

  5. Integrating Pharmacoproteomics into Early-Phase Clinical Development: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Nandal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating. We review the history, technologies, current usage, challenges, and potential for future use, and conclude with recommendations for integration of pharmacoproteomic in early-phase drug development.

  6. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...... on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...

  7. Tradeoff analysis for Dependable Real-Time Embedded Systems during the Early Design Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex and have tight competing constraints in terms of performance, cost, energy consumption, dependability, flexibility, security, etc. The objective of this thesis is to propose design methods and tools for supporting the tradeoff analysis of competing...... to processing elements, as well as the processor voltage and frequency levels for executing each task, such that transient faults are tolerated, the real-time constraints of the application are satisfied, and the energy consumed is minimized. In this thesis, we target the early design phases, when decisions...... have a high impact on the subsequent implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (WCETs), in the functionality requirements, or in the hardware component costs. In this context, we...

  8. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these ...

  9. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  11. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with 137 Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG)

  12. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas......Focus in this paper is on the early innovation activities, in particular idea work. Based on a case study from industrial practice on the development of a new circulator (the Alpha Pro circulator) we aim at getting a better understanding of the work with ideas in the early phases of product...... through demands continuous mobilization of support among a range of actors. We suggest that the actors involved in idea work and their interaction such as negotiating different understandings of what constitutes a qualified idea as well as the continuous mobilization of support to their ideas among...

  13. Chemoimmunotherapy with ofatumumab in combination with CHOP in previously untreated follicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuczman, Myron S; Hess, Georg; Gadeberg, Ole V

    2012-01-01

    An international, Phase II trial was conducted to assess two doses of ofatumumab, a human CD20 monoclonal antibody, combined with cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m(2) ), doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2) ), prednisone (100 mg days 3-7) and vincristine (1·4 mg/m(2) ) (O-CHOP), as frontline treatment for follicular...... lymphoma (FL). 59 patients with previously untreated FL were randomized to ofatumumab 500 mg (n = 29) or 1000 mg (n = 30) day 1, with CHOP on day 3 every 3 weeks for six cycles. Median duration of FL was 0·1 years for both dose groups; 34% and 38% of patients had high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International...

  14. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  15. Catastrophic phase transitions and early warnings in a spatial ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, A; Fort, H

    2009-01-01

    Gradual changes in exploitation, nutrient loading, etc produce shifts between alternative stable states (ASS) in ecosystems which, quite often, are not smooth but abrupt or catastrophic. Early warnings of such catastrophic regime shifts are fundamental for designing management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study the spatial version of a popular ecological model, involving a logistically growing single species subject to exploitation, which is known to exhibit ASS. Spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a carrying capacity parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells is included in the form of diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyse how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. We find that possible remedial procedures, which can be followed after these early signals, become more effective as the diffusion becomes lower. Finally, we comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid–vapour change of state for a fluid like water

  16. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects

  17. Hyperthyroidism with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Bower, B.F.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A 70-yr-old woman presented with hyperthyroidism and metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. The blood level of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSIg) was elevated. A total thyroidectomy was performed. One month later she remained hyperthyroid. Three weeks after therapy with 218 mCi of I-131 sodium iodide, the patient was euthyroid. Six months after the initial radioiodide therapy, she was again hyperthyroid and was given a second oral treatment dose of I-131 (220 mCi). Five months later, the patient had again become euthyroid. It is likely that initially the woman's metastases were producing sufficient hormone to render her hyperthyroid. After thyroidectomy and two large doses of radioiodide, she has remained euthyroid without having to take exogenous hormone

  18. FDG-PET in Follicular Lymphoma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bodet-Milin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 18-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography (FDG PET/CT is commonly used in the management of patients with lymphomas and is recommended for both initial staging and response assessment after treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite the FDG avidity of follicular lymphoma (FL, FDG PET/CT is not yet applied in standard clinical practice for patients with FL. However, FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for initial staging, often prompting significant management change, and allows noninvasive characterization to guide assessment of high-grade transformation. For restaging, FDG PET/CT assists in distinguishing between scar tissue and viable tumors in residual masses and a positive PET after induction treatment would seem to predict a shorter progression-free survival.

  19. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  20. Assessment of Correlation Between Early and Late Efficacy Endpoints to Identify Potential Surrogacy Relationships in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: a Literature-Based Meta-analysis of 108 Phase II and Phase III Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Lu, Dan; Chu, Yu-Waye; Chai, Akiko; Green, Michelle; Zhang, Nancy; Jin, Jin Yan

    2017-05-01

    Correlations between early and late efficacy endpoints were assessed to identify potential surrogate endpoints for overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) with clinical trial-level data in three non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). One hundred and eight phase II-III trials (129 trial arms) in DLBCL, FL, and MCL were identified and included in the database. Correlations between efficacy endpoints were analyzed using weighted linear regression and Pearson's coefficient of determination (R 2 ). In newly diagnosed DLBCL, 6-month PFS was strongly correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.96). Six-month PFS was strongly correlated with 3-year PFS (R 2  = 0.89, 95% CI 0.62-0.96) in FL and was moderately correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.69, 95% CI 0.40-0.91) in MCL trials. Linear regression determined that a 10% increase in 6-month PFS would yield a 13% ± 1.2% increase in 2-year OS in DLBCL, a 23% ± 1.1% increase in 3-year PFS in FL, or a 6.7% ± 1.0% increase in 2-year OS in MCL. Both 6-month PFS and complete response (CR) rate were moderately correlated with median PFS in FL trials with R 2  = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.98) and R 2  = 0.69 (95% CI 0.22-0.89), respectively. Six-month PFS is a potential surrogate endpoint for 2-year OS in newly diagnosed DLBCL and MCL and for 3-year PFS in FL. Both 6-month PFS and CR rate are potential surrogate endpoints for median PFS in FL patients. Confirmation and validation of these correlations may facilitate early interpretation of NHL trials.

  1. Follicular thyroglobulin induces cathepsin H expression and activity in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenzaburo; Luo, Yuqian; Yoshihara, Aya; Ishido, Yuko; Sekihata, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in thyroid follicles exerts a potent negative-feedback effect on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis, including Tg gene transcription and iodine uptake and organification, by suppressing the expression of specific transcription factors that regulate these steps. Pre-hormones are stored in the follicular colloid before being reabsorbed. Following lysosomal proteolysis of its precursor, thyroid hormone (TH) is released from thyroid follicles. Although the suppressive effects of follicular Tg on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis have been extensively characterized, whether follicular Tg accumulation also affects hormone reabsorption, proteolysis, and secretion is unclear. In this study we explored whether follicular Tg can regulate the expression and function of the lysosomal endopeptidases cathepsins. We found that in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 follicular Tg induced cathepsin H mRNA and protein expression, as well as cathepsin H enzyme activity. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Tg endocytosis promoted cathepsin H translocalization into lysosomes where it co-localized with internalized Tg. These results suggest that cathepsin H is an active participant in lysosome-mediated pre-hormone degradation, and that follicular Tg stimulates mobilization of pre-hormones by activating cathepsin H-associated proteolysis pathways. - Highlights: • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H mRNA and protein levels in rat thyroid cells. • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H enzyme activity in rat thyroid cells. • After Tg stimulation cathepsin H co-localizes to lysosomes with follicular Tg. • Cathepsin H promotes hormone secretion by lysosome-mediated mechanisms.

  2. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A

    1998-12-01

    This work was undertaken in order to study the utilisation of decision conferencing and of the RODOS system when considering early phase protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident. Altogether four meetings with various people were organised. The meetings were attended by competent national safety authorities and technical level decision-makers, i.e., those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters for decision-makers responsible for practical implementation of actions. In the first set of meetings the aim was to elicit the factors/attributes that have to be considered when making a decision on sheltering, evacuation and iodine tablets. No uncertainties nor a threat phase were considered but everything was assumed to happen as described in the given scenario. The theme in the second set of meetings was to study the implications of probabilities. All information was calculated with the support of the RODOS system. In the early phases of a nuclear accident time is limited. Prestructured generic value trees or a list of possible attributes can help to save time. A possible approach is to present a large generic value tree. Either the decision-makers select the attributes that are suitable for the case in hand or the facilitator offers a choice between more structured value trees. The decision-makers then just examine the suggested value trees, check the generic tree to make sure that no important factors have been omitted and choose the appropriate one. As in previous RODOS exercises, the participants felt that RODOS could be used for providing information but found it more problematic to use decision analysis methods when deciding on countermeasures in the early phase of a nuclear accident. Furthermore, it was noted that understanding the actual meaning of `soft` attributes, such as socio-psychological impacts or political cost, was not a straightforward issue. Consequently, the definition of attributes in advance would be

  3. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M.; Salo, A.

    1998-12-01

    This work was undertaken in order to study the utilisation of decision conferencing and of the RODOS system when considering early phase protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident. Altogether four meetings with various people were organised. The meetings were attended by competent national safety authorities and technical level decision-makers, i.e., those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters for decision-makers responsible for practical implementation of actions. In the first set of meetings the aim was to elicit the factors/attributes that have to be considered when making a decision on sheltering, evacuation and iodine tablets. No uncertainties nor a threat phase were considered but everything was assumed to happen as described in the given scenario. The theme in the second set of meetings was to study the implications of probabilities. All information was calculated with the support of the RODOS system. In the early phases of a nuclear accident time is limited. Prestructured generic value trees or a list of possible attributes can help to save time. A possible approach is to present a large generic value tree. Either the decision-makers select the attributes that are suitable for the case in hand or the facilitator offers a choice between more structured value trees. The decision-makers then just examine the suggested value trees, check the generic tree to make sure that no important factors have been omitted and choose the appropriate one. As in previous RODOS exercises, the participants felt that RODOS could be used for providing information but found it more problematic to use decision analysis methods when deciding on countermeasures in the early phase of a nuclear accident. Furthermore, it was noted that understanding the actual meaning of 'soft' attributes, such as socio-psychological impacts or political cost, was not a straightforward issue. Consequently, the definition of attributes in advance would be

  4. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  5. Differential association with cellular substructures of pseudorabies virus DNA during early and late phases of replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Porat, T.; Veach, R.A.; Blankenship, M.L.; Kaplan, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus DNA synthesis can be divided into two phases, early and late, which can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the structures of the replicating DNA. The two types of replicating virus DNA can also be distinguished from each other on the basis of the cellular substructures with which each is associated. Analysis by electron microscopic autoradiography showed that during the first round of replication, nascent virus DNA was found in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane; during later rounds of replication the nascent virus DNA was located centrally within the nucleus. The degree of association of virus DNA synthesized at early and late phases with the nuclear matrix fractions also differed; a larger proportion of late than of early nascent virus DNA was associated with this fraction. While nascent cellular DNA only was associated in significant amounts with the nuclear matrix fraction, a large part (up to 40%) of all the virus DNA remained associated with this fraction. However, no retention of specific virus proteins in this fraction was observed. Except for two virus proteins, which were preferentially extracted from the nuclear matrix, approximately 20% of all virus proteins remained in the nuclear matrix fraction. The large proportion of virus DNA associated with the nuclear fraction indicated that virus DNA may be intimately associated with some proteins

  6. The missing link in early follicular lymphoma development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Tellier et al report on extremely rare t(14;18)-positive cells within reactive lymph nodes of normal individuals. They convincingly show that these cells preferentially reside as nonproliferating cells in germinal centers.

  7. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187 for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process.

  8. Expansion of murine gammaherpesvirus latently infected B cells requires T follicular help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Collins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is an inherited immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the slam associated protein (SAP. One of the defining characteristics of XLP is extreme susceptibility to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a gammaherpesvirus belonging to the genus Lymphocryptovirus, often resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM. However, infection of SAP deficient mice with the related Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Rhadinovirus, does not recapitulate XLP. Here we show that MHV68 inefficiently establishes latency in B cells in SAP deficient mice due to insufficient CD4 T cell help during the germinal center response. Although MHV68 infected B cells can be found in SAP-deficient mice, significantly fewer of these cells had a germinal center phenotype compared to SAP-sufficient mice. Furthermore, we show that infected germinal center B cells in SAP-deficient mice fail to proliferate. This failure to proliferate resulted in significantly lower viral loads, and likely accounts for the inability of MHV68 to induce a FIM-like syndrome. Finally, inhibiting differentiation of T follicular helper (TFH cells in SAP-sufficient C57Bl/6 mice resulted in decreased B cell latency, and the magnitude of the TFH response directly correlated with the level of infection in B cells. This requirement for CD4 T cell help during the germinal center reaction by MHV68 is in contrast with EBV, which is thought to be capable of bypassing this requirement by expressing viral proteins that mimic signals provided by TFH cells. In conclusion, the outcome of MHV68 infection in mice in the setting of loss of SAP function is distinct from that observed in SAP-deficient patients infected with EBV, and may identify a fundamental difference between the strategies employed by the rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses to expand B cell latency during the early phase of infection.

  9. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Q W; Lais, S; Gentner, C; Braun, O

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  11. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  12. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; Poptimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (Poptimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early-phase oncology research. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Radiological Emergency Preparedness after the Early Phase of an Accident : Focusing on an Air Contamination Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Joon; Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Toxic materials in an urban area can be caused by a variety of events, such as accidental releases on industrial complexes, accidents during the transportation of hazardous materials and intentional explosions. Most governments around the world and their citizens have become increasingly worried about intentional accidents in urban area after the 911 terrorist attack in the United States of America. Even though there have been only a few attempted uses of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs), accidental releases have occurred many times at commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear waste disposal sites. When an intentional release of radioactive materials occurs in an urban area, air quality for radioactive materials in the environment is of great importance to take action for countermeasures and environmental risk assessments. Atmospheric modeling is part of the decision making tasks and that it is particularly important for emergency managers as they often need to take actions quickly on very inadequate information(1). A simple model such as HOTSPOT required wind direction and source term would be enough to support the decision making in the early phase of an accident, but more sophisticated atmospheric modeling is required to adjust decontamination area and relocation etc after the early phase of an accidental event. In this study, we assume an explosion of 137 Cs using RDDs in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea. California Puff Model (CALPUFF) is used to calculate an atmospheric dispersion and transport for 137 Cs. Atmospheric dispersion and quantitative radiological risk analysis for 137 Cs were performed assuming an intentional explosion in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea after the early phase of emergency. These kinds of atmospheric modeling and risk analysis could provide a means for decision makers to take action on important issues such as the cleanup of the contaminated area and countermeasures to protect the public caused by

  14. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Geraghty, J. A. Seibert, and S. L. Wootton-Gorges, “Dose reduction in pediatric CT : A rational approach,” Radiology 228, 352–360 (2003). Medical...improvement in image quality can be quantified as large as 450 [Fig. 6(c)] and 350 [Fig. 6(d)] Hounsfield units (HUs), where the Hounsfield unit is defined...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  15. PRODROMAL PHASE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY ONSET SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and other mental disorders are often preceded by prodromal changes in behavior that can last from several days to several years, indicating the beginning of psychosis. If the disease starts at an earlier age, especially in adolescence, the prodromal phase is more non-specific and difficult to detect. There is a large number of operational instruments used for clinical assessment and quantification of prodromal symptoms and "at risk mental state", as well as the predictive potential for psychosis. This paper describes the prodromal phase in the development of early onset schizophrenic psychosis, with the emphasis on gradual, several-month psychopathological accumulation and evolution of nonspecific and subclinical, prodromal symptoms to florid schizophrenic symptoms.

  16. Effect of Bushen yixue decoction on follicular development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its possible mechanism of action. Hai-Ning ... Conclusion: BSY promotes follicular development of anovulatory rats via regulating INH-ACT-FS .... the National Institutes for Food and Drug Control .... Finally, the protein bands were detected by.

  17. The Low-luminosity Type IIP Supernova 2016bkv with Early-phase Circumstellar Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawahara, Naoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Shiki, Kensei; Mori, Hiroki; Hirochi, Jun; Abe, Taisei; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ueno, Issei; Urano, Takeshi; Isogai, Mizuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000–1500 km s‑1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta–CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be ∼ 1.7× {10}-2 {M}ȯ yr‑1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ {10}-3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.

  18. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  19. Characteristics of the early flight phase in the Olympic ski jumping competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2005-11-01

    Early flight phase (approximately 40 m) of the athletes participating in the final round of the individual large hill ski jumping competition in Salt Lake City Olympics was filmed with two high-speed pan & tilt video cameras. The results showed that jumpers' steady flight position was almost completed within 0.5s. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the angle between the skis and body (r=.714, p.001 at 1.1s after the take-off). This particular phase seemed to be important because the ski angle of attack was also related to the jumping distance at the same phase. Although the more upright ski position relative to flight path resulted in longer jumping distance, the winner of the competition had significantly lower ski position as compared to the other good jumpers. This may be due to the high altitude (>2000 m) of the ski jumping stadium in this competition. Because of the low air density, the aerodynamic forces were also low and this probably caused less skillful jumpers to lean too much forward at this phase. Maintenance of speed seemed to be emphasized in this particular competition.

  20. Thyrotoxicosis associated with distant metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, W.D.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In a man with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis developed after total thyroidectomy and was successfully treated with antithyroid medications. Treatment with radioactive iodine decreased the size of the distant metastasis and eventually diminished thyroid hormone production. Follicular carcinoma complicated by hyperthyroidism requires vigorous control of the hypermetabolic state. Treatment with radioactive iodine can effectively reduce metabolic complications and tumor bulk, and yields a remission rate as high as 33%

  1. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the concentration of individual carotenoids in lipoproteins of premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Johnson, E J; Lanza, E; Graubard, B I; Beecher, G R; Muesing, R

    1998-01-01

    Because premenopausal women experience cyclic fluctuations of plasma carotenoids and their lipoprotein carriers, it is hypothesized that carotenoid concentrations in lipoprotein fractions fluctuate by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women ate a standard set of carotenoid-rich foods daily for two cycles under isoenergetic conditions. In the second cycle, hormones and carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions were measured in the early and late follicular and luteal phases. alpha-Carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction were lower in the early than in the late follicular phase (P = 0.03) on the basis of regression analysis. beta-carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction and the HDL2 subfraction were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations in the LDL and HDL fractions were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). In each phase, 80% of alpha-carotene, 82% of beta-carotene, 85% of lycopene, and 64% of lutein/zeaxanthin were distributed in the LDL fraction. Among the hydrocarbon cartenoids, 18% of alpha-carotene and of beta-carotene and 13% of lycopene were distributed in the HDL fraction, with slightly more in the HDL2 than in the HDL3 subfraction. In contrast 34% of lutein/zeaxanthin was distributed in the HDL fraction with more concentrated in the HDL3 than in the HDL2 subfraction. Less than 4% of any carotenoid was found in the VLDL + IDL (intermediate-density-lipoprotein) fractions. Thus, the hydrocarbon carotenoids were highly concentrated in the LDL fraction and xanthophyll was more evenly distributed in the LDL and HDL fractions. The cyclic fluctuations of these carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions add another dimension to the understanding of their transport and physiologic function.

  2. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  3. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup : comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, Andor F; Braat, Manon N G J A; Prince, Jip F; van Doormaal, Pieter J; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Lam, Marnix G E H; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    OBJECTIVES: To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. METHODS: 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial

  4. Statistical analysis of the early phase of SBO accident for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Yaroslav, E-mail: y.kozmenkov@hzdr.de; Jobst, Matthias, E-mail: m.jobst@hzdr.de; Kliem, Soeren, E-mail: s.kliem@hzdr.de; Schaefer, Frank, E-mail: f.schaefer@hzdr.de; Wilhelm, Polina, E-mail: p.wilhelm@hzdr.de

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate model of generic German PWR is used in ATHLET-CD simulations. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the early phase of SBO accident is presented. • Prediction intervals for occurrence of main events are evaluated. - Abstract: A statistical approach is used to analyse the early phase of station blackout accident for generic German PWR with the best estimate system code ATHLET-CD as a computation tool. The analysis is mainly focused on the timescale uncertainties of the accident events which can be detected at the plant. The developed input deck allows variations of all input uncertainty parameters relevant to the case. The list of identified and quantified input uncertainties includes 30 parameters related to the simulated physical phenomena/processes. Time uncertainties of main events as well as the major contributors to these uncertainties are defined. The uncertainty in decay heat has the highest contribution to the uncertainties of the analysed events. A linear regression analysis is used for predicting times of future events from detected times of occurred/past events. An accuracy of event predictions is estimated and verified. The presented statistical approach could be helpful for assessing and improving existing or elaborating additional emergency operating procedures aimed to prevent severe damage of reactor core.

  5. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    2016-12-06

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in the analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.

  6. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  7. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  8. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  9. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  10. The cost of the nuclear energy-turnaround. An early nuclear phase-out and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Metin

    2013-01-01

    The booklet on the consequences of an early nuclear phase-out includes a description of the value creation strategy in the electricity market and the basic relations of the electricity price formation and a survey and evaluation of selected studies. The analysis was performed for the following studies: Energy policy scenarios for a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Economic consequences of a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Transformation of the electricity production systems with a forced nuclear phase-out - a contribution on sustainable energy systems following the reactor accident of Fukushima; Cost of a nuclear phase-out until 2022 in Germany and Bavaria.

  11. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  12. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  13. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Sites of extranodal involvement are prognostic in patients with stage 1 follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Aditi; Janakiram, Murali; Mantzaris, Ioannis; Yu, Yiting; Londono, Jaime S.; Verma, Amit K.; Barta, Stefan K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent B cell lymphoma in the United States and a quarter of patients present with stage I disease. The objective of this study was to examine if primary site of disease influences survival in early stage lymphoma. Results The most common extranodal primary sites were the integumentary system (8%), followed by the GI tract (6.4%) and head & neck (5.6%). We stratified patients into a pre-rituximab era (1983-1998) and the rituximab era (1...

  15. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  16. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (pallergoids are utilized.

  17. SURVIVAL OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES TO PRESTELLAR DENSE CORE COLLAPSE AND EARLY PHASES OF DISK FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincelin, U.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Commerçon, B.

    2013-01-01

    An outstanding question of astrobiology is the link between the chemical composition of planets, comets, and other solar system bodies and the molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the matter leading to the formation of protoplanetary disks is an important step for this. We provide some new clues to this long-standing problem using three-dimensional chemical simulations of the early phases of disk formation: we interfaced the full gas-grain chemical model Nautilus with the radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model RAMSES, for different configurations and intensities of the magnetic field. Our results show that the chemical content (gas and ices) is globally conserved during the collapsing process, from the parent molecular cloud to the young disk surrounding the first Larson core. A qualitative comparison with cometary composition suggests that comets are constituted of different phases, some molecules being direct tracers of interstellar chemistry, while others, including complex molecules, seem to have been formed in disks, where higher densities and temperatures allow for an active grain surface chemistry. The latter phase, and its connection with the formation of the first Larson core, remains to be modeled

  18. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  19. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 μg mL -1 aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression

  20. PP22. PROGRESSING RADIOTHERAPY-DRUG COMBINATIONS TOWARDS EARLY PHASE CLINICAL TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dr Hazel; Stock, Dr Julie; Chalmers, Prof Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Radiotherapy-Drug Combinations consortium (RaDCom) works with UK-based investigators to design and deliver high quality preclinical projects evaluating specific radiotherapy-drug combinations. We have several collaborations with industry, from in vitro projects to understand the novel agent in the context of radiobiology, through to preclinical studies that will generate data to support the development of radiotherapy combination trials. RaDCom facilitates the coordination of industry interactions, triage new proposals, monitor active projects, and engages with the radiotherapy community to promote collaboration and networking (via a capability map). The CRUK New Agents Committee Preclinical Combination Grant scheme provides one of the funding options for these studies, with the potential to feed into early phase clinical trials via the ECMC Combinations Alliance. RaDCom also supports broader radiotherapy research initiatives, by working to improve preclinical quality assurance and identifying a route to registration for radiotherapy-drug treatments. These activities will place the UK at the forefront of radiotherapy-drug preclinical research and provide a significant incentive for pharmaceutical companies to invest in this area and utilise the RaDCom network. Further information can be found on our webpage: http://ctrad.ncri.org.uk/research-support/radiation-drug-combinations-radcom Successful projects from RaDCom can then move into early phase combinations trials within the Combinations Alliance. The Combinations Alliance supports early phase combination studies in the UK via the ECMC (Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres) network. It focuses on translational research, and enables clinical project teams to work with disease experts to set up investigator led trials. The CRUK Centre of Drug Development (CDD) supports these studies with further management and coordination ensuring more robust timelines and delivery. The Combinations Alliance framework

  1. Spectro-polarimetric study of the early evolutionary phases of the most massive galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernet, Joel

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the early phases of evolution of the most massive galaxies (giant elliptic), a fundamental process which is a matter of study for various reasons exposed by the author in his introduction. While presented results are based on spectro-polarimetric observations, the author first presents specific instruments and methods used by spectropolarimetry which provides access to variations of all vectorial properties of light, without loss of information. Then, he reports the study of a near powerful radio-galaxy, Cygnus A, the study of nine radio-galaxies with a high redshift, and the study of a far ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (SMM J02399-0136). Results are then discussed and perspectives of research are proposed. Appendices present the theoretical study of the contribution of massive stars to the diffuse extragalactic ionizing background, and observations made on a near radio-galaxy (NGC 6251)

  2. Early-Time Solution of the Horizontal Unconfined Aquifer in the Buildup Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    We derive the early-time solution of the Boussinesq equation for the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the buildup phase under constant recharge and zero inflow. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turns out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by resummation techniques that are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  3. Robust and flexible mapping for real-time distributed applications during the early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Pop, Paul; Gruian, Flavius

    2012-01-01

    has a high chance of being schedulable, considering the wcet uncertainties, whereas a flexible mapping has a high chance to successfully accommodate the future scenarios. We propose a Genetic Algorithm-based approach to solve this optimization problem. Extensive experiments show the importance......We are interested in mapping hard real-time applications on distributed heterogeneous architectures. An application is modeled as a set of tasks, and we consider a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling policy. We target the early design phases, when decisions have a high impact on the subsequent...... in the functionality requirements are captured using “future scenarios”, which are task sets that model functionality likely to be added in the future. In this context, we derive a mapping of tasks in the application, such that the resulted implementation is both robust and flexible. Robust means that the application...

  4. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  5. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  6. Ikaros is degraded by proteasome-dependent mechanism in the early phase of apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Li-Cai; Xu, Han-Zhang; Gu, Zhi-Min; Liu, Chuan-Xu; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yue-Fei; Wen, Dong-Hua; Wu, Ying-Li

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Chemotherapeutic drugs or UV treatment reduces Ikaros prior to caspase-3 activation. → Etoposide treatment does not alter the mRNA but shortens the half-life of Ikaros. → MG132 or epoxomicin but not calpeptin inhibits etoposide-induced Ikaros degradation. → Overexpression of Ikaros accelerates etoposide-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells. -- Abstract: Ikaros is an important transcription factor involved in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In this work, we found that chemotherapeutic drugs or ultraviolet radiation (UV) treatment could reduce the expression of full-length Ikaros (IK1) protein in less than 3 h in leukemic NB4, Kasumi-1 and Jurkat cells, prior to the activation of caspase-3. Etoposide treatment could not alter the mRNA level of IK1 but it could shorten the half-life of IK1. Co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or epoxomicin but not calpain inhibitor calpeptin inhibited etoposide-induced Ikaros downregulation. Overexpression of IK1 could accelerate etoposide-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells, as evidenced by the increase of Annexin V positive cells and the more early activation of caspase 3. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that upon chemotherapy drugs or UV treatment, IK1 could be degraded via the proteasome system in the early phase of apoptosis induction. These data might shed new insight on the role of IK1 in apoptosis and the post-translational regulation of IK1.

  7. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Simsek, Nilufer Genc; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancreatitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and interleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435+/-432 U/L vs. 27,426+/-118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970+/-323 pg/mL vs. 330+/-368 pg/mL, respectively). In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions.

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways. PMID:24381049

  9. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations in the follicular aspirate during ovum pickup as predictors of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Sarhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between ‘oocyte quality’ and follicular fluid hormones is expected, since its formation coincides with the ‘oocyte maturation’ phase. The aim of this study was to find a possible relation between oocyte quality with follicular luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol (E2 as hormonal parameters of oocyte quality during ovum pickup for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods: Concentrations of LH and E2 in individual follicular fluid samples obtained during assisted reproduction treatment were related to oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading. E2 and LH differences between individual groups of oocytes and embryos were calculated using the paired Student’s t test and ANOVA test. Results: Follicular E2 levels showed a significant positive correlation with oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading being higher in follicles whose oocytes had matured nucleus (475 ± 142.9 ng/ml vs. 332 ± 76.4 ng/ml, P value <0.001, normally fertilized (502.5 ± 131.3 ng/ml vs. 339.8 ± 78.3 ng/ml, P value <0.001 and developed into good quality embryos (596.9 ± 72.4 ng/ml grade A vs. 511.7 ± 73 ng/ml grade B vs. 310.9 ± 57 ng/ml grade C, P value <0.001. However Follicular LH was only positively correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation. Conclusions: The local follicular environment may play a key role in the observed differences in oocyte quality. Our results suggest that the use follicular E2 may be of value in the assessment of oocyte quality. If there is a marker for oocyte quality, it would be possible to select oocytes rather than embryos, which may improve selection criteria of the best embryo to transfer, therefore increases success rate of ICSI.

  10. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  11. THE FRAME NETWORK OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STAKEHOLDER COMPOSITIONS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alexander Kjær; Nafei, Nadiim Mohamed Adel Abd El Fatta; Larsen, Michael Planck

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting p...... also identifies core activities and events of the framing process and propose a model describing an iterative cycle of six phases that stakeholders in New Product Development go through, which we in this article call ‘The Interdisciplinary Framing Loop’.......New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting...... in the early phases of NPD projects involving interdisciplinary stakeholders in organisational settings. The study indicates that stakeholders create isolated aspired values and working principles and from these form a ‘network’ of ‘partial frames’ before connecting them into ‘fully defined frames’. The study...

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  13. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  14. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  15. Mammalian follicular development and atresia: role of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, E; Xiao, C W; Wang, Y F; Tsang, B K

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of follicular development and atresia is a complex process and involves interactions between endocrine factors (gonadotropins) and intraovarian regulators (sex steroids, growth factors and cytokines) in the control of follicular cell fate (i.e. proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death). Granulosa and theca cells are key players in this fascinating process. As atresia is the fate of most follicles, understanding of how these physiological regulators participate in determining the destiny of the follicle (to degenerate or to ovulate) at cellular and subcellular levels is fundamental. This short review summarizes the role of intraovarian modulators of programmed cell death in the induction of atresia during follicular development. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  17. Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Neeta; Gupta, Ruchika; Jain, Shyama

    2004-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in association with hyperthyroidism is rare. The malignant lesion may remain occult for a long time. Certain clinical and cytologic features may be helpful in raising the alarm. An elderly male with a history of occupational exposure to X rays, long-standing toxic multinodular goiter and clinical hyperthyroidism presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in the neck. Cytologic smears showed a prominent microfollicular pattern, scanty colloid, anisonucleosis and nuclear overlapping. The noteworthy feature was the presence of marginal vacuoles. The cytologic diagnosis of follicular neoplasm with highly suggestive malignancy was made. Subsequently, multiple pulmonary nodules provided radiologic evidence of possible metastatic spread. This case report demonstrates the rare association of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism and analyzes certain high-risk clinical and cytologic features to be considered in the follow-up of long-standing hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter.

  18. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  19. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  20. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup: comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoven, Andor F. van den; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Prince, Jip F.; Doormaal, Pieter J. van; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial phase protocol (n = 50 each, 10- vs. 20-s post-threshold delay) were included. RGA/A4 origin detection rates, assessed by two raters, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the hepatic artery relative to the portal vein were compared between the protocols. The first-second rater scored the RGA origin as visible in 58-65 % (specific proportion of agreement 82 %, κ = 0.62); A4 origin in 96-89 % (94 %, κ = 0.54). Thirty-six percent of RGA origins not detectable by DSA were identified on CT. Origin detection rates were not significantly different for early/late arterial phases. Mean CNR was higher in the early arterial phase protocol (1.7 vs. 1.2, p < 0.001). A 10-s delay arterial phase CT protocol does not significantly improve detection of small intra- and extrahepatic branches. RGA origin detection requires further optimization, whereas A4/MHA origin detection is adequate, with good inter-rater reproducibility. CT remains important for preprocedural planning, because it may reveal arterial anatomy not discernible on DSA. (orig.)

  1. Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abs, R.; Verhelst, J.; Schoofs, E.; De Somer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with Pendred's syndrome underwent a partial thyroidectomy when she was 17 years old. At the age of 52 years, she had a second thyroid operation because of hyperthyroidism due to a toxic multinodular goiter with a mediastinal extension consisting of several separate nodules. Five years later a hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient was well. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome and the first report of hyperthyroidism occurring after malignant degeneration of a dyshormonogenetic goiter

  2. Dynamics and mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion in women of fertile age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Andersen, Claus Yding; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2010-01-01

    To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels.......To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels....

  3. FLARE RIBBON ENERGETICS IN THE EARLY PHASE OF AN SDO FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L.; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Innes, D. E. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    The sites of chromospheric excitation during solar flares are marked by extended extreme ultraviolet ribbons and hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints. The standard interpretation is that these are the result of heating and bremsstrahlung emission from non-thermal electrons precipitating from the corona. We examine this picture using multi-wavelength observations of the early phase of an M-class flare SOL2010-08-07T18:24. We aim to determine the properties of the heated plasma in the flare ribbons, and to understand the partition of the power input into radiative and conductive losses. Using GOES, SDO/EVE, SDO/AIA, and RHESSI, we measure the temperature, emission measure (EM), and differential emission measure of the flare ribbons, and deduce approximate density values. The non-thermal EM, and the collisional thick target energy input to the ribbons are obtained from RHESSI using standard methods. We deduce the existence of a substantial amount of plasma at 10 MK in the flare ribbons, during the pre-impulsive and early-impulsive phase of the flare. The average column EM of this hot component is a few times 10{sup 28} cm{sup -5}, and we can calculate that its predicted conductive losses dominate its measured radiative losses. If the power input to the hot ribbon plasma is due to collisional energy deposition by an electron beam from the corona then a low-energy cutoff of {approx}5 keV is necessary to balance the conductive losses, implying a very large electron energy content. Independent of the standard collisional thick-target electron beam interpretation, the observed non-thermal X-rays can be provided if one electron in 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} in the 10 MK (1 keV) ribbon plasma has an energy above 10 keV. We speculate that this could arise if a non-thermal tail is generated in the ribbon plasma which is being heated by other means, for example, by waves or turbulence.

  4. Phase III trial of high and low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for early oral tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Fuchihata, Hajime; Furukawa, Souhei

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Oral tongue carcinomas are highly curable with radiotherapy. In the past, patients with tongue carcinoma have usually been treated with low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation. This Phase III study was designed to compare the treatment results obtained with LDR with those obtained with high dose rate (HDR) interstitial radiotherapy for tongue carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The criteria for patient selection for the Phase III study were: (a) presence of a T1T2N0 tumor that could be treated with single-plane implantation, (b) localization of tumor at the lateral tongue border, (c) tumor thickness of 10 mm or less, (d) performance status between O and 3, and (e) absence of any severe concurrent disease. From April 1992 through December 1993, 15 patients in the LDR group (70 Gy/4 to 9 days) and 14 patients in the HDR group (60 Gy/10 fractions/6 days) were accrued. The time interval between two fractions of the HDR brachytherapy was more than 6 h. Results: Local recurrence occurred in two patients treated with LDR brachytherapy but in none of the patients treated with HDR. One- and 2-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were both 86%, compared with 100% in the HDR group (p = 0.157). There were four patients with nodal metastasis in the LDR group and three in the HDR group. Local recurrence occurred in two of the four patients with nodal metastases in the LDR group. One- and 2-year nodal control rates for patients in the LDR group are were 85%, compared with 79% in the HDR group. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to traditional LDR brachytherapy for early tongue cancer and eliminate the radiation exposure for medical staffs

  5. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma RN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rehab Nabil Shamma, Mona Hassan AburahmaDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Spironolactone (SL is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6–834.3 nm and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.Keywords: spironolactone, androgenic alopecia, nanostructured lipid carriers, follicular targeting, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  6. Melanins as biomarkers of ovarian follicular atresia in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: biochemical and histochemical characterization, seasonal variation and hormone effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Joy, Keerikkattil P

    2015-06-01

    Follicular atresia is a common feature of the vertebrate ovary that occurs at different stages of folliculogenesis and ovarian regression. It has physiological significance to maintain homeostasis and control fecundity, and ensure removal of post-ovulatory follicular remnants for preparing the ovary for the next cycle. Pigments appear late in the atretic process as indigestible waste formed out of the degradation of the oocytes, follicle wall and granulocytes. In the present study, pigment accumulation was demonstrated by Schmorl's and Perls' staining methods in the atretic ovarian follicles of Heteropneustes fossilis during follicular development and regression. Melanins were characterized spectrophotometrically for the first time in fish ovary. The predominant form is eumelanin, followed by pheomelanin and alkali-soluble melanin. Melanins showed significant seasonal variations with levels low in gonad resting phase, increasing to the peak in the post-spawning phase. The concentration of melanins increased time-dependently in post-ovulated ovary after human chorionic gonadotropin treatment. In the spawning phase, in vitro incubation of ovary slices with estradiol-17β or dexamethasone for 8 or 16 h decreased both eumelanin and pheomelanin levels time-dependently. The alkali-soluble melanin showed a significant decrease only in the dexamethasone group at 16 h. The results show that melanin assay can be used as a biomarker of follicular atresia in fish ovary, natural or induced by environmental toxicants.

  7. Improved healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses in the early phase when surrounded by omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Dijk, M; Renooij, W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    2000-01-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy is a reason for impaired anastomotic healing, but transposition of the omentum that is covered with mesothelial cells may be a way to improve that. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. An end-to-end jejuno-jejunostomy was placed subcutaneously in group I (n = 29), subcutaneously surrounded by omentum in group II (n = 29) and intra-abdominally surrounded by omentum in group III (n = 20). After 3, 7 or 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and bursting pressure (BP) of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline (HP) level was determined. In group I 5/29, in group II 2/29 and in group III 0/20 rats died following anastomotic leakage (nonsignificant) and were excluded from other measurements. BP was decreased after 3 days in group I (60+/-9 mm Hg) compared with group II (101+/-8 mm Hg) and group III (107+/-11 mm Hg) (p = 0.002). After 7 days, BP in groups I (122+/-10 mm Hg) and II (132+/-10 mm Hg) were lower as compared with group III (230+/-8 mm Hg) (p<0.001). Differences in HP levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. The healing of intestinal anastomoses in an extraperitoneal position is improved in the early phase only when surrounded by omentum. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Inhibitory function of NKT cells during early induction phase of nickel allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hironori; Satoh, Masashi; Takeuchi, Emiko; Eshima, Koji; Terashima, Masazumi; Komotori, Jun; Habu, Sonoko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    Until now, metal allergies have been regarded as a Th1-type immune response. However, because the contribution of a Th2-type immune response has been suggested by clinical findings, we previously examined the Th2-type immune response during the development of metal allergies using a GATA-3 transgenic (GATA-3 Tg) mouse model. As a result, a Th2-type immunization reaction was suggested to be involved in the early phase of metal allergies. Recently, the involvement of NKT cells in metal allergies has been suggested. We examined this possibility using the activation of NKT cells and an NKT cell-deficient mouse model to determine the contribution of NKT cells to nickel allergy in the present study. In NKT cell-deficient mice, ear swelling was remarkably increased, compared with that in control mice. Also, in mice that had been treated with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to activate NKT cells, the ear swelling response was remarkably inhibited, compared with that in untreated mice. These facts show that NKT cells are involved in the inhibition of nickel allergy-induced ear swelling responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Early clinical phase of patient's management after polytrauma using 1- and 4-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeppel, R.; Kahn, T.; Schreiter, D.; Dietrich, J.; Josten, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the early clinical phase the comprehensive imaging of patients with multiple trauma using helical CT is already established. Aim of this study was to assess whether MSCT may improve the patient management and the diagnostic results.The procedure is designed as follows: after life-thretening treatment x-ray of chest and ultrasound are carried out in the emergency room. Then the patient is moved to CT. From 1998 to december 2000 241 patients were examined using a single slice helical CT (Somatom plus 4), in 2001 79 patients using a 4-slice helical CT (Somatom VZ, Siemens Med.Sol.). After CT selected radiograms of the extremities were taken.359 of 360 procedures were carried out successfully. Excluding 1 case (death during 1-sl. h CT) all relevant lesions of head, neck, and body were diagnosed. Although the patients had an injury severity score of ∼30. The change from 1slice-helical CT to 4 slice-helical CT allowed us to reduce the stay in the CT room from 28 to 16 min. The total lethality decreased by ∼4%.Advantages for the patient arose from the standardized examination protocol using multislice CT. If integrated in an interdisciplinary management concept, it is a good compromise between examination time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging, life-saving therapeutic procedures, and therapy planning. (orig.) [de

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  12. Quantitative early phase scintigraphy in the prediction of healing of tibial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.L.; Strachan, R.K.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphsophonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) is established in the diagnosis of infection, neoplasia and ischaemic necrosis in orthopaedic practice, but its role in fracture healing is less well-defined. Previous studies have shown a relationship between fracture site activity (region A), activity in adjacent normal bone (region C) and time to union. The predictive value of the A/C ratio of the image obtained 300-800 s after injection was assessed in a prospective study of 50 patients with closed tibial fractures managed with plaster casts, external fixators and intramedullary nails. There were significant differences in absolute uptake and A/C ratio between the three groups (P 99m -Tc-MDP uptake so as to reduce the A/C ratio (1.10±0.20), but there is a promissing role for early phase bone scanning in non-operative (A/C=1.40±0.21) or externally fixed (A/C=1.26±0.22) fractures in conjunction with other non-invasive methods of monitoring the biomechanical environment. (orig.)

  13. Distribution of CCS and HC3N in L1147, an early phase dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Taiki; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    We used the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope to reveal spatial distributions of CCS and HC 3 N in L1147, one of the carbon-chain producing region (CCPR) candidates, where carbon-chain molecules are dominant rather than NH 3 . We found that three cores (two CCS cores and one HC 3 N core), which are away from a very low luminosity object (a source that may turn into a sub-stellar mass brown dwarf), exist along the NE-SW filament traced by the 850 μm dust continuum. The column densities of CCS are 3-7 × 10 12 cm –2 and those of HC 3 N are 2-6 × 10 12 cm –2 , respectively, much lower than those previously reported toward other CCPRs. We also found that two CCS peaks are displaced from the peaks of HC 3 N. In order to interpret such interleaved distributions, we conducted chemical reaction network simulations and found that slightly different gas densities could lead to large variation of the CCS-to-HC 3 N ratio in the early phase of dark cloud evolution. Such a chemical 'variation' may be seen in other CCPRs. Finally, we were able to confirm that the L1147 filament can be regarded as a CCPR.

  14. Relationship between Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Intrinsic Corticostriatal Connectivity in Patients with Early Phase Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpal, Deepak K; Robinson, Delbert G; Fales, Christina; Lencz, Todd; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to 2 years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry. We included 83 patients with early phase schizophrenia and minimal exposure to antipsychotic drugs (drugs. Functional connectivity maps of the striatum were generated and examined in relation to DUP as a covariate. Mediation analyses were performed on a composite measure of corticostriatal connectivity derived from the significant results of our DUP analysis. We found that longer DUP correlated with worse response to treatment as well as overall decreased functional connectivity between striatal nodes and specific regions within frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, the relationship between DUP and treatment response was significantly mediated by corticostriatal connectivity. Our results indicate that variation in corticostriatal circuitry may play a role in the relationship between longer DUP and worsened response to treatment. Future prospective studies are necessary to further characterize potential causal links between DUP, striatal circuitry and clinical outcomes.

  15. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereas the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens

  16. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  17. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  18. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO...

  19. Activity of toluene-degrading Pseudomonas putida in the early growth phase of a biofilm for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Møller, S.; Molin, S.

    1997-01-01

    A biological trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was studied. The overall kinetics of the biofilm growth was followed in the early growth phase. A rapid initial colonization took place during the first three days. The biofilm thickness increased exponentially, whereas...

  20. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  1. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... (referred to collectively as CGT products) with recommendations to assist in designing early-phase clinical... Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Submit written requests for single copies of the draft... 20852-1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your request. The...

  2. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... collectively as CGT products) with recommendations to assist in designing early-phase clinical trials of CGT...-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your requests. The draft guidance may also be...-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER...

  3. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1 was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development.

  5. Novel antibodies against follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Tom; Hagenbeek, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of patients with follicular B-cell lymphoma. With the combination of chemotherapy and rituximab the overall survival rate has increased with approximately 30%. Unfortunately, there is resistance to rituximab with relapse of

  6. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial neural network model to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration of thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savala, Rajiv; Dey, Pranab; Gupta, Nalini

    2018-03-01

    To distinguish follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of thyroid in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a challenging problem. In this article, we attempted to build an artificial neural network (ANN) model from the cytological and morphometric features of the FNAC smears of thyroid to distinguish FA from FC. The cytological features and morphometric analysis were done on the FNAC smears of histology proven cases of FA (26) and FC (31). The cytological features were analysed semi-quantitatively by two independent observers (RS and PD). These data were used to make an ANN model to differentiate FA versus FC on FNAC material. The performance of this ANN model was assessed by analysing the confusion matrix and receiving operator curve. There were 39 cases in training set, 9 cases each in validation and test sets. In the test group, ANN model successfully distinguished all cases (9/9) of FA and FC. The area under receiver operating curve was 1. The present ANN model is efficient to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on cytology smears without any error. In future, this ANN model will be able to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on thyroid aspirate. This study has immense potential in future. This is an open ended ANN model and more parameters and more cases can be included to make the model much stronger. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turalba AV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Turalba,1,2 Louis R Pasquale1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Objective: To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV implantation. Design: Retrospective comparative case series. Participants: Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery.Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results: Five out of 19 (26% TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52% non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027. Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78, and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65 were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group, early tube erosion (n=1 and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1 were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group.Conclusions: Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the

  9. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6-834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.

  10. Proliferation during early phases of bronchiolar repair in neonatal rabbits following lung injury by 4-ipomeanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara cells) are progenitor cells during development. During differentiation, they are more susceptible to injury by environmental toxicants metabolized by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, and injury results in altered bronchiolar repair and development. Squamous cells and abnormal cuboidal epithelium persist into early adulthood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the failure of bronchiolar epithelium to repair normally in neonates following injury is due to an inhibition of proliferation. A model of differential repair in rabbit kits was used. Proliferation was followed for 1 week post injury in rabbit kits treated with a single dose of the P450-mediated cytotoxicant 4-ipomeanol (IPO) at 7 days old (repair abnormal) and compared to rabbits treated with a single dose of IPO at 21 days old (repair normal). Proliferation was measured by the nuclear incorporation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) within epithelium at the target site (terminal bronchiole). The repair pattern between the two age groups was histologically defined. There was no difference in the CdlU labeling index during the week of repair between the two age groups, even though the bronchiolar epithelium did not return to normal in the animals treated at 7 days old. In summary, proliferation (through S-phase) is not inhibited during repair in neonatal rabbits treated with IPO at 7 days old compared to animals treated at 21 days old, and we conclude that other factors may be responsible for the altered repair in the young neonates injured by a P450-mediated cytotoxicant

  11. Dose assessment for emergency workers in early phase of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Nahid; Ahangari, Rohollah; Kasesaz, Yaser; Noori-kalkhoran, O. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School

    2017-11-15

    In the case of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP) accident, the radioactive material was released from reactor units 1-3 and transported to short and long distances due to the atmospheric pathways-motions. Power sources for monitoring posts were lost due to earthquake and tsunami. Based on air dose rates and other data measured by monitoring cars, the amount of radioactive material released to the atmosphere from the power station was obtained. The atmospheric dispersion and the transport model used in the RASCAL code, estimate the radionuclide concentrations downwind, both in the air and on the ground due to deposition. The calculated concentrations are then used to estimate the projected doses for workers in vicinity of the accident area in the first minutes of accident time. For dose modeling, we assumed that each worker was 15 min in vicinity of FNP in accident situation, once without and once with protective clothes or respirator. According to Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) report six workers had received doses over 250 mSv (309 to 678 mSv) apparently due to inhaling Iodine-131 fume. In this paper the calculated dose results using RASCAL code shows that, if emergency workers who work in early phase of accident had not used protective equipment, for 15 min, inhalation doses from iodine in their thyroid gland up to 12 March afternoon would have been 520 mSv. A comparison between calculation results and TEPCO report shows that dose calculated virtually is nearly equal to TEPCO measurement results.

  12. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  13. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist modulates the early phase of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Sgroi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokine administration is a potential therapy for acute liver failure by reducing inflammatory responses and favour hepatocyte regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra during liver regeneration and to study the effect of a recombinant human IL-1ra on liver regeneration. METHODS: We performed 70%-hepatectomy in wild type (WT mice, IL-1ra knock-out (KO mice and in WT mice treated by anakinra. We analyzed liver regeneration at regular intervals by measuring the blood levels of cytokines, the hepatocyte proliferation by bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU incorporation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and Cyclin D1 expression. The effect of anakinra on hepatocyte proliferation was also tested in vitro using human hepatocytes. RESULTS: At 24h and at 48 h after hepatectomy, IL-1ra KO mice had significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and MCP-1 and a reduced and delayed hepatocyte proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation, PCNA and Cyclin D1 protein levels, when compared to WT mice. IGFBP-1 and C/EBPβ expression was significantly decreased in IL-1ra KO compared to WT mice. WT mice treated with anakinra showed significantly decreased levels of IL-6 and significantly higher hepatocyte proliferation at 24h compared to untreated WT mice. In vitro, primary human hepatocytes treated with anakinra showed significantly higher proliferation at 24h compared to hepatocytes without treatment. CONCLUSION: IL1ra modulates the early phase of liver regeneration by decreasing the inflammatory stress and accelerating the entry of hepatocytes in proliferation. IL1ra might be a therapeutic target to improve hepatocyte proliferation.

  15. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Retrospective comparative case series. Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.

  16. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... (Phase I ERP/EA) describing the first eight restoration projects selected by the Trustees to commence the... notice is to inform the public of the availability of the Phase I ERP/EA. ADDRESSES: Obtaining Documents: You may download the Phase I ERP/EA and the Framework Agreement at http://www.gulfspillrestoration...

  17. Dopamine in human follicular fluid is associated with cellular uptake and metabolism-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in granulosa cells: implications for physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, S; Kunz, L; Berg, D; Berg, U; Lara, H; Urra, J; Hecht, S; Pavlik, R; Thaler, C J; Mayerhofer, A

    2014-03-01

    periovulatory follicular phase. The full functional importance of DA-induced ROS in small follicles and other compartments of the ovary, especially in PCOS samples, remains to be shown. The results identify DA as a factor in the human ovary, which, via ROS generation, could play a role in ovarian physiology and pathology. The results obtained in samples from women with PCOS suggest the involvement of DA, acting via ROS, in this condition. This work was supported by a grant from DFG MA1080/17-3 and in part MA1080/19-1. There are no competing interests.

  18. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated Concurrent...

  19. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated...

  20. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  1. Early coordinated rehabilitation in acute phase after hip fracture - a model for increased patient participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, Gillian; Carlsson, Gunnel; Zidén, Lena; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla

    2017-10-17

    Studies have shown that patients with hip fracture treated in a Comprehensive Geriatric Care (CGC) unit report better results in comparison to orthopaedic care. Furthermore, involving patients in their healthcare by encouraging patient participation can result in better quality of care and improved outcomes. To our knowledge no study has been performed comparing rehabilitation programmes within a CGC unit during the acute phase after hip fracture with focus on improving patients' perceived participation and subsequent effect on patients' function. A prospective, controlled, intervention performed in a CGC unit and compared with standard care. A total of 126 patients with hip fracture were recruited who were prior to fracture; community dwelling, mobile indoors and independent in personal care. Intervention Group (IG): 63 patients, mean age 82.0 years and Control Group (CG): 63 patients mean age 80.5 years. coordinated rehabilitation programme with early onset of patient participation and intensified occupational therapy and physiotherapy after hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome measure was self-reported patient participation at discharge. Secondary outcome measures were: TLS-BasicADL; Bergs Balance Scale (BBS); Falls Efficacy Scale FES(S); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) at discharge and 1 month and ADL staircase for instrumental ADL at 1 month. At discharge a statistically significant greater number of patients in the IG reported higher levels of participation (p < 0.05) and independence in lower body hygiene (p < 0.05) and dressing (p < 0.001). There were however no statistically significant differences at discharge and 1 month between groups in functional balance and confidence, performance measures or risk for falls. This model of OT and PT coordinated inpatient rehabilitation had a positive effect on patients' perceived participation in their rehabilitation and ADL at discharge but did not appear to

  2. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  3. [Cranial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; González-Schaffinni, M A; Farías-García, R; Rey-Laborde, R

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid follicular carcinoma is able to produce metastatic lesions before the vanishing of the primary lesion. We present a case of a woman with a lytic, solitary, asymptomatic parietal bone lesion of 2 years of evolution. Autopsy revealed a thyroid gland with two small cystic areas and renal metastasis. Thyroid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of lytic bone lesions with long evolution in patients 60 years of age or older.

  4. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  5. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Jochen; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael; Gassel, Andreamaria; Flentje, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G 2 /M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct

  6. [Abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong-Xi; Wu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Zeng-Jian; Pan, Ning; Xu, Cai-Juan; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the recognition ability and abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Photos of Chinese static faces with four basic emotions (fearful, happy, angry and sad) were used as stimulus. Twenty-five ASD children and twenty-two age- and gender-matched typical developed children (normal controls) were asked to match the emotional faces with words. Event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded concurrently. N170 latencies for total emotion and fearful face in the left temporal region were faster than in the right one in normal controls (P<0.05), but the results were not noted in ASD children. Further, N170 latencies in the left temporal region of ASD children were slower than normal controls for total emotion, fearful and happy faces (P<0.05), and their N170 latencies in the right temporal region were prone to slower than normal controls for angry and fearful faces. The holistic perception speed of emotional faces in the early cognitive processing phase in ASD children is slower than normal controls. The lateralized response in the early phase of recognizing emotional faces may be aberrant in children with ASD.

  7. Divided attention can enhance early-phase memory encoding: the attentional boost effect and study trial duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Phase III trial of high- vs. low-dose-rate interstitial radiotherapy for early mobile tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Early mobile tongue cancer can be controlled with interstitial radiotherapy (ISRT). We carried out a Phase III trial to compare the treatment results of low-dose-rate (Ld) ISRT and high-dose-rate (HDR) ISRT for early mobile tongue cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 1992 through October 1996, 59 patients with cancer of the early mobile tongue were registered in this Phase III study. Eight patients were excluded from the evaluation because of violations of the requirements for this study. Of 51 eligible patients, 26 patients were treated with LDR-ISRT (70 Gy/4-9 days) and 25 patients with HDR-ISRT (60 Gy/10 fractions/1 week). For the hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT, the time interval between 2 fractions was more than 6 h. Results: Five-year local control rates of the LDR and HDR groups were 84% and 87% respectively. Nodal metastasis occurred in 6 patients in each group. Five-year nodal control rates of the LDR and HDR groups were 77% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT for early mobile tongue cancer has the same local control compared with continuous LDR-ISRT. Hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT is an alternative treatment for continuous LDR-ISRT

  9. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Joseph; Kamani, Dipti; Sadow, Peter M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs. Recent studies emphasize the indolent behavior of the EFVPTC. Recently, there has been a reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity. The financial and emotional burden of 'cancer' diagnosis and treatment can be significant. This review recapitulates the literature supporting the reclassification of EFVPTC as NIFTP, a benign entity, and reviews standardized diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC. The information highlighted in this review will affect surgical decision making and may promote the offering of hemithyroidectomy over a total thyroidectomy to some patients with 'indeterminate' cytopathological category; postoperative radioiodine ablation will not be required for NIFTP patients.

  11. How to effectively manage crisis situation in the early phase of a radiological accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Potempski, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the early phase of accident reasonable decisions should be undertaken in a short time, where often there is still an uncertainty in assessment of radiological situation. The following key factors are of important meaning in a process of working out an optimized decision: (a) accurate information on accident, (b) proper assessment of current status and prognosis of development of radiological situation, (c) proper information on availability of means needed for emergency action like rescue teams, technical and medical equipment, means of transport etc., (d) reliable and fast communication system between decision makers, persons responsible for management of crisis situation, rescue teams and people in affected areas. All these elements can be supported by more or less computerized systems. The first two (a) and (b), depend, in general, on radiological monitoring and decision support systems, using pre-defined scenarios and sometimes sophisticated methods for assessment of radiological situation. The element (c) is very often supported by GIS-like systems available at crisis centres. The last issue however is, to much extent, a question of proper organization of decision making process and management during emergency action. lt seems also that often there are some kind of gaps between items (a)e) and (c)/(d) or maybe particularly between (d) and other factors mentioned above. Hence, there is still a need for more integrated approach. lt should be also mentioned that the last element (d) is usually the weakest point in the whole system. This is often caused by not clear organization and division of responsibilities between persons engaged in the decision making process and management. The problem of communication has also some technical aspects. This can be solved by using more advanced techniques like satellite technologies and centralized computer communication systems of new generation, which allows for fast and reliable sending and receiving messages

  12. A new Bayesian Inference-based Phase Associator for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Thomas; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    State of the art network-based Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide warnings for large magnitude 7+ earthquakes. Although regions in the direct vicinity of the epicenter will not receive warnings prior to damaging shaking, real-time event characterization is available before the destructive S-wave arrival across much of the strongly affected region. In contrast, in the case of the more frequent medium size events, such as the devastating 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake, providing timely warning to the smaller damage zone is more difficult. For such events the "blind zone" of current systems (e.g. the CISN ShakeAlert system in California) is similar in size to the area over which severe damage occurs. We propose a faster and more robust Bayesian inference-based event associator, that in contrast to the current standard associators (e.g. Earthworm Binder), is tailored to EEW and exploits information other than only phase arrival times. In particular, the associator potentially allows for reliable automated event association with as little as two observations, which, compared to the ShakeAlert system, would speed up the real-time characterizations by about ten seconds and thus reduce the blind zone area by up to 80%. We compile an extensive data set of regional and teleseismic earthquake and noise waveforms spanning a wide range of earthquake magnitudes and tectonic regimes. We pass these waveforms through a causal real-time filterbank with passband filters between 0.1 and 50Hz, and, updating every second from the event detection, extract the maximum amplitudes in each frequency band. Using this dataset, we define distributions of amplitude maxima in each passband as a function of epicentral distance and magnitude. For the real-time data, we pass incoming broadband and strong motion waveforms through the same filterbank and extract an evolving set of maximum amplitudes in each passband. We use the maximum amplitude distributions to check

  13. Treatment of Patients in the Vulnerable Phase (at Discharge or Early After Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Lopatin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical course of heart failure includes a period in which the patient is at increased risk of death or rehospitalisation for HF. This period is termed the “vulnerable phase” and occurs during the peri-acute HF phase, due to microenvironmental changes in the cardiovascular system. Typically, the vulnerability phase starts from the onset of an acute HF event leading to admission, continues through a peri-discharge period and lasts up to 6 months after discharge.These poor post-discharge outcomes also represent a significant socioeconomic burden. This articles reviews treatments that are beneficial in this important phase.

  14. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively

  15. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  17. Is community-based electrocardiography education feasible in the early phase of an undergraduate medical curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol O. Larson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB electrocardiography (ECG instruction in semesters 4and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (þqual research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL and 21strongly supported task-based (TB CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.

  18. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  19. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features.

  20. Maintenance phase in psoralen-ultraviolet A phototherapy of early-stage mycosis fungoides. A critically appraised topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, V; Delfino, C; Pileri, A; Pimpinelli, N

    2017-08-01

    A 65-year-old patient affected by mycosis fungoides (MF) stage IB achieved complete remission (CR) after a cycle of PUVA phototherapy. The U.S. Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium (USCLC) guidelines suggest that the patient should be kept in the maintenance phase, defined as a 'period of gradual decrease of frequency of UVL [ultraviolet light] while in clinical remission before discontinuation of phototherapy' by slowly tapering the number of psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) applications over time up to clinical relapse. The USCLC guidelines also suggest a standardized schedule for the maintenance phase. Alternatively, the patient could end PUVA therapy and go straight to follow-up. The aim of this critically appraised topic (CAT) was to determine if a maintenance phase gives a significant benefit in terms of relapse rate (RR) and RFI in patients affected by early-stage MF who had achieved CR under PUVA phototherapy. Embase, PubMed and TRIP databases were searched for 'mycosis fungoides' AND [('photochemotherapy' OR 'puva') OR 'psoralen'] in June 2016. Three articles matched our inclusion criteria and are discussed in this CAT. In this field of research the literature is poor and the reported level of evidence is low. Only one of the studies was conducted prospectively, and none were randomized. No significant difference in terms of reduction in relapse rate or increase in RFI in patients who underwent a PUVA maintenance phase emerged when compared with those who went for simple follow-up. Further randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required in order to evaluate maintenance phase vs. no treatment before it can be favoured as the standard protocol of treatment in early-stage MF. At the time of writing this paper, we report an ongoing Austrian multicentre RCT (Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01686594) that will hopefully give useful results in this topic. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Koelsch, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with the processing of music-syntactical irregularities as compared with regular syntactic structures in music. Previous studies reported an early ( approximately 200 ms) right anterior negative component (ERAN) by traditional event-related-potential analysis during music-syntactical irregularities, yet little is known about the underlying oscillatory and synchronization properties of brain responses which are supposed to play a crucial role in general cognition including music perception. First we showed that the ERAN was primarily represented by low frequency (music-syntactical irregularities as compared with music-syntactical regularities, were associated with (i) an early decrease in the alpha band (9-10 Hz) phase synchronization between right fronto-central and left temporal brain regions, and (ii) a late ( approximately 500 ms) decrease in gamma band (38-50 Hz) oscillations over fronto-central brain regions. These results indicate a weaker degree of long-range integration when the musical expectancy is violated. In summary, our results reveal neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing that operate at different levels of cortical integration, ranging from early decrease in long-range alpha phase synchronization to late local gamma oscillations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, H [Complex Systems Group, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mazzeo, N [Depto. de EcologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Scheffer, M; Nes, E van, E-mail: hugo@fisica.edu.u [Wageningen Agricultural University, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  3. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, H; Mazzeo, N; Scheffer, M; Nes, E van

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  4. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  5. Early phase drug discovery: cheminformatics and computational techniques in identifying lead series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Bryan C; Zhu, Lei; Decornez, Hélène; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2012-09-15

    Early drug discovery processes rely on hit finding procedures followed by extensive experimental confirmation in order to select high priority hit series which then undergo further scrutiny in hit-to-lead studies. The experimental cost and the risk associated with poor selection of lead series can be greatly reduced by the use of many different computational and cheminformatic techniques to sort and prioritize compounds. We describe the steps in typical hit identification and hit-to-lead programs and then describe how cheminformatic analysis assists this process. In particular, scaffold analysis, clustering and property calculations assist in the design of high-throughput screening libraries, the early analysis of hits and then organizing compounds into series for their progression from hits to leads. Additionally, these computational tools can be used in virtual screening to design hit-finding libraries and as procedures to help with early SAR exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Fleming, Ian N.; Beer, Ambros J.; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Visvikis, Dimitris; Gee, Antony D.; Groves, Ashley M.; Cook, Gary J.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Clarke, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [ 15 O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  7. Effects of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and endogenous hormones on cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Carter, C Sue; Drogos, Lauren L; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Sweeney, John A; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In women with schizophrenia, cognition has been shown to be enhanced following administration of hormone therapy or oxytocin. We examined how natural hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle influence cognition in women with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that female patients would perform worse on "female-dominant" tasks (verbal memory/fluency) and better on "male-dominant" tasks (visuospatial) during the early follicular phase (low estradiol and progesterone) compared to midluteal phase (high estradiol and progesterone) in relation to estradiol but not progesterone. Fifty-four women (23 with schizophrenia) completed cognitive assessments and provided blood for sex steroid assays and oxytocin at early follicular (days 2-4) and midluteal (days 20-22) phases. Men were included to verify the expected pattern of sex differences on cognitive tests. Expected sex differences were observed on "female-dominant" and "male-dominant" tasks (pperformance did not change across the menstrual cycle on "female-dominant" or "male-dominant" tasks in either group. Estradiol and progesterone levels were unrelated to cognitive performance. Oxytocin levels did not change across the menstrual cycle but were positively related to performance on "female-dominant" tasks in female patients only (pperformance on female dominant tests in women. Physiological levels of oxytocin may thus have a more powerful benefit in some cognitive domains than estrogens in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein export marks the early phase of gametocytogenesis of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrini, F.; Lasonder, E.; Olivieri, A.; Camarda, G.; Schaijk, B.C.L. van; Sanchez, M.; Younis Younis, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Alano, P.

    2010-01-01

    Despite over a century of study of malaria parasites, parts of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle remain virtually unknown. One of these is the early gametocyte stage, a round shaped cell morphologically similar to an asexual trophozoite in which major cellular transformations ensure subsequent

  9. Control of Early Age Cracking in Concrete. Phase 4 and 5: Material Modelling, Continuum Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with numerical modelling of early age concrete. The hydration process giving the strength and stiffness development after casting is discussed. Several factors influence the progress of hydration such as the temperature level and the moisture activity. The factors are coupled an...

  10. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dumnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1 we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2 we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients.

  11. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  12. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  13. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Aguirre, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition.

  14. Early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium: a prospective cohort study in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonghe, Jos F M; Kalisvaart, Kees J; Dijkstra, Marty; van Dis, Huib; Vreeswijk, Ralph; Kat, Martin G; Eikelenboom, Piet; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Gool, Willem A

    2007-02-01

    The authors investigated prodromal delirium symptoms in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. This was a prospective cohort study in the setting of a large medical school-affiliated general hospital in Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Participants were patients undergoing hip surgery aged 70 and older at risk for delirium. Before surgery, patients were randomized to low-dose prophylactic haloperidol treatment or placebo. Daily assessments were based on patient interviews with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Span test. The Delirium Rating Scale-Revised (DRS-R-98) was used to measure early symptoms during the prodromal phase before the onset of delirium. Data of 66 patients with delirium were compared with those of 35 at-risk patients who did not develop delirium: 14 of 66 patients (21%) had delirium on the day of surgery or early the day after, 32 of 66 (48%) on the second day, 14 of 66 on the third, and six of 66 (9%) on the fourth. The average DRS-R-98 total scores on day -4 to day -1 before delirium were 1.9 for the comparison group patients and 5.0, 4.3, 5.8, and 10.7 for patients with postoperative delirium. Multivariate analysis showed that the early symptoms memory impairments, incoherence, disorientation, and underlying somatic illness predict delirium. Most elderly patients undergoing hip surgery with postoperative delirium already have early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium. These findings are potentially useful for screening purposes and for optimizing prevention strategies targeted at reducing the incidence of postoperative delirium.

  15. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  16. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  17. MCP/CCR2 signaling is essential for recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early phase of fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate chemokine profiles and their functional roles in the early phase of fracture healing in mouse models. METHODS: The expression profiles of chemokines were examined during fracture healing in wild-type (WT mice using a polymerase chain reaction array and histological staining. The functional effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 on primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs was evaluated using an in vitro migration assay. MCP-1-/- and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2-/- mice were fractured and evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. RS102895, an antagonist of CCR2, was continuously administered in WT mice before or after rib fracture and evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. Bone graft exchange models were created in WT and MCP-1-/- mice and were evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. RESULTS: MCP-1 and MCP-3 expression in the early phase of fracture healing were up-regulated, and high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-3 protein expression observed in the periosteum and endosteum in the same period. MCP-1, but not MCP-3, increased migration of mBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Fracture healing in MCP-1-/- and CCR2-/- mice was delayed compared with WT mice on day 21. Administration of RS102895 in the early, but not in the late phase, caused delayed fracture healing. Transplantation of WT-derived graft into host MCP-1-/- mice significantly increased new bone formation in the bone graft exchange models. Furthermore, marked induction of MCP-1 expression in the periosteum and endosteum was observed around the WT-derived graft in the host MCP-1-/- mouse. Conversely, transplantation of MCP-1-/- mouse-derived grafts into host WT mice markedly decreased new bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in the periosteum and endosteum is essential for the recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the early phase of fracture healing.

  18. Nano-scale clusters formed in the early stage of phase decomposition of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirosawa, S.; Sato, T. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The formation of nano-scale clusters (nanoclusters) prior to the precipitation of the strengthening {beta}'' phase significantly influences two-step aging behavior of Al-Mg-Si alloys. In this work, the existence of two kinds of nanoclusters has been verified in the early stage of phase decomposition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP). Pre-aging treatment at 373 K before natural aging was also found to form preferentially one of the two nanoclusters, resulting in the remarkable restoration of age-hardenability at paint-bake temperatures. Such microstructural control by means of optimized heat-treatments; i.e. nanocluster assist processing (NCAP), possesses great potential for enabling Al-Mg-Si alloys to be used more widely as a body-sheet material of automobiles. (orig.)

  19. Orientation selection process during the early stage of cubic dendrite growth: A phase-field crystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sai; Wang Zhijun; Guo Yaolin; Wang Jincheng; Yu Yanmei; Zhou Yaohe

    2012-01-01

    Using the phase-field crystal model, we investigate the orientation selection of the cubic dendrite growth at the atomic scale. Our simulation results reproduce how a face-centered cubic (fcc) octahedral nucleus and a body-centered cubic (bcc) truncated-rhombic dodecahedral nucleus choose the preferred growth direction and then evolve into the dendrite pattern. The interface energy anisotropy inherent in the fcc crystal structure leads to the fastest growth velocity in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. New { 1 1 1} atomic layers prefer to nucleate at positions near the tips of the fcc octahedron, which leads to the directed growth of the fcc dendrite tips in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. A similar orientation selection process is also found during the early stage of bcc dendrite growth. The orientation selection regime obtained by phase-field crystal simulation is helpful for understanding the orientation selection processes of real dendrite growth.

  20. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini; Sergio Suriano; Luca Mazzucchelli

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 9 9 m T c -pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissu...

  1. Phase-based x-ray scattering—A possible method to detect cancer cells in a very early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feye-Treimer, U., E-mail: feye-treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de; Treimer, W. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: This theoretical work contains a detailed investigation of the potential and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray scattering for cancer detection in biopsies if cancer is in a very early stage of development. Methods: Cancer cells in their early stage of development differ from healthy ones mainly due to their faster growing cell nuclei and the enlargement of their densities. This growth is accompanied by an altered nucleus–plasma relation for the benefit of the cell nuclei, that changes the physical properties especially the index of refraction of the cell and the one of the cell nuclei. Interaction of radiation with matter is known to be highly sensitive to small changes of the index of refraction of matter; therefore a detection of such changes of volume and density of cell nuclei by means of high angular resolved phase-based scattering of x rays might provide a technique to distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones ifthe cell–cell nucleus system is considered as a coherent phase shifting object. Then one can observe from a thin biopsy which represents a monolayer of cells (no multiple scattering) that phase-based x-ray scattering curves from healthy cells differ from those of cancer cells in their early stage of development. Results: Detailed calculations of x-ray scattering patterns from healthy and cancer cell nuclei yield graphs and numbers with which one can distinguish healthy cells from cancer ones, taking into account that both kinds of cells occur in a tissue within a range of size and density. One important result is the role and the influence of the (lateral) coherence width of the radiation on the scattering curves and the sensitivity of phase-based scattering for cancer detection. A major result is that a larger coherence width yields a larger sensitivity for cancer detection. Further import results are calculated limits for critical sizes and densities of cell nuclei in order to attribute the investigated tissue to be healthy or

  2. Extension of quality-by-design concept to the early development phase of pharmaceutical R&D processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Ildikó; Pallagi, Edina; Paál, Tamás L

    2018-03-27

    Here, we propose the extension of the quality-by-design (QbD) concept to also fit the early development phases of pharmaceuticals by adding elements that are currently widely applied, but not yet included in the QbD model in a structured way. These are the introduction of a 'zero' preformulation phase (i.e., selection of drug substance, possible dosage forms and administration routes based on the evaluated therapeutic need); building in stakeholders' (industry, patient, and regulatory) requirements into the quality target product profile (QTTP); and the use of modern quality management tools during the composition and process design phase [collecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) and selection of CPPs) for (still laboratory-scale) design space (DS) development. Moreover, during industrial scale-up, CQAs (as well as critical process parameters; CPPs) can be changed; however, we recommend that the existing QbD elements are reconsidered and updated after this phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. S-phase Synchronization Facilitates the Early Progression of Induced-Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming through Enhanced Cell-Cycle Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektik, Emre; Dennis, Adrienne; Pawlowski, Gary; Zhou, Chen; Maleski, Danielle; Takahashi, Satoru; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle; Fu, Ji-Dong

    2018-05-04

    Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU)⁺/α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP⁺ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFP high iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFP low cells. However, S-phase synchronization did not enhance the reprogramming with a polycistronic-viral vector, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.

  4. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-23

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma

  5. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fleming, Ian N. [University of Aberdeen, NCRI PET Research Network, Aberdeen Bioimaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cunningham, Vincent J. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul K. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM National Institute of Health and Clinical Sciences LaTIM, CHU Morvan, Brest (France); Gee, Antony D. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, KCL Division of Imaging, Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kinahan, Paul E. [University of Washington, 222 Old Fisheries Center (FIS), Box 357987, Seattle, WA (United States); Clarke, Larry [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [{sup 15}O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  7. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing mathematical transmission models and improve disease forecasts.

  8. Regenerative hair waves in aging mice and extra-follicular modulators follistatin, dkk1, and sfrp4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Murray, Philip J; Jiang, Ting Xin; Plikus, Maksim V; Chang, Yun-Ting; Lee, Oscar K; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Hair cycling is modulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to hair follicles. Cycling defects lead to conditions such as aging-associated alopecia. Recently, we demonstrated that mouse skin exhibits regenerative hair waves, reflecting a coordinated regenerative behavior in follicle populations. Here, we use this model to explore the regenerative behavior of aging mouse skin. Old mice (>18 months) tracked over several months show that with progressing age, hair waves slow down, wave propagation becomes restricted, and hair cycle domains fragment into smaller domains. Transplanting aged donor mouse skin to a young host can restore donor cycling within a 3 mm range of the interface, suggesting that changes are due to extracellular factors. Therefore, hair stem cells in aged skin can be reactivated. Molecular studies show that extra-follicular modulators Bmp2, Dkk1, and Sfrp4 increase in early anagen. Further, we identify follistatin as an extra-follicular modulator, which is highly expressed in late telogen and early anagen. Indeed, follistatin induces hair wave propagation and its level decreases in aging mice. We present an excitable medium model to simulate the cycling behavior in aging mice and illustrate how the interorgan macroenvironment can regulate the aging process by integrating both "activator" and "inhibitor" signals.

  9. A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial after stroke (AVERT): a Phase III, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorne, Peter; Wu, Olivia; Rodgers, Helen; Ashburn, Ann; Bernhardt, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Mobilising patients early after stroke [early mobilisation (EM)] is thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of stroke unit care but it is poorly defined and lacks direct evidence of benefit. We assessed the effectiveness of frequent higher dose very early mobilisation (VEM) after stroke. We conducted a parallel-group, single-blind, prospective randomised controlled trial with blinded end-point assessment using a web-based computer-generated stratified randomisation. The trial took place in 56 acute stroke units in five countries. We included adult patients with a first or recurrent stroke who met physiological inclusion criteria. Patients received either usual stroke unit care (UC) or UC plus VEM commencing within 24 hours of stroke. The primary outcome was good recovery [modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-2] 3 months after stroke. Secondary outcomes at 3 months were the mRS, time to achieve walking 50 m, serious adverse events, quality of life (QoL) and costs at 12 months. Tertiary outcomes included a dose-response analysis. Patients, outcome assessors and investigators involved in the trial were blinded to treatment allocation. We recruited 2104 (UK, n  = 610; Australasia, n  = 1494) patients: 1054 allocated to VEM and 1050 to UC. Intervention protocol targets were achieved. Compared with UC, VEM patients mobilised 4.8 hours [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1 to 5.7 hours; p  pattern of an improved odds of efficacy and safety outcomes in association with increased daily frequency of out-of-bed sessions but a reduced odds with an increased amount of mobilisation (minutes per day). UC clinicians started mobilisation earlier each year altering the context of the trial. Other potential confounding factors included staff patient interaction. Patients in the VEM group were mobilised earlier and with a higher dose of therapy than those in the UC group, which was already early. This VEM protocol was associated with reduced odds of favourable

  10. Administration of Zinc plus Cyclo-(His-Pro Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats during the Early Phase of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis in diabetes mellitus have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the effects of zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro (ZC on neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus after streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. ZC (27 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily for one or six weeks from the third day after the STZ injection, and histological evaluation was performed at 10 (early phase or 45 (late phase days after STZ injection. We found that the proliferation of progenitor cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed an increase in the early phase. Additionally, ZC treatment remarkably increased the number of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and immature neurons in the early phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, ZC treatment showed increased survival rate of newly generated cells but no difference in the level of neurogenesis in the late phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that zinc supplementation by ZC increases both NPCs proliferation and neuroblast production at the early phase of diabetes. Thus, this study suggests that zinc supplemented with a histidine/proline complex may have beneficial effects on neurogenesis in patients experiencing the early phase of Type 1 diabetes.

  11. Phase 0 Trial of Itraconazole for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    physicians, mid-level providers, and clinic nurses . We prepared “cheat sheets” for these individuals that contained contact information and a basic...construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of this phase 0 clinical trial is to determine the pharmacodynamic effects of

  12. Tendances Carbone no. 79 'Free allocations under Phase 3 benchmarks: early evidence of what has changed'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: One of the most controversial changes to the EU ETS in Phase 3 (2013-2020) has been the introduction of emissions-performance benchmarks for determining free allocations to non-electricity producers. Phases 1 and 2 used National Allocation Plans (NAPs). For practical reasons NAPs were drawn up by each Member State, but this led to problems, including over-generous allowance allocation, insufficiently harmonised allocations across countries and distorted incentives to reduce emissions. Benchmarking tries to fix things by allocating the equivalent of 100% of allowances needed if every installation used the best available technology. But this is not universally popular and industries say that they might lose international competitiveness. So a new study by CDC Climat and the Climate Economics Chair examined the data from the preliminary Phase 3 free allocations of 20 EU Member States and asked: how much are free allocations actually going to change with benchmarking?

  13. Assessing the influence of project management on quality during the early phases of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevo Žanesa

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the quality of a process affects the quality of the end product, there is currently an insignif­icant amount of knowledge about the quality of project management (PM processes that directly affect the quality of the delivered product (constructed building. This study presents a proposal for modeling the impact of the quality of the PM process on the quality of the con­structed building. The quality of the PM process is rep­resented by the main quality factors and product quality indicators. It presents the results of the interviews that were conducted and study cases that were analyzed in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a variety of project partici­pants (with different managerial perspectives in terms of the indicators of quality of the delivered product. All par­ticipants, regardless of managerial perspective, believe that the most important indicator of the quality of prod­ucts for each phase of the project is “customer satisfaction in the end phase”, the measurement of which is different for each project phase that is presented. The results of the factor analysis of the definition and the planning phases show that 11 variables, namely, the quality factors of the PM process, can be grouped into three new factors, which is described as 66.61% (77.046% of the basic set of vari­ables.

  14. QCD phase transition in the laboratory and in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Bikash

    1998-01-01

    It is expected that two nuclei colliding at ultra-relativistic energies (∼ 200 GeV/nucleon or more) may lead to hadronic matter go through a phase transition to its fundamental constituents, quarks and gluons, usually referred to as quark gluon plasma (QGP). Somewhat analogously, the universe, as per conventional wisdom should have consisted of quarks, gluons, leptons and photons, a microsecond after the Big Bang. The experience and wisdom, expected from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the laboratory and anticipated to facilitate our understanding of the quark-hadron phase transition. Indeed what possible footprints of that primordial epoch can be traced in today's cosmos is one of the interesting and intriguing questions. In this paper, the following areas will be focused: the issue of successive thermal and chemical equilibrium scenarios; a detailed study of hot hadronic matter and its implication on the thermal model; and finally, the surviving quark nuggets beyond a critical baryon content, and, nuggets being possible candidates for baryonic dark matter in the universe, a much more straightforward candidate than illusive actions or SUSY particles. It is our considered view that quark hadron phase transition in the microsecond universe is a thriving area of research and lot more can be understood and known from this primordial event. (author)

  15. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  16. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  17. Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hunsucker, S.W.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Helmke, S.M.; Slootweg, P.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Haugen, B.R.; Duncan, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Distinguishing between benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) by cytologic features alone is not possible. Molecular markers may aid distinguishing FTA from FTC in patients with indeterminate cytology. The aim of this study is to define protein

  18. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  19. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, nucleotide phosophate, and organic and inorganic phosphate levels during the early phases of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Y; Gerson, J R; Bessman, A N

    1977-05-01

    The relation between serum and red blood cell (RBC) inorganic phosphate levels, RBC 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels, RBC nucleotide phosphate (Pn), and RBC total phosphate (Pt) levels were studied during the early phases of treatment and recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A steady drop in serum inorganic phosphate was found during the first 24 hours of insulin treatment and was most profound at 24 hours. No statistically significant changes (P less than 0.05) were found in red cell inorganic phosphate or nucleotide phosphate levels during the 24-hour study period. The levels of total red cell phosphate were lower in this group of patients than in nonacidotic diabetic subjects and decreased slightly after 24 hours of treatment. The red cell 2,3-DPG levels were low at the initiation of therapy and remained low during the 24-hour study period. Glucose, bicarbonate, lactate, and ketone levels fell in linear patterns with treatment. In view of the current evidence for the effects of low 2,3-DPG on oxygen delivery and the relation of low serum phosphate levels to RBC glycolysis and 2,3-DPG formation, this study reemphasizes the need for phosphate replacement during the early phases of treatment of DKA.

  20. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  1. Correlation of early-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Wen-Chun [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Kung, Mei-Ping [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    {sup 18}F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R{sub 1}) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R{sub 1} images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R{sub 1} and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R{sub 1} images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R{sub 1}. A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R{sub 1} and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images. (orig.)

  2. Correlation of early-phase 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Wen-Chun; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    18 F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R 1 ) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R 1 images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R 1 and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R 1 images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R 1 . A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R 1 and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images. (orig.)

  3. Histopathologic Evaluation of Follicular Tissues Associated with Impacted Third Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorasani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to histopathologically evaluate follicular tissues of third molars with pericoronal radiolucenciesof less than 2 millimeters.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, 100 impacted third molars with normal follicular spaces were removed and their pericoronaltissues submitted for histopathologic examination. Different characteristicsof the epithelium and connective tissue were evaluated in all cases. Statisti-cal analysis was performed using chi square and Mann-Whitney tests.Results: In our study sample, 74% of the patients were female and 26% were male, ranging in age from 13 to 54 years (mean, 25.3 years. Lining epithelium was observed in 69% of the specimens of which 31%, 23% and 14% was cuboidal, squamous and columnar, respectively. A significant re-lationship was found between the presence of squamous epithelium and pa-tient age (P<0.05. Nonspecific chronic inflammation was the only patho-logic finding observed in 44% of the specimens. Inflammation was signifi-cantly associated with age and squamous metaplasia (P<0.05.Conclusion: Considering that pathologic lesions were not observed in anyof the studied cases, unerupted third molars should not be removed unless there is a clinical indication to do so, or in case the impacted molar shows evidence of pathological changes. Follow-up is suggested for asympto-matic impacted third molars.

  4. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  5. Dermoscopy of inverted follicular keratosis: study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambrich, A; Zaballos, P; Taberner, R; Terrasa, F; Bañuls, J; Pizarro, A; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2016-07-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is an uncommon benign tumour of the follicular infundibulum, which is often misdiagnosed clinically as other keratinizing tumours, and commonly diagnosed correctly by histopathology. There are few reports about the dermoscopic findings of this lesion. To evaluate the dermoscopic features of IFK. The dermoscopic structures and patterns in digital dermoscopic images of 12 histopathologically confirmed cases of IFK collected from 5 hospitals in Spain were evaluated. A keratoacanthoma (KA)-like pattern composed of central keratin surrounded by hairpin vessels in a radial arrangement was the most common pattern in IFK (58.3%). The second most common pattern was composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area surrounded by vascular structures in a radial arrangement (33.3%). The remaining case showed a pattern composed of a yellowish-white amorphous central area with milky red globules. Vascular structures were present in all cases, with a monomorphic pattern in seven cases and a polymorphic pattern in five, mainly with radial arrangement. Arborizing vessels, linear irregular vessels, corkscrew vessels and milky red globules were present in some cases. We describe the two main patterns of IFK. Lesions with a KA-like pattern are clinically and dermoscopically undistinguishable from KA and squamous cell carcinoma. Cases with a polymorphic vascular pattern could be confused with malignant tumours, including basal cell carcinoma and amelanotic melanoma. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Transcriptomes of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Romereim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip® Gene 1.0 ST Array RNA expression analysis was performed on four somatic ovarian cell types: the granulosa cells (GCs and theca cells (TCs of the dominant follicle and the large luteal cells (LLCs and small luteal cells (SLCs of the corpus luteum. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE83524. Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥2 fold more or decreased (≤−2 fold less in one cell type compared to all three other cell types, and these analyzed and filtered datasets are presented as tables. Genes that were shared in enriched expression in both follicular cell types (GCs and TCs or in both luteal cells types (LLCs and SLCs are also reported in tables. The standard deviation of the analyzed array data in relation to the log of the expression values is shown as a figure. These data have been further analyzed and interpreted in the companion article “Gene expression profiling of ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions” (Romereim et al., 2017 [1].

  7. Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodonawa, Masahiko; Tanaka, Sohkichi; Kohno, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Zenichiro; Tamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro.

    1987-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  8. Primary Follicular Lymphoma of the Common Bile Duct Mimicking Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Youssef Elbanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the common bile duct is extremely rare. We present a case with history of inflammatory bowel disease and clinical manifestations of obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP was done and demonstrated tight stricture at the middle part of common bile duct, and radiological findings were supportive of extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Whipple′s procedure was performed and the case was histopathologically proven to be non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of follicular subtype involving the common bile duct. Lymphoma of the hepatobiliary system is usually present as secondary manifestation of systemic malignant lymphoma. However, primary malignant lymphomas arising from the hepatobiliary tree are extremely rare. The radiological appearance of common bile duct lymphoma is very similar to cholangiocarcinoma, making preoperative diagnosis very difficult, as in our present case. We also compare the imaging findings of our case to those seen in reported cases of follicular lymphoma of the common bile duct.

  9. Impact of obinutuzumab alone and in combination for follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarraf Yazdy M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Sarraf Yazdy, Bruce D Cheson Division of Hematology-Oncology, Georgetown University Hospital, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Although rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL, this disease is considered incurable in most patients. Thus, new therapies are needed not only for those in the relapsed/refractory setting, but also for initial treatment. Obinutuzumab (G, GA101 is a third-generation, fully humanized type II glycoengineered, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that results in increased direct cell death and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity/phagocytosis compared to rituximab. Obinutuzumab has significant antitumor activity when used alone or in combinations in untreated or relapsed refractory FL patients. Studies have demonstrated its ability to prolong progression-free survival and, in some cases, overall survival, and to eliminate minimal residual disease. Several ongoing trials are investigating combinations with chemotherapy, immunomodulators, targeted drugs, and immunotherapy agents. G is generally well tolerated, with associated adverse effects including infusion-related reactions, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and reactivation of hepatitis B virus. Future studies with this antibody should focus on identifying predictive markers and developing chemotherapy-free combinations that will improve the outcome of patients with FL. Keywords: obinutuzumab, follicular lymphoma, MRD, monoclonal antibody

  10. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  12. Early phase clean-up actions after nuclear accidents. Guidelines for the planner. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.

    1997-06-01

    The work reported has been performed with the purpose of working out a guide for planners of early clean-up actions in nuclear fallout situations and for decision makers in the Nordic countries. The actions considered are hosing of roofs, walls and paved areas, lawn mowing, removal of snow, pruning of trees and bushes and vacuum cleaning of streets. The expected effects, mainly as life time dose reduction, and consequences regarding practicability, waste produced, staffing and protection are presented for urban, suburban and rural living environments. The work has been performed within the fram work of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994-97 (Statens Raeddningsverk). (au)

  13. A patient presenting with spinal cord compression who had two distinct follicular cell type thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, E; Sokmensuer, C; Yildiz, B O; Engin, H; Bozkurt, M F; Aras, T; Barista, I; Gurlek, A

    2004-06-01

    A 61-yr-old woman presented with complaints of weakness and pain in her legs. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3 x 5.6 x 7.8 cm mass lesion destructing the T1 and T2 vertebral bodies and compressing the spinal cord. The mass was excised surgically. It was follicular carcinoma metastasis of the cervicodorsal region. Then, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination showed two different types of carcinomas in two different focuses; follicular carcinoma in the left lobe and follicular variant papillary carcinoma in the isthmic lobe. After the operation she was given 100 mCi 131I. This is the first report of a patient who had both metastatic follicular carcinoma and follicular variant papillary carcinoma together.

  14. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Simona; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Mazza, Elisa; Rotundo, Stefania; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20%) was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively). Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding. PMID:24270952

  15. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grasso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20% was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively. Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day. CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding.

  16. Aural exostoses (surfer's ear) provide vital fossil evidence of an aquatic phase in Man's early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys Evans, P H; Cameron, M

    2017-11-01

    For over a century, otolaryngologists have recognised the condition of aural exostoses, but their significance and aetiology remains obscure, although they tend to be associated with frequent swimming and cold water immersion of the auditory canal. The fact that this condition is usually bilateral is predictable since both ears are immersed in water. However, why do exostoses only grow in swimmers and why do they grow in the deep bony meatus at two or three constant sites? Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, what is or was the purpose and function of these rather incongruous protrusions? In recent decades, paleoanthropological evidence has challenged ideas about early hominid evolution. In 1992 the senior author suggested that aural exostoses were evolved in early hominid Man for protection of the delicate tympanic membrane during swimming and diving by narrowing the ear canal in a similar fashion to other semiaquatic species. We now provide evidence for this theory and propose an aetiological explanation for the formation of exostoses.

  17. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Zaytseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement.

  18. Clinical factors of response in patients with advanced ovarian cancer participating in early phase clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Angela; Kristeleit, Rebecca; Rafii, Saeed; Michie, Caroline O; Bowen, Rebecca; Michalarea, Vasiliki; van Hagen, Tom; Wong, Mabel; Rallis, Grigorios; Molife, L Rhoda; Lopez, Juanita; Banerji, Udai; Banerjee, Susana N; Gore, Martin E; de Bono, Johann S; Kaye, Stan B; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-05-01

    Drug resistance to conventional anticancer therapies is almost inevitable in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC), limiting their available treatment options. Novel phase I trial therapies within a dedicated drug development unit may represent a viable alternative; however, there is currently little evidence for patient outcomes in such patients. To address this, we undertook a retrospective review of patients with AOC allocated to phase I trials in the Drug Development Unit at Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) between June 1998 and October 2010. A total of 200 AOC patients with progressive disease were allocated to ≥1 trial each, with a total of 281 allocations. Of these, 135 (68%) patients commenced ≥1 trial (mean 1.4 [1-8]), totaling 216 allocated trials; 65 (32%) patients did not start due to deterioration resulting from rapidly progressive disease (63 patients) or patient choice (2 patients). Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) complete/partial responses (CR/PR) were observed in 43 (20%) of those starting trials, including those on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (18/79 [23%]), antiangiogenics (9/65 [14%]) and chemotherapy combinations (14/43 [33%]). Factors associated with CR/PR included: fewer prior treatments, platinum-sensitive disease, CR/PR with prior therapy, (the United States-based) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score, fewer metastatic sites, higher albumin and haemoglobin levels, lower white cell counts and baseline CA125 levels, germline BRCA1/2 mutations and better RMH Prognostic Score. Mean survival was 32° months for patients who achieved CR/PR. Treatments were generally well tolerated. Most patients with AOC (134/200 [67%]) received ≥1 subsequent line of therapy after phase I trials. Our data suggest that phase I trial referrals should be considered earlier in the AOC treatment pathway and before the onset of rapid disease progression particularly with the emergence of

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  7. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Jakstadt, Manuela; Hoff, Holger; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Lang, Annemarie; Röhner, Eric; Huscher, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Perka, Carsten; Duda, Georg N.; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients. PMID:28282868

  8. Monitoring early phases of orthodontic treatment by means of Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Perillo, Letizia; Delfino, Ines; Portaccio, Marianna; Lepore, Maria; Camerlingo, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a site-specific exudate in the gingival sulcus. GCF composition changes in response to diseases or mechanical stimuli, such as those occurring during orthodontic treatments. Raman microspectroscopy (μ-RS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were adopted for a GCF analysis during different initial phases of orthodontic force application. GCF samples were pooled from informed patients using paper cones. SERS spectra were obtained from GCF extracted from these cones, whereas μ-RS spectra were directly acquired on paper cones without any manipulation. The spectral characteristics of the main functional groups and the changes in cytochrome, amide III, and amide I contributions were highlighted in the different phases of orthodontic treatment with both SERS and μ-RS analysis. μ-RS directly performed on the paper cones together with proper statistical methods can offer an effective approach for the development of a tool for monitoring the processes occurring during orthodontic treatments, which may help the clinician in the choice of type of treatment individually for each patient and accelerate and improve the orthodontic therapy.

  9. MRI techniques and cognitive impairment in the early phase of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, R.; De Masi, R.; Nasuelli, D.; Monti Bragadin, L.; Cazzato, G.; Zorzon, M.; Ukmar, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Grop, A.

    2001-01-01

    Correlation studies between various conventional and non-conventional MRI parameters and cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking, although it is known that a number of patients with early MS have mild cognitive impairment. Our aim was to explore whether this cognitive impairment is dependent on the extent and severity of the burden of disease, diffuse microscopic brain damage or both. We studied 63 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, duration of disease 1-10 years and Expanded disability status scale scores ≤ 5.0. Mean age was 35.4 years, mean duration of disease 5.8 years and median EDSS score 1.5. Neuropsychological performance, psychological function, neurological impairment and disability were assessed. The patients also underwent MRI, including magnetisation-transfer (MT) studies. We quantified the lesion load on T2- and T1-weighted images, the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). No significant difference was found between lesion loads in patients with and without cognitive impairment. In 15 patients (23.8 %) with overall cognitive impairment, median BPF and average NABT MTR were significantly lower than those in patients without cognitive impairment (0.868 vs 0.892, P = 0.02 and 28.3 vs 29.7 P = 0.046, respectively). Multiple regression analysis models demonstrated that the only variables independently correlated with cognitive impairment were: BPF (R = 0.89, P = 0.001) and average NABT MTR (R = 0.76, P = 0.012). Our findings support the hypothesis that, cognitive decline in patients with MS, a low disability score and short duration of disease is directly associated with the extent and severity of diffuse brain damage. The loss of brain parenchyma did not correlate with the severity of microscopic damage in the NABT, indicating that the two processes could be distinct in the early stages of the disease. (orig.)

  10. Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Le; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Man; Wang, Ni; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) before surgery, because the morphologies of carcinoma cells and adenoma cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are similar. Molecular markers may be helpful on this issue. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 mRNA expression levels were examined in 15 FTCs and 10 FTAs using real-time RT-PCR. FTC showed to have significantly increased mRNA levels of the three molecules compared to FTA (P FTA, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 protein expression were correlated with one another in FTC and concomitant high expression of the three molecules had stronger correlation with the occurrence of FTC than did each alone. The positive predictive values (PPV) for concomitant high expression of the three molecules for discriminating between FTC and FTA were 91.0% for GPER1/EGFR, 93.8% for GPER1/CXCR1, 92.3% for EGFR/CXCR1 and 98.2% for GPER1/EGFR/CXCR1, respectively. These results indicated that the evaluation of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 concomitant high expression may be helpful in differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA. PMID:26617848

  11. Glucose balance and muscle glycogen during TPN in the early post-operative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Stjernström, H; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    1985-01-01

    In order to study how muscle glycogen is influenced by different nutritional regimens in the early post-operative period we took muscle biopsies from 20 patients preoperatively and on the fourth post-operative day after abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients received 93% of non-protein energy......-production) were performed and from these data glucose balance was calculated as the difference between glucose intake and glucose expenditure. Muscle biopsies were analysed for glycogen, adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, lactate and citrate. We found that it was possible to maintain muscle...... glycogen stores at pre-operative levels with a glucose-insulin regimen. With the fat regimen there was a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen and two patients had a negative glucose balance despite the fact that 150 g of glucose were given. Average glucose balance throughout the study correlated positively...

  12. Dynamic building simulation model in the early design phase; Dynamisch simulatiemodel in het vroege ontwerpstadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standaert, P.; Somogyi, Z. [Physibel, Maldegem (Belgium)

    2002-09-01

    It is demonstrated that a relatively complex, validated calculation model can be used successfully in the early design stage by both building design engineers and the layman. First, an outline is given of the CAPSOL calculation model, which is intended for professional design engineers. This is followed by a discussion of the CAPSOL Visual Interface, a program in which the degree of difficulty involved in using the CAPSOL model is significantly reduced. [Dutch] Dit artikel toont aan dat een relatief ingewikkeld en gevalideerd rekenmodel met succes in het vroege ontwerpstadium kan worden gebruikt door zowel bouwfysici als leken. Daartoe wordt eerst het rekenmodel CAPSOL uitgelegd. Dit model is bedoeld voor gebruik door bouwfysici. Daarna wordt de 'CAPSOL Visual Interface' toegelicht. In deze interface is de moeilijkheidsgraad om het rekenmodel CAPSOL te gebruiken in belangrijke mate gereduceerd.

  13. Psychosocial and psychoeducational group program for main caregiver of mentally sick in early phase of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estíbaliz Amaro Martín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization processes in recent times have led to a new age in relations between family and mental health professionals. Care professionals were replaced, after the psychiatric reform, for care carried out by the family without the knowledge, information and skills to assume these functions. This is the situation of many families of patients with schizophrenia.Disabling features of schizophrenia usually cause depends on their families, who take care with the consequent impact on their lives. Psychosocial interventions assessing their work and want to build an alliance with them by giving them skills and coping mechanisms to reduce adverse family atmosphere, anticipate and solve problems and reduce the expressions of anger and guilt keeping appropiate expectations. However, these actions must be enforced by providing main caregivers with the skills that enable them to gain control, this is the main target of psychoeducational programs.Today there are many people in favour of such interventions in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, it is no clear how far development of these programs is supported by evidence of effectiveness. So it has proposed a psychosocial and psychoeducational program aimed at main caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in early stages. This program will be led by a psychiatric nurse in collaboration with other professionals in the interdisciplinary team; psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and social worker. It has developed clinical trial with a control group who will receive the gide for families, caregivers and people affected, "Cómo afrontar la esquizofrenia," and an experimental group will receive, in addition to the guide, the group intervention sessions.

  14. Inhibin-B secretion and FSH isoform distribution may play an integral part of follicular selection in the natural menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C. Yding

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to expand the concept on how follicular selection takes place in the follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle. It is suggested that inhibin-B exerts a more intimate role in this process than previously understood. Inhibin-B shows a peak in the circulation...... around cycle day 7, simultaneous with selection of the dominant follicle, whereas levels of estradiol and inhibin-A only start to increase a few days later suggesting that inhibin-B is mainly responsible for downregulating pituitary FSH release. New data now demonstrate that the circulatory peak...... of inhibin-B is reflected by peak production of inhibin-B, in contrast to inhibin-A, in the selected follicle with a diameter of 10-12 mm, where concentrations are one thousand times higher than in the circulation. This high inhibin-B concentration also exerts paracrine effects, stimulating theca cell...

  15. Does a phase transition in the early universe produce the conditions needed for inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazenko, G.F.; Unruh, W.G.; Wald, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    In the standard ''new inflationary scenario,'' it is assumed that when the Higgs field phi is cooled below its phase-transition temperature T/sub c/ it is found in a metastable state which has negligible kinetic and spatial-derivative energy but has large, positive potential energy V 0 . Hence, in this picture, the stress-energy tensor of phi is of the form T/sub a/b = -V 0 g/sub ab/ and remains of this form until the state becomes unstable and ''rolls down the hill'' to its true minimum at phi = phi/sub c/. With this stress-energy tensor Einstein's equation for a Robertson-Walker model predicts expansion of the universe on an exponential time scale, i.e., inflation. We argue here that, at least in many possible models this standard picture of the behavior of phi as it is cooled to T/sub c/ and below is wrong. Rather than be ''supercooled'' to a state with phiroughly-equal0 locally, the field should rapidly form domains with phi near +- phi/sub c/. The dynamics of the phase transition is governed by the growth and coalescence of these domains, not by a ''roll down the hill'' of the spatially averaged value of phi. Furthermore, the stress-energy tensor of phi does not take the form needed to produce inflation. Our arguments are based mainly on physical reasoning, but they are supported by the known behavior of certain condensed-matter systems

  16. Reconstruction of early phase deformations by integrated magnetic and mesotectonic data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, András A.; Márton, Emő; Fodor, László

    2018-02-01

    Markers of brittle faulting are widely used for recovering past deformation phases. Rocks often have oriented magnetic fabrics, which can be interpreted as connected to ductile deformation before cementation of the sediment. This paper reports a novel statistical procedure for simultaneous evaluation of AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) and fault-slip data. The new method analyzes the AMS data, without linearization techniques, so that weak AMS lineation and rotational AMS can be assessed that are beyond the scope of classical methods. This idea is extended to the evaluation of fault-slip data. While the traditional assumptions of stress inversion are not rejected, the method recovers the stress field via statistical hypothesis testing. In addition it provides statistical information needed for the combined evaluation of the AMS and the mesotectonic (0.1 to 10 m) data. In the combined evaluation a statistical test is carried out that helps to decide if the AMS lineation and the mesotectonic markers (in case of repeated deformation of the oldest set of markers) were formed in the same or different deformation phases. If this condition is met, the combined evaluation can improve the precision of the reconstruction. When the two data sets do not have a common solution for the direction of the extension, the deformational origin of the AMS is questionable. In this case the orientation of the stress field responsible for the AMS lineation might be different from that which caused the brittle deformation. Although most of the examples demonstrate the reconstruction of weak deformations in sediments, the new method is readily applicable to investigate the ductile-brittle transition of any rock formation as long as AMS and fault-slip data are available.

  17. Serum IgE and IgG4 against muscle larva excretory-secretory products during the early and late phases of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Marcela A; Forastiero, María A; Saracino, María P; Vila, Cecilia C; Venturiello, Stella M

    2017-11-01

    In human trichinellosis, the relevance of the presence and persistence of specific serum IgE and IgG4 during the early and late phases of infection is still controversial.The aim of this work was to determine the percentage of human sera presenting IgE and IgG4 against Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory products as well as their levels during the early and late phases of the infection. The antigen recognition pattern by serum total immunoglobulins (IgGAM), IgE, and IgG4 was assessed over time. Serum samples during early and late phases were analyzed by ELISA and immunoelectrotransfer blot (IETB).Results showed that (a)-IgE and IgG4 are present at constant levels in both phases; (b)-IgE recognized the glycoproteins of ~ 45 and ~ 55 kDa and IgG4 only the ~ 45 kDa; (c)-in the late phase, the percentage of specific IgE positive sera was higher than that of specific IgG4 by IETB; while in serum samples taken during the early phase, no differences were found between both isotypes; (d)-both isotypes displayed different glycoprotein recognition patterns: the pattern corresponding to IgE was coincident with that of IgGAM, comprising seven glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 116 to ~ 29 kDa), whereas IgG4 revealed four glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 97 to ~ 45 kDa), showing a different sera recognition percentage depending on the phase studied.In conclusion, IgE and IgG4 cannot be considered exclusive isotypes of neither the early nor the late phase of infection and they are as useful as the detection of total antibodies in the early diagnosis.

  18. Adaptive designs for dose-finding in non-cancer phase II trials: influence of early unexpected outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Zohar, Sarah; Chevret, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    In non-cancer phase II trials, dose-finding trials are usually carried out using fixed designs, in which several doses including a placebo are randomly distributed to patients. However, in certain vulnerable populations, such as neonates or infants, there is an heightened requirement for safety, precluding randomization. To estimate the minimum effective dose of a new drug from a non-cancer phase II trial, we propose the use of adaptive designs like the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM). This approach estimates the dose closest to some target response, and has been shown to be unbiased and efficient in cancer phase I trials. Based on a motivating example, we point out the individual influence of first outliers in this setting. A weighted version of the CRM is proposed as a theoretical benchmark to control for these outliers. Using simulations, we illustrate how this approach provides further insight into the behavior of the CRM. When dealing with low targets like a 10% failure rate, the CRM appears unable to rapidly overcome an early unexpected outcome. This behavior persisted despite changing the inference (Bayesian or likelihood), underlying dose-response model (though slightly improved using the power model), and the number of patients enrolled at each dose level. The choices for initial guesses of failure rates, the vague prior for the model parameter, and the log-log shape of weights can appear somewhat arbitrary. In phase II dose-finding studies in which failure targets are below 20%, the CRM appears quite sensitive to first unexpected outcomes. Using a power model for dose-response improves some behavior if the trial is started at the first dose level and includes at least three to five patients at the starting dose before applying the CRM allocation rule.

  19. Women in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle have difficulty suppressing the processing of negative emotional stimuli: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Emotion regulation deficits have been implicated in anxiety and depressive disorders, and these internalising disorders are more prevalent in women than men. Few electrophysiological studies have investigated sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation controlling for menstrual phase. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men who completed an emotion regulation task. A novel finding of increased N2 amplitude during suppression was found for midluteal women compared with men. These findings suggest midluteal women may be significantly less able to suppress cortical processing of negative stimuli compared to men. This ERP finding was complemented by behavioral ratings data which revealed that while both early follicular and midluteal women reported more distress than men, midluteal women also reported greater effort when suppressing their responses than men. P1 and N1 components were increased in midluteal women compared to men regardless of instructional set, suggesting greater early attentional processing. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in P3 or LPP. This study underscores the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of emotion regulation and demonstrates that midluteal women may have deficits in down-regulating their neural and behavioural responses.

  20. Use of 3-D modeling in the early development phase of pectin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Salbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of a 3-D model in an early development of pectin tablets. The aim of this work was to extract as much information of the compression behavior from as few tablets as possible. Pectins with various degrees of methoxylation (DM were studied (4%-72%. The compressibility was evaluated using classic “in-die” Heckel and Kawakita analyses in addition to the 3-D modeling. For validation purposes well-known reference materials were included. 3-D modeling applied to data of single tablets yielded some information on their compressibility. When several tablets with different maximum relative densities were included, no additional information was obtained through classic evaluation. However, the 3-D model provided additional information through the shape of the 3-D parameter plot. Pectins with a DM >= 25% consolidated predominantly by elastic deformation similarly to the 3-D parameter plot of pregelatinized starch (PGS. The 3-D analysis also suggests some degree of fragmentation and, for some of the low-methoxylated pectins (DM <= 10%, viscoelastic deformation. This study showed that by applying 3-D modeling it is possible to differentiate between elastic and viscoelastic materials for tablets with different relative density values.

  1. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  2. From Famine to Feast: Developing Early-Phase Combination Immunotherapy Trials Wisely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daphne; Monjazeb, Arta M; Sharon, Elad; Ivy, S Percy; Rubin, Eric H; Rosner, Gary L; Butler, Marcus O

    2017-09-01

    Not until the turn of this century has immunotherapy become a fundamental component of cancer treatment. While monotherapy with immune modulators, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, provides a subset of patients with durable clinical benefit and possible cure, combination therapy offers the potential for antitumor activity in a greater number of patients. The field of immunology has provided us with a plethora of potential molecules and pathways to target. This abundance makes it impractical to empirically test all possible combinations efficiently. We recommend that potential immunotherapy combinations be chosen based on sound rationale and available data to address the mechanisms of primary and acquired immune resistance. Novel trial designs may increase the proportion of patients receiving potentially efficacious treatments and, at the same time, better define the balance of clinical activity and safety. We believe that implementing a strategic approach in the early development of immunotherapy combinations will expedite the delivery of more effective therapies with improved safety and durable outcomes. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (Penergy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (Penergy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  4. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation: II. The role of connexin 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Tran, D. T.; Murray, D. K.; Rightnar, S. S.; Todd, S.; Nelson, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether connexin 32-type gap junctions contribute to the "contact effect" in follicular thyrocytes and whether the response is influenced by radiation quality. Our previous studies demonstrated that early-passage follicular cultures of Fischer rat thyroid cells express functional connexin 32 gap junctions, with later-passage cultures expressing a truncated nonfunctional form of the protein. This model allowed us to assess the role of connexin 32 in radiation responsiveness without relying solely on chemical manipulation of gap junctions. The survival curves generated after gamma irradiation revealed that early-passage follicular cultures had significantly lower values of alpha (0.04 Gy(-1)) than later-passage cultures (0.11 Gy(-1)) (P 0.1, n = 9). This strongly suggests that the presence of functional connexin 32-type gap junctions was contributing to radiation resistance in gamma-irradiated thyroid follicles. Survival curves from proton-irradiated cultures had alpha values that were not significantly different whether cells expressed functional connexin 32 (0.10 Gy(-1)), did not express connexin 32 (0.09 Gy(-1)), or were down-regulated (early-passage plus heptanol, 0.09 Gy(-1); late-passage plus heptanol, 0.12 Gy(-1)) (P > 0.1, n = 19). Thus, for proton irradiation, the presence of connexin 32-type gap junctional channels did not influence their radiosensitivity. Collectively, the data support the following conclusions. (1) The lower alpha values from the gamma-ray survival curves of the early-passage cultures suggest greater repair efficiency and/or enhanced resistance to radiation-induced damage, coincident with the expression of connexin 32-type gap junctions. (2) The increased sensitivity of FRTL-5 cells to proton irradiation was independent of their ability to communicate through connexin 32 gap junctions. (3) The fact that the beta components of the survival curves from both gamma rays and proton beams were

  5. Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

    2007-04-01

    Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change.

  6. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of aortocoronary bypass grafts in the early postoperative phase with peripheral-venous contrast medium injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuengerthal, S.; Lang, J.; Donhoeffner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a fully digitalised subtraction unit, aortocoronary bypass grafts can be visualised in the early postoperative phase by means of peripheral venous contrast medium injection (57 out of a total of 60 cases). In more than one-half of the cases (31 out of a total of 60), it is possible to outline sharply the bypass grafts from the beginning to their entry into the bridged-over coronary artery, in such a manner that any loops, kinks, stenoses or reduced flow rates can be recognised. This examination is not considered to be an invasive one by the patient, and the cardiosurgeon can welcome it as a valuable additional means of controlling and assessing the results of surgery. (orig.) [de

  7. The effect of an attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early treatment phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Hansen, Dorte Gilså

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients and partners both cope individually and as a dyad with challenges related to a breast cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a psychological attachment-oriented couple intervention for breast cancer patients and partners in the early...... treatment phase. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial including 198 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients and their partners. Couples were randomised to the Hand in Hand (HiH) intervention in addition to usual care or to usual care only. Self-report assessments were conducted for both patients...... and partners at baseline, post-intervention (5 months) and follow-up (10 months), assessing cancer-related distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dyadic adjustment. Patients' cancer-related distress was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Cancer-related distress decreased over time in both patients...

  8. Reliability of organic mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans in early phase of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in Streptococcus mutans count in the early phase of orthodontic treatment between organic and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group I: Organic mouthwash and Group II: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index, pocket depths, and level of S. mutans counts were calculated at the different intervals of time. Paired t-test in SPSS software was used for statistical evaluations. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of GI, PI, gingival bleeding index, and pocket depth as well as in the level of streptococcal count (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Null hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that organic mouthwash showed the lesser level of S. mutans count as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash hence it is recommended to use organic mouthwash.

  9. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaouss, M.; Corre, Y.; Languille, P.; Greuner, H.; Autissier, E.; Desgranges, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pocheau, C.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m-2 for the required pulse length.

  10. Experimental investigation of the dissolution of fractures. From early stage instability to phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselin, Florian; Budek, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Olgierd; Kondratiuk, Pawel; Garstecki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution of natural rocks is a fundamental geological process and a key part of landscape formation and weathering processes. Moreover, in current hot topics like Carbon Capture and Storage or Enhanced Oil Recovery, mastering dissolution of the host rock is fundamental for the efficiency and the security of the operation. The basic principles of dissolution are well-known and the theory of the reactive infiltration instability has been extensively studied. However, the experimental aspect has proved very challenging because of the strong dependence of the outcome with pore network, chemical composition, flow rate... In this study we are trying to tackle this issue by using a very simple and efficient device consisting of a chip of pure gypsum inserted between two polycarbonate plates and subjected to a constant flow rate of pure water. Thanks to this device, we are able to control all parameters such as flow rate, fracture aperture, roughness of the walls... but also to observe in situ the progression of the dissolution thanks to the transparency of the polycarbonate which is impossible with 3D rocks. We have been using this experimental set-up to explore and investigate all aspects of the dissolution in a fracture, such as initial instability and phase diagram of different dissolution patterns, and to compare it with theory and simulations, yielding very good agreement and interesting feedbacks on the coupling between flow and chemistry in geological media

  11. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdaouss, M; Corre, Y; Languille, P; Autissier, E; Desgranges, C; Guilhem, D; Gunn, J P; Lipa, M; Missirlian, M; Pascal, J-Y; Pocheau, C; Richou, M; Tsitrone, E; Greuner, H

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m −2 for the required pulse length. (paper)

  12. Effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by calculating their Pearson's correlation coefficient.Aging induced time-dependent reduction in micro-tensile bond strengths for all the tested adhesive systems, although such reduction for the single-step self-etching adhesive G-Bond (GB was not statistically significant. The bond strength of the two-step self-etching primer adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond (SEB was similar to that of the two-step etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesive system Single Bond 2 (SB, and they were both significantly reduced after one or four months of aging. A negative correlation was found between the degree of collagen degradation and magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength (r = -0.65, p = 0.003. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.426, indicating that 42.6% of the aging-induced reduction in bond strength can be explained by the degradation of collagen.In the early phase of dentin bonding, there was a negative correlation between the degree of collagen degradation and the magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength. The reduction of bond strength was accompanied by the degradation of collagen. These results provide evidence for the causative relationship between the degradation of collagen and the deterioration of dentin-adhesive interface.

  13. Main corrective measures in an early phase of nuclear power plants’ preparation for safe long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Operational Safety Section, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Fiedler, Jan, E-mail: fiedler@fme.vutbr.cz [University of Technology Brno, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Results of SALTO missions provide the most important issues for safe long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants. • The most important technical corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO are described. • Their satisfactory resolution creates a basis for further activities to demonstrate preparedness for safe LTO. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of main technical deficiencies of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in preparedness for safe long term operation (LTO) and the main corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO of NPPs. It focuses on technical aspects connected with management of physical ageing of NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs). It uses as a basis results of IAEA SALTO missions performed between 2005 and 2016 (see also paper NED8805 in Nuclear Engineering and Design in May 2016) and the personal experiences of the authors with preparation of NPPs for safe LTO. This paper does not discuss other important aspects of safe LTO of NPPs, e.g. national nuclear energy policies, compliance of NPPs with the latest international requirements on design, obsolescence, environmental impact and economic aspects of LTO. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO. Chapter 2 provides an overview of SALTO peer review service results with a focus on deficiencies related to physical ageing of safety SSCs and a demonstration that SSCs will perform their safety function during the intended period of LTO. Chapter 3 discusses the main corrective measures which NPPs typically face during the preparation for demonstration of safe LTO. Chapter 4 summarizes the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO and outlines further steps needed in preparation for safe LTO.

  14. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02 and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001. The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16. With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004 and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05. The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83. Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated.

  16. Prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma: new tools to personalize risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, Carla

    2016-12-02

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches. Novel biomarkers that incorporate both clinical and genetic determinants of poor risk are being developed with the hope of identifying high-risk patients at diagnosis in order to offer biologically rational targeted therapies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  17. Intralesional rituximab in primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma relapsed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villa, S; Ruiz Rodríguez, M J; Vargas Pabón, M

    2017-07-01

    A 49-year-old woman experienced a local relapse of a primary follicular lymphoma (FL) of the conjunctiva. She received 4 weekly intra-lesional injections followed by 6 monthly injections of rituximab (6mg/ml). A clinical response was achieved after first injection. No adverse ocular event or signs of lymphoma relapse were seen after 10 months of follow-up. Intralesional administration of rituximab for treating primary FL of the conjunctiva was an effective and safe therapeutic option; therefore it could be an alternative to other conventional treatments, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Research progress of follicular cytotoxic T cells in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ming

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new type of CD8+ T-cell subset, namely, the chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 5 (CXCR5+ cluster of differentiation (CD8+ T-cell subset (also called the follicular cytotoxic T-cell (TFC subgroup, has been discovered around B-cell follicles. The discovery has aroused widespread interest. However, the processes and mechanisms of TFCs taking part in the immune response of the germinal center and their specific roles must still be clearly identified. This article reviews domestic and foreign studies on factors regulating the phenotype, physiological functions, maturity, and differentiation of TFCs and roles and clinical significance of these cells in HIV infection. This review has shown good application prospects for TFCs. The author believes that further studies on TFCs can provide another tool for cytotherapy to control or cure chronic viral infections or tumors.

  19. Peritoneal and mediastinal highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Kathleen; Jain, Manoj; Krishna, Murli; Accurso, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old female patient presented to her primary care doctor with persistent elevated alkaline phosphatase of suspected metastatic etiology. Computed tomography demonstrated epicardial and peritoneal nodules. Biopsy of one of the peritoneal nodules revealed thyroid tissue and extraovarian struma ovarii was considered. The patient had a history of remote total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 31 years prior for endometriosis with no available pathology from that surgery. The patient recalls being told that she had a left ovarian cyst. A thyroid ultrasound was performed that demonstrated multiple nodules without concerning features; however, due to high clinical suspicion, a total thyroidectomy was performed. Upon full histological evaluation a 0.5 cm papillary microcarcinoma was found. Given the rarity of metastatic papillary cancer to the peritoneum and the small size and grade of the tumor, a diagnosis of highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin was favored. The patient was subsequently treated with radioiodine therapy

  20. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  1. Soccer-related performance in eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players: effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day on female soccer players' performances in the five-jump test (5JT), the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSA), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1). Eleven eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players volunteered to participate. Each subject individually participated in three testing periods: one in the early follicular phase (menses), one in the late follicular phase, and another in the luteal phase. In each period, two test sessions were conducted: one at 07:30 and another at 17:30. The testing routines included the 5JT, the RSSA, and the YYIRT1. None of the measured variables were altered due to menstrual cycle phase (all P>0.05). Mean time during RSSA was significantly lower in the afternoon session compared to the morning session (8.48±0.27 s and 8.77±0.34 s, respectively, P<0.001), while 5JT performance was significantly higher in the afternoon compared to the morning (9.08±0.58 m and 8.60±0.56 m, respectively, P<0.001). Soccer-specific endurance as well as jumping and repeated sprinting ability of Tunisian female high-level soccer players are not affected due to menstrual cycle phase neither in the morning nor in the afternoon.

  2. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of the Follicular Fluid of Tianzhu White Yak during Diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the follicular fluid of Tianzhu white yak during diestrus. Follicles obtained from female yak were divided into four groups according to their diameter: 0–2, 2–4, 4–6 mm, and greater than 6 mm. The follicular fluid was directly aspirated from the follicles and mixed according to follicular size, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was carried out on the crude follicular fluid samples. Thirty-four differentially expressed spots were generated from these four sizes of follicles. Fourteen of these spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and identified as: AS3MT, VDP, ANKRD6, C10orf107 protein, MRP4, MAPKAP1, AGO3, profilin-β-actin, SPT2 homolog, AGP, AR, RNF20, obscurin-like-1, and one unnamed protein. These proteins were first reported in follicular fluid, in addition to VDP and AGP. Based on existing knowledge of their function and patterns of expression, we hypothesize that most of these differentially expressed proteins play a role in ovarian follicular growth and development, dominant follicle selection, or follicular atresia and development of oocytes; however, the function of the other differentially expressed proteins in reproduction remains ambiguous.

  4. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  5. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  6. Origin of estradiol fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, S L; Kim, A H; Lee, G; Hochberg, R B

    1995-03-01

    The estradiol fatty acid esters are the most potent of the naturally occurring steroidal estrogens. These esters are present predominantly in fat, where they are sequestered until they are hydrolyzed by esterases. Thus they act as a preformed reservoir of estradiol. We have previously shown that ovarian follicular fluid from patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation contains very high amounts of estradiol fatty acid esters (approximately 10(-7) M). The source of these esters is unknown. They can be formed by esterification of estradiol in the follicular fluid by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), or in the ovary by an acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase. In order to determine which of these enzymatic processes is the source of the estradiol esters in the follicular fluid, we incubated [3H]estradiol with follicular fluid and cells isolated from human ovarian follicular fluid and characterized the fatty acid composition of the [3H]estradiol esters biosynthesized in each. In addition, we characterized the endogenous estradiol fatty acid esters in the follicular fluid and compared them to the biosynthetic esters. The fatty acid composition of the endogenous esters was different than those synthesized by the cellular acyl coenzyme A:acyltransferase, and the same as the esters synthesized by LCAT, demonstrating that the esters are produced in situ in the follicular fluid. Although the role of these estradiol esters in the ovary is not known, given their remarkable estrogenic potency it is highly probable that they have an important physiological role.

  7. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  8. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr; Ha, Jikwang, E-mail: wlrhkd29@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  9. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  10. Early- and later-phases satellite cell responses and myonuclear content with resistance training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Libardi, Cleiton A; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Bacurau, Aline V; Brum, Patricia; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Parise, Gianni; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT). We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage), early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage), and later (10th-wk: no damage) stages is not well characterized. Ten young men (27 ± 1 y, 23.6 ± 1.0 kg·m-2) underwent 10-wks of RT and muscle biopsies (vastus-lateralis) were taken before (Pre) and post (48h) the 1st (T1), 5th (T2) and final (T3) RT sessions to evaluate fibre type specific SC content, cross-sectional area (fCSA) and myonuclear number by immunohistochemistry. We observed RT-induced hypertrophy after 10-wks of RT (fCSA increased ~16% in type II, P phase of RT than muscle hypertrophy resulted from 10-wks RT in young men. Chronic elevated SC pool size with RT is important providing proper environment for future stresses or larger fCSA increases.

  11. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  12. The genetic basis of strain-dependent differences in the early phase of radiation injury in mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, A.J.; Sharplin, J.; Ward, W.F.; Hinz, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial differences between mouse strains have been reported in the lesions present in the lung during the early phase of radiation injury. Some strains show only classical pneumonitis, while other strains develop substantial fibrosis and hyaline membranes which contribute appreciably to respiratory insufficiency, in addition to pneumonitis. Other strains are intermediate between these extremes. These differences correlate with intrinsic differences in activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme. The genetic basis of these differences was assessed by examining histologically the early reaction in lungs of seven murine hybrids available commercially after whole-thorax irradiation. Crosses between fibrosing and nonfibrosing parents were uniformly nonfibrosing, and crosses between fibrosing and intermediate parents were uniformly intermediate. No evidence of sex linkage was seen. Thus the phenotype in which fibrosis is found is controlled by autosomal recessive determinants. Strains prone to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hyaline membranes exhibited intrinsically lower activities of lung plasminogen activator and angiotensin converting enzyme than either the nonfibrosing strains or the nonfibrosing hybrid crosses. The median time of death of the hybrids was genetically determined primarily by the longest-lived parent regardless of the types of lesions expressed

  13. Variability of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) during the early phase of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Cortés, K; Laskus, T; Bukowska-Ośko, I; Pawełczyk, A; Berak, H; Horban, A; Fic, M; Radkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to be an important factor defining viral pathogenesis, persistence and resistance to treatment. The aim of the present study was to characterize HCV genetic heterogeneity within a hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) before and during the early period of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin treatment in correlation with treatment outcome. The study involved 24 patients treated with PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin whose sera were collected before (baseline) and at 7, 14, 21 28 and 56 day of treatment. HCV HVR-1 region was amplified by nested RT- PCR and subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis. SSCP changes of HCV HVR-1 over time in each patient were compared to treatment outcome results. In 2/11 (18%) SVR+ and 8/13 (62%) SVR- treated patients, HVR-1 genetic changes manifested by new SSCP bands (new genetic variants) and were significantly more frequent in nonresponders (P HVR-1 variability during the early phase of PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin therapy may be predictive of treatment outcome.

  14. IL-4 receptor-alpha-dependent control of Cryptococcus neoformans in the early phase of pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grahnert

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lung inflammation and meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people. Previously we showed that mice succumb to intranasal infection by induction of pulmonary interleukin (IL-4Rα-dependent type 2 immune responses, whereas IL-12-dependent type 1 responses confer resistance. In the experiments presented here, IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice unexpectedly show decreased fungal control early upon infection with C. neoformans, whereas wild-type mice are able to control fungal growth accompanied by enhanced macrophage and dendritic cell recruitment to the site of infection. Lower pulmonary recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice is associated with reduced pulmonary expression of CCL2 and CCL20 chemokines. Moreover, IFN-γ and nitric oxide production are diminished in IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice compared to wild-type mice. To directly study the potential mechanism(s responsible for reduced production of IFN-γ, conventional dendritic cells were stimulated with C. neoformans in the presence of IL-4 which results in increased IL-12 production and reduced IL-10 production. Together, a beneficial role of early IL-4Rα signaling is demonstrated in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which contrasts with the well-known IL-4Rα-mediated detrimental effects in the late phase.

  15. Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, H S; Clémence, A; Marion-Veyron, R; Antonietti, J-P; Alameda, L; Golay, P; Conus, P

    2017-03-01

    Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

  16. A Chernobyl lesson for aerial monitoring: integration of passive measurements with active sampling in the emergency early phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelluccio, D.; Cisbani, E.; Fratoni, R.; Frullani, S.; Giuliani, F.; Mostarda, A.; Pierangeli, L.; Veneroni, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technologies and Health Dept., Rome (Italy); Chiavarini, S. [Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, ENEA, Rome (Italy); Delprato, U. [IES Solutions srl, Rome (Italy); Fragasso, G.; Siciliano, G. [Galileo Avionica S.p.A., Campidi Bisenzio FI (Italy); Gaddini, M.; Pianese, E. [Central Direction for Emergency and Technical Rescue, Ministry of Interior, Rome (Italy); Marchiori, C.; Paoloni, G. [Roma Univ. La Sapienza, Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica, Facolta di Ingegneria (Italy); Sbuelz, A. [Iniziative Industriali Italiane S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In our experience, the first quantitative measurement of a contamination parameter has been only possible after many days from the beginning of the accident. Indeed with aerial monitoring systems in use, the quantification of the source activity, or the ground contamination, through the analysis of the gamma ray spectra measured, is only possible with the assumption of a source pattern (localized for a point-like source, diffused for ground surface contamination). In case of a more complex situation, there is not a suitable knowledge to model the radiation source; therefore the measurements can only supply qualitative information. This is the case, both in near and far field, when the radioactive plume released by an accident is passing over the country. The lack of quantitative measurements and the derived uncertainty in forecasting the propagation of the radioactive contamination, does not help the emergency management in the most critical phase, i.e. when countermeasures have to be decided in a preventive way and some risk of negative effects is inevitably linked to their enforcement. A different tool for the emergency management should be provided. An aerial platform instrumented for in-plume measurements, aiming to characterize the extension, composition and concentration of the radioactive mixture in the plume, as well as to measure in situ meteorological parameters could be of invaluable help in the emergency early phase. During last years research and manufacturing activities have been developed to reach these goals. (authors)

  17. A Chernobyl lesson for aerial monitoring: integration of passive measurements with active sampling in the emergency early phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelluccio, D.; Cisbani, E.; Fratoni, R.; Frullani, S.; Giuliani, F.; Mostarda, A.; Pierangeli, L.; Veneroni, P.; Chiavarini, S.; Delprato, U.; Fragasso, G.; Siciliano, G.; Gaddini, M.; Pianese, E.; Marchiori, C.; Paoloni, G.; Sbuelz, A.

    2006-01-01

    In our experience, the first quantitative measurement of a contamination parameter has been only possible after many days from the beginning of the accident. Indeed with aerial monitoring systems in use, the quantification of the source activity, or the ground contamination, through the analysis of the gamma ray spectra measured, is only possible with the assumption of a source pattern (localized for a point-like source, diffused for ground surface contamination). In case of a more complex situation, there is not a suitable knowledge to model the radiation source; therefore the measurements can only supply qualitative information. This is the case, both in near and far field, when the radioactive plume released by an accident is passing over the country. The lack of quantitative measurements and the derived uncertainty in forecasting the propagation of the radioactive contamination, does not help the emergency management in the most critical phase, i.e. when countermeasures have to be decided in a preventive way and some risk of negative effects is inevitably linked to their enforcement. A different tool for the emergency management should be provided. An aerial platform instrumented for in-plume measurements, aiming to characterize the extension, composition and concentration of the radioactive mixture in the plume, as well as to measure in situ meteorological parameters could be of invaluable help in the emergency early phase. During last years research and manufacturing activities have been developed to reach these goals. (authors)

  18. Properties and geoeffectiveness of magnetic clouds in the rising, maximum and early declining phases of solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic structure and geomagnetic response of 73 magnetic clouds (MC observed by the WIND and ACE satellites in solar cycle 23 are examined. The results have been compared with the surveys from the previous solar cycles. The preselected candidate MC events were investigated using the minimum variance analysis to determine if they have a flux-rope structure and to obtain the estimation for the axial orientation (θC, φC. Depending on the calculated inclination relative to the ecliptic we divided MCs into "bipolar" (θC<45° and "unipolar" (θC>45°. The number of observed MCs was largest in the early rising phase, although the halo CME rate was still low. It is likely that near solar maximum we did not identify all MCs at 1AU, as they were crossed far from the axis or they had interacted strongly with the ambient solar wind or with other CMEs. The occurrence rate of MCs at 1AU is also modified by the migration of the filament sites on the Sun towards the poles near solar maximum and by the deflection of CMEs towards the equator due to the fast solar wind flow from large polar coronal holes near solar minimum. In the rising phase nearly all bipolar MCs were associated with the rotation of the magnetic field from the south at the leading edge to the north at the trailing edge. The results for solar cycles 21-22 showed that the direction of the magnetic field in the leading portion of the MC starts to reverse at solar maximum. At solar maximum and in the declining phase (2000-2003 we observed several MCs with the rotation from the north to the south. We observed unipolar (i.e. highly inclined MCs frequently during the whole investigated period. For solar cycles 21-22 the majority of MCs identified in the rising phase were bipolar while in the declining phase most MCs were unipolar. The geomagnetic response of a given MC depends greatly on its magnetic structure and the orientation of the sheath fields. For each event we distinguished the

  19. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  20. Podoplanin (D2-40): A New Immunohistochemical Marker for Reactive Follicular Dendritic Cells and Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingmei; Chen, Lugen; Fu, Kai; Harter, Josephine; Young, Ken H; Sunkara, Jaya; Novak, Deborah; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Ratech, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma can be challenging because of its morphologic overlaps with many other spindle cell neoplasms and, therefore, new phenotypic markers will be helpful in its differential diagnosis. Podoplanin is a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that has recently been detected in reactive FDCs. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of podoplanin using a new mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40, and compared them with CD21, a well-established FDC marker, in a comprehensive panel of cases. The panel included 4 FDC sarcomas, 38 spindle cell neoplasms of other types, 25 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and 117 lymphoid and 5 myeloid malignant hematopoietic neoplasms. Our study revealed that D2-40 strongly stained 3 of 4 FDC sarcomas. In contrast, D2-40 stained only 2/38 other spindle cell neoplasms tested. Furthermore, we observed that D2-40 highlighted more FDC meshworks than CD21 in Castleman's disease, follicular lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma, and residual reactive germinal centers in a variety of lymphoma types. D2-40 and CD21 stained an equal number of cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, progressively transformed germinal centers and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. No expression of podoplanin was detected in normal or neoplastic lymphoid and myeloid cells. We conclude that podoplanin (D2-40) is a sensitive and specific FDC marker, which is superior or equal to CD21 in evaluating both reactive and neoplastic FDCs. In addition, our results suggest that podoplanin (D2-40) can be used to support the diagnosis of FDC sarcoma. PMID:18784810

  1. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, K. B.; Bôle, M.; Jammet, N.; Froidevaux, P.; Godet, A.; Bodin, S.; Adatte, T.; Matera, V.; Fleitmann, D.; Spangenberg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland) and Capriolo sections (northern Italy). The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As) were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian. Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section) and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate production on the northern Tethyan shelf. The

  2. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Föllmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland and Capriolo sections (northern Italy. The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian.

    Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate

  3. Trefoil factor 3 is required for differentiation of thyroid follicular cells and acts as a context-dependent tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abols, A; Ducena, K; Andrejeva, D; Sadovska, L; Zandberga, E; Vilmanis, J; Narbuts, Z; Tars, J; Eglitis, J; Pirags, V; Line, A

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is overexpressed in a variety of solid epithelial cancers, where it has been shown to promote migration, invasion, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. On the contrary, in the majority of thyroid tumors, it is downregulated, yet its role in the development of thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here we show that TFF3 exhibits strong cytoplasmic staining of normal thyroid follicular cells and colloid and the staining is increased in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, while it is decreased in all thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin. By meta-analysis of gene expression datasets, we found that in the thyroid cancer, conversely to the breast cancer, the expression of TFF3 mRNA was downregulated by estrogen signaling and confirmed this by treating thyroid cancer cells with estradiol. Forced expression of TFF3 in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation, clonal spheroid formation and entry into the S phase. Furthermore, it induced acquisition of epithelial-like cell morphology and expression of the differentiation markers of thyroid follicular cells and transcription factors implicated in the thyroid morphogenesis and function. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that TFF3 may act as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the cellular context.

  4. Sites of extranodal involvement are prognostic in patients with stage 1 follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Aditi; Janakiram, Murali; Mantzaris, Ioannis; Yu, Yiting; Londono, Jaime S; Verma, Amit K; Barta, Stefan K

    2017-10-03

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent B cell lymphoma in the United States and a quarter of patients present with stage I disease. The objective of this study was to examine if primary site of disease influences survival in early stage lymphoma. The most common extranodal primary sites were the integumentary system (8%), followed by the GI tract (6.4%) and head & neck (5.6%). We stratified patients into a pre-rituximab era (1983-1998) and the rituximab era (1999-2011). In multivariable analysis, integumentary disease was associated with better overall survival (Hazard Ratio [HR], 0.77; Confidence Interval [CI], 0.66-0.9) while primary site FL of the nervous system (HR, 2.40; CI, 1.72-3.38) and the musculoskeletal system (HR, 2.14; CI, 1.44-3.18) were associated with worse overall survival when compared to primary nodal FL. Treatment in the pre-rituximab era, male gender and older age at diagnosis were associated with worse survival. We queried the SEER database from 1983 to 2011. We included all adult patients (>18 years) with histologically confirmed stage I FL, active follow-up, and a single primary tumor. A total of 9,865 patients met eligibility criteria, with 2520 (25%) having an extranodal primary site. We classified the primary sites by organ or anatomic location into 11 sites. Primary site of disease is a prognostic factor for patients with early stage FL and may help identify subsets of patients that could benefit from early, aggressive treatment.

  5. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  6. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of an Impacted Canine in the Presence of Dens Invaginatus and Follicular Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevello, Carola; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. “Dens invaginatus” is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. PMID:24963421

  7. The Transcription Factor c-Maf Promotes the Differentiation of Follicular Helper T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Andris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (Tfh have been identified as the primary cell subpopulation regulating B cell responses in germinal centers, thus supporting high-affinity antibody production. Among the transcription factors orchestrating Tfh cell differentiation and function, the role played by the proto-oncogene c-Maf remains poorly characterized. We report herein that selective loss of c-Maf expression in the T cell compartment results in defective development of Tfh cells in response to both antigen/adjuvant vaccinations and commensal intestinal bacteria. Accordingly, c-Maf expression in T cells was essential for the development and high-affinity antibody secretion in vaccinated animals. c-Maf was expressed early, concomitantly to BCL6, in Tfh cell precursors and found to regulate Tfh fate in a cell-autonomous fashion. Altogether, our findings reveal a novel, non-redundant, function for c-Maf in the differentiation of Tfh cells and the regulation of humoral immune responses to T-cell-dependent antigens.

  8. Some remarks on the transitional phase between Early Roman and Late Roman Periods in the region north of the Middle Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejral, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 43-101 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early and Late Roman Period * transitional phase * Marcomanic Wars and their aftermath * ethnical and social backround of the B2/C1 phase Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/export/sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV56_2_Studie2_Tejral.pdf

  9. Follicular flushing during oocyte retrieval: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the literature and identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in order to answer if performing follicular flushing during the oocyte retrieval may improve the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes. An exhaustive electronic search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Only RCTs comparing follicular flushing to aspiration only during ART, were included. We included 5 trials, with a total of 482 patients randomized, with median ages ranging from 30.5 to 37.1. The data analyses did not show significant differences regarding live birth rate, clinical pregnancies rates, and the number of oocytes retrieved. The duration of oocyte retrieval was significantly increased in the follicular flushing group. The results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no advantage to use of routine follicular flushing during OR in an unselected group of patients.

  10. Preliminary findings suggest hidradenitis suppurativa may be due to defective follicular support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danby, F W; Jemec, G B E; Marsch, W Ch

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The initial pathology in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)/acne inversa takes place in the folliculopilosebaceous unit (FPSU) and its surrounding tissue. The process involves follicular hyperkeratosis, inflammation and perifolliculitis. Identification of the exact origin of inflammation m...

  11. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of TGF-ß Isoforms in Cases with Ovarian Endometriosis and Follicular Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip Şentaş

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Ovarian tissue TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in endometriosis cases when compared with follicular cyst. There are needed further studies to elucidate the importance of this finding in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  12. CARBOHYDRATES OF CHANGES DURING THE FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT IN THE OVARY OF THE MOUSE DEER, TRAGULUS JAVANICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamny -

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The data available on the female reproductive organ of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus is still very limited. A study was therefore conducted to investigate the distribution and the concentration of carbohydrate residues during the development of ovary follicles. An ovary at luteal phase was used in this study. Thin sections of the ovary were prepared occording to the standard methods and they were then histochemically stained with flourecnece-labelled lectins such as peanut agglutinin (PNA, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, Concanavalin A (Con A, Winged bean agglutinin (WGA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA. The result showed that changes in the distribution and the concentration of carbohydrate occured during the development of the follicle. During the preantral stage, the cytoplasm of oosit contained carbohydrate with the residues of glucosa dan mannosa. Zona pelusida contained carbohydrates with residues of glucosa, mannosa, galactosa dan N-asetylgalactosamine, whereas extracellular matrix contained carbohydrate with the residues of glucosa dan mannosa. In the antral follicle, the cyitoplasm of oocytes contained carbohydarte with the residues of galactosa dan N-asetylgalactosamine, whereas its zona pelusida, extracellular matrix and follicular fluid contained carbohydarte with the residues of fucosa, N-asetylglucosamin and cyalic acid. Diffrences in the types and the distribution pattern of carbohydrates were observed in this study, both in preantral and antral follicles.

  13. Active and separate secretion of fiber and penton base during the early phase of Ad2 or Ad5 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuhua; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Weihong; Lin, Hongyu [Beijing Key Laboratory of Gene Resource and Molecular Development, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Rebetz, Johan [The Rausing Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hong, Saw-See [Viral Infections & Comparative Pathology, UMR-754 UCBL-INRA-EPHE, Université Lyon 1, Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Wang, Youjun; Ran, Liang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Gene Resource and Molecular Development, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: XFan@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Gene Resource and Molecular Development, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Fiber and penton base overproduced in adenovirus (Ad) infected cells can be secreted prior to progeny release and thereby regulate progeny spread. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of fiber and penton base secretion in Ad2- or Ad5-infected A549 cells. Our flow cytometry analyses detected abundant surface fiber molecules, but little penton base molecules at 12 h post infection. Immunogold staining combined with transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed separate, non-co-localized release of fiber and penton base in the proximity of the plasma membrane. Depolymerization of microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, and inhibition of Rock kinase and myosin II activity together demonstrated cytoskeletal network-dependent fiber secretion. Inhibition of intracellular calcium [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} signaling caused diminished fiber secretion, which was associated with diminished progeny production. Thus, fiber and penton base are actively and separately secreted during the early stages of Ad2 or Ad5 infection, their secretion may play important role in Ad life cycle. - Highlights: •Excessive production of structural proteins is common to viral infection, which may regulate the host-virus equilibrium and the spreading of viruses. •The adenovirus (Ad) structural proteins, fiber and penton base, are respectively important for Ad binding to its receptor and subsequent internalization in host cells. In Ad infected cells, these two structural proteins are excessively produced. •The mechanisms underlying the release of fiber and penton base molecules at the early phase of Ad infection is yet poorly understood. •Our studies show that in Ad5 or Ad2 infected A549 cells, fiber and penton base molecules are actively and separately secreted. •Fiber secretion is dependent on cytoskeleton-mediated protein traffic. •Inhibition of myosin II motor and Ca{sup 2+} signaling activity significantly diminishes fiber secretion. •These findings could contribute to our

  14. The accelerating effect of chitosan-silica hybrid dressing materials on the early phase of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Ung; Jung, Hyun-Do; Song, Eun-Ho; Choi, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha; Kim, Sukwha

    2017-10-01

    Commercialized dressing materials with or without silver have played a passive role in early-phase wound healing, protecting the skin defects from infections, absorbing exudate, and preventing dehydration. Chitosan (CTS)-based sponges have been developed in pure or hybrid forms for accelerating wound healing, but their wound-healing capabilities have not been extensively compared with widely used commercial dressing materials, providing limited information in a practical aspect. In this study, we have developed CTS-silica (CTS-Si) hybrid sponges with water absorption, flexibility, and mechanical behavior similar to those of CTS sponges. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed to compare the CTS-Si sponges with three commercial dressing materials [gauze, polyurethane (PU), and silver-containing hydrofiber (HF-Ag)] in addition to CTS sponges. Both in vitro and in vivo tests showed that CTS-Si sponges promoted fibroblast proliferation, leading to accelerated collagen synthesis, whereas the CTS sponges did not exhibit significant differences in fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis from gauze, PU, and HF-Ag sponges. In case of CTS-Si, the inflammatory cells were actively recruited to the wound by the influence of the released silicon ions from CTS-Si sponges, which, in return, led to an enhanced secretion of growth factors, particularly TGF-β during the early stage. The higher level of TGF-β likely improved the proliferation of fibroblasts, and as a result, collagen synthesis by fibroblasts became remarkably productive, thereby increasing collagen density at the wound site. Therefore, the CTS-Si hybrid sponges have considerable potential as a wound-dressing material for accelerating wound healing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1828-1839, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Active and separate secretion of fiber and penton base during the early phase of Ad2 or Ad5 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yuhua; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Weihong; Lin, Hongyu; Rebetz, Johan; Hong, Saw-See; Wang, Youjun; Ran, Liang; Fan, Xiaolong

    2017-01-01

    Fiber and penton base overproduced in adenovirus (Ad) infected cells can be secreted prior to progeny release and thereby regulate progeny spread. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of fiber and penton base secretion in Ad2- or Ad5-infected A549 cells. Our flow cytometry analyses detected abundant surface fiber molecules, but little penton base molecules at 12 h post infection. Immunogold staining combined with transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed separate, non-co-localized release of fiber and penton base in the proximity of the plasma membrane. Depolymerization of microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, and inhibition of Rock kinase and myosin II activity together demonstrated cytoskeletal network-dependent fiber secretion. Inhibition of intracellular calcium [Ca 2+ ] i signaling caused diminished fiber secretion, which was associated with diminished progeny production. Thus, fiber and penton base are actively and separately secreted during the early stages of Ad2 or Ad5 infection, their secretion may play important role in Ad life cycle. - Highlights: •Excessive production of structural proteins is common to viral infection, which may regulate the host-virus equilibrium and the spreading of viruses. •The adenovirus (Ad) structural proteins, fiber and penton base, are respectively important for Ad binding to its receptor and subsequent internalization in host cells. In Ad infected cells, these two structural proteins are excessively produced. •The mechanisms underlying the release of fiber and penton base molecules at the early phase of Ad infection is yet poorly understood. •Our studies show that in Ad5 or Ad2 infected A549 cells, fiber and penton base molecules are actively and separately secreted. •Fiber secretion is dependent on cytoskeleton-mediated protein traffic. •Inhibition of myosin II motor and Ca 2+ signaling activity significantly diminishes fiber secretion. •These findings could contribute to our understanding of Ad

  16. Management of untreated advanced stage follicular lymphoma: Role of patient discernment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Jayadev Manikkam; Lunning, Mathew A

    2018-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced stage disease is common at diagnosis. The timing of treatment for follicular lymphoma is best approached by considering the combination of presence or absence of symptoms along with estimation of tumor burden. Upfront treatment strategies should take into initial presentation variables, pace of disease progression and goals of care after discussion with the patient. Treatment approaches remain diverse and patient discernment is paramount. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relations between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and oxidative stress in follicular fluid and ART outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and ...

  18. Therapeutic iodine 125 for hyperthyroidism: evidence for a special radiobiological effect on the follicular cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.W.; Greig, W.R.; Gillespie, F.C.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1982-01-01

    An IV perchlorate test was used qualitatively to detect a functional abnormality of the colloid-follicular cell interface in patients given 131 I or 125 I for hyperthyroidism. Radiation damage, manifest as abnormal iodide organification, was more prolonged after 125 I and more often accompanied by unremitting hyperthyroidism than after 131 I. These results conform with theoretical and laboratory data which predict a gradient of deposited radiation across the human follicular cell after therapeutic 125 I. (author)

  19. Usability of Videogame-Based Dexterity Training in the Early Rehabilitation Phase of Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vanbellingen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundApproximately 70–80% of stroke survivors have limited activities of daily living, mainly due to dexterous problems. Videogame-based training (VBT along with virtual reality seems to be beneficial to train upper limb function.ObjectiveTo evaluate the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC to train fine manual dexterity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke patients as an add-on to conventional therapy. Additionally, this study aimed to estimate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the VBT.MethodsDuring 3 months, 64 stroke patients were screened for eligibility, 13 stroke patients were included (4 women and 9 men; age range: 24–91 years; mean time post stroke: 28.2 days.InterventionNine sessions of 30 min VBT, three times per week as an add-on to conventional therapy with stroke inpatients.Outcome measuresPrimary outcome was the usability of the system measured with the System Usability Scale. Secondary outcomes concerning feasibility were the compliance rate calculated from the total time spent on the intervention (TT compared to planned time, the opinion of participants via open-end questions, and the level of active participation measured with the Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale. Regarding the potential efficacy secondary outcomes were: functional dexterity measured with the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT, subjective dexterity measured with the Dexterity Questionnaire 24, grip strength measured with the Jamar dynamometer, and motor impairment of the upper limb measured with the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (FM-UE scale.ResultsPrimarily, the usability of the system was good to excellent. The patient’s perception of usability remained stable over a mean period of 3 weeks of VBT. Secondly, the compliance rate was good, and the level of active participation varied between good and very good. The opinion of the participants revealed that despite individual differences, the overall impression

  20. Usability of Videogame-Based Dexterity Training in the Early Rehabilitation Phase of Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbellingen, Tim; Filius, Suzanne J; Nyffeler, Thomas; van Wegen, Erwin E H

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 70-80% of stroke survivors have limited activities of daily living, mainly due to dexterous problems. Videogame-based training (VBT) along with virtual reality seems to be beneficial to train upper limb function. To evaluate the usability of VBT using the Leap Motion Controller (LMC) to train fine manual dexterity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke patients as an add-on to conventional therapy. Additionally, this study aimed to estimate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the VBT. During 3 months, 64 stroke patients were screened for eligibility, 13 stroke patients were included (4 women and 9 men; age range: 24-91 years; mean time post stroke: 28.2 days). Nine sessions of 30 min VBT, three times per week as an add-on to conventional therapy with stroke inpatients. Primary outcome was the usability of the system measured with the System Usability Scale. Secondary outcomes concerning feasibility were the compliance rate calculated from the total time spent on the intervention (TT) compared to planned time, the opinion of participants via open-end questions, and the level of active participation measured with the Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Participation Scale. Regarding the potential efficacy secondary outcomes were: functional dexterity measured with the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), subjective dexterity measured with the Dexterity Questionnaire 24, grip strength measured with the Jamar dynamometer, and motor impairment of the upper limb measured with the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (FM-UE) scale. Primarily, the usability of the system was good to excellent. The patient's perception of usability remained stable over a mean period of 3 weeks of VBT. Secondly, the compliance rate was good, and the level of active participation varied between good and very good. The opinion of the participants revealed that despite individual differences, the overall impression of the therapy and device was good. Patients showed significant

  1. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  2. Decoding the Proteome of In-Vitro Fertilization Ovarian Follicular Fluid for Women Over 35 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study of follicular fluid using proteomic techniques could provide a useful tool for understanding follicular fluid components and their effect on pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study is to identify and catalog follicular fluid proteins in women 35 years of age or older. Material and Method: Follicular fluid was collected from 21 couples, of which 11 couples achieved successful pregnancy and 10 couples failed to get pregnant. Samples were analyzed by multidimensional chromatography coupled with in-line nano-spray ionization mass spectrometry on an LTQ XL ion trap mass spectrometer. We used the Biomarker Analysis Program from PDQuest software to identify protein constituents in pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Results: In total, 1024 protein specimens were identified. The proteins identified were consistent throughout the experiment and within each of the analyzed specimens. Discussion: A compiled listing of follicular fluid proteins could be a potential starting point for the identification and evaluation of important proteins involved in the development of oocytes; the results of our study may fill a noticeable knowledge-gap in the understanding of follicular fluid proteome.

  3. Isolated orbital mass as the primary presentation of a triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a systemic follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Yi; Lu, Xinyan; Raparia, Kirtee; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Triple-hit lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma. We report a case of triple-hit lymphoma transformed from systemic follicular lymphoma (FL) after 9-year remission and presented primarily as an isolated orbital mass without systemic symptoms or lymphadenopathy. A 58-year-old female presented with intermittent vertical binocular diplopia, left upper eyelid swelling and pain and was found to have a 2.9 cm orbital mass. Histological section revealed a CD10-positive large B-cell lymphoma, consistent with transformation of FL. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis demonstrated rearrangements involving C-MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 genes, indicating a high grade, triple-hit lymphoma. Triple-hit lymphoma transformed from a low-grade lymphoma may initially present as an isolated orbital mass without systemic evidence of transformation. Early recognition of double or triple-hit lymphomas is important since these patients require aggressive chemotherapy.

  4. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P cows, whereas estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early postpartum scEndo had surprisingly long-term influences on the steroid concentrations of ovarian follicles long after infections had self

  5. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  6. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  7. Leaders' and followers' individual experiences during the early phase of simulation-based team training: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Wallin, Carl-Johan

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that team training can develop essential team skills and contribute to better patient outcomes. Current simulation-based team training (SBTT) programmes most often include targets and feedback focused on the whole team and/or leader, ignoring the follower as a unique entity. By considering followers' individual experiences, and tailoring behavioural targets for training and feedback, SBTT could be improved. Our aim was to explore the individual experiences and behaviours of leaders and followers during the early phase of SBTT, and we hypothesised that leaders and followers would show different responses. Medical students (n=54) participated in half-day SBTT including three video-recorded scenarios. Self-efficacy was assessed pretraining and post-training. For each scenario (n=36), the individual teamwork behaviours, concentration, mental strain and the team's clinical performance were recorded. Data were analysed using a mixed model allowing for participants to be their own control in their roles as leader or follower. Self-efficacy improved. In the role of leader, participants communicated to a greater extent and experienced higher mental strain and concentration than they did in the role of follower. The increased self-efficacy enables a positive learning outcome after only three scenarios. Individual experiences and behaviours differed between the role of leader and that of follower. By shedding further light on leaders' and followers' individual experiences and behaviours, targets for training and feedback could be specified in order to improve SBTT.

  8. [Experience in using xeomin in the treatment of arm and hand spasticity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, E V; Petrova, L V; Ganzhula, P A; Lisenker, L N; Otcheskaia, O V; Khozova, A A; Boĭko, A N

    2012-01-01

    To reduce arm and hand spasticity, 28 patients in the early rehabilitation phase of ischemic hemisphere stroke received injections of the botulinum toxin A preparation xeomin in the content of complex rehabilitation programs. The following muscles: m. biceps brachii, m. flexor digitorum profundus, m. flexor digitorum superficialis, m. flexor carpi ulnaris, m. flexor carpi radialis were injected according to standard scheme. The total dose of drug was 200U in moderate (2-3 scores on the Ashworth scale) and 300U in marked (3-4 scores on the Ashworth scale) spasticity. Efficacy and safety of treatment was assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after injections. Xeomin significantly (parm (due to patient's and caregiver's reports) remained for to 12 weeks. The treatment was most effective in the group of patients with moderate spasticity. The correlation analysis confirmed that the severity of spasticity increased with the disease duration that reduced rehabilitation efficiency. The treatment with xeomin was safe, no serious side-effects were found.

  9. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  10. Considering baseline factors and early response rates to optimize therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Luke P; Bixby, Dale

    2016-05-01

    Multiple BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are available for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP), and several baseline and on-treatment predictive factors have been identified that can be used to help guide TKI selection for individual patients. In particular, early molecular response (EMR; BCR-ABL ≤10% on the International Scale at 3 months) has become an accepted benchmark for evaluating whether patients with CML-CP are responding optimally to frontline TKI therapy. Failure to achieve EMR is considered an inadequate initial response according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines and a warning response according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. Here we review data supporting the importance of achieving EMR for improving patients' long-term outcomes and discuss key considerations for selecting a frontline TKI in light of these data. Because a higher proportion of patients achieve EMR with second-generation TKIs such as nilotinib and dasatinib than with imatinib, these TKIs may be preferable for many patients, particularly those with known negative prognostic factors at baseline. We also discuss other considerations for frontline TKI choice, including toxicities, cost-effectiveness, and the emerging goals of deep molecular response and treatment-free remission.

  11. The Role of Paracrine and Autocrine Signaling in the Early Phase of Adipogenic Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, Mette; Vedel, Søren; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sabourin, David; Collas, Philippe; Bruus, Henrik; Dufva, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction High cell density is known to enhance adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting secretion of signaling factors or cell-contact-mediated signaling. By employing microfluidic biochip technology, we have been able to separate these two processes and study the secretion pathways. Methods and results Adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) cultured in a microfluidic system was investigated under perfusion conditions with an adipogenic medium or an adipogenic medium supplemented with supernatant from differentiating ASCs (conditioned medium). Conditioned medium increased adipogenic differentiation compared to adipogenic medium with respect to accumulation of lipid-filled vacuoles and gene expression of key adipogenic markers (C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, PPARγ, LPL and adiponectin). The positive effects of conditioned medium were observed early in the differentiation process. Conclusions Using different cell densities and microfluidic perfusion cell cultures to suppress the effects of cell-released factors, we have demonstrated the significant role played by auto- or paracrine signaling in adipocyte differentiation. The cell-released factor(s) were shown to act in the recruitment phase of the differentiation process. PMID:23723991

  12. The role of paracrine and autocrine signaling in the early phase of adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Hemmingsen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: High cell density is known to enhance adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting secretion of signaling factors or cell-contact-mediated signaling. By employing microfluidic biochip technology, we have been able to separate these two processes and study the secretion pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs cultured in a microfluidic system was investigated under perfusion conditions with an adipogenic medium or an adipogenic medium supplemented with supernatant from differentiating ASCs (conditioned medium. Conditioned medium increased adipogenic differentiation compared to adipogenic medium with respect to accumulation of lipid-filled vacuoles and gene expression of key adipogenic markers (C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, PPARγ, LPL and adiponectin. The positive effects of conditioned medium were observed early in the differentiation process. CONCLUSIONS: Using different cell densities and microfluidic perfusion cell cultures to suppress the effects of cell-released factors, we have demonstrated the significant role played by auto- or paracrine signaling in adipocyte differentiation. The cell-released factor(s were shown to act in the recruitment phase of the differentiation process.

  13. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  14. Follicular adenoma in ectopic thyroid. A case-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Gerarda; Rossetti, Amalia Rosaria Rita; Romano, Mafalda; Contieri, Rosaria; Tramontano, Salvatore; Rescigno, Carmela; Infranzi, Massimo; Lombardi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The term ectopic thyroid refers to the presence of thyroid tissue located far from its usual anatomic placement and with no vascular connection to the main gland. The presence of swelling in atypical locations is diagnostically differentiated from other pathologies like pleomorphic adenoma or carcinoma, inflammatory lesions like sialadenitis, neurogenic tumors, paraganglioma, fibrolipoma and lymphadenopaties of diverse etiologies. Here we present the case of a submandibular ectopic thyroid in a 67year old woman. She came to our attention for a left submandibular swelling. The anamnesis did not show related pathologies, as well as blood tests. Diagnostic image studies and a FNAC were performed. The mass was surgically removed and histopatology showed a follicular adenoma in the contest of the capsulated lesion. It is important to not underestimate these types of lesions and procede with hematochemical, instrumental tests and above all surgery that can eliminate any diagnostic uncertainty and on the whole be therapeutic. It should not be forgotten that ectopic thyroid tissue can be a site for adenoma or papillary carcinoma and thus any watch and wait strategy should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnalatha Buandasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC is a well-differentiated tumor which resembles the normal microscopic pattern of the thyroid. Although intracranial metastasis to the brain is frequent in adults, metastasis from FTC is very rare. Dural metastases mimicking meningioma have been documented in the literature now and then. However, cases arising from a FTC are again very rare. We report the case of a middle-aged lady who presented with progressive, painless left eye proptosis. She was noted to have a non-axial proptosis with dystopia, compressive optic neuropathy and exposure keratitis. She also had a painless swelling over the occipital region. She was initially misdiagnosed to have multiple foci of meningioma based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed presence of FTC. She was euthyroid but was found to have multiple small thyroid nodules by ultrasonography. Hence, the definite diagnosis of all dural masses must be histological wherever possible and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary tumour in such presentations.

  16. Follicular lymphomas and their transformation: Past and current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Miriam; Torrente, Maria; Provencio, Mariano

    2017-06-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Histological transformation (HT) refers to the evolution of a clinically indolent NHL to a clinically aggressive one, defined as those lymphomas in which survival is limited to a few months when untreated. Areas covered: HT is associated with rapid progression of lymphadenopathy, infiltration of extranodal sites, development of systemic symptoms, and elevated serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It is frequently related to a poor prognosis, and the median survival after transformation is less than 2 years. Transformation to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in patients with FL occurs at an annual rate of approximately 3% for the first 15 years, after which the risk of HT falls for reasons that remain unclear. Expert commentary: Although it has long been assumed that transformation reflects the emergence of an aggressive subclone of cells from the primary FL, recent studies suggest that FL transformation might also arise by divergent evolution from a more immature common progenitor cell. Studies on genomic changes and DNA sequencing have shed some light onto the process of transformation. Nowadays, we know that HT is a complex process where several molecular pathways are involved.

  17. Can histologic transformation of follicular lymphoma be predicted and prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Sehn, Laurie H; Gascoyne, Randy D

    2017-07-20

    Transformation to aggressive lymphoma is a critical event in the clinical course of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. Yet, it is a challenge to reliably predict transformation at the time of diagnosis. Understanding the risk of transformation would be useful for guiding and monitoring patients, as well as for evaluating novel treatment strategies that could potentially prevent transformation. Herein, we review the contribution of clinical, pathological, and genetic risk factors to transformation. Patients with multiple clinical high-risk factors are at elevated risk of transformation but we are currently lacking a prognostic index that would specifically address transformation rather than disease progression or overall survival. From the biological standpoint, multiple studies have correlated individual biomarkers with transformation. However, accurate prediction of this event is currently hampered by our limited knowledge of the evolutionary pathways leading to transformation, as well as the scarcity of comprehensive, large-scale studies that assess both the genomic landscape of alterations within tumor cells and the composition of the microenvironment. Liquid biopsies hold great promise for achieving precision medicine. Indeed, mutations detected within circulating tumor DNA may be a better reflection of the inherent intratumoral heterogeneity than the biopsy of a single site. Last, we will assess whether evidence exists in the literature that transformation might be prevented altogether, based on the choice of therapy for FL. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Breast systemic follicular lymphoma in a man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Mantia Elvira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma is particularly rare in men. We describe the case of a patient with a rapidly growing, painless gynecomastia-like nodule in the left breast. On ultrasonography, the nodule was suspicious for breast carcinoma. Case presentation A breast biopsy from a 54-year-old Caucasian man showed the morphoimmunophenotypical features of grade 3 follicular lymphoma. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a t(14,18 translocation suggesting breast involvement by a systemic lymphoma rather than a primary breast lymphoma. The histological diagnosis was subsequently confirmed after nodule excision. Mediastinal and abdominal node involvement was then identified on computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans during staging examinations. Our patient was treated with chemotherapy. After three years our patient experienced a right retro-areolar relapse. He then received two further cycles of chemotherapy but developed a myeloid acute leukemia and, as a result of this, he subsequently died. Conclusions The rarity of breast lymphomas, especially in men, and the problems related to the therapeutic choices with these tumors require molecular techniques in association with classical histological diagnosis.

  19. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplantation with Micromotor: Eight Years Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, Safvet; Ozkose, Mehmet; Ors, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) has been performed for over a decade. Our experience in the patients who underwent hair transplantation using only the FUE method was included in this study. A total of 1000 patients had hair transplantation using the FUE method between 2005 and 2014 in our clinic. Manual punch was used in 32 and micromotor was used in 968 patients for graft harvesting. During the time that manual punch was used for graft harvesting, 1000-2000 grafts were transplanted in one session in 6-8 h. Following micromotor use, the average graft count was increased to 2500 and the operation time remained unchanged. Graft take was difficult in 11.1 %, easy in 52.2 %, and very easy in 36.7 % of our patients. The main purpose of hair transplantation is to restore the hair loss. During the process, obtaining a natural appearance and adequate hair intensity is important. In the FUE method, grafts can be taken without changing their natural structure, there is no need for magnification, and the grafts can be transplanted directly without using any other processes. Because there is no suture in the FUE method, patients do not experience these incision site problems and scar formation. The FUE method enables us to achieve a natural appearance with less morbidity.

  20. X-ray and radioiodine dose to thyroid follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faw, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation doses to the epithelial cells of thyroid follicles have been calculated for internal exposure by radionuclides of iodine and by secondary radiations created as a result of interactions of externally administered x rays with iodine naturally occurring in the thyroid. Calculations were performed for the thyroids of subjects ranging from the newborn to the adult male. Results for internal radionuclides are reported as the dose rate to follicular-cell nuclei per unit specific activity of the radionuclide in the thyroid as a whole, i.e., as the specific ''S value'' as used in the MIRD method for internal dosimetry. Results for x rays are reported as the response function, i.e., the absorbed dose per unit fluence of primary x rays. Dose rates are subdivided into internal and external components, the former from radiations emitted within the colloid volume of any one follicle, and the latter from radiations emitted throughout the thyroid in follicles surrounding that one follicle. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics around Estrus in Beetal and Teddy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Riaz, Nasim Ahmad* and Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher fecundity rate over Beetal goats, it is assumed that Teddy goats have higher ovarian activity. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that ovarian follicular population i.e. number of small (2-4 mm, medium (>4-6 mm and large follicles (>6 mm, size of the ovulatory follicle, and ovulation rate (No. of CL/No of ovulated goats, using transrectal ultrasonography are different between Beetal and Teddy goats of Pakistani origin. Beetal (n=6 and Teddy (n=8 does were synchronized using double PGF2a injections 10 d apart and were scanned on Days -2, 0 (estrus and +2. The onset of estrus was assessed by aproned bucks. Mean number of small follicles were higher (P<0.05 in Beetal goats, compared to Teddy goats, on days -2, estrus and +2. The ovulatory follicle diameter, and ovulation rate were found non-significant between Beetal and Teddy goats. It is concluded that Beetal goats have greater population of small follicles around estrus compared to Teddy goats. Future studies can be based on the follicle recruitment and atretic factors in Beetal goats to enhance the production.

  2. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  3. Follicular helper T cell in immunity and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mesquita Jr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17 and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh. These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R, the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  4. Radiotherapy as an effective treatment modality for follicular lymphoma: a single institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo Hee; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June Won; Suh, Chang Ok [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is highly sensitive to radiotherapy (RT). However, the effectiveness of RT has not been well established. We reviewed our experiences to assess the role of RT for FL and analyze treatment results. Retrospective analysis was done on 29 patients who received first RT between January 2003 and August 2013. Of 23 early stage (stage I, II) patients, 16 received RT alone, four received chemotherapy followed by RT, two received RT postoperatively, and one received salvage RT for relapse after resection. Six advanced-stage (stage III, IV) patients received RT after chemotherapy: two received consolidation RT, three received salvage RT for residual lesions, and one received RT for progressive sites. Median RT dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 21.6 to 48.6 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 62 months (range, 6 to 141 months). All patients showed complete response in the radiation field. Eight outfield relapses were reported. Seven patients received salvage treatment (three chemotherapy, four RT). Four patients showed excellent responses, especially to RT. Estimated 5-year and 10-year relapse-free survivals were 72% and 60%. In the RT-alone group, 5-year relapse-free survival was 74.5%. All advanced-stage patients were disease-free with 100% 5-year overall survival. Disease-specific death was noted in only one patient; four others died of other unrelated causes. No significant toxicity was reported. RT resulted in excellent treatment outcomes for all FL stages when used as a primary treatment modality for early stage or salvage-treatment modality for advanced-stage disease.

  5. Breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy reports more unmet supportive care needs in the early treatment phase, than patients treated only with radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Meldgaard, Anette; Henriksen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    of a large battery of selfadministered questionnaires, the women filled out at home, the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34) together with demographic items (socioeconomic status, working hours, marital status etc.). The SCNS-SF34 includes 5 different domains of needs: Psychological-, Health system...... Aims: The purpose was to identify unmet supportive care needs in the early treatment phase of women treated for breast cancer and to investigate differences in needs between groups treated with chemo-therapy and radiationtherapy. If it is possible to identify early unmet needs, it may be possible...... to predict levels of unmet needs in the post-treatment phase and target an early rehabilitation to specific groups and with specific interventions. Population: Over a six-month period, 123 Danish women treated with mastectomy or lumpectomy, were assessed for eligibility in the midst of their primary...

  6. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  7. Phase evolution during early stages of mechanical alloying of Cu–13 wt.% Al powder mixtures in a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudina, Dina V.; Lomovsky, Oleg I.; Valeev, Konstantin R.; Tikhov, Serguey F.; Boldyreva, Natalya N.; Salanov, Aleksey N.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Lapina, Olga B.; Sadykov, Vladislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase formation during early stages of Cu–Al mechanical alloying was studied. • The products of mechanical alloying are of highly non-equilibrium character. • X-ray amorphous phases are present in the products of mechanical alloying. • An Al-rich X-ray amorphous phase is distributed between the crystallites. - Abstract: We report the phase and microstructure evolution of the Cu–13 wt.% Al mixture during treatment in a high-energy planetary ball mill with a particular focus on the early stages of mechanical alloying. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction phase analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential dissolution, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy/elemental analysis, have been combined to study the evolution of the phase composition of the mechanically alloyed powders and describe the microstructure of the multi-phase products of mechanical alloying at different length scales. The following reaction sequence has been confirmed: Cu + Al → CuAl 2 (+Cu) → Cu 9 Al 4 + (Cu) → Cu(Al). The phase evolution was accompanied by the microstructure changes, the layered structure of the powder agglomerates disappearing with milling time. This scheme is further complicated by the processes of copper oxidation, reduction of copper oxides by metallic aluminum, and by variation of the stoichiometry of Cu(Al) solid solutions with milling time. Substantial amounts of X-ray amorphous phases were detected as well. Differential dissolution technique has revealed that a high content of aluminum in the Cu(Al) solid solution-based powders is due to the presence of Al-rich phases distributed between the Cu(Al) crystallites

  8. 78 FR 73555 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS). The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS considers programmatic... programmatic restoration alternatives. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS evaluates these restoration alternatives... the Framework Agreement. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS also evaluates the environmental consequences of...

  9. Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A Berber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

  10. Changes in neural circuitry associated with depression at pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Janina; Allende-Castro, Camilo; Laliena, Almudena; Guerrero, Néstor; Silva, Hernán; Concha, Miguel L

    2017-02-01

    Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed. Some of these changes are linked to motor compensation mechanisms while others correspond to pathological processes common to PD and depression and thus could underlie the appearance of depressive symptoms during the pre-motor phase. Studies of the early motor phase (less than five years post diagnosis) reveal an association between the extent of damage in different monoaminergic systems and the appearance of emotional disorders. We propose that the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and the lateral habenula play key roles in the early genesis of depression in PD. Alterations in the neural circuitry linked with emotional control might be sensitive markers of the ongoing neurodegenerative process and thus may serve to facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. To take advantage of this, we need to improve the clinical criteria and develop biomarkers to identify depression, which could be used to determine individuals at risk to develop PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissecting Molecular Events in Thyroid Neoplasia Provides Evidence for Distinct Evolution of Follicular Thyroid Adenoma and Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Kerstin; Prawitt, Susanne; Eszlinger, Markus; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Schierle, Katrin; Gimm, Oliver; Dralle, Henning; Steinert, Frank; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Schmid, Kurt W.; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogene...

  12. Changes in ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics during the early phase of sepsis: a prospective, experimental study in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Selmi

    2016-11-01

    the PK of CTX and an alteration in the sialic components of the GFB, with consequent loss of protein-bound CTX. Among factors that can affect drug pharmacokinetics during the early phases of sepsis, urinary loss of both free and albumin–bound antimicrobials should be considered.

  13. Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Martín; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; del Carmen González-Ramírez, Imelda; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Flores-Hernández, Lorena; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer presents as nodules. Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported. Some factors can be associated with malignancy. Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy. We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm. From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology. Of these, 75 were surgically treated. Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases. Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis. Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma. Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions. Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66). Fifty percent of males showed malignancy vs. 37.7% of females (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that size and gender, but not age, are associated with cytological pattern. Ultrasonographic characteristics may be useful discriminating patients with a higher risk of malignancy. FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.

  14. Follicular aspiration versus coasting for ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaqer, Nayla J.; Dayoub, Nawal M.; AlHattali, Khalsa K.; Ayyoub, Hisham A.; AlFaraj, Samaher S.; Hassan, Samar N.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To compare follicular reduction prior to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) trigger and coasting in terms of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective study. The setting was the IVF unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 39 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles, who were at risk of OHSS, 20 were put into a coasting group and 19 had follicular reduction instead. This occurred between October 2010 and January 2011. Our main outcome was OHSS reduction. Results: Six (30%) women developed OHSS in the coasting group and 2 (10.5%) women developed OHSS in the follicular group (p-value=0.235). The pregnancy rates in the cycles were similar for both groups: 4/20 (20%) in the coasting group and 3/19 (15.8%) in the follicular group (p-value=1.000). The cancellation rate of the cycles was similar for both groups, 6/20 (30%) in the coasting group and 1/19 (5.3%) in the follicular group (p-value=0.09). The median number of punctured follicles was significantly lower in the follicular group (16 follicles, interquartile range (IQR)=21-12) compared to the coasting group (29 follicles, IQR=37.8-19.8, p-value=0.001). The retrieved, fertilized, and cleaved oocytes, as well as the number of embryos transferred, were similar amongst both groups. Conclusion: There was no difference between follicular reduction prior to HCG and coasting, in terms of OHSS reduction, pregnancy, and cancellation rates in both the IVF and ICSI cycles. PMID:29543308

  15. Effect of calcium-binding protein S100A8 expression on early phase of radiation pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Yalan; Li Ming; Cong Yue; Li Fengsheng; Chen Xiaohua; Dong Bo; Zhang Junquan; Gao Ling; Mao Bingzhi

    2008-01-01

    The study explores the expression and effect of calcium-binding protein S100A8 on early phase of radiation pulmonary fibrosis via in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiment, the thoracic regions of rats were irradiated under 20Gy 60 Co γ-rays to establish radiation pulmonary fibrosis. After irradiation, the lung specimens of the sacrificed rats were separately harvested by the ends of the first, second, and fourth weeks respectively. The protein expression of S100A8 was tested through immunohistochemistry, the mRNA expression of S100A8 and its heterodimeric S100A9 were investigated by RT-PCR method. In vitro experiment, RT-PCR method was also applied to measure the mRNA expression of S100A8 in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 after γ-rays irradiation and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It shows that the protein expression of S100A8 was increased in the plasma of lung macrophages samples and the mRNA expression of S100A8 and S100A9 was also increased in the lung tissue samples in four weeks after irradiation in vivo experiment. And in vitro experiment it shows that the cooperation between γ-rays and LPS can increase the mRNA expression of S100A8 in RAW264.7. These phenomena suggest that S100A8 can exert the chemotactic activity, participate in the inflammatory response, and influence the establishment of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  16. Conceptual Design of Simulation Models in an Early Development Phase of Lunar Spacecraft Simulator Using SMP2 Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoon Hee; Koo, Cheol Hea; Moon, Sung Tae; Han, Sang Hyuck; Ju, Gwang Hyeok

    2013-08-01

    The conceptual study for Korean lunar orbiter/lander prototype has been performed in Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). Across diverse space programs around European countries, a variety of simulation application has been developed using SMP2 (Simulation Modelling Platform) standard related to portability and reuse of simulation models by various model users. KARI has not only first-hand experience of a development of SMP compatible simulation environment but also an ongoing study to apply the SMP2 development process of simulation model to a simulator development project for lunar missions. KARI has tried to extend the coverage of the development domain based on SMP2 standard across the whole simulation model life-cycle from software design to its validation through a lunar exploration project. Figure. 1 shows a snapshot from a visualization tool for the simulation of lunar lander motion. In reality, a demonstrator prototype on the right-hand side of image was made and tested in 2012. In an early phase of simulator development prior to a kick-off start in the near future, targeted hardware to be modelled has been investigated and indentified at the end of 2012. The architectural breakdown of the lunar simulator at system level was performed and the architecture with a hierarchical tree of models from the system to parts at lower level has been established. Finally, SMP Documents such as Catalogue, Assembly, Schedule and so on were converted using a XML(eXtensible Mark-up Language) converter. To obtain benefits of the suggested approaches and design mechanisms in SMP2 standard as far as possible, the object-oriented and component-based design concepts were strictly chosen throughout a whole model development process.

  17. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  18. Flow cytometry of human primary epidermal and follicular keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnani, Alfredo; Ipolito, Michelle Zampieri; Sobral, Christiane S; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Salomão, Reinaldo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2008-02-19

    The aim of this study was to characterize using flow cytometry cultured human primary keratinocytes isolated from the epidermis and hair follicles by different methods. Human keratinocytes derived from discarded fragments of total skin and scalp hair follicles from patients who underwent plastic surgery in the Plastic Surgery Division at UNIFESP were used. The epidermal keratinocytes were isolated by using 3 different methods: the standard method, upon exposure to trypsin for 30 minutes; the second, by treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes; and the third, by treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 30 minutes. Follicular keratinocytes were isolated using the standard method. On comparing the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 30 minutes, it was observed that the first group presented the largest number of viable cells, the smallest number of cells in late apoptosis and necrosis with statistical significance, and no difference in apoptosis. When we compared the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the group treated with trypsin, the first group presented the largest number of viable cells, the smallest number of cells in apoptosis with statistical significance, and no difference in late apoptosis and necrosis. When we compared the results of the group treated with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes with the results for follical isolation, there was a statistical difference in apoptosis and viable cells. The isolation method of treatment with dispase for 18 hours and with trypsin for 10 minutes produced the largest number of viable cells and the smallest number of cells in apoptosis/necrosis.

  19. THE ROLE OF FOLLICULAR UNIT GRAFTING IN TREATMENT ALOPECIA

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    Duhita Ayuningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Alopecia is usually treatable and self-limited, but it may be permanent. Careful diagnosis of the type of hair loss will aid in selecting effective treatment. Many drugs used to treat alopecia, but in many people not satisfied with the result. One of the treatment currently used to treat alopecia is hair transplantation with follicular unit grafting (FUG. The advantages of hair transplantation is to create a natural appearance, one that mimics natural hair growth both in terms of numbers and pattern /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.

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    Jerzy Sikora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations.

  1. A phase I/II trial of AT9283, a selective inhibitor of aurora kinase in children with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia: challenges to run early phase clinical trials for children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, B; Veal, G J; Griffin, M J; Boddy, A V; Irving, J; Minto, L; Case, M; Banerji, U; Swales, K E; Tall, J R; Moore, A S; Toguchi, M; Acton, G; Dyer, K; Schwab, C; Harrison, C J; Grainger, J D; Lancaster, D; Kearns, P; Hargrave, D; Vormoor, J

    2017-06-01

    Aurora kinases regulate mitosis and are commonly overexpressed in leukemia. This phase I/IIa study of AT9283, a multikinase inhibitor, was designed to identify maximal tolerated doses, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic activity in children with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. The trial suffered from poor recruitment and terminated early, therefore failing to identify its primary endpoints. AT9283 caused tolerable toxicity, but failed to show clinical responses. Future trials should be based on robust preclinical data that provide an indication of which patients may benefit from the experimental agent, and recruitment should be improved through international collaborations and early combination with established treatment strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 on embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, Funda; Gulekli, Bulent; Dogan, Erbil; Korhan, Peyda; Dogan, Seda; Bige, Ozgur; Cimrin, Dilek; Atabey, Nese

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the association between follicular fluid levels of propeptide and mature forms of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 with subsequent oocyte and embryo quality. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Eighty-one infertile patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The expression levels of the propeptide and mature forms of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 were determined by western blot analysis. The levels of follicular fluid hormones (FSH, E2, and P) were measured with automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. The relationships between the levels of GDF9 and BMP15, hormones, oocyte maturation, and embryo quality. Mature GDF9 levels were significantly correlated with the nuclear maturation of oocytes. The mean mature GDF9 level was 4.87±0.60 in the high-embryo-quality group and 1.45±0.81 in the low-embryo-quality group. There were no statistically significant differences in embryo quality among the patients regarding propeptide GDF9 and BMP15 expression status. There was a negative correlation between follicular fluid levels of P and the mature form of GDF9. Higher mature GDF9 levels in the follicular fluid were significantly correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Keratosis Pilaris Revisited: Is It More Than Just a Follicular Keratosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keratosis pilaris (KP) is characterized by keratinous plugs in the follicular orifices and varying degrees of perifollicular erythema. The most accepted theory of its pathogenesis proposes defective keratinization of the follicular epithelium resulting in a keratotic infundibular plug. We decided to test this hypothesis by doing dermoscopy of patients diagnosed clinically as keratosis pilaris. Materials and Methods: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of KP seen between September 2011 and December 2011 were included in the study. A clinical history was obtained and examination and dermoscopic evaluation were performed on the lesions of KP. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 6-38 years. Sixteen patients had history of atopy. Nine had concomitant ichthyosis vulgaris. All the 25 patients were found to have coiled hair shafts within the affected follicular infundibula. The hair shafts were extracted with the help of a sterile needle and were found to retain their coiled nature. Perifollicular erythema was seen in 11 patients; perifollicular scaling in 9. Conclusion: Based on our observations and previously documented histological data of KP, we infer that KP may not be a disorder of keratinization, but caused by the circular hair shaft which ruptures the follicular epithelium leading to inflammation and abnormal follicular keratinization. PMID:23766609

  4. MicroRNAs: New Insight in Modulating Follicular Atresia: A Review

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    Tesfaye Worku

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways. Subsequent in vitro and/or in vivo studies of granulosa cells have elucidated the functional role of some miRNAs along with their molecular pathways. In particular, the regulatory roles of some miRNAs have been consistently observed during studies of follicular cellular apoptosis. Continued work should gradually lead to better understanding of the role of miRNAs in this field. Ultimately, we expect this understanding will have substantial benefits for fertility management at both the in vivo or/and in vitro levels. The stable nature of miRNA holds remarkable promise in clinical use as a diagnostic tool and in reproductive medicine to solve the ever-increasing fertility problem. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the involvement of miRNAs in follicular atresia, discuss the challenges for further work and pinpoint areas for future research.

  5. Microrna-199a-5p Functions as a Tumor Suppressor via Suppressing Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Han, Shen; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Weihai; Zhang, Zhijun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-04-11

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to explore the role of miR-199a-5p in the development of thyroid cancer, including its anti-proliferation effect and downstream signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of several microRNAs in 42 follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and 42 controls. We identified CTGF as target of miR-491, and viability and cell cycle status were determined in FTC-133 cells transfected with CTGF siRNA, miR-199a mimics, or inhibitors. RESULTS We identified an underexpression of miR-199a-5p in follicular thyroid carcinoma tissue samples compared with controls. Then we confirmed CTGF as a target of miR-199a-5p thyroid cells by using informatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, we found that mRNA and protein expression levels of CTGF were both clearly higher in malignant tissues than in benign tissues. miR-199a-5p mimics and CTGF siRNA similarly downregulated the expression of CTGF, and reduced the viability of FTC-133 cells by arresting the cell cycle in G0 phase. Transfection of miR-199a-5p inhibitors increased the expression of CTGF and promoted the viability of the cells by increasing the fraction of cells in G2/M and S phases. CONCLUSIONS Our study proves that the CTGF gene is a target of miR-199a-5p, demonstrating the negatively related association between CTGF and miR-199a. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

  6. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  7. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interest of PET with F.D.G. in the follicular lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarghach, N.; Cornec, D.; Querellou, S.; Berthou, C.; Renaudineau, Y.; Pradier, O.; Cheze-Lerest, C.; Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.

    2009-01-01

    For the follicular lymphomas, the PET is not in the systematic medical evaluation when it cannot be ignored in the evaluation of high grade non hodgkin lymphomas because it allows to make a complete extension evaluation and especially to help to define the target volume when the radiotherapy is indicated. The fixation of F.D.G. in follicular lymphomas was studied. We showed that the follicular lymphomas present in PET under the form of hypermetabolic injuries. It seems possible to consider the use of PET to help at the definition of target volumes when the radiotherapy is indicated. The intensity of fixation seems to have a predictive value for the therapy response in case of immunotherapy. The measurement of the active tumoral volume seems to have a predictive value for the response to the treatment that is worth being specified on a more important population. (N.C.)

  9. Correlation between scintillographic-and morphologic findings in 78 follicular adenomas of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.E.; Silva, W.; Andreghetti, C.R.; Kiy, Y.; Franco, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Correlation between Scintilographic and morphologic findings was investigated in 78 follicular adenomas of thyroid found in 249 thyroidectomies carried out at the University Hospital of the Botucatu Medical School from 1973 to 1978. Most patients were female ranging from 20 to 59 yaars of age. There was agreement between Scintilography and morphology in 75% of the 48 cold nodules: low 131 I - uptake and cystic of histologically non - non functioning adenomas (embrionary, fetal or macrofollicular types). Among the 12 warm nodules there was Scintilographic - morphological agreement in 50% of the cases (normal 135 I - uptake and simple adenoma) and disagreement in 50% (normal 135 I - uptake and cystic or histologically non-functioning adenomas). Most of the 18 hot adenomas showed hyperplastic follicular histology goth in the toxic and non-toxic nodules. In the thyroid surrounding the adenomas, histological foci of follicular hyperplasia in 8.9% and of lymphocitic thyroiditis in 33.3% of the cases were found. (Author) [pt

  10. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  11. Age-related changes in the hemodynamics of the femoral head as evaluated by early phase of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Takahashi, Kenji A.

    2006-01-01

    The femoral head is reported to be in a markedly hypoemic state as compared with other tissues even under normal conditions, and it is therefore necessary to understand its hemodynamics to investigate the pathogenesis of hip disorders. It is known that aspects of intraosseous hemodynamics including blood flow and blood pool can be evaluated soon after radioisotope administration. In this study, hemodynamic changes in the femoral head according to gender and age were examined by investigating accumulation of radioisotope in the tissue during the early phase of bone scintigraphy. The subjects of this study consisted of 58 joints of 31 men and 75 joints of 41 women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 87 years (average age: 67.9 years). Images of bone scintigraphy were obtained for 15 to 20 minutes at 5 minutes and at 3 hours after radioisotope administration. The ratio of accumulation in the femoral head to that in the diaphysis (head-to-diaphysis ratio, HD ratio) was calculated. HD ratios obtained 15-20 minutes later ranged from 0.01 to 7.35 (1.88±0.91, mean±SD). HD ratios decreased with age, and a significant inverse correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.27 (p=0.001). The HD ratio among men was 0.01-3.57 (1.66±0.71), while that among women was 0.53-7.35 (2.05±1.01), and a significant difference was observed in HD ratio between men and women (p=0.02). There was a significant difference in HD ratios between men and women in their teens to forties (p=0.03), while no significant differences was observed in the other age groups. HD ratios obtained 3 hours later ranged from 0.44 to 6.32 (1.95±0.79, mean±SD), and no significant correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.14. The present study demonstrated that blood flow and blood pool of the femoral head decrease with aging particularly in women. This hemodynamic deterioration of the femoral head caused by aging

  12. Subaqueous early eruptive phase of the late Aptian Rajmahal volcanism, India: Evidence from volcaniclastic rocks, bentonite, black shales, and oolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh C. Ghose

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The late Aptian (118–115 Ma continental flood basalts of the Rajmahal Volcanic Province (RVP are part of the Kerguelen Large Igneous Province, and constitute the uppermost part of the Gondwana Supergroup on the eastern Indian shield margin. The lower one-third of the Rajmahal volcanic succession contains thin layers of plant fossil-rich inter-trappean sedimentary rocks with pyroclasts, bentonite, grey and black shale/mudstone and oolite, whereas the upper two-thirds consist of sub-aerial fine-grained aphyric basalts with no inter-trappean material. At the eastern margin and the north-central sector of the RVP, the volcanics in the lower part include rhyolites and dacites overlain by enstatite-bearing basalts and enstatite-andesites. The pyroclastic rocks are largely felsic in composition, and comprise ignimbrite as well as coarse-grained tuff with lithic clasts, and tuff breccia with bombs, lapilli and ash that indicate explosive eruption of viscous rhyolitic magma. The rhyolites/dacites (>68 wt.% are separated from the andesites (<60 wt.% by a gap in silica content indicating their formation through upper crustal anatexis with only heat supplied by the basaltic magma. On the other hand, partially melted siltstone xenoliths in enstatite-bearing basalts suggest that the enstatite-andesites originated through mixing of the upper crust with basaltic magma, crystallizing orthopyroxene at a pressure-temperature of ∼3 kb/1150 °C. In contrast, the northwestern sector of the RVP is devoid of felsic-intermediate rocks, and the volcaniclastic rocks are predominantly mafic (basaltic in composition. Here, the presence of fine-grained tuffs, tuff breccia containing sideromelane shards and quenched texture, welded tuff breccia, peperite, shale/mudstone and oolite substantiates a subaqueous environment. Based on these observations, we conclude that the early phase of Rajmahal volcanism occurred under predominantly subaqueous conditions. The presence

  13. Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution. Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, D.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Huélamo, N.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Bayo, A.; Palau, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Rivière-Marichalar, P.; Bouy, H.; Morata, Ó.; Stauffer, J. R.; Eiroa, C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: The early evolutionary stage of brown dwarfs (BDs) is not very well characterized, especi