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Sample records for early events involved

  1. 123I-MIBG imaging detects cardiac involvement and predicts cardiac events in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Yoriko; Morita, Yukiko; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    In Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) it is important to detect cardiac involvement, which predicts poor prognosis. This study evaluated whether 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy could detect cardiac damage and predict cardiac events in CSS. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 28 patients with CSS, 12 of whom had cardiac involvement. The early and delayed heart to mediastinum ratio (early H/M and delayed H/M) and washout rate were calculated by using 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy and compared with those in control subjects. Early H/M and delayed H/M were significantly lower and the washout rate was significantly higher in patients with cardiac involvement than in those without and in controls (early H/M, p = 0.0024, p = 0.0001; delayed H/M, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0001; washout rate, p = 0.0012, p = 0.0052 vs those without and vs controls, respectively). Accuracy for detecting cardiac involvement was 86% for delayed H/M and washout rate and 79% for early H/M and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower cardiac event-free rates in patients with early H/M ≤ 2.18 and BNP > 21.8 pg/ml than those with early H/M > 2.18 and BNP ≤ 21.8 pg/ml (log-rank test p = 0.006). Cardiac sympathetic nerve function was damaged in CSS patients with cardiac involvement. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was useful in detecting cardiac involvement and in predicting cardiac events. (orig.)

  2. {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging detects cardiac involvement and predicts cardiac events in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Yoriko; Morita, Yukiko [National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan); Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Akiyama, Kazuo [National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital, Clinical Research Centre for Allergy and Rheumatology, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    In Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) it is important to detect cardiac involvement, which predicts poor prognosis. This study evaluated whether {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy could detect cardiac damage and predict cardiac events in CSS. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 28 patients with CSS, 12 of whom had cardiac involvement. The early and delayed heart to mediastinum ratio (early H/M and delayed H/M) and washout rate were calculated by using {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy and compared with those in control subjects. Early H/M and delayed H/M were significantly lower and the washout rate was significantly higher in patients with cardiac involvement than in those without and in controls (early H/M, p = 0.0024, p = 0.0001; delayed H/M, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0001; washout rate, p = 0.0012, p = 0.0052 vs those without and vs controls, respectively). Accuracy for detecting cardiac involvement was 86% for delayed H/M and washout rate and 79% for early H/M and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower cardiac event-free rates in patients with early H/M {<=} 2.18 and BNP > 21.8 pg/ml than those with early H/M > 2.18 and BNP {<=} 21.8 pg/ml (log-rank test p = 0.006). Cardiac sympathetic nerve function was damaged in CSS patients with cardiac involvement. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was useful in detecting cardiac involvement and in predicting cardiac events. (orig.)

  3. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  4. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Analysis of brand personality to involve event involvement and loyalty: A case study of Jakarta Fashion Week 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. H.; Rachmawan, Y. A.

    2018-04-01

    Fashion trend in the world changed extremely fast. Fashion has become the one of people’s lifestyle in the world. Fashion week events in several areas can be a measurement of fahion trend nowadays. There was a fashion week event in Indonesia called Jakarta Fashion Week (JFW) aims to show fashion trend to people who want to improve their fashion style. People will join some events if the event has involvement to them, hence they will come to that event again and again. Annually and continuously event is really important to create loyalty among people who are involved in it, in order to increase positive development towards the organizer in organizing the next event. Saving a huge amount from the marketing budget, and creating a higher quality event. This study aims to know the effect of 5 brand personality dimension to event involvement and loyalty in Jakarta Fashion Week (JFW). This study use quantitative confirmative method with Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis technique. The sample of this study is 150 respondents who became a participant of Jakarta Fashion Week 2017. Result show that there was significant effect of 5 brand personality dimension to 3 dimension of event involvement and loyalty. Meanwhile, there was one dimension of event involvement called personal self-expression that has not effect to loyalty.

  6. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  7. Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to extreme weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on extreme weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent extreme weather event WF plays an important role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on extreme events.

  8. Dissemination of a highly virulent pathogen: tracking the early events that define infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of events that occurs immediately after pathogen entrance into the body is largely speculative. Key aspects of these events are pathogen dissemination and pathogen interactions with the immune response as the invader moves into deeper tissues. We sought to define major events that occur early during infection of a highly virulent pathogen. To this end, we tracked early dissemination of Yersinia pestis, a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes bubonic plague in mammals. Specifically, we addressed two fundamental questions: (1 do the bacteria encounter barriers in disseminating to draining lymph nodes (LN, and (2 what mechanism does this nonmotile bacterium use to reach the LN compartment, as the prevailing model predicts trafficking in association with host cells. Infection was followed through microscopy imaging in addition to assessing bacterial population dynamics during dissemination from the skin. We found and characterized an unexpected bottleneck that severely restricts bacterial dissemination to LNs. The bacteria that do not pass through this bottleneck are confined to the skin, where large numbers of neutrophils arrive and efficiently control bacterial proliferation. Notably, bottleneck formation is route dependent, as it is abrogated after subcutaneous inoculation. Using a combination of approaches, including microscopy imaging, we tested the prevailing model of bacterial dissemination from the skin into LNs and found no evidence of involvement of migrating phagocytes in dissemination. Thus, early stages of infection are defined by a bottleneck that restricts bacterial dissemination and by neutrophil-dependent control of bacterial proliferation in the skin. Furthermore, and as opposed to current models, our data indicate an intracellular stage is not required by Y. pestis to disseminate from the skin to draining LNs. Because our findings address events that occur during early encounters of pathogen with the immune response

  9. Towards Detecting the Crowd Involved in Social Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how people interact with urban environments is fundamental for a variety of fields, ranging from transportation to social science. Despite the fact that human mobility patterns have been a major topic of study in recent years, a challenge to understand large-scale human behavior when a certain event occurs remains due to a lack of either relevant data or suitable approaches. Psychological crowd refers to a group of people who are usually located at different places and show different behaviors, but who are very sensitively driven to take the same act (gather together by a certain event, which has been theoretically studied by social psychologists since the 19th century. This study aims to propose a computational approach using a machine learning method to model psychological crowds, contributing to the better understanding of human activity patterns under events. Psychological features and mental unity of the crowd are computed to detect the involved individuals. A national event happening across the USA in April, 2015 is analyzed using geotagged tweets as a case study to test our approach. The result shows that 81% of individuals in the crowd can be successfully detected. Through investigating the geospatial pattern of the involved users, not only can the event related users be identified but also those unobserved users before the event can be uncovered. The proposed approach can effectively represent the psychological feature and measure the mental unity of the psychological crowd, which sheds light on the study of large-scale psychological crowd and provides an innovative way to understanding human behavior under events.

  10. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Bown, P.R.; Murphy, B.H.; Sluijs, A.; Edgar, K.M.; Pälike, H.; Bolton, C.T.; Zachos, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are

  11. Quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Olsen, Jesper V

    2007-01-01

    Technical limitations have prevented proteomic analyses of events occurring less than 30 s after signal initiation. We developed an automated, continuous quench-flow system allowing quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events (qPACE) with a time resolution of 1 s...

  12. Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are early events involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E

    2012-11-01

    Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing early responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by early events, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of early initiating event(s) in radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Masahiro; Ying Chen; Kubo, Eiko; Mita, Kazuei

    1996-01-01

    Since the T cell receptor rearrangement is a sequential process and unique to the progeny of each clone, we investigated the early initiating events in radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis by comparing the oncogenic alterations with the pattern of γ T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangements. We reported previously that after leukemogenic irradiation, preneoplastic cells developed, albeit infrequently, from thymic leukemia antigen-2 + (TL-2 + ) thymocytes. Limited numbers of TL-2 + cells from individual irradiated B10.Thy-1.1 mice were injected into B10.Thy-1.2 mice intrathymically, and the common genetic changes among the donor-type T cell lymphomas were investigated with regard to p53 gene and chromosome aberrations. The results indicated that some mutations in the p53 gene had taken place in these lymphomas, but there was no common mutation among the donor-type lymphomas from individual irradiated mice, suggesting that these mutations were late-occurring events in the process of oncogenesis. On the other hand, there were common chromosome aberrations or translocations such as trisomy 15, t(7F; 10C), t(1A; 13D) or t(6A; XB) among the donor-type lymphomas derived from half of the individual irradiated mice. This indicated that the aberrations/translocations, which occurred in single progenitor cells at the early T cell differentiation either just before or after γ T cell receptor rearrangements, might be important candidates for initiating events. In the donor-type lymphomas from the other half of the individual irradiated mice, microgenetic changes were suggested to be initial events and also might take place in single progenitor cells just before or right after γ TCR rearrangements. (author)

  14. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitulli Federico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT-PCR (qPCR. Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox

  15. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  16. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  17. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  18. Early Father's and Mother's Involvement and Child's Later Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E.; Buchanan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. Aims: (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether…

  19. A Novel Approach For Event-By-Event Early Gluon Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Rose, Steven

    2017-08-01

    We report on efforts to construct an event generator that calculates the classical gluon field generated at early times in high energy nuclear collisions. Existing approaches utilize numerical solutions of the Yang-Mills equations after the collision. In contrast we employ the analytically known recursion relation in the forward light cone. The few lowest orders are expected to lead to reliable results for times of up to the inverse saturation scale, τ0 ∼ 1 /Qs. In these proceedings we sketch some calculational details, and show some preliminary results.

  20. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2004-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.

  2. Early cell adhesion events differ between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinpanayagam, H; Zaharias, R; Stanford, C; Brand, R; Keller, J; Schneider, G

    2001-11-01

    In osteoporosis, the regenerative capacity of bone is compromised, which may involve altered osteoblast (OB) activity. This could be attributed to an inappropriate synthesis and assembly of an extracellular matrix (ECM), altered cell adhesion to the ECM, or be due to inappropriate downstream activation of adhesion-mediated signaling cascades through proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The purpose of our study was to compare early adhesion-mediated events using previously described and characterized clinically derived OBs obtained from human patients undergoing major joint arthroplasty for osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. The presence or absence of osteoporosis was established with a radiographic index. Using light microscopy and crystal violet staining, we show that OB cells derived from sites of osteoporosis do not attach and spread as well as non-osteoporotic (OP) OB cells. OP cells initially have a more rounded morphology, and show significantly less (P attachment to serum-coated tissue culture plastic over a 24 h time period. Immunofluorescent labeling after 24 h of attachment showed that OP OB focal adhesions (FAs) and stress fibers were less defined, and that the OP cells were smaller and had a more motile phenotype. When normalized protein lysates were Western blotted for phosphotyrosine (PY) a band corresponding to pp125FAK was identified. FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was evident at 6 h in both the OP and non-OP OBs, but decreased or was absent through 24 h in OP OBs. These results suggest early adhesion-mediated events, such as cell adhesion, attachment, and FAK signaling via PY may be altered in OP OBs.

  3. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  4. ENERGETIC PARTICLE CROSS-FIELD PROPAGATION EARLY IN A SOLAR EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, PR1 2HE Preston (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-20

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) have been observed to easily spread across heliographic longitudes, and the mechanisms responsible for this behavior remain unclear. We use full-orbit simulations of a 10 MeV proton beam in a turbulent magnetic field to study to what extent the spread across the mean field can be described as diffusion early in a particle event. We compare the full-orbit code results to solutions of a Fokker-Planck equation including spatial and pitch angle diffusion, and of one including also propagation of the particles along random-walking magnetic field lines. We find that propagation of the particles along meandering field lines is the key process determining their cross-field spread at 1 AU at the beginning of the simulated event. The mean square displacement of the particles an hour after injection is an order of magnitude larger than that given by the diffusion model, indicating that models employing spatial cross-field diffusion cannot be used to describe early evolution of an SEP event. On the other hand, the diffusion of the particles from their initial field lines is negligible during the first 5 hr, which is consistent with the observations of SEP intensity dropouts. We conclude that modeling SEP events must take into account the particle propagation along meandering field lines for the first 20 hr of the event.

  5. ENERGETIC PARTICLE CROSS-FIELD PROPAGATION EARLY IN A SOLAR EVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) have been observed to easily spread across heliographic longitudes, and the mechanisms responsible for this behavior remain unclear. We use full-orbit simulations of a 10 MeV proton beam in a turbulent magnetic field to study to what extent the spread across the mean field can be described as diffusion early in a particle event. We compare the full-orbit code results to solutions of a Fokker-Planck equation including spatial and pitch angle diffusion, and of one including also propagation of the particles along random-walking magnetic field lines. We find that propagation of the particles along meandering field lines is the key process determining their cross-field spread at 1 AU at the beginning of the simulated event. The mean square displacement of the particles an hour after injection is an order of magnitude larger than that given by the diffusion model, indicating that models employing spatial cross-field diffusion cannot be used to describe early evolution of an SEP event. On the other hand, the diffusion of the particles from their initial field lines is negligible during the first 5 hr, which is consistent with the observations of SEP intensity dropouts. We conclude that modeling SEP events must take into account the particle propagation along meandering field lines for the first 20 hr of the event

  6. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  7. Does Sport Event Involvement Influence Brand Recognition of Official Sponsors and Ambush Marketers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowska Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to verify how event involvement in the UEFA Euro 2012 influenced the recognition of both sponsors’ and ambushers’ brands. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews were conducted on a representative sample of the Polish society (N = 1,000. On the basis of five groups of consumers regarding involvement in the event, authors examined brand recognition, using Top of Mind Awareness (TOMA tests of official sponsors and ambushers.

  8. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  9. influence of early literacy parental involvement on science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    were highly involved in their children's early literacy acquisition; parental ... in literacy acquisition of boys was more than that of girls, though this difference was not .... method. Procedure for Data Collection. The students (with the help of their.

  10. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  11. Assessment of events involving transport of radioactive materials in France, 1999-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents transport events involving radioactive materials that occurred in France from 1999 to 2011 and entered in the IRSN's database. For each of the 1,304 events recorded, many parameters have been collected and analysed from information listed in the declarations and reports of events sent by users (type of event, purpose, package design, INES level, etc.). The number of events declared in 2010 and 2011 is slightly higher than the average of 100 events per year. The two main reasons for declaration concern errors in transport documentation or labelling and handling mishaps. The new data confirm the downward trend in frequency of package and vehicle contaminations. A short description of outstanding events in 2010 and 2011 is included. This assessment also gives an outline of the actions recommended by IRSN to avoid recurrence of declared events and improve the safety of radioactive material transport. (authors)

  12. Issues in Informal Education: Event-Based Science Communication Involving Planetaria and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whitt, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the last several years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of Internet-based science communication. The program includes extended stories about NASA science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. The focus of sharing real-time science related events has been to involve and excite students and the public about science. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. Panel participation will be used to communicate the problems and lessons learned from these activities over the last three years.

  13. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  14. Transcriptomic events involved in melon mature-fruit abscission comprise the sequential induction of cell-wall degrading genes coupled to a stimulation of endo and exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Corbacho

    Full Text Available Mature-fruit abscission (MFA in fleshy-fruit is a genetically controlled process with mechanisms that, contrary to immature-fruit abscission, has not been fully characterized. Here, we use pyrosequencing to characterize the transcriptomes of melon abscission zone (AZ at three stages during AZ-cell separation in order to understand MFA control at an early stage of AZ-activation.The results show that by early induction of MFA, the melon AZ exhibits major gene induction, while by late induction of MFA, melon AZ shows major gene repression. Although some genes displayed similar regulation in both early and late induction of abscission, such as EXT1-EXT4, EGase1, IAA2, ERF1, AP2D15, FLC, MADS2, ERAF17, SAP5 and SCL13 genes, the majority had different expression patterns. This implies that time-specific events occur during MFA, and emphasizes the value of characterizing multiple time-specific abscission transcriptomes. Analysis of gene-expression from these AZs reveal that a sequential induction of cell-wall-degrading genes is associated with the upregulation of genes involved in endo and exocytosis, and a shift in plant-hormone metabolism and signaling genes during MFA. This is accompanied by transcriptional activity of small-GTPases and synthaxins together with tubulins, dynamins, V-type ATPases and kinesin-like proteins potentially involved in MFA signaling. Early events are potentially controlled by down-regulation of MADS-box, AP2/ERF and Aux/IAA transcription-factors, and up-regulation of homeobox, zinc finger, bZIP, and WRKY transcription-factors, while late events may be controlled by up-regulation of MYB transcription-factors.Overall, the data provide a comprehensive view on MFA in fleshy-fruit, identifying candidate genes and pathways associated with early induction of MFA. Our comprehensive gene-expression profile will be very useful for elucidating gene regulatory networks of the MFA in fleshy-fruit.

  15. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  16. : Principles of safety measures of sports events organizers without the involvement of police

    OpenAIRE

    Buchalová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Principles of safety measures of sports events organizers without the involvement of police Objectives: The aim of this thesis is a description of security measures at sporting events organizers. Methods: The thesis theoretical style is focused on searching for available sources of study and research, and writing their summary comparing safety measures of the organizers. Results: This work describes the activities of the organizers of sports events and precautions that must be provided...

  17. Membrane remodeling, an early event in benzo[α]pyrene-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Huc, Laurence; Catheline, Daniel; Sergent, Odile; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe; Holme, Jorn A.; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) often serves as a model for mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our previous work suggested a role of membrane fluidity in B[α]P-induced apoptotic process. In this study, we report that B[α]P modifies the composition of cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) in rat liver F258 epithelial cells. The cellular distribution of the ganglioside-GM1 was markedly changed following B[α]P exposure. B[α]P also modified fatty acid composition and decreased the cholesterol content of cholesterol-rich microdomains. B[α]P-induced depletion of cholesterol in lipid rafts was linked to a reduced expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and B[α]P-related H 2 O 2 formation were involved in the reduced expression of HMG-CoA reductase and in the remodeling of membrane microdomains. The B[α]P-induced membrane remodeling resulted in an intracellular alkalinization observed during the early phase of apoptosis. In conclusion, B[α]P altered the composition of plasma membrane microstructures through AhR and H 2 O 2 dependent-regulation of lipid biosynthesis. In F258 cells, the B[α]P-induced membrane remodeling was identified as an early apoptotic event leading to an intracellular alkalinization.

  18. Ophthalmic Vascular Events after Primary Unilateral Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma in Early and Recent Eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Ancona-Lezama, David; Lucio-Alvarez, J Antonio; Masoomian, Babak; Jabbour, Pascal; Shields, Carol L

    2018-06-16

    To assess risk factors for ophthalmic vascular events after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who received unilateral IAC as primary treatment for retinoblastoma from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2017, at a single center. Records were reviewed for patient demographics, tumor features, IAC parameters, and treatment-related vascular events in the early IAC era (2009-2011) compared with the recent era (2012-2017) using the t test and Fisher exact test. Change in event rates over time was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, with Spearman's rho used to test correlation. Rate of IAC-induced ophthalmic vascular events. There were 243 chemotherapy infusions in 76 eyes of 76 patients, divided into early (22 eyes, 57 infusions) and recent (54 eyes, 186 infusions) eras. Intra-arterial chemotherapy consisted of melphalan (243 infusions), topotecan (124 infusions), and carboplatin (9 infusions). A comparison (early vs. recent era) revealed fewer mean number of infusions (2.6 vs. 3.4, P = 0.02) with similar mean patient age and presenting tumor features. Event rates decreased over time (P early era vs. recent era) in the recent era (59% vs. 9% per eye, 23% vs. 3% per infusion, P age (P = 0.75), tumor diameter (P = 0.32), tumor thickness (P = 0.59), or cumulative dosage of melphalan (P = 0.13) or topotecan (P = 0.59). There were no IAC-induced vascular events in 72 infusions of 21 consecutively treated eyes in 2016 to 2017. Ophthalmic vascular events after IAC have decreased from the early era (2009-2011) through the current era (2012-2017) at this center. Experience performing this highly specialized procedure could be an important factor predicting IAC-related vascular events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  20. Integrated Initiating Event Performance Indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. A. Eide; Dale M. Rasmuson; Corwin L. Atwood

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Industry Trends Program (ITP) collects and analyses industry-wide data, assesses the safety significance of results, and communicates results to Congress and other stakeholders. This paper outlines potential enhancements in the ITP to comprehensively cover the Initiating Events Cornerstone of Safety. Future work will address other cornerstones of safety. The proposed Tier 1 activity involves collecting data on ten categories of risk-significant initiating events, trending the results, and comparing early performance with prediction limits (allowable numbers of events, above which NRC action may occur). Tier 1 results would be used to monitor industry performance at the level of individual categories of initiating events. The proposed Tier 2 activity involves integrating the information for individual categories of initiating events into a single risk-based indicator, termed the Baseline Risk Index for Initiating Events or BRIIE. The BRIIE would be evaluated yearly and compared against a threshold. BRIIE results would be reported to Congress on a yearly basis

  1. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury.

  2. Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Nur; Olgan, Refika

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs held by pre-service early childhood teachers and their self-reported skills in implementing parent involvement strategies. Another aim was to examine the impact made on parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs by taking a course on parent involvement and by self-reported…

  3. Technical investigation of a pyrophoric event involving corrosion products from HEU ZPPR fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    A pyrophoric event recently occurred which involved corrosion products collected from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel plates used in the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). This paper summarizes the event and its background, and presents the results of an investigation into its source and mechanism. The investigation focused on characterization of corrosion product samples similar to those involved in the event using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Burning curve TGA tests were performed to measure the ignition temperature and hydride fractions of corrosion products in several different conditions to assess the effects of passivation treatment and long-term storage on chemical reactivity. The hydride fraction and ignition temperature of the corrosion products were found to be strongly dependent on the corrosion extent of the source metal. The results indicate that the energy source for the event was a considerable quantity of uranium hydride present in the corrosion products, but the specific ignition mechanism could not be identified

  4. Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles Highlight Early Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in Central Nervous System Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Millward

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier. Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles reveal CNS (central nervous system lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

  5. Cultural Expectations and Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Stephens; Richard, Blight

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the involvement of parents in early literacy in Japanese and Australian primary schools. While both schools valued support from parents in the education process, different cultural expectations are evident in each system. A number of significant areas are discussed, including traditional domestic situations in Japan, changing work cultures in Australia, education and maternal duties, higher expectations in Japan, parents supporting homework activities, parents supporti...

  6. Early snowmelt events: detection, distribution, and significance in a major sub-arctic watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmens, Kathryn Alese; Ramage, Joan; Bartsch, Annett; Liston, Glen E

    2013-01-01

    High latitude drainage basins are experiencing higher average temperatures, earlier snowmelt onset in spring, and an increase in rain on snow (ROS) events in winter, trends that climate models project into the future. Snowmelt-dominated basins are most sensitive to winter temperature increases that influence the frequency of ROS events and the timing and duration of snowmelt, resulting in changes to spring runoff. Of specific interest in this study are early melt events that occur in late winter preceding melt onset in the spring. The study focuses on satellite determination and characterization of these early melt events using the Yukon River Basin (Canada/USA) as a test domain. The timing of these events was estimated using data from passive (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—EOS (AMSR-E)) and active (SeaWinds on Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT)) microwave remote sensors, employing detection algorithms for brightness temperature (AMSR-E) and radar backscatter (QuikSCAT). The satellite detected events were validated with ground station meteorological and hydrological data, and the spatial and temporal variability of the events across the entire river basin was characterized. Possible causative factors for the detected events, including ROS, fog, and positive air temperatures, were determined by comparing the timing of the events to parameters from SnowModel and National Centers for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) outputs, and weather station data. All melt events coincided with above freezing temperatures, while a limited number corresponded to ROS (determined from SnowModel and ground data) and a majority to fog occurrence (determined from NARR). The results underscore the significant influence that warm air intrusions have on melt in some areas and demonstrate the large temporal and spatial variability over years and regions. The study provides a method for melt detection and a baseline from which to assess future change

  7. HDAC up-regulation in early colon field carcinogenesis is involved in cell tumorigenicity through regulation of chromatin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Stypula-Cyrus

    Full Text Available Normal cell function is dependent on the proper maintenance of chromatin structure. Regulation of chromatin structure is controlled by histone modifications that directly influence chromatin architecture and genome function. Specifically, the histone deacetylase (HDAC family of proteins modulate chromatin compaction and are commonly dysregulated in many tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the role of HDAC proteins in early colorectal carcinogenesis has not been previously reported. We found HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC5, and HDAC7 all to be up-regulated in the field of human CRC. Furthermore, we observed that HDAC2 up-regulation is one of the earliest events in CRC carcinogenesis and observed this in human field carcinogenesis, the azoxymethane-treated rat model, and in more aggressive colon cancer cell lines. The universality of HDAC2 up-regulation suggests that HDAC2 up-regulation is a novel and important early event in CRC, which may serve as a biomarker. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs interfere with tumorigenic HDAC activity; however, the precise mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. We confirmed that HDAC inhibition by valproic acid (VPA targeted the more aggressive cell line. Using nuclease digestion assays and transmission electron microscopy imaging, we observed that VPA treatment induced greater changes in chromatin structure in the more aggressive cell line. Furthermore, we used the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopy (PWS to quantify nanoscale alterations in chromatin. We noted that the PWS results are consistent with the biological assays, indicating a greater effect of VPA treatment in the more aggressive cell type. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of HDAC activity in early carcinogenic events and the unique role of higher-order chromatin structure in determining cell tumorigenicity.

  8. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting indus-trial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify "human error......" rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchical struc-ture and its compatibility with Isprals ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors oriented......, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data processes and their typical malfunc-tions and of a human decision sequence are described....

  9. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.; Carnino, A.; Griffon, M.; Gagnolet, P.

    1981-03-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting industrial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify ''human error'' rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchial structure and its compatibility with Ispra's ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors oriented, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data processes and their typical malfunctions and of a human decision sequence are described. (author)

  10. Issues in Informal Education: Event-Based Science Communication Involving Planetaria and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whitt, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For the past four years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of science communication through the web resources on the Internet. The program includes extended stories about NAS.4 science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. We give here, examples of events, problems, and lessons learned from these activities.

  11. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  12. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  13. A Risk Assessment System with Automatic Extraction of Event Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Philippe; Delavallade, Thomas; Nakamura, Takuya; Sandor, Agnes; Tarsitano, Cedric; Voyatzi, Stavroula

    In this article we describe the joint effort of experts in linguistics, information extraction and risk assessment to integrate EventSpotter, an automatic event extraction engine, into ADAC, an automated early warning system. By detecting as early as possible weak signals of emerging risks ADAC provides a dynamic synthetic picture of situations involving risk. The ADAC system calculates risk on the basis of fuzzy logic rules operated on a template graph whose leaves are event types. EventSpotter is based on a general purpose natural language dependency parser, XIP, enhanced with domain-specific lexical resources (Lexicon-Grammar). Its role is to automatically feed the leaves with input data.

  14. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. METHODS Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. RESULTS The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P < 0.001). We found significantly more deaths, infectious complications, pleural drainage, acute renal failures, and pancreatitis in OM and more pseudocysts in SAE. Six prognostic factors were statistically significant for one or more adverse events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ≥25 for almost all adverse events, age ≥50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. CONCLUSION Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury. PMID:26081719

  15. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting industrial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify ''human error'' rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchical structure and its compatibility with Ispra's ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors-oriented, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data process and their typical malfuntions and of a human decision sequence are described. The work reported is a joint contribution to the CSNI Group of Experts on Human Error Data and Assessment

  16. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  17. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  18. The Sky in Early Modern English Literature A Study of Allusions to Celestial Events in Elizabethan and Jacobean Writing, 1572-1620

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, David H

    2011-01-01

    When a dissertation gets completed, the normal rule is that it is never read. By anyone.  David H. Levy’s dissertation - The Sky in Early Modern English Literature:  A Study of Allusions to Celestial Events in Elizabethan and Jacobean Writing, 1572-1620 - is different.  It opens a whole new interdisciplinary field, which involves the beautiful relationship between the night sky and the works of the early modern period of English Literature.  Although the sky enters into much of literature through the ages, the period involving William Shakespeare and his colleagues is particularly rich.               When Shakespeare was about 8 years old, his father probably took him outside his Stratford home into their northward-facing back yard.  There, father and son gazed upon the first great new star visible in the past 500 years, shining forth as brightly as Venus, and even visible in daylight.  This new star, which we now know as a supernova, completely unhinged old ideas about the cosmos.  Com...

  19. Types of parents’ involvement in early childhood development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Chojnacka-Synaszko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on their involvement in assisting their child’s development, parents may have various chances of improving and refining their childcare, parenting, and therapeutic methods. The objective of this study was to learn the opinions of the parents of children covered by the early intervention/early assisted-development programme regarding their own involvement in the processes, and determining which types of involvement, whether active or passive, the parents seem to practice. The empirical material was acquired in a survey conducted in the form of a questionnaire in May 2015 and June 2016, covering a total of 143 parents. According to our results, the respondents not only follow the recommendations provided by the specialists based at a given support centre (96.5%, but also actively seek information and knowledge related to activities and measures aimed at assisting their child’s development, incorporating them in daily childcare and education routine (88.8%. Most respondents (65% actively seek the specialists’ advice and opinion related to  the child’s education and development as well as keep the child company at the appointments, sessions, and activities held at the centre (63.65%. A large majority (90.2% combine various types of “active” (self-inspired involvement with “passive” (specialist-inspired involvement of supportive character. Each of the parents covered by the study engages in assisting the child’s development at home according to the specialists’ recommendations, or we might say, as inspired by the specialist team. There is a need for enhancing the parents’ “active” (self-inspired involvement in the child’s situation at the centre (encouraging initiativetaking as well as the parents’ specialist-inspired involvement in the child’s situation at the centre.

  20. Early event related fields during visually evoked pain anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Burgess, Richard C; Plow, Ela B; Floden, Darlene P; Machado, Andre G

    2016-03-01

    Pain experience is not only a function of somatosensory inputs. Rather, it is strongly influenced by cognitive and affective pathways. Pain anticipatory phenomena, an important limitation to rehabilitative efforts in the chronic state, are processed by associative and limbic networks, along with primary sensory cortices. Characterization of neurophysiological correlates of pain anticipation, particularly during very early stages of neural processing is critical for development of therapeutic interventions. Here, we utilized magnetoencephalography to study early event-related fields (ERFs) in healthy subjects exposed to a 3 s visual countdown task that preceded a painful stimulus, a non-painful stimulus or no stimulus. We found that the first countdown cue, but not the last cue, evoked critical ERFs signaling anticipation, attention and alertness to the noxious stimuli. Further, we found that P2 and N2 components were significantly different in response to first-cues that signaled incoming painful stimuli when compared to non-painful or no stimuli. The findings indicate that early ERFs are relevant neural substrates of pain anticipatory phenomena and could be potentially serve as biomarkers. These measures could assist in the development of neurostimulation approaches aimed at curbing the negative effects of pain anticipation during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Learning Outcomes and Parental Involvement during Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Hu, Shanshan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the relationship between learning outcomes of children and educational involvement of parents during a unique period of early childhood education and early elementary education based on 100 independent effect sizes from 46 studies. Learning outcomes are academic achievement, and frameworks of parental involvement…

  2. Anti-radical power gives insight into early lipid oxidation events during frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to use anti-radical power (ARP) to study early lipid oxidation events during frying. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¿) test was used to determine the ARP. As oil does not dissolve completely in methanol, which is generally used for the DPPH¿ test, butanol

  3. Status of transport events involving radioactive materials which occurred in France between 1999 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents transport events involving radioactive materials, occurred on French territory from 1999 to 2011, listed in the IRSN's database. 1,304 events have been recorded. For each of them, many parameters have been collected and analysed from information listed in the notifications and reports of the events sent by users (type of event, purpose, package design, level on the INES scale...). The numbers of events notified in 2010 and 2011 are slightly higher than the average of 100 events per year. The two main causes of notification concern documentation errors (in transport documents or labeling) and handling mishaps. The downward trend of frequency of package or conveyance contaminations has been confirmed. A short description of the outstanding events occurred in 2010 and 2011 is proposed. This synthesis also gives an outline of the actions recommended by IRSN to avoid recurrence of the notified events and improve the safety of the transports of radioactive materials

  4. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  5. Task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the contribution of task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants are analysed in order to establish a strategy for reducing the human-related unplanned reactor trips. Classification systems for the task types, error modes, and cognitive functions are developed or adopted from the currently available taxonomies, and the relevant information is extracted from the event reports or judged on the basis of an event description. According to the analyses from this study, the contributions of the task types are as follows: corrective maintenance (25.7%), planned maintenance (22.8%), planned operation (19.8%), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9%), response to a transient (9.9%), and design/manufacturing/installation (6.9%). According to the analysis of the error modes, error modes such as control failure (22.2%), wrong object (18.5%), omission (14.8%), wrong action (11.1%), and inadequate (8.3%) take up about 75% of the total unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved in the events indicated that the planning function had the highest contribution (46.7%) to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips. This analysis concludes that in order to significantly reduce human-induced or human-related unplanned reactor trips, an aide system (in support of maintenance personnel) for evaluating possible (negative) impacts of planned actions or erroneous actions as well as an appropriate human error prediction technique, should be developed

  6. Task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, the contribution of task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants are analysed in order to establish a strategy for reducing the human-related unplanned reactor trips. Classification systems for the task types, error modes, and cognitive functions are developed or adopted from the currently available taxonomies, and the relevant information is extracted from the event reports or judged on the basis of an event description. According to the analyses from this study, the contributions of the task types are as follows: corrective maintenance (25.7%), planned maintenance (22.8%), planned operation (19.8%), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9%), response to a transient (9.9%), and design/manufacturing/installation (6.9%). According to the analysis of the error modes, error modes such as control failure (22.2%), wrong object (18.5%), omission (14.8%), wrong action (11.1%), and inadequate (8.3%) take up about 75% of the total unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved in the events indicated that the planning function had the highest contribution (46.7%) to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips. This analysis concludes that in order to significantly reduce human-induced or human-related unplanned reactor trips, an aide system (in support of maintenance personnel) for evaluating possible (negative) impacts of planned actions or erroneous actions as well as an appropriate human error prediction technique, should be developed.

  7. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  8. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  9. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  10. Early events governing memory CD8+ T-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obar, Joshua J; Lefrançois, Leo

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the regulation of the CD8(+) T-cell response and how protective memory cells are generated has been intensely studied. It is now appreciated that a naive CD8(+) T cell requires at least three signals to mount an effective immune response: (i) TCR triggering, (ii) co-stimulation and (iii) inflammatory cytokines. Only recently have we begun to understand the molecular integration of those signals and how early events regulate the fate decisions of the responding CD8(+) T cells. This review will discuss the recent findings about both the extracellular and intracellular factors that regulate the destiny of responding CD8(+) T cells.

  11. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY AWARENESS AND ALERT ACTIVITIES: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sue; Cook, Alison; Miles, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the experiences, benefits, and challenges of patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) from a publicly funded early awareness and alert (EAA) system in the United Kingdom. Using email, telephone, a Web site portal, Twitter and focus groups, patients and the public were involved and engaged in the recognized stages of an EAA system: identification, filtration, prioritization, early assessment, and dissemination. Approaches for PPIE were successfully integrated into all aspects of the National Institute for Health Research Horizon Scanning Research and Intelligence Centre's EAA system. Input into identification activities was not as beneficial as involvement in prioritization and early assessment. Patients gave useful insight into the Centre's Web site and engaging patients using Twitter has enabled the Centre to disseminate outputs to a wider audience. EAA systems should consider involving and engaging with patients and the public in identification, prioritization, and assessment of emerging health technologies where practicable. Further research is required to examine the value and impact of PPIE in EAA activities and in the early development of health technologies.

  12. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Beatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFα) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Face TM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO 4 , DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  13. Emergency preparedness-an early childhood educator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, A.; Sallafranque, R.

    2010-01-01

    As early childhood educators who participated in the discussion of optimal scene management involving children and families in the event of a radiological/nuclear event, the authors would suggest consideration be given to the formal preparation for evacuation of educators and families and how to ensure that families are provided factual and updated information. (authors)

  14. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2017-01-01

    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  15. Mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

    2009-07-01

    To study mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth, namely factors (socio-demographics, previous life events, type of delivery, pain at childbirth, support from partner, infant characteristics, early experiences with the newborn, and mother's mood) that interfere with the mother's positive, negative and not clear emotions toward the newborn. The Bonding Scale (an extended Portuguese version of the 'New Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale') and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administrated during the first after delivery days to 315 mothers recruited at Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital (MJD, Porto, Portugal). A worse emotional involvement with the newborn was observed when the mother was unemployed, unmarried, had less than grade 9, previous obstetrical/psychological problems or was depressed, as well as when the infant was female, had neonatal problems or was admitted in the intensive care unit. Lower total bonding results were significantly predicted when the mother was depressed and had a lower educational level; being depressed, unemployed and single predicted more negative emotions toward the infant as well. No significant differences in the mother-to-infant emotional involvement were obtained for events related to childbirth, such as type of delivery, pain and partner support, or early experiences with the newborn; these events do not predict mother's bonding results either. The study results support the need for screening and supporting depressed, unemployed and single mothers, in order to prevent bonding difficulties with the newborn at birth.

  16. Involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) in patients with early Hodgkin lymphoma: Concepts and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Maazen, Richard van der; Specht, Lena; Aleman, Berthe; Poortmans, Philip; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Ghalibafian, Mithra; Meerwaldt, Jacobus; Noordijk, Evert

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To describe new concepts for radiation fields in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a combined modality. Patients and materials: Patients receiving combined modality therapy with at least 2 or 3 cycles of chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pre- and postchemotherapy cervical and thoracic CT scans are mandatory and should be performed, whenever possible, in the treatment position with the use of image fusion capabilities. A pre-chemotherapy PET scan is strongly recommended to increase the detection of involved lymph nodes. Results: Radiation fields are designed to irradiate the initially involved lymph nodes exclusively and to encompass their initial volume. In some cases, radiation fields are slightly modified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of muscles or organs at risk. Conclusions: The concept of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) described here is the first attempt to reduce the size of radiation fields compared to the classic involved fields used in adult patients. Proper implementation of INRT requires adequate training and an efficient prospective or early retrospective quality assurance program

  17. Early Involvement and Integration in Construction Projects: The Benefits of DfX in Elimination of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Halttula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical construction processes provide waste: material waste but especially process-related waste. The majority of this waste can be avoided with efficient planning in the front end of projects. The main aim is to describe how the concept of Design for Excellence (DfX can reduce the most severe waste in construction projects. Based on a literature review of waste and requirements that aid early involvement and integration, we created a survey for analyzing and prioritizing types of waste in the construction industry. We describe how DFX reduces this waste, especially through the use of early involvement and integration. When applied, DfX creates incentives for project stakeholders to eliminate waste automatically through early involvement and integration.

  18. Early decay of Peccei–Quinn fermion and the IceCube neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Yohei, E-mail: ema@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-11-10

    IceCube observed high-energy neutrino flux in the energy region from TeV to PeV. The decay of a massive long-lived particle in the early universe can be the origin of the IceCube neutrino events, which we call an “early decay scenario.” In this paper, we construct a particle physics model that contains such a massive long-lived particle based on the Peccei–Quinn model. We calculate the present neutrino flux, taking account of realistic initial energy distributions of particles produced by the decay of the massive long-lived particle. We show that the early decay scenario naturally fits into the Peccei–Quinn model, and that the neutrino flux observed by IceCube can be explained in such a framework. We also see that, based on that model, a consistent cosmological history that explains the abundance of the massive long-lived particle is realized.

  19. Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events. Geologica Ultraiectina (328)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

  20. Detection of rain events in radiological early warning networks with spectro-dosimetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, R.; Dombrowski, H.; Kessler, P.; Röttger, A.; Neumaier, S.

    2017-10-01

    Short-term pronounced increases of the ambient dose equivalent rate, due to rainfall are a well-known phenomenon. Increases in the same order of magnitude or even below may also be caused by a nuclear or radiological event, i.e. by artificial radiation. Hence, it is important to be able to identify natural rain events in dosimetric early warning networks and to distinguish them from radiological events. Novel spectrometric systems based on scintillators may be used to differentiate between the two scenarios, because the measured gamma spectra provide significant nuclide-specific information. This paper describes three simple, automatic methods to check whether an dot H*(10) increase is caused by a rain event or by artificial radiation. These methods were applied to measurements of three spectrometric systems based on CeBr3, LaBr3 and SrI2 scintillation crystals, investigated and tested for their practicability at a free-field reference site of PTB.

  1. Fra COP15 til Copenhagen Fashion Week:Involvering af brugere i udvikling af event applikationer

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    Mobile application has become an important parameter when it comes to presenting possibilities for small handheld devices such as mobile phones. One of the trends within mobile application development is applications for special events such as sports, conferences and TV shows. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the challenges of developing event applications with a strong involvement of users. The concepts and characteristics of the Living Lab approach has been used to develo...

  2. Staff supported parental involvement in effective early interventions for at-risk children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Holm, Anders; Jensen, Bente

    The article presents a review of international research on the effect of early interventions with parental involvement. Ten international and national databases were searched. Hits were supplemented with references from the review group. The search process found 1933 unique references, which were...

  3. Serious adverse events in a hospital using early warning score - what went wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, John Asger; Mackel, Rebecca; Antonsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of a new early warning score (EWS) system by reviewing all serious adverse events in our hospital over a 6-month time period. METHOD: All incidents of unexpected death (UD), cardiac arrest (CA) and unanticipated intensive care unit admission(UICU) of adult patients...... of EWS were recorded in 87, 94 and 75% of UICU, CA and UD. Patients were monitored according to the escalation protocol in 13, 31 and 13% of UICU, CA and UD. Nurses escalated care and contacted physicians in 64% and 60% of events of UICU and the corresponding proportions for CO were 58% and 55%. On call...

  4. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  5. INEX 5 - General information. INEX 5 Exercise on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events Involving Radiation or Radiological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, Halil Burcin; Lazo, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The INEX series of international nuclear emergency exercises, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving the arrangements for responding to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies at the national and international level. Previous INEX exercises focussed largely on national and international aspects of early phase management of emergencies at nuclear power plants and more recently, in INEX 4, on issues in consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. Since the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, it has been recognised that notification, communication, and identifying and obtaining resources during catastrophic events can be difficult and the need for established protocols, policies, and procedures among and between country entities is critical for minimizing negative impacts. Therefore, the benefit and goal of INEX 5 is to provide a basis for enhancing national and international emergency management arrangements related to notification, communication and obtaining resources through the exchange of exercise outcomes and experiences from participating countries, in order to identify good practice and common issues to be addressed. INEX 5 will address emergency management aspects of notification, communication and interfaces between and among country and international organizations. INEX 5 is set up as a table top exercise with three levels of discussion for participants (prior to a release, recognizing/validating a release, and impacts to the radiological event from a catastrophic natural event). Countries can develop additional materials to expand this table top to a full field exercise if preferred. Prior to initiation of the table top, participants will be provided clear guidance about how the exercise will be conducted. Because this exercise may involve government agencies and

  6. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciammella, Patrizia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Botto, Barbara [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Gavarotti, Paolo [Hematology, University of Torino and Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Hematology Unit, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Vitolo, Umberto [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Iotti, Cinzia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  7. Over-expression of 14-3-3zeta is an early event in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, Ajay; Bahadur, Sudhir; Duggal, Ritu; Gupta, Siddhartha D; Ralhan, Ranju

    2007-01-01

    The functional and clinical significance of 14-3-3 proteins in human cancers remain largely undetermined. Earlier, we have reported differential expression of 14-3-3ζ mRNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by differential display. The clinical relevance of 14-3-3ζ protein in oral tumorigenesis was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded sections of oral pre-malignant lesions (OPLs), OSCCs and histologically normal oral tissues and corroborated by Western Blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to determine its association with NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2. Intense immunostaining of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed in 61/89 (69%) OPLs and 95/120 (79%) OSCCs. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein from normal mucosa to OPLs to OSCCs (p trend < 0.001). Significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed as early as in hyperplasia (p = 0.009), with further elevation in moderate and severe dysplasia, that was sustained in OSCCs. These findings were validated by Western blotting. Using Co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ protein binds to NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2, suggesting its involvement in cellular signaling, leading to proliferation of oral cancer cells. Our findings suggest that over-expression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event in oral tumorigenesis and may have an important role in its development and progression. Thus, 14-3-3ζ may serve as an important molecular target for designing novel therapy for oral cancer

  8. Early interglacial carbonate-dilution events in the South China Sea: Implications for strengthened typhoon activities over subtropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Enqing; Tian, Jun; Qiao, Peijun; Wan, Sui; Xie, Xin; Yang, Wenguang

    2015-10-01

    A compilation of many late Quaternary marine sediment records from the northern South China Sea (SCS) continental slope confirms 15-50% reductions in sedimentary calcium carbonate concentrations between 11.0 and 8.5 ka BP in the early Holocene. This low carbonate% event occurred at a time when the regional sea level rose from -50 m to -10 m, which drowned large areas of continental shelves especially those near and within the Taiwan Strait. This event is associated with a significant increase in bulk sedimentation rates on the upper continental slope and the relative abundance of fine-grained detritus. Sediment provenance analyses suggest a dominant terrigenous input from Taiwan and a minor contribution from Luzon during the low carbonate% event, similar to the background terrigenous deposition in other periods of the Holocene. Two comparable low carbonate% events, respectively from the beginning of marine isotope stages 5.5 and 7.3, have also been recognized, pointing to similar causal factors. While carbonate dissolution and carbonate accumulation rate should not have been responsible, increased terrigenous input and dilution is considered as the main cause for the recurrent low carbonate% events in early interglacials. We further hypothesize that, during early interglacials, fluvial sediment discharge from Taiwan and Luzon intensified due to stronger typhoon activities, and massive fine-grained sediments from these two end members may have been transported to the northern SCS continental slope via surface and deep ocean currents. The conjecture of strengthened typhoon activities over East Asia during the early Holocene is supported by high ocean heat contents in the West Pacific Warm Pool area with the prevailing La Niña-like conditions.

  9. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-01-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events

  10. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  11. The longitudinal relation between accumulation of adverse life events and body mass index from early adolescence to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  12. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, L.; Smidt, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  13. Collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event in Caenorhabditis elegans aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Anat; Miller, Elizabeth A; Morimoto, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    Protein damage contributes prominently to cellular aging. To address whether this occurs at a specific period during aging or accumulates gradually, we monitored the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of folding sensors expressed in different tissues of C. elegans. We observed the age-dependent misfolding and loss of function of diverse proteins harboring temperature-sensitive missense mutations in all somatic tissues at the permissive condition. This widespread failure in proteostasis occurs rapidly at an early stage of adulthood, and coincides with a severely reduced activation of the cytoprotective heat shock response and the unfolded protein response. Enhancing stress responsive factors HSF-1 or DAF-16 suppresses misfolding of these metastable folding sensors and restores the ability of the cell to maintain a functional proteome. This suggests that a compromise in the regulation of proteostatic stress responses occurs early in adulthood and tips the balance between the load of damaged proteins and the proteostasis machinery. We propose that the collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event of aging that amplifies protein damage in age-associated diseases of protein conformation.

  14. Father's involvement and its effect on early breastfeeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Vui, Le Thi; Nghia, Dang Thi; Målqvist, Mats

    2016-10-01

    Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Can Parents' Involvement in Children's Education Offset the Effects of Early Insensitivity on Academic Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…

  16. Multiple-Threshold Event Detection and Other Enhancements to the Virtual Seismologist (VS) Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Caprio, M.; Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) algorithm is a Bayesian approach to earthquake early warning (EEW) being implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich. The application of Bayes’ theorem in earthquake early warning states that the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likelihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS algorithm was one of three EEW algorithms involved in the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) real-time EEW testing and performance evaluation effort. Its compelling real-time performance in California over the last three years has led to its inclusion in the new USGS-funded effort to develop key components of CISN ShakeAlert, a prototype EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. A significant portion of VS code development was supported by the SAFER EEW project in Europe. We discuss recent enhancements to the VS EEW algorithm. We developed and continue to test a multiple-threshold event detection scheme, which uses different association / location approaches depending on the peak amplitudes associated with an incoming P pick. With this scheme, an event with sufficiently high initial amplitudes can be declared on the basis of a single station, maximizing warning times for damaging events for which EEW is most relevant. Smaller, non-damaging events, which will have lower initial amplitudes, will require more picks to be declared an event to reduce false alarms. This transforms the VS codes from a regional EEW approach reliant on traditional location estimation (and it requirement of at least 4 picks as implemented by the Binder Earthworm phase associator) to a hybrid on-site/regional approach capable of providing a continuously evolving stream of EEW

  17. Adverse Events Involving Radiation Oncology Medical Devices: Comprehensive Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 1991 to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Michael J.; Marshall, Deborah C.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Sanghvi, Parag; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology relies on rapidly evolving technology and highly complex processes. The US Food and Drug Administration collects reports of adverse events related to medical devices. We sought to characterize all events involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration's postmarket surveillance Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology devices. Methods and Materials: MAUDE data on RODs from 1991 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems) and 5 device problem categories (software, mechanical, electrical, user error, and dose delivery impact). Outcomes included whether the device was evaluated by the manufacturer, adverse event type, remedial action, problem code, device age, and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by the Pearson χ"2 test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 4234 ROD and 4,985,698 other device adverse event reports. Adverse event reports increased over time, and events involving RODs peaked in 2011. Most ROD reports involved external beam therapy (50.8%), followed by brachytherapy (24.9%) and treatment planning systems (21.6%). The top problem types were software (30.4%), mechanical (20.9%), and user error (20.4%). RODs differed significantly from other devices in each outcome (P<.001). RODs were more likely to be evaluated by the manufacturer after an event (46.9% vs 33.0%) but less likely to be recalled (10.5% vs 37.9%) (P<.001). Device age and time since 510(k) approval were shorter among RODs (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other devices, RODs may experience adverse events sooner after manufacture and market approval. Close postmarket surveillance, improved

  18. Adverse Events Involving Radiation Oncology Medical Devices: Comprehensive Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 1991 to 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Marshall, Deborah C.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Sanghvi, Parag; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology relies on rapidly evolving technology and highly complex processes. The US Food and Drug Administration collects reports of adverse events related to medical devices. We sought to characterize all events involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration's postmarket surveillance Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology devices. Methods and Materials: MAUDE data on RODs from 1991 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems) and 5 device problem categories (software, mechanical, electrical, user error, and dose delivery impact). Outcomes included whether the device was evaluated by the manufacturer, adverse event type, remedial action, problem code, device age, and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by the Pearson χ{sup 2} test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 4234 ROD and 4,985,698 other device adverse event reports. Adverse event reports increased over time, and events involving RODs peaked in 2011. Most ROD reports involved external beam therapy (50.8%), followed by brachytherapy (24.9%) and treatment planning systems (21.6%). The top problem types were software (30.4%), mechanical (20.9%), and user error (20.4%). RODs differed significantly from other devices in each outcome (P<.001). RODs were more likely to be evaluated by the manufacturer after an event (46.9% vs 33.0%) but less likely to be recalled (10.5% vs 37.9%) (P<.001). Device age and time since 510(k) approval were shorter among RODs (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other devices, RODs may experience adverse events sooner after manufacture and market approval. Close postmarket surveillance

  19. Event-By-Event Initial Conditions for Heavy Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S; Fries, R J

    2017-01-01

    The early time dynamics of heavy ion collisions can be described by classical fields in an approximation of Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) called Color Glass Condensate (CGC). Monte-Carlo sampling of the color charge for the incoming nuclei are used to calculate their classical gluon fields. Following the recent work by Chen et al. we calculate the energy momentum tensor of those fields at early times in the collision event-by-event. This can then be used for subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the single events. (paper)

  20. Event-By-Event Initial Conditions for Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    The early time dynamics of heavy ion collisions can be described by classical fields in an approximation of Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) called Color Glass Condensate (CGC). Monte-Carlo sampling of the color charge for the incoming nuclei are used to calculate their classical gluon fields. Following the recent work by Chen et al. we calculate the energy momentum tensor of those fields at early times in the collision event-by-event. This can then be used for subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the single events.

  1. Early events of citrus greening (Huanglongbing) disease development at the ultrastructural level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Achor, Diann S

    2010-09-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Understanding of the early events in HLB infection is critical for the development of effective measures to control the disease. In this work, we conducted cytopathological studies by following the development of the disease in citrus trees graft inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-containing material under greenhouse conditions to examine the correlation between ultrastructural changes and symptom production, with the main objective of characterizing the early events of infection. Based on our observations, one of the first degenerative changes induced upon invasion of the pathogen appears to be swelling of middle lamella between cell walls surrounding sieve elements. This anatomical aberration was often observed in samples from newly growing flushes in inoculated sweet orange and grapefruit trees at the early "presymptomatic" stage of HLB infection. Development of symptoms and their progression correlated with an increasing degree of microscopic aberrations. Remarkably, the ability to observe the bacterium in the infected tissue also correlated with the degree of the disease progression. Large numbers of bacterial cells were found in phloem sieve tubes in tissue samples from presymptomatic young flushes. In contrast, we did not observe the bacteria in highly symptomatic leaf samples, suggesting a possibility that, at more advanced stages of the disease, a major proportion of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is present in a nonviable state. We trust that observations reported here advance our understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease. Furthermore, they may be an important aid in answering a question: when and where within an infected tree the tissue serves as a better inoculum source for acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by its psyllid vector.

  2. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (Pproteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The conditional benefits of early user involvement at employee self-service applications in four Dutch ministries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Koopman, G.

    2010-01-01

    User participation and user involvement is generally accepted as one of the important factors for IS success. In this paper, several types of early end-user involvement are distinguished and empirically explored through four case studies. The cases concern four Dutch governmental organisations

  4. Performance of Earthquake Early Warning Systems during the Major Events of the 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Picozzi, M.; Alessandro, C.; Colombelli, S.; Cattaneo, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Marzorati, S.; Supino, M.; Zollo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are systems nowadays contributing to the seismic risk mitigation actions, both in terms of losses and societal resilience, by issuing an alert promptly after the earthquake origin and before the ground shaking impacts the targets to be protected. EEWS systems can be grouped in two main classes: network based and stand-alone systems. Network based EEWS make use of dense seismic networks surrounding the fault (e.g. Near Fault Observatory; NFO) generating the event. The rapid processing of the P-wave early portion allows for the location and magnitude estimation of the event then used to predict the shaking through ground motion prediction equations. Stand-alone systems instead analyze the early P-wave signal to predict the ground shaking carried by the late S or surface waves, through empirically calibrated scaling relationships, at the recording site itself. We compared the network-based (PRESTo, PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem, www.prestoews.org, Satriano et al., 2011) and the stand-alone (SAVE, on-Site-Alert-leVEl, Caruso et al., 2017) systems, by analyzing their performance during the 2016-2017 Central Italy sequence. We analyzed 9 earthquakes having magnitude 5.0 security actions. PRESTo also evaluated the accuracy of location and magnitude. Both systems well predict the ground shaking nearby the event source, with a success rate around 90% within the potential damage zone. The lead-time is significantly larger for the network based system, increasing to more than 10s at 40 km from the event epicentre. The stand-alone system better performs in the near-source region showing a positive albeit small lead-time (operational in Italy, based on the available acceleration networks, by improving the capability of reducing the lead-time related to data telemetry.

  5. The Influence of an Early Childhood Program on Parental Involvement: Perceptions of Former Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…

  6. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyadi, Eko H., E-mail: e.riyadi@bapeten.go.id [Center for Regulatory Assessment of Nuclear Installation and Materials, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  7. Subclinical alexithymia modulates early audio-visual perceptive and attentional event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyna eDelle-Vigne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Previous studies have highlighted the advantage of audio–visual oddball tasks (instead of unimodal ones in order to electrophysiologically index subclinical behavioral differences. Since alexithymia is highly prevalent in the general population, we investigated whether the use of various bimodal tasks could elicit emotional effects in low- versus high-alexithymic scorers. Methods:Fifty students (33 females were split into groups based on low and high scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During event-related potential recordings, they were exposed to three kinds of audio–visual oddball tasks: neutral (geometrical forms and bips, animal (dog and cock with their respective shouts, or emotional (faces and voices stimuli. In each condition, participants were asked to quickly detect deviant events occurring amongst a train of frequent matching stimuli (e.g., push a button when a sad face–voice pair appeared amongst a train of neutral face–voice pairs. P100, N100, and P300 components were analyzed: P100 refers to visual perceptive processing, N100 to auditory ones, and the P300 relates to response-related stages. Results:High-alexithymic scorers presented a particular pattern of results when processing the emotional stimulations, reflected in early ERP components by increased P100 and N100 amplitudes in the emotional oddball tasks (P100: pConclusions:Our findings suggest that high-alexithymic scorers require heightened early attentional resources when confronted with emotional stimuli.

  8. Factors involved in early polarization of the anterior-posterior axis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Neta; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-01

    The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus. We focused on transcription factors (TFs) as these are likely to be central players in developmental processes. Using both homology and domain based identification approaches, we were unable to find any TF encoding transcripts that are expressed asymmetrically along the anterior-posterior axis at early stages. Using a GO-term analysis of all asymmetrically expressed mRNAs, we found an enrichment of genes relating to mitochondrial function in the posterior at the earliest studied time-point. We also found a gradual enrichment of transcription related activities, giving us a putative time frame for the maternal to zygotic transition. Our dataset provides us with a list of new candidate genes in early development, which can be followed up experimentally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early prediction of adverse events in enhanced recovery based upon the host systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J C; Wright, S; Burch, J; Kennedy, R H; Jenkins, J T

    2013-02-01

    Early identification of patients experiencing postoperative complications is imperative for successful management. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation used in many specialties to monitor patient condition. The role of CRP measurement early in the elective postoperative colorectal patient is unclear, particularly in the context of enhanced recovery (ERAS). Five hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery between October 2008 and October 2010 within an established ERAS programme were studied. Patients were separated into a development group of 265 patients and a validation group of 268 patients by chronological order. CRP and white cell count were added to a prospectively maintained ERAS database. The primary outcome of the study was all adverse events (including infective complications, postoperative organ dysfunction and prolonged length of stay) during the initial hospital admission. Significant predictors for adverse events on univariate analysis were submitted to multivariate regression analysis and the resulting model applied to the validation group. The validity and predictive accuracy of the regression model was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. CRP levels >150 mg/l on postoperative day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 were independently associated with all adverse events during the hospital admission. A weighted model was applied to the validation group yielding an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.73) indicating, at best, modest discrimination and predictive accuracy for adverse events. Measurement of CRP in patients after elective colorectal surgery in the first few days after surgery within ERAS can assist in identifying those at risk of adverse events and a prolonged hospital stay. A CRP value of >150 mg/l on day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 should alert the surgeon to an increased likelihood of such events. © 2012 The Authors

  10. Involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) in patients with early Hodgkin lymphoma: concepts and guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girinsky, Theodore; van der Maazen, Richard; Specht, Lena

    2006-01-01

    are designed to irradiate the initially involved lymph nodes exclusively and to encompass their initial volume. In some cases, radiation fields are slightly modified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of muscles or organs at risk. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) described here......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe new concepts for radiation fields in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a combined modality. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Patients receiving combined modality therapy with at least 2 or 3 cycles of chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pre...

  11. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  12. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  13. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  14. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  15. Early Renal Involvement in a Girl with Classic Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta, Fernando; Antongiovanni, Norberto; Jaurretche, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the deficiency or absence of the enzyme alpha galactosidase A; this defect leads to the systemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and its metabolites. Organic involvement in men is well known, but in women it is controversial, mainly due to the random X-chromosome inactivation in each of their cells (Lyon hypothesis). This would explain why women (heterozygotes) present a wide variability in the severity of their phenotype. The manifestations are multisystemic and begin in early childhood, reaching a severe compromise in adulthood. Typical acroparesthesia in hands and feet, gastrointestinal symptoms, angiokeratomas, dyshidrosis, hearing loss, arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accidents, and renal failure can be observed. Nephropathy is one of the major complications of Fabry disease. Glomerular and vascular changes are present before progression to overt proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate, even in pediatric patients. A case of incipient renal involvement in a girl with classic Fabry disease is reported.

  16. Predictors of Early Community Involvement: Advancing the Self and Caring for Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Heather L; Ramey, Heather L

    2017-03-01

    Recent research on community involvement points to the importance of both agentic (advancing the self) and communal motives (serving others) as key predictors, though few studies have examined both simultaneously. At the same time, research has identified generativity, defined as concern for future generations as a legacy of the self, as particularly relevant for community involvement. Moreover, generativity involves both agentic and communal motives, meaning that advancing personal goals and caring for others are integrated in this construct. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how individual differences in attributes pertaining to self and to others-specifically, self-esteem, initiative, and empathy-related to both generativity and community involvement. A sample of adolescents (N = 160; 64% female, M age  = 17) and a sample of young adults (N = 237; 84% female, M age  = 20) completed a survey including measures of community involvement and generativity. Generative concern fully mediated the associations between individual differences (self-esteem, initiative, and empathy) and community involvement, suggesting that the early generativity has a role in fostering capacities and contribution in youth. These developmental indicators pertaining to self and others link to actions that benefit the community through a desire to benefit future generations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  17. Delinquency, parental involvement, early adult criminality, and sex: Evidence of moderated mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2013-08-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether parental involvement, measured in late adolescence, mediates the relationship between delinquency in mid-adolescence and crime in early adulthood. This study's second purpose was to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by sex, such that late adolescent parental involvement mediates the delinquency-crime relationship in females but not in males. A secondary analysis of data provided by 579 (272 males, 307 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child (NLSYC) was conducted in an effort to evaluate the possibility of moderated mediation in the relationship between delinquency at age 16, parental involvement at age 18, and criminality at age 24. Moderated mediation analysis, path analysis, and causal mediation analysis revealed the presence of a conditional indirect relationship between delinquency, parental involvement, and adult crime moderated by sex. These results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage and gendered pathways to crime. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  19. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744...... leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia....

  1. Resolving Early Signaling Events in T-Cell Activation Leading to IL-2 and FOXP3 Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Perley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Signal intensity and feedback regulation are known to be major factors in the signaling events stemming from the T-cell receptor (TCR and its various coreceptors, but the exact nature of these relationships remains in question. We present a mathematical model of the complex signaling network involved in T-cell activation with cross-talk between the Erk, calcium, PKC and mTOR signaling pathways. The model parameters are adjusted to fit new and published data on TCR trafficking, Zap70, calcium, Erk and Isignaling. The regulation of the early signaling events by phosphatases, CD45 and SHP1, and the TCR dynamics are critical to determining the behavior of the model. Additional model corroboration is provided through quantitative and qualitative agreement with experimental data collected under different stimulating and knockout conditions. The resulting model is analyzed to investigate how signal intensity and feedback regulation affect TCR- and coreceptor-mediated signal transduction and their downstream transcriptional profiles to predict the outcome for a variety of stimulatory and knockdown experiments. Analysis of the model shows that: (1 SHP1 negative feedback is necessary for preventing hyperactivity in TCR signaling; (2 CD45 is required for TCR signaling, but also partially suppresses it at high expression levels; and (3 elevated FOXP3 and reduced IL-2 signaling, an expression profile often associated with T regulatory cells (Tregs, is observed when the system is subjected to weak TCR and CD28 costimulation or a severe reduction in CD45 activity.

  2. Irregularities in Early Seismic Rupture Propagation for Large Events in a Crustal Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapusta, N.; Rice, J. R.; Rice, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    We study early seismic propagation of model earthquakes in a 2-D model of a vertical strike-slip fault with depth-variable rate and state friction properties. Our model earthquakes are obtained in fully dynamic simulations of sequences of instabilities on a fault subjected to realistically slow tectonic loading (Lapusta et al., JGR, 2000). This work is motivated by results of Ellsworth and Beroza (Science, 1995), who observe that for many earthquakes, far-field velocity seismograms during initial stages of dynamic rupture propagation have irregular fluctuations which constitute a "seismic nucleation phase". In our simulations, we find that such irregularities in velocity seismograms can be caused by two factors: (1) rupture propagation over regions of stress concentrations and (2) partial arrest of rupture in neighboring creeping regions. As rupture approaches a region of stress concentration, it sees increasing background stress and its moment acceleration (to which velocity seismographs in the far field are proportional) increases. After the peak in stress concentration, the rupture sees decreasing background stress and moment acceleration decreases. Hence a fluctuation in moment acceleration is created. If rupture starts sufficiently far from a creeping region, then partial arrest of rupture in the creeping region causes a decrease in moment acceleration. As the other parts of rupture continue to develop, moment acceleration then starts to grow again, and a fluctuation again results. Other factors may cause the irregularities in moment acceleration, e.g., phenomena such as branching and/or intermittent rupture propagation (Poliakov et al., submitted to JGR, 2001) which we have not studied here. Regions of stress concentration are created in our model by arrest of previous smaller events as well as by interactions with creeping regions. One such region is deep in the fault zone, and is caused by the temperature-induced transition from seismogenic to creeping

  3. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  4. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2007-12-13

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  5. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jørgen

    2008-04-01

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either de-excite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission pre-fragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented.

  6. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either de-excite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission pre-fragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented

  7. Event-by-Event Simulation of Induced Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a novel code that treats induced fission by statistical (or Monte-Carlo) simulation of individual decay chains. After its initial excitation, the fissionable compound nucleus may either deexcite by evaporation or undergo binary fission into a large number of fission channels each with different energetics involving both energy dissipation and deformed scission prefragments. After separation and Coulomb acceleration, each fission fragment undergoes a succession of individual (neutron) evaporations, leading to two bound but still excited fission products (that may further decay electromagnetically and, ultimately, weakly), as well as typically several neutrons. (The inclusion of other possible ejectiles is planned.) This kind of approach makes it possible to study more detailed observables than could be addressed with previous treatments which have tended to focus on average quantities. In particular, any type of correlation observable can readily be extracted from a generated set of events. With a view towards making the code practically useful in a variety of applications, emphasis is being put on making it numerically efficient so that large event samples can be generated quickly. In its present form, the code can generate one million full events in about 12 seconds on a MacBook laptop computer. The development of this qualitatively new tool is still at an early stage and quantitative reproduction of existing data should not be expected until a number of detailed refinement have been implemented

  8. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); Luecke, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); University of Bochum, Department of Neuropediatrics, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hoy, Ludwig [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biometrics, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  10. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans; Luecke, Thomas; Hoy, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  11. Modeling of dengue occurrences early warning involving temperature and rainfall factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prama Setia Putra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand dengue transmission process and its vector dynamics and to develop early warning model of dengue occurrences based on mosquito population and host-vector threshold values considering temperature and rainfall. Methods: To obtain the early warning model, mosquito population and host-vector models are developed initially. Both are developed using differential equations. Basic offspring number (R0m and basic reproductive ratio (R0d which are the threshold values are derived from the models under constant parameters assumption. Temperature and rainfall effects on mosquito and dengue are performed in entomological and disease transmission parameters. Some of parameters are set as functions of temperature or rainfall while other parameters are set to be constant. Hereafter, both threshold values are computed using those parameters. Monthly dengue occurrences data are categorized as zero and one values which one means the outbreak does occur in that month. Logistics regression is chosen to bridge the threshold values and categorized data. Threshold values are considered as the input of early warning model. Semarang city is selected as the sample to develop this early waning model. Results: The derived threshold values which are R 0 m and R 0 d show to have relation that mosquito as dengue vector affects transmission of the disease. Result of the early warning model will be a value between zero and one. It is categorized as outbreak does occur when the value is larger than 0.5 while other is categorized as outbreak does not occur. By using single predictor, the model can perform 68% accuracy approximately. Conclusions: The extinction of mosquitoes will be followed by disease disappearance while mosquitoes existence can lead to disease free or endemic states. Model simulations show that mosquito population are more affected by weather factors than human. Involving weather factors implicitly in the threshold value and linking them

  12. End-Binding Protein 1 (EB1) Up-regulation is an Early Event in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Cruz, Mart Angelo Dela; Kunte, Dhananjay P.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Wali, Ramesh; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    End-binding protein (EB1) is a microtubule protein that binds to the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). While EB1 is implicated as a potential oncogene, its role in cancer progression is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed EB1/APC expression at the earliest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and in the uninvolved mucosa ("field effect") of human and animal tissue. We also performed siRNA-knockdown in colon cancer cell lines. EB1 is up-regulated in early and field carcinogenesis in the colon, and the cellular/nano-architectural effect of EB1 knockdown depended on the genetic context. Thus, dysregulation of EB1 is an important early event in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24492008

  13. Body Mass Index Trajectories from Adolescence to Early Young Adulthood : Do Adverse Life Events Play a Role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Hoek, Hans W.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are different classes of body mass index (BMI) development from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether these classes are related to the number of adverse life events children experienced. Methods: Data were from the TRAILS

  14. Extracellular matrix disruption is an early event in the pathogenesis of skeletal disease in mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Jonathan M; Zaucke, Frank; Clarke, Lorne A

    2015-02-01

    Progressive skeletal and connective tissue disease represents a significant clinical burden in all of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Despite the introduction of enzyme replacement strategies for many of the mucopolysaccharidoses, symptomatology related to bone and joint disease appears to be recalcitrant to current therapies. In order to address these unmet medical needs a clearer understanding of skeletal and connective tissue disease pathogenesis is required. Historically the pathogenesis of the mucopolysaccharidoses has been assumed to directly relate to progressive storage of glycosaminoglycans. It is now apparent for many lysosomal storage disorders that more complex pathogenic mechanisms underlie patients' clinical symptoms. We have used proteomic and genome wide expression studies in the murine mucopolysaccharidosis I model to identify early pathogenic events occurring in micro-dissected growth plate tissue. Studies were conducted using 3 and 5-week-old mice thus representing a time at which no obvious morphological changes of bone or joints have taken place. An unbiased iTRAQ differential proteomic approach was used to identify candidates followed by validation with multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. These studies reveal significant decreases in six key structural and signaling extracellular matrix proteins; biglycan, fibromodulin, PRELP, type I collagen, lactotransferrin, and SERPINF1. Genome-wide expression studies in embryonic day 13.5 limb cartilage and 5 week growth plate cartilage followed by specific gene candidate qPCR studies in the 5week growth plate identified fourteen significantly deregulated mRNAs (Adamts12, Aspn, Chad, Col2a1, Col9a1, Hapln4, Lum, Matn1, Mmp3, Ogn, Omd, P4ha2, Prelp, and Rab32). The involvement of biglycan, PRELP and fibromodulin; all members of the small leucine repeat proteoglycan family is intriguing, as this protein family is implicated in the pathogenesis of late onset osteoarthritis

  15. The Long-Term Effects of Early Parent Involvement and Parent Expectation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Peterson, Aubrey; Davison, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Building on social-cognitive theory and the expectancy-value theory, this study indicated that early parent expectations for children’s post-secondary educational attainment have a stronger effect on 8th-grade achievement than home-based parental involvement. With a nationally representative sample of kindergarten students and their parents in the…

  16. Early history of NMR at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has developed into an important research tool in chemistry. More recently, NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy promise to produce a revolution in medicine and biochemistry. Early experiments at Los Alamos led to DOE programs involving stable isotopes of importance to biology and to medicine. These events are briefly recounted. 2 refs

  17. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  18. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi; Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi; Sias, Alessandro; Marrosu, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in 99m Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating better the

  19. High Frequency of CD8 Positive Lymphocyte Infiltration Correlates with Lack of Lymph Node Involvement in Early Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Däster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. A trend towards local excision of early rectal cancers has prompted us to investigate if immunoprofiling might help in predicting lymph node involvement in this subgroup. Methods. A tissue microarray of 126 biopsies of early rectal cancer (T1 and T2 was stained for several immunomarkers of the innate and the adaptive immune response. Patients’ survival and nodal status were analyzed and correlated with infiltration of the different immune cells. Results. Of all tested markers, only CD8 (P=0.005 and TIA-1 (P=0.05 were significantly more frequently detectable in early rectal cancer biopsies of node negative as compared to node positive patients. Although these two immunomarkers did not display prognostic effect “per se,” CD8+ and, marginally, TIA-1 T cell infiltration could predict nodal involvement in univariate logistic regression analysis (OR 0.994; 95% CI 0.992–0.996; P=0.009 and OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.984–0.994; P=0.05, resp.. An algorithm significantly predicting the nodal status in early rectal cancer based on CD8 together with vascular invasion and tumor border configuration could be calculated (P<0.00001. Conclusion. Our data indicate that in early rectal cancers absence of CD8+ T-cell infiltration helps in predicting patients’ nodal involvement.

  20. How to Cope with the Rare Human Error Events Involved with organizational Factors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The current human error guidelines (e.g. US DOD handbooks, US NRC Guidelines) are representative tools to prevent human errors. These tools, however, have limits that they do not adapt all operating situations and circumstances such as design base events. In other words, these tools are only adapted foreseeable standardized operating situations and circumstances. In this study, our research team proposed an evidence-based approach such as UK's safety case to coping with the rare human error events such as TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents. These accidents are representative events involved with rare human errors. Our research team defined the 'rare human errors' as the follow three characterized events; Extremely low frequency Extremely high complicated structure Extremely serious damage of human life and property A safety case is a structured argument, supported by evidence, intended to justify that a system is acceptably safe. The definition by UK defense standard 00-56 issue 4 states that such an evidence-based approach can be contrast with a prescriptive approach to safety certification, which require safety to be justified using a prescribed process. Safety managements and safety regulatory activities based on safety case are effective to control organizational factors in terms of integrated safety management. Especially safety issues relevant with public acceptance are useful to provide practical evidences to the public reasonably. European Union including UK has developed the concept of engineered safety management system to deal with public acceptance using the safety case. In Korea nuclear industry, the Korean Atomic Research Institute has firstly performed a basic research to adapt the safety case in the field of radioactive waste according to the IAEA SSG-23(KAERI/TR-4497, 4531). Excepting the radioactive waste, there is no try to adapt the safety case yet. Most incidents and accidents involved human during operating NPPs have a tendency

  1. How to Cope with the Rare Human Error Events Involved with organizational Factors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    The current human error guidelines (e.g. US DOD handbooks, US NRC Guidelines) are representative tools to prevent human errors. These tools, however, have limits that they do not adapt all operating situations and circumstances such as design base events. In other words, these tools are only adapted foreseeable standardized operating situations and circumstances. In this study, our research team proposed an evidence-based approach such as UK's safety case to coping with the rare human error events such as TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents. These accidents are representative events involved with rare human errors. Our research team defined the 'rare human errors' as the follow three characterized events; Extremely low frequency Extremely high complicated structure Extremely serious damage of human life and property A safety case is a structured argument, supported by evidence, intended to justify that a system is acceptably safe. The definition by UK defense standard 00-56 issue 4 states that such an evidence-based approach can be contrast with a prescriptive approach to safety certification, which require safety to be justified using a prescribed process. Safety managements and safety regulatory activities based on safety case are effective to control organizational factors in terms of integrated safety management. Especially safety issues relevant with public acceptance are useful to provide practical evidences to the public reasonably. European Union including UK has developed the concept of engineered safety management system to deal with public acceptance using the safety case. In Korea nuclear industry, the Korean Atomic Research Institute has firstly performed a basic research to adapt the safety case in the field of radioactive waste according to the IAEA SSG-23(KAERI/TR-4497, 4531). Excepting the radioactive waste, there is no try to adapt the safety case yet. Most incidents and accidents involved human during operating NPPs have a tendency

  2. Relation between change in blood pressure in acute stroke and risk of early adverse events and poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else C; Murray, Gordon D; Bath, Philip M W

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST) found no benefits of candesartan in acute stroke. In the present analysis we aim to investigate the effect of change in blood pressure during the first 2 days of stroke on the risk of early adverse events and poor outcome....

  3. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater and seawater environments at various temperatures. By these methods, we found no correlation between increased viral fitness and displacement in the field. These results suggest that other pressures likely exist in the field with important consequences for IHNV evolution.

  5. Early Decrease in Respiration and Uncoupling Event Independent of Cytochrome c Release in PC12 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, Libera; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c is a key molecule in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It also plays a pivotal role in cell respiration. The switch between these two functions occurs at the moment of its release from mitochondria. This process is therefore extremely relevant for the fate of the cell. Since cytochrome c mediates respiration, we studied the changes in respiratory chain activity during the early stages of apoptosis in order to contribute to unravel the mechanisms of cytochrome c release. We found that, during staurosporine (STS)- induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, respiration is affected before the release of cytochrome c, as shown by a decrease in the endogenous uncoupled respiration and an uncoupling event, both occurring independently of cytochrome c release. The decline in the uncoupled respiration occurs also upon Bcl-2 overexpression (which inhibits cytochrome c release), while the uncoupling event is inhibited by Bcl-2. We also observed that the first stage of nuclear condensation during STS-induced apoptosis does not depend on the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and is a reversibile event. These findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms affecting mitochondria during the early stages of apoptosis and priming them for the release of apoptogenic factors. PMID:22666257

  6. Clustering of transcriptional profiles identifies changes to insulin signaling as an early event in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Harriet M; Soto, Ileana; Graham, Leah C; Carter, Gregory W; Howell, Gareth R

    2013-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease affects more than 35 million people worldwide but there is no known cure. Age is the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease but it is not clear how age-related changes impact the disease. Here, we used a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease to identify age-specific changes that occur prior to and at the onset of traditional Alzheimer-related phenotypes including amyloid plaque formation. To identify these early events we used transcriptional profiling of mouse brains combined with computational approaches including singular value decomposition and hierarchical clustering. Our study identifies three key events in early stages of Alzheimer's disease. First, the most important drivers of Alzheimer's disease onset in these mice are age-specific changes. These include perturbations of the ribosome and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Second, the earliest detectable disease-specific changes occur to genes commonly associated with the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis. These include the down-regulation of genes relating to metabolism, depression and appetite. Finally, insulin signaling, in particular the down-regulation of the insulin receptor substrate 4 (Irs4) gene, may be an important event in the transition from age-related changes to Alzheimer's disease specific-changes. A combination of transcriptional profiling combined with computational analyses has uncovered novel features relevant to Alzheimer's disease in a widely used mouse model and offers avenues for further exploration into early stages of AD.

  7. A catastrophic event in Lake Geneva region during the Early Bronze Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Yrro, Blé; Marillier, François; Hilbe, Michael; Corboud, Pierre; Rachoud-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Similarly to steep oceanic continental margins, lake slopes can collapse, producing large sublacustrine landslides and tsunamis. Lake sediments are excellent natural archives of such mass movements and their study allows the reconstructions of these prehistoric events, such as the 563 AD large tsunami over Lake Geneva (Kremer et al, 2012). In Lake Geneva, more than 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles reveal the late Holocene sedimentation history. The seismic record shows a succession of five large lens-shaped seismic units (A to I), characterized by transparent/chaotic seismic facies with irregular lower boundaries, and interpreted as mass-movement deposits. These units are interbedded with parallel, continuous and strong amplitude reflections, interpreted as the 'background' lake sediments. The oldest dated mass movement (Unit D) covers a surface of 22 km2 in the deep basin, near the city of Lausanne. This deposit has an estimated minimum volume of 0.18 km3 and thus was very likely tsunamigenic (Kremer et al, 2012). A 12-m-long sediment core confirms the seismic interpretation of the mass movement unit and shows that the uppermost 3 m of Unit D are characterized by deformed hemipelagic sediments topped by a 5 cm thick turbidite. This deposit can be classified as a slump whose scar can be interpreted in the seismic data and visualized by multibeam bathymetry. This slump of Lausanne was likely triggered by an earthquake but a spontaneous slope collapse cannot be excluded (Girardclos et al, 2007). Radiocarbon dating of plant macro-remains reveals that the unit D happened during Early Bronze Age. Three other mass wasting deposits occurred during the same time period and may have been triggered during the same event, either by a single earthquake or by a tsunami generated by the slump of Lausanne. Although the exact trigger mechanism of the all these mass-wasting deposits remains unknown, a tsunami likely generated by this event may have affected the

  8. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  9. Autophagy-Related Deubiquitinating Enzymes Involved in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzi El Magraoui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved process that delivers diverse cytoplasmic components to the lysosomal compartment for either recycling or degradation. This involves the removal of protein aggregates, the turnover of organelles, as well as the elimination of intracellular pathogens. In this situation, when only specific cargoes should be targeted to the lysosome, the potential targets can be selectively marked by the attachment of ubiquitin in order to be recognized by autophagy-receptors. Ubiquitination plays a central role in this process, because it regulates early signaling events during the induction of autophagy and is also used as a degradation-tag on the potential autophagic cargo protein. Here, we review how the ubiquitin-dependent steps of autophagy are balanced or counteracted by deubiquitination events. Moreover, we highlight the functional role of the corresponding deubiquitinating enzymes and discuss how they might be involved in the occurrence of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or infection with pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Inhibition of MHC-I by Brucella abortus is an early event during infection and involves EGFR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Lis N; Milillo, M Ayelén; Delpino, M Victoria; Trotta, Aldana; Mercogliano, M Florencia; Pozner, Roberto G; Schillaci, Roxana; Elizalde, Patricia V; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Barrionuevo, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Brucella abortus is able to persist inside the host despite the development of potent CD8 + T-cell responses. We have recently reported the ability of B. abortus to inhibit the interferon-γ-induced major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I cell surface expression on human monocytes. This phenomenon was due to the B. abortus-mediated retention of MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus and was dependent on bacterial viability. However, the implications of bacterial virulence or replicative capacity and the signaling pathways remained unknown. Here we demonstrated that the B. abortus mutant strains RB51 and virB10 - are able to inhibit MHC-I expression in the same manner as wild-type B. abortus, even though they are unable to persist inside human monocytes for a long period of time. Consistent with this, the phenomenon was triggered early in time and could be observed at 8 h postinfection. At 24 and 48 h, it was even stronger. Regarding the signaling pathway, targeting epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), ErbB2 (HER2) or inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme, one of the enzymes which generates soluble EGF-like ligands, resulted in partial recovery of MHC-I surface expression. Moreover, recombinant EGF and transforming growth factor-α as well as the combination of both were also able to reproduce the B. abortus-induced MHC-I downmodulation. Finally, when infection was performed in the presence of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) inhibitor, MHC-I surface expression was significantly recovered. Overall, these results describe how B. abortus evades CD8 + T-cell responses early during infection and exploits the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway to escape from the immune system and favor chronicity.

  11. Differences in Work-Related Adverse Events by Sex and Industry in Cases Involving Compensation for Mental Disorders and Suicide in Japan From 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsumoto, Shun; Takahashi, Masaya; Suka, Machi; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether work-related adverse events in cases involving compensation for mental disorders and suicide differ by sex and industry using a database containing all relevant cases reported from 2010 to 2014 in Japan. A total of 1362 eligible cases involving compensation for mental disorders (422 females and 940 males) were analyzed. Among males, 55.7% of cases were attributed to "long working hours." In both sexes, the frequencies of cases attributed to "long working hours" and other events differed significantly by industry. Among cases involving compensation for suicide, 71.4% were attributed to "long working hours." The frequency distribution of work-related adverse events differed significantly by sex and industry. These differences should be taken into consideration in the development of industry-specific preventive measures for occupational mental disorders.

  12. Lithium-isotope evidence for enhanced silicate weathering during OAE 1a (Early Aptian Selli event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechler, Maria; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Prosser, Giacomo; Parente, Mariano

    2015-12-01

    An abrupt rise in temperature, forced by a massive input of CO2 into the atmosphere, is commonly invoked as the main trigger for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Global warming initiated a cascade of palaeoenvironmental perturbations starting with increased continental weathering and an accelerated hydrological cycle that delivered higher loads of nutrients to coastal areas, stimulating biological productivity. The end-result was widespread anoxia and deposition of black shales: the hallmarks of OAEs. In order to assess the role of weathering as both an OAE initiator and terminator (via CO2 sequestration) during the Early Aptian OAE 1a (Selli Event, ∼120 Ma) the isotopic ratio of lithium isotopes was analysed in three sections of shallow-marine carbonates from the Pacific and Tethyan realms and one basinal pelagic section from the Tethyan domain. Because the isotopic composition of lithium in seawater is largely controlled by continental silicate weathering and high- and low-temperature alteration of basaltic material, a shift to lighter δ7Li values is expected to characterize OAEs. The studied sections illustrate this phenomenon: δ7Li values decrease to a minimum coincident with the negative carbon-isotope excursion that effectively records the onset of OAE 1a. A second negative δ7Li excursion occurs coeval with the minimum in strontium isotopes after the event. The striking similarity to the strontium-isotope record argues for a common driver. The formation and destruction (weathering) of an oceanic LIP could account for the parallel trend in both isotope systems. The double-spike in lithium isotopes is probably related to a change in weathering congruencies. Such a chemostratigraphy is consistent with the hypothesis that an increase in silicate weathering, in conjunction with organic-carbon burial, led to drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during the early Aptian OAE 1a.

  13. Early user involvement and participation in employee self-service application deployment: theory and evidence from four Dutch governmental cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, G.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS success. Different models and studies are reviewed to define and classify types of early end-user involvement and participation. Next, five case studies are

  14. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (pworking hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  15. Organ involvement in Argentinian systemic sclerosis patients with "late" pattern as compared to patients with "early/active" pattern by nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Claverie, Lucila; Knobel, Elizabeth; Takashima, Lorena; Techera, Lorena; Oliver, Marina; Gonzalez, Paula; Romanini, Félix E; Fonseca, María L; Mamani, Marta N

    2013-06-01

    Changes in nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis patients could be related to the disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with "late" scleroderma (SD) pattern have more organ involvement than patients with "early/active" SD pattern. Forty-six Argentinian patients (44 women and 2 men), with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, were distributed in two groups based on the presence of late and early/active patterns. Organ involvement was assessed as follows: pulmonary function by chest radiography, high-resolution chest tomography (HRCT), lung volume tests, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); esophageal involvement by manometry; and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by Doppler echocardiography and six-minute walk test. Honeycombing of the lungs evaluated by HRCT was more frequently present in patients with late pattern compared with early/active patients (p = 0.01). We also found statistically significant differences in lung volume tests (p = 0.03) and DLCO (p = 0.02) between the two SD pattern groups. Esophageal manometry showed a significantly higher frequency of motility disorders in the group with late pattern (p = 0.0024). In this study, patients with late pattern had higher frequency of pulmonary and esophageal involvement compared with patients with early/active pattern.

  16. Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Alazard-Dany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as Adenovirus or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1; whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. Previous studies demonstrated that the ternary HSV-1 helicase/primase (HP complex (UL5/8/52 and the single-stranded DNA-Binding Protein (ICP8 were sufficient to induce AAV-2 replication in transfected cells. We independently showed that, in the context of a latent AAV-2 infection, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein was able to activate rep gene expression. The present study was conducted to integrate these observations and to further explore the requirement of other HSV-1 proteins during early AAV replication steps, i.e. rep gene expression and AAV DNA replication. Using a cellular model that mimics AAV latency and composite constructs coding for various sets of HSV-1 genes, we first confirmed the role of ICP0 for rep gene expression and demonstrated a synergistic effect of ICP4 and, to a lesser extent, ICP22. Conversely, ICP27 displayed an inhibitory effect. Second, our analyses showed that the effect of ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 on rep gene expression was essential for the onset of AAV DNA replication in conjunction with the HP complex and ICP8. Third, and most importantly, we demonstrated that the HSV-1 DNA polymerase complex (UL30/UL42 was critical to enhance AAV DNA replication to a significant level in transfected cells and that its catalytic activity was involved in this process. Altogether, this work represents the first comprehensive study recapitulating the series of early events taking place during HSV-1-induced AAV replication.

  17. Early Holocene hydroclimate of Baffin Bay: Understanding the interplay between abrupt climate change events and ice sheet fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M. C.; Thomas, E. K.; Castañeda, I. S.; Briner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the causes of ice sheet fluctuations resulting in sea level rise is essential in today's warming climate. In high-latitude ice-sheet-proximal environments such as Baffin Bay, studying both the cause and the rate of ice sheet variability during past abrupt climate change events aids in predictions. Past climate reconstructions are used to understand ice sheet responses to changes in temperature and precipitation. The 9,300 and 8,200 yr BP events are examples of abrupt climate change events in the Baffin Bay region during which there were multiple re-advances of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets. High-resolution (decadal-scale) hydroclimate variability near the ice sheet margins during these abrupt climate change events is still unknown. We will generate a decadal-scale record of early Holocene temperature and precipitation using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes, δ2Hwax, from a lake sediment archive on Baffin Island, western Baffin Bay, to better understand abrupt climate change in this region. Shifts in temperature and moisture source result in changes in environmental water δ2H, which in turn is reflected in δ2Hwax, allowing for past hydroclimate to be determined from these compound-specific isotopes. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic δ2Hwax is used to determine soil evaporation and is ultimately used to reconstruct moisture variability. We will compare our results with a previous analysis of δ2Hwax and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, a temperature and pH proxy, in lake sediment from western Greenland, eastern Baffin Bay, which indicates that cool and dry climate occurred in response to freshwater forcing events in the Labrador Sea. Reconstructing and comparing records on both the western and eastern sides of Baffin Bay during the early Holocene will allow for a spatial understanding of temperature and moisture balance changes during abrupt climate events, aiding in ice sheet modeling and predictions of future sea level

  18. Evaluation of early healing events around mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold. An experimental study in Wistar rats.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alhag, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    Tissue engineering using cell-seeded biodegradable scaffolds offers a new bone regenerative approach that might circumvent many of the limitations of current therapeutic modalities. The aim of this experiment was to study the early healing events around mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds.

  19. A girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with microdeletion involving CDKL5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Osaka, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that aberrations of CDKL5 in female patients cause early-onset intractable seizures, severe developmental delay or regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. We report on a Japanese girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, developmental regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. The patient showed generalized tonic seizures, and later, massive myoclonus induced by phone and light stimuli. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural brain anomalies but cerebral atrophy. Electroencephalogram showed frontal dominant diffuse poly spikes and waves. Through copy number analysis by genomic microarray, we found a microdeletion at Xp22.13. A de novo 137-kb deletion, involving exons 5-21 of CDKL5, RS1, and part of PPEF1 gene, was confirmed by quantitative PCR and breakpoint specific PCR analyses. Our report suggests that the clinical features associated with CDKL5 deletions could be implicated in Japanese patients, and that genetic testing of CDKL5, including both sequencing and deletion analyses, should be considered in girls with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and RTT-like features. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  1. A Systematic Review of Early Warning Systems' Effects on Nurses' Clinical Performance and Adverse Events Among Deteriorating Ward Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Ry; Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Sun-Aee; Oh, Eui Geum

    2018-04-25

    Early warning systems (EWSs) are an integral part of processes that aim to improve the early identification and management of deteriorating patients in general wards. However, the widespread implementation of these systems has not generated robust data regarding nurses' clinical performance and patients' adverse events. This review aimed to determine the ability of EWSs to improve nurses' clinical performance and prevent adverse events among deteriorating ward patients. The PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant publications (January 1, 1997, to April 12, 2017). In addition, a grey literature search evaluated several guideline Web sites. The main outcome measures were nurses' clinical performance (vital sign monitoring and rapid response team notification) and patients' adverse events (in-hospital mortality, cardiac arrest, and unplanned intensive care unit [ICU] admission). The search identified 888 reports, although only five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings of these studies revealed that EWSs implementation had a positive effect on nurses' clinical performance, based on their frequency of documenting vital signs that were related to the patient's clinical deterioration. In addition, postimplementation reductions were identified for cardiac arrest, unplanned ICU admission, and unexpected death. It seems that EWSs can improve nurses' clinical performance and prevent adverse events (e.g., in-hospital mortality, unplanned ICU admission, and cardiac arrest) among deteriorating ward patients. However, additional high-quality evidence is needed to more comprehensively evaluate the effects of EWSs on these outcomes.

  2. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  3. Impact of sirolimus-eluting stent fractures without early cardiac events on long-term clinical outcomes: A multislice computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi [Toyohashi Heart Center, Oyama-cho, Toyohashi (Japan); Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya (Japan); Kimura, Masashi; Ehara, Mariko; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Nasu, Kenya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Habara, Maoto; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Suzuki, Takahiko [Toyohashi Heart Center, Oyama-cho, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) fractures on long-term clinical outcomes using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). In this study, 528 patients undergoing 6- to 18-month follow-up 64-slice MSCT after SES implantation without early clinical events were followed clinically (the median follow-up interval was 4.6 years). A CT-detected stent fracture was defined as a complete gap with Hounsfield units (HU) <300 at the site of separation. The major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiac death, stent thrombosis, and target lesion revascularisation, were compared according to the presence of stent fracture. Stent fractures were observed in 39 patients (7.4 %). MACEs were more common in patients with CT-detected stent fractures than in those without (46 % vs. 7 %, p < 0.01). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated a significant relationship between MACE and stent fracture [hazard ratio (HR) 7.65; p < 0.01], age (HR 1.03; p = 0.04), stent length (HR 1.03; p < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (HR 1.77; p = 0.04), and chronic total occlusion (HR 2.54; p = 0.01). In the multivariate model, stent fracture (HR 5.36; p < 0.01) and age (HR 1.03; p = 0.04) remained significant predictors of MACE. An SES fracture detected by MSCT without early clinical events was associated with long-term clinical adverse events. (orig.)

  4. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  5. Early adverse life events are associated with altered brain network architecture in a sex- dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early adverse life events (EALs increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. Methods: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women. Functional and anatomical network properties of centrality and segregation were calculated for the core regions of the two networks using graph theory. Moderator analyses were applied to test hypotheses. Results: The type of adversity experienced influences brain wiring differently, as higher general EALs were associated with decreased functional and anatomical centrality in salience and emotion regulation regions, while physical and emotional EALs were associated with increased anatomical centrality and segregation in emotion regulation regions. Sex moderated the associations between EALs and measures of centrality; with decreased centrality of salience and emotion regulation regions with increased general EALs in females, and increased centrality in salience regions with higher physical and emotional EALs in males. Increased segregation of salience regions was associated with increased general EALs in males. Centrality of the amygdala was associated with physical symptoms, and segregation of salience regions was correlated with higher somatization in men only. Conclusions: Emotion regulation and salience regions are susceptible to topological brain restructuring associated with EALs. The male and female brains appear to be differently affected by specific types of EALs. Keywords: Early adverse traumatic life events, Centrality, Segregation, Network metrics, Moderating effects of sex, Emotion regulation network, Salience network

  6. Translational errors as an early event in prion conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatin, I; Bidou, L; Cullin, C; Rousset, J P

    2001-01-01

    A prion is an infectious, altered form of a cellular protein which can self-propagate and affect normal phenotype. Prion conversion has been observed for mammalian and yeast proteins but molecular mechanisms that trigger this process remain unclear. Up to now, only post-translational models have been explored. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that co-translational events may be implicated in the conformation changes of the Ure2p protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protein can adopt a prion conformation leading to an [URE3] phenotype which can be easily assessed and quantified. We analyzed the effect of two antibiotics, known to affect translation, on [URE3] conversion frequency. For cells treated with G418 we observed a parallel increase of translational errors rate and frequency of [URE3] conversion. By contrast, cycloheximide which was not found to affect translational fidelity, has no influence on the induction of [URE3] phenotype. These results raise the possibility that the mechanism of prion conversion might not only involve alternative structures of strictly identical molecules but also aberrant proteins resulting from translational errors.

  7. EARLY READING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: ABILITIES AND PROCESSES INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the following early reading assessment instruments: “Bateria de Recepção e Produção da Linguagem Verbal” (SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2003a and “Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras” (SEABRA; CAPOVILLA, 2010. The main research goal is to analyze in each one of these reading assessment instruments some of the multiple cognitive processes and basic low-level abilities involved in reading. In this sense, decoding, word recognition, lexical access, syntactic and textual processing, and comprehension are the cognitive processes taken into account. With regard to the basic reading abilities, accuracy and fluency (rhythm, prosody and speed are considered. The results indicate that each one of the analyzed reading assessment instruments assesses different aspects of the reading processes and abilities, mainly through off-line measures. ScliarCabral’s assessment battery allows the researcher or the teacher to evaluate the following processes: perception of the grapheme opposition in minimal pairs of words and in sentences, difficulties in sentence processing, skills in decoding the graphemic-phonemic relationship, and textual comprehension. In its turn, the reading assessment instrument proposed by Seabra e Capovilla allows one to evaluate student’s reading development level, by classifying the kind of processing as logographic, alphabetic or orthographic.

  8. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Modeling Temporal Processes in Early Spacecraft Design: Application of Discrete-Event Simulations for Darpa's F6 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Gregory F.; Cornford, Steven

    2012-01-01

    While the ability to model the state of a space system over time is essential during spacecraft operations, the use of time-based simulations remains rare in preliminary design. The absence of the time dimension in most traditional early design tools can however become a hurdle when designing complex systems whose development and operations can be disrupted by various events, such as delays or failures. As the value delivered by a space system is highly affected by such events, exploring the trade space for designs that yield the maximum value calls for the explicit modeling of time.This paper discusses the use of discrete-event models to simulate spacecraft development schedule as well as operational scenarios and on-orbit resources in the presence of uncertainty. It illustrates how such simulations can be utilized to support trade studies, through the example of a tool developed for DARPA's F6 program to assist the design of "fractionated spacecraft".

  10. Event-related brain potentials that distinguish false memory for events that occurred only seconds in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Voss, Joel L; Guo, Chunyan

    2012-07-30

    False memory often involves retrieving events from the distant past that did not actually happen. However, recent evidence obtained using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm for eliciting false memory experiences suggests that individuals can falsely believe that events occurred mere seconds in the past when they in fact did not. Subjects in these experiments endorsed unstudied critical lure words as having been studied, despite the fact that word lists were studied just moments before. We identified event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of this experience, and included a repetition priming manipulation to better assess the functional significance of these ERPs. Behavioral and ERP data were collected from 21 Capital Normal University students using a short-term DRM task. Two categories of effects were identified that distinguished true from false short-term memory: (1) early semantic priming effects from 300 to 500 ms and (2) later retrieval and retrieval-monitoring effects after 500 ms. The repetition priming manipulation had distinct influences on these effects, consistent with their differential associations with semantic priming versus episodic retrieval. Characterization of ERPs related to semantic priming and episodic retrieval provides important information regarding the mechanisms of short-term false memory. In contrast, most studies examining false memory in standard long-delay DRM paradigms identify ERP effects related only to retrieval monitoring. These findings highlight the neural processing involved in illusions of memory after very brief delays and highlight the role of semantic processing in short-term false memory.

  11. Early life events carry over to influence pre-migratory condition in a free-living songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg W Mitchell

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking early life events and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1(st year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis. We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept-Oct and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure.

  12. The significance of parental involvement in early childhood learner development in Mafikeng rural school / Nicholas Maikanya Lebopa

    OpenAIRE

    Lebopa, Nicholas Maikanya

    2010-01-01

    The study aims at investigating the importance of parental involvement in the teaching and learning of learners in their early years of schooling, especially in rural areas. The researcher is of the opinion that many parents in rural areas are illiterate and poor. Their disadvantages are therefore vast to their counterparts who live in urban areas. Parents could become involved in several activities occurring at school which could provide opportunities for them to be familiar w...

  13. Probing Early Misfolding Events in Prion Protein Mutants by NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Ilc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The post-translational conversion of the ubiquitously expressed cellular form of the prion protein, PrPC, into its misfolded and pathogenic isoform, known as prion or PrPSc, plays a key role in prion diseases. These maladies are denoted transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs and affect both humans and animals. A prerequisite for understanding TSEs is unraveling the molecular mechanism leading to the conversion process whereby most α-helical motifs are replaced by β-sheet secondary structures. Importantly, most point mutations linked to inherited prion diseases are clustered in the C-terminal domain region of PrPC and cause spontaneous conversion to PrPSc. Structural studies with PrP variants promise new clues regarding the proposed conversion mechanism and may help identify “hot spots” in PrPC involved in the pathogenic conversion. These investigations may also shed light on the early structural rearrangements occurring in some PrPC epitopes thought to be involved in modulating prion susceptibility. Here we present a detailed overview of our solution-state NMR studies on human prion protein carrying different pathological point mutations and the implications that such findings may have for the future of prion research.

  14. The nummulithoclast event within the Lower Eocene in the Southern Tethyan margin: Mechanisms involved, analogy with the filament event and climate implication (Kairouan, Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardassi, Besma

    2017-10-01

    Early Eocene deposits in Tunisia are marked by clear variations in terms of facies and thickness. Each facies corresponds to an appropriate depositional environment. Shallow water deposits pass gradually offshore into deeper carbonates along a homoclinal ramp. In Central Tunisia, detailed investigation of carbonate facies under transmitted light shows a particular richness of the middle part of Early Eocene deposits in nummulithoclasts. These facies are often frequent within corrugated banks. They are overlaying Globigerina rich well-bedded limestones and overlain by nummulites and Discocyclina rich massively-bedded carbonates. Nummulithoclasts occurrence is recorded on field by an abrupt vertical change from autochthonous thinly-bedded limestones to massively-bedded fossiliferous carbonates. Change concerns structures, textures and limestones' composition. Nummulithoclasts are associated either to planktonic micro-organisms or to benthic fauna and phosphates grains. The middle and the upper parts of the Early Eocene deposits, particularly, fossilize hummocky cross-stratifications and megaripples. Their presence advocates the role of energetic currents in sweeping nummulites from lower circatidal to upper bathyal environments. The absence of a slope break helped the settling of reworked nummulites within deeper environments. The abrupt change, nummulithoclast associations and current structures arouse reflection and make them not reliable to characterize depositional environments. However, their preferential occurrence within the middle part of Early Eocene deposits and the tight linkage with storm activity lead them to be considered as event. The large scale hummocks recorded on field suggests that nummulite fragmentation was triggered by tropical cyclones rather than humble storms. The frequent occurrence of cyclones which correspond to low pressure atmospheric systems seems in relation with a global warming enhancing the sea surface temperature.

  15. Radiological Emergency Preparedness after the Early Phase of an Accident : Focusing on an Air Contamination Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Joon; Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Toxic materials in an urban area can be caused by a variety of events, such as accidental releases on industrial complexes, accidents during the transportation of hazardous materials and intentional explosions. Most governments around the world and their citizens have become increasingly worried about intentional accidents in urban area after the 911 terrorist attack in the United States of America. Even though there have been only a few attempted uses of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs), accidental releases have occurred many times at commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear waste disposal sites. When an intentional release of radioactive materials occurs in an urban area, air quality for radioactive materials in the environment is of great importance to take action for countermeasures and environmental risk assessments. Atmospheric modeling is part of the decision making tasks and that it is particularly important for emergency managers as they often need to take actions quickly on very inadequate information(1). A simple model such as HOTSPOT required wind direction and source term would be enough to support the decision making in the early phase of an accident, but more sophisticated atmospheric modeling is required to adjust decontamination area and relocation etc after the early phase of an accidental event. In this study, we assume an explosion of 137 Cs using RDDs in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea. California Puff Model (CALPUFF) is used to calculate an atmospheric dispersion and transport for 137 Cs. Atmospheric dispersion and quantitative radiological risk analysis for 137 Cs were performed assuming an intentional explosion in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea after the early phase of emergency. These kinds of atmospheric modeling and risk analysis could provide a means for decision makers to take action on important issues such as the cleanup of the contaminated area and countermeasures to protect the public caused by

  16. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  17. VLF Observation of Long Ionospheric Recovery Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotts, B. R.; Inan, U. S.

    2006-12-01

    On the evening of 20 November 1992, three early/fast events were observed on the great circle path (GCP) from the NAU transmitter in Puerto Rico to Gander (GA), Newfoundland. These events were found to have significantly longer recovery times (up to 20 minutes) than any previously documented events. Typical early/fast events and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events affect the D-region ionosphere near the night-time VLF-reflection height of ~85 km and exhibit recovery to pre-event levels of gigantic jets. In this context, preliminary results indicate that the lightning-associated VLF long recovery events appear to be more common in oceanic thunderstorms. In this paper, we present occurrence statistics and other measured properties of VLF long recovery events, observed on all-sea based and land based VLF great circle paths.

  18. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, also included are events reported involving byproduct material which is exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadden, M.; Yardumian, J.

    1993-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  20. Event-by-Event Simulations of Early Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Matthew; Rose, Steven; Fries, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    Collisions of heavy ions are carried out at ultra relativistic speeds at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider to create Quark Gluon Plasma. The earliest stages of such collisions are dominated by the dynamics of classical gluon fields. The McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model of color glass condensate provides a model for this process. Previous research has provided an analytic solution for event averaged observables in the MV model. Using the High Performance Research Computing Center (HPRC) at Texas A&M, we have developed a C++ code to explicitly calculate the initial gluon fields and energy momentum tensor event by event using the analytic recursive solution. The code has been tested against previously known analytic results up to fourth order. We have also have been able to test the convergence of the recursive solution at high orders in time and studied the time evolution of color glass condensate.

  1. The Longitudinal Association Between Early Childhood Obesity and Fathers' Involvement in Caregiving and Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N; Chan, Kitty S

    2017-10-01

    Fathers have increased their involvement in child caregiving; however, their changing role in childhood obesity is understudied. This study assessed the longitudinal association between changes in obesity among children aged 2 to 4 years and changes in fathers' involvement with raising children. Longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were used to conduct child fixed-effects linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between changes in childhood obesity-related outcomes (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen time, BMI z score, overweight/obesity, obesity) and fathers' involvement with raising children (caregiving and influencing child-related decisions). Fixed-effects models control for all time-invariant characteristics. Analyses were controlled for time-varying confounders, including child age, maternal and paternal employment, and family poverty status. Children whose fathers increased their frequency of taking children outside and involvement with physical childcare experienced a decrease in their odds of obesity from age 2 to age 4. Obesity-related outcomes were not associated with fathers' decision-making influence. Increases in fathers' involvement with some aspects of caregiving may be associated with lower odds of childhood obesity. Encouraging fathers to increase their involvement with raising children and including fathers in childhood obesity prevention efforts may help reduce obesity risk among young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  3. High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for early Albian oceanic anoxic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.

    2018-03-01

    The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the early Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian Event. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable early Albian Paquier event. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt Event. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt Events (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these early Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.

  4. CTCAE v.3.0 in evaluation the radiation adverse events in cancer patients after pelvic irradiation (Contemporary mechanisms of radiation and comprehensive damage after cancer treatment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encheva, E.; Zahariev, Z.; Sultanov, B.; Hadjieva, T.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first report of applying the NCI CTCAE v.3.0 for evaluation of radiation adverse events in Bulgaria. The adverse events are observed in early stage cervical and endometrial cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy after radical surgery during the radiotherapy and 3 months after it ended. The paper discusses the contemporary concepts of the normal tissue morbidity, the issue early-late adverse events, comprehensive factors and causes, except irradiation, involved in their occurrence. The possibility to define the single method contribution of the comprehensive cancer treatment for development of post-treatment adverse events in cancer survivors in effort to improve their quality of life is discussed. (authors)

  5. Early Healing Events around Titanium Implant Devices with Different Surface Microtopography: A Pilot Study in an In Vivo Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Orsini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present pilot study, the authors morphologically investigated sandblasted, acid-etched surfaces (SLA at very early experimental times. The tested devices were titanium plate-like implants with flattened wide lateral sides and jagged narrow sides. Because of these implant shape and placement site, the device gained a firm mechanical stability but the largest portion of the implant surface lacked direct contact with host bone and faced a wide peri-implant space rich in marrow tissue, intentionally created in order to study the interfacial interaction between metal surface and biological microenvironment. The insertion of titanium devices into the proximal tibia elicited a sequence of healing events. Newly formed bone proceeded through an early distance osteogenesis, common to both surfaces, and a delayed contact osteogenesis which seemed to follow different patterns at the two surfaces. In fact, SLA devices showed a more osteoconductive behavior retaining a less dense blood clot, which might be earlier and more easily replaced, and leading to a surface-conditioning layer which promotes osteogenic cell differentiation and appositional new bone deposition at the titanium surface. This model system is expected to provide a starting point for further investigations which clarify the early cellular and biomolecular events occurring at the metal surface.

  6. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lana, Erica [INSERM U827, Montpellier (France); Brun, Marie-Elisabeth [Institut de Génétique Humaine, CNRS UPR 1142, Montpellier (France); Rivals, Isabelle [Equipe de Statistique Appliquée, ESPCI ParisTech, Paris (France); Selves, Janick; Kirzin, Sylvain [CHU Purpan and INSERM U563, Toulouse (France); Lutsyk, Andriy P. [O.O. Bogomoletz National Medical University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gordiyuk, Vasily V. [Department of Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bibeau, Frédéric [CRLC, Montpellier (France); Rynditch, Alla [Department of Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); De Sario, Albertina, E-mail: albertina.de-sario@inserm.fr [INSERM U827, Montpellier (France)

    2009-11-18

    We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen) loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50%) in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  7. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  9. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi

    1993-01-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author)

  10. Early notification of the environmental radiation monitoring system to a radioactive event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Ne'eman, F; Brenner, S.

    1997-01-01

    The National Environmental Radiation Monitoring System managed by the Radiation Safety Division of the Ministry of tile Environment has been completed and is composed of a network of 10 stations; 6 terrestrial stations, 3 waterside stations and one mobile. The system was built by Rotem Co. and the control center is located at the Unit of Environmental Resources of the Ministry of the Environment in Tel Aviv University. Each station consists of a wide range Geiger Mueller detector and ambient dose rate meter that provides the level of the environmental dose rate. Low level radioactive particles are detected by air sampling with devices that collect suspended and settling particles . Each station is connected to the control center through telephone lines and RF communication system providing 24 hour a day the level of the environmental radiation. The background radiation dose rate level depends on the location of the station and varies from 8 - 16 μR/h. The system has proved its efficiency in a 'simulation like event' early detecting an unregistered gamma radiography work in the proximity of two stations performed in June 96 in Ashdod port and in December 96 at Maspenot Israel in Haifa. During the events the radiation level increased up to 20 times above the background level. Survey teams of the Ashdod port and Maspenot Israel were sent to place to check the sources for the radiation level increase. These teams found workers performing radiography work in the area of the stations. (authors)

  11. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-07-04

    A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum , from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian ( Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the Early Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the early Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian ( Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the Early Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the Early Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1344679.

  12. Event-related brain potentials that distinguish false memory for events that occurred only seconds in the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memory often involves retrieving events from the distant past that did not actually happen. However, recent evidence obtained using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm for eliciting false memory experiences suggests that individuals can falsely believe that events occurred mere seconds in the past when they in fact did not. Subjects in these experiments endorsed unstudied critical lure words as having been studied, despite the fact that word lists were studied just moments before. We identified event-related brain potential (ERP correlates of this experience, and included a repetition priming manipulation to better assess the functional significance of these ERPs. Methods Behavioral and ERP data were collected from 21 Capital Normal University students using a short-term DRM task. Results Two categories of effects were identified that distinguished true from false short-term memory: (1 early semantic priming effects from 300 to 500 ms and (2 later retrieval and retrieval-monitoring effects after 500 ms. The repetition priming manipulation had distinct influences on these effects, consistent with their differential associations with semantic priming versus episodic retrieval. Conclusion Characterization of ERPs related to semantic priming and episodic retrieval provides important information regarding the mechanisms of short-term false memory. In contrast, most studies examining false memory in standard long-delay DRM paradigms identify ERP effects related only to retrieval monitoring. These findings highlight the neural processing involved in illusions of memory after very brief delays and highlight the role of semantic processing in short-term false memory.

  13. Parent Involvement in the Getting Ready for School Intervention Is Associated With Changes in School Readiness Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of parent involvement in school readiness interventions is not well-understood. The Getting Ready for School (GRS intervention is a novel program that has both home and school components and aims to improve early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills in preschool children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families. In this study, we first examined associations between family characteristics and different indices of parent involvement in the GRS intervention. We then examined associations between parent involvement and change in children's school readiness skills over time. Participants were 133 preschool children attending Head Start and their parents who participated in the GRS intervention during the academic year 2014–2015. Parent involvement was operationalized as attendance to GRS events at the school, time spent at home doing GRS activities, and usage of digital program materials, which included a set of videos to support the implementation of parent-child activities at home. Although few family characteristics were significantly associated with parent involvement indices, there was a tendency for some markers of higher socioeconomic status to be linked with greater parent involvement. In addition, greater parent involvement in the GRS intervention was significantly associated with greater gains in children's early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills. These findings suggest that parent involvement in comprehensive early interventions could be beneficial in terms of improving school readiness for preschoolers from disadvantaged families.

  14. Parent Involvement in the Getting Ready for School Intervention Is Associated With Changes in School Readiness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Maria; Merz, Emily C.; Repka, Kelsey R.; Landers, Cassie; Noble, Kimberly G.; Duch, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The role of parent involvement in school readiness interventions is not well-understood. The Getting Ready for School (GRS) intervention is a novel program that has both home and school components and aims to improve early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills in preschool children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families. In this study, we first examined associations between family characteristics and different indices of parent involvement in the GRS intervention. We then examined associations between parent involvement and change in children's school readiness skills over time. Participants were 133 preschool children attending Head Start and their parents who participated in the GRS intervention during the academic year 2014–2015. Parent involvement was operationalized as attendance to GRS events at the school, time spent at home doing GRS activities, and usage of digital program materials, which included a set of videos to support the implementation of parent-child activities at home. Although few family characteristics were significantly associated with parent involvement indices, there was a tendency for some markers of higher socioeconomic status to be linked with greater parent involvement. In addition, greater parent involvement in the GRS intervention was significantly associated with greater gains in children's early literacy, math, and self-regulatory skills. These findings suggest that parent involvement in comprehensive early interventions could be beneficial in terms of improving school readiness for preschoolers from disadvantaged families. PMID:29904362

  15. Estimation of large early release frequency for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Thangamani, I.; Shrivastava, A.; Vinod, Gopika; Verma, Vishnu; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) examines severe accidents through a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches, in order to determine the release of radionuclides from containment, including the physical processes that are involved in the loss of structural integrity of the reactor core. The probabilistic part focuses on the reliability evaluation of containment systems and the deterministic part focuses on the analysis of the physical processes of an accident (timing and magnitude of radioactivity release), and the response of the containment. The important tasks involved are: (i) grouping and categorization of accident sequences into plant damage states (PDSs) (ii) development of a containment event trees (CETs) (iii) development of CET top event definitions and quantification of failure probabilities, and (iv) assigning the release categories and estimation of large early release frequency (LERF). LERF is defined as the frequency of those accidents leading to rapid, unmitigated release of airborne fission products from the containment to the environment occurring before the effective implementation of offsite emergency response and protective actions such that there is the potential for early health effects. Such accidents generally include unscrubbed releases associated with early containment failure shortly after vessel breach, containment bypass events, and loss of containment isolation. Preliminary assessment of LERF, based on release categorization from qualitative expert judgement, has been carried out and the estimated LERF is found to be 1e-13/yr. The dominant contributors are: (a) LB LOCA with the failure of prompt shutdown coupled with containment isolation failure, (b) containment bypass event from main steam line break outside containment coupled with failure of main steam isolation valves, and (c) LB LOCA with complete failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and loss of moderator cooling

  16. Early and delayed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in SLE patients with CNS involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Kaoru; Toyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masao

    2000-01-01

    We compared early and delayed Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans in 32 SLE patients (Group 1, definite neuropsychiatric disorders; Group 2, minor neurologic symptoms or normal) with those of normal controls by visual inspection and semi-quantitative evaluation. With visual interpretation, 13 out of 14 patients in Group 1 (93%) and 7 out of 18 patients in Group 2 (39%) had diffuse uneven decrease in early scans. Seven patients in Group 2 (39%) who had normal early scans demonstrated focal decrease in the medial frontal lobe in delayed scans. With cerebral region to cerebellar ratios, in early scans, the medial frontal lobe in Group 1 and Group 2 was significantly lower than in normal controls, and lateral frontal lobe and occipital lobes in Group 1 were significantly lower than in normal controls. Nevertheless, in delayed scans, every cortical region except for the parietal lode in Groups 1 and 2 was significantly lower than in normal controls. The retention rates in all regions in SLE patients were significantly lower than in normal controls. No case showed SPECT improvement on follow-up studies in either group in spite of clinical improvement. Delayed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT of high sensitivity might be useful in detecting CNS involvement. Although the SPECT findings did not correlate with the neuropsychiatric symptoms, early and delayed Tc-99m ECD SPECT seems to provide useful objective diagnostic information in SLE patients. (author)

  17. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-01

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants

  18. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-15

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants.

  19. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Rynditch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50% in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  20. The impact of being involved in a medical adverse event on GP's (General Physicians) professional behavior in an ambulatory healthcare fund

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manor, Orly

    2017-01-01

    Assurance behavior: performing unnecessary tests so as to deter patients from filing complaints or medical malpractice suits Avoidance behavior: choosing to behave in a way that prevents recurrence of an unpleasant stimulus This thesis examines the impact of involvement in a medical adverse event on

  1. An EAS event observed in the early stage of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, S. L. C.; Beggio, P. C.; de Carvalho, A. O.; Chinellato, J. A.; Mariano, A.; de Oliveira, R.; Shibuya, E. H.; Brazil-Japan Collaboration of Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber Experiment

    2008-01-01

    Since 1969 the experiments of Brazil-Japan Collaboration showed the occurrence of a series of events, showing a region with a high concentration of electromagnetic particles, surrounded by isolated and/or groups of showers. These events were named "halo events" or "super-families". Currently, we have more than a dozen of such events. The first of them, due to its aspect, was named "Andromeda". We present here the main characteristics of a similar halo event, named C21S087I075. It has a halo region with many high energy showers in its border. Other small energy showers spread over the central and surrounding blocks (S088, S100, S101, I074). These isolated showers, classified as of hadronic or electromagnetic origin, present a fractional energy distribution compatible with that of a Centauro candidate event (C16S087I037), reported at this symposium [S.L.C. Barroso, P.C. Beggio, J.A. Chinellato, A.O. Carvalho, A. Mariano, R. Oliveira, E.H. Shibuya, in this issue of XIV ISVHECRI]. Moreover, the lateral distribution in the halo region is similar to that observed in other 3 halo events.

  2. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  3. Excessive Heat Events and National Security: Building Resilience based on Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintzileos, A.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive heat events (EHE) affect security of Nations in multiple direct and indirect ways. EHE are the top cause for morbidity/mortality associated to any atmospheric extremes. Higher energy consumption used for cooling can lead to black-outs and social disorder. EHE affect the food supply chain reducing crop yield and increasing the probability of food contamination during delivery and storage. Distribution of goods during EHE can be severely disrupted due to mechanical failure of transportation equipment. EHE during athletic events e.g., marathons, may result to a high number of casualties. Finally, EHE may also affect military planning by e.g. reducing hours of exercise and by altering combat gear. Early warning systems for EHE allow for building resilience. In this paper we first define EHE as at least two consecutive heat days; a heat day is defined as a day with a maximum heat index with probability of occurrence that exceeds a certain threshold. We then use retrospective forecasts performed with a multitude of operational models and show that it is feasible to forecast EHE at forecast lead of week-2 and week-3 over the contiguous United States. We finally introduce an improved definition of EHE based on an intensity index and investigate forecast skill of the predictive system in the tropics and subtropics.

  4. Constraints on early events in Martian history as derived from the cratering record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    The shapes and densities of crater size-frequency distribution curves are used to constrain two major events early in Martian history: termination of high obliteration rates and viability of the multiple impact origin of the crustal dichotomy. Distribution curves of fresh craters superposed on uplands, intercrater plains, and ridged plains display shapes and densities indicative of formation prior to the end of heavy bombardment. This observation correlates with other geologic evidence, suggesting a major change in the erosional regime following the last major basin size impact (i.e., Argrye). In addition, the multisloped nature of the curves supports the idea that the downturn in the crater size-frequency distribution curves reflects the size-frequency distribution of the impactors rather than being the result of erosion. The crustal dichotomy formed prior to the heavy bombardment intermediate epoch based on distribution curves of knobby terrain; if the dichotomy resulted from a single gigantic impact, this observation places constraints on when this event happened. An alternate theory for dichotomy formation, the multiple-impact basin idea, is questioned: since distribution curves of large basins as well as heavy bombardment era units are not represented by a -3 differential power law function, this study finds fewer basins missing on Mars compare to the Moon and Mercury than previously reported. The area covered by these missing basins is less than that covered the northern plains

  5. Modeling long recovery early events (LOREs) produced by lightning-induced ionization of the nighttime upper mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic, and photochemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of subionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O- detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 ms) of some early VLF events. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 s) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 s) VLF scattering events can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization events (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.

  6. Transfer of maternal immunity to piglets is involved in early protection against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hagedorn-Olsen, Tine; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae causes arthritis in pigs older than 12 weeks. The role of colostrum in protection of piglets against M. hyosynoviae infection is not clear. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether transfer of maternal immunity to piglets was involved in early protection against...... immune response that complements the maternally transferred immune factors. Evident from this study is that the general absence of M. hyosynoviae arthritis in piglets can be ascribed mainly to their immunological status....

  7. Early events of secretory granule formation in the rat parotid acinar cell under the influence of isoproterenol. An ultrastructural and lectin cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F D’Amico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.

  8. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Cao, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. PMID:26265791

  9. The impact of lymph vascular space invasion on recurrence and survival in patients with early stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzi, V; Cormio, G; Lorusso, M; Latorre, D; Falagario, M; Demitri, P; Scardigno, D; Selvaggi, L E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine impact of lymph vascular space involvement (LVSI) on recurrence and survival in early stage of endometrial cancer. From 1991 through 2010, all endometrial cancer patients at University Hospital of Bari, Italy were identified. The Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meyer methods were used for time-to-event analysis to evaluate the effects of on lymph vascular space involvement recurrence rate and survival time. Of the 560 endometrial cancer patients, 525 underwent primary surgery. Of those, 399 had early stage disease. Three hundred and forty women were not found to have LVSI, whereas 59 were found to have lymph vascular space involvement. Forty-nine (12%) patients developed a recurrence and 20 of them showed lymph vascular space involvement. The statistical analysis demonstrated that LVSI was strongly associated with a poor survival (P < 0.0001). Lymph vascular space involvement is associated with a high risk of recurrence and poor overall survival in early stage of endometrial cancer; therefore, the clinical decision to decide whether or not a patient with early stage endometrial cancer should receive adjuvant therapy should be included the evaluation of lymph vascular space involvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prospects of a cross section ratio measurement of W and Z events as a function of the jet multiplicity with early ATLAS data

    CERN Document Server

    Sandhoff, Marisa

    The production of W and Z bosons in association with jets plays an important role at the ATLAS experiment at the "Large Hadron Collider (LHC)" situated at the "European Organization for Nuclear Research" CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The work presented in this thesis prepared the measurement of the cross section ratio of W and Z events as a function of the jet multiplicity. This cross section ratio is needed to improve the W+jets normalization for top quark analyses and to test Monte Carlo generator and QCD predictions. It focused on a measurement using early ATLAS data. The idea of this analysis is to use the compatible event structures of W+jets and Z+jets events to estimate W+jets events from the easy selectable Z+jets event. Hence, first the event structures of W and Z events were compared proving that the event structures are very similar. Then a measurement of the cross section ratio was prepared. The consequences of systematic uncertainties on the measurement were also tested. In a final step the W+jets ...

  11. Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored.

  12. Early and extensive spinal white matter involvement in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Shotaro; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Yonekawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hiwatashi, Akio; Matsushita, Takuya; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Yamasaki, Ryo; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Iwaki, Toru; Murai, Hiroyuki; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    protein loss may emerge. Spinal white matter involvement may also appear in early NMO, similar to cerebral white matter lesions. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  13. Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Smith, Todd D; Woldu, Henok; Dyal, Mari-Amanda; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2017-07-01

    Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs. Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days. Regression modeling was used to examine predictors of personal protective equipment use, engineering controls, and adverse events involving antineoplastic drugs. Approximately 14% of nurses reported experiencing an adverse event while administering antineoplastic drugs during the previous week. Usage of recommended engineering controls and personal protective equipment was quite variable. Usage of both was better in non-profit and government settings, when workers were more familiar with safe handling guidelines, and when perceived management commitment to safety was higher. Usage was poorer in the absence of specific safety handling procedures. The odds of adverse events increased with number of antineoplastic drugs treatments and when antineoplastic drugs were administered more days of the week. The odds of such events were significantly lower when the use of engineering controls and personal protective equipment was greater and when more precautionary measures were in place. Greater levels of management commitment to safety and perceived risk were also related to lower odds of adverse events. These results point to the value of implementing a comprehensive health and safety program that utilizes available hazard controls and effectively communicates

  14. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  15. High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary events determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven

    1988-01-01

    A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and early Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the early Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure events across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T event, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic events in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction event, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.

  16. Sprites and Early ionospheric VLF perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Amvrosiadi, Nino; Cotts, Ben; van der Velde, Oscar; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ~ 50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple transmitter-receiver VLF links with great circle paths (GCPs) passing near a sprite-producing thunderstorm were available. In this setup, the multiple links act in a complementary way that makes the detection of early VLF perturbations much more probable compared to a single VLF link that can miss several of them, a fact that was overlooked in past studies. The evidence shows that sprites are accompanied by early VLF perturbations in a one-to-one correspondence. This implies that the sprite generation mechanism may cause also sub-ionospheric conductivity disturbances that produce early VLF events. However, the one-to-one "sprite to early" event relationship, if viewed conversely as "early to sprite", appears not to be always reciprocal. This is because the number of early events detected in some cases was considerably larger than the number of sprites. Since the great majority of the early events not accompanied by sprites was caused by positive cloud to ground (+CG) lightning discharges, it is possible that sprites or sprite halos were concurrently present in these events as well but were missed by the sprite-watch detection system. In order for this option to be resolved we need more studies using highly sensitive optical systems capable of detecting weaker sprites, sprite halos and elves.

  17. Viral FGARAT ORF75A promotes early events in lytic infection and gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Chad H.; Oldenburg, Darby G.; Kara, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses encode proteins with homology to the cellular purine metabolic enzyme formyl-glycinamide-phosphoribosyl-amidotransferase (FGARAT), but the role of these viral FGARATs (vFGARATs) in the pathogenesis of a natural host has not been investigated. We report a novel role for the ORF75A vFGARAT of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) in infectious virion production and colonization of mice. MHV68 mutants with premature stop codons in orf75A exhibited a log reduction in acute replication in the lungs after intranasal infection, which preceded a defect in colonization of multiple host reservoirs including the mediastinal lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the spleen. Intraperitoneal infection rescued splenic latency, but not reactivation. The 75A.stop virus also exhibited defective replication in primary fibroblast and macrophage cells. Viruses produced in the absence of ORF75A were characterized by an increase in the ratio of particles to PFU. In the next round of infection this led to the alteration of early events in lytic replication including the deposition of the ORF75C tegument protein, the accelerated kinetics of viral gene expression, and induction of TNFα release and cell death. Infecting cells to deliver equivalent genomes revealed that ORF75A was required for initiating early events in infection. In contrast with the numerous phenotypes observed in the absence of ORF75A, ORF75B was dispensable for replication and pathogenesis. These studies reveal that murine rhadinovirus vFGARAT family members ORF75A and ORF75C have evolved to perform divergent functions that promote replication and colonization of the host. PMID:29390024

  18. Event-by-event gluon multiplicity, energy density, and eccentricities in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-09-01

    The event-by-event multiplicity distribution, the energy densities and energy density weighted eccentricity moments ɛn (up to n=6) at early times in heavy-ion collisions at both the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (s=200GeV) and the CERN Large Hardron Collider (LHC) (s=2.76TeV) are computed in the IP-Glasma model. This framework combines the impact parameter dependent saturation model (IP-Sat) for nucleon parton distributions (constrained by HERA deeply inelastic scattering data) with an event-by-event classical Yang-Mills description of early-time gluon fields in heavy-ion collisions. The model produces multiplicity distributions that are convolutions of negative binomial distributions without further assumptions or parameters. In the limit of large dense systems, the n-particle gluon distribution predicted by the Glasma-flux tube model is demonstrated to be nonperturbatively robust. In the general case, the effect of additional geometrical fluctuations is quantified. The eccentricity moments are compared to the MC-KLN model; a noteworthy feature is that fluctuation dominated odd moments are consistently larger than in the MC-KLN model.

  19. Seismology-based early identification of dam-formation landquake events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-An; Zhao, Li; Chen, Su-Chin; Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-12

    Flooding resulting from the bursting of dams formed by landquake events such as rock avalanches, landslides and debris flows can lead to serious bank erosion and inundation of populated areas near rivers. Seismic waves can be generated by landquake events which can be described as time-dependent forces (unloading/reloading cycles) acting on the Earth. In this study, we conduct inversions of long-period (LP, period ≥20 s) waveforms for the landquake force histories (LFHs) of ten events, which provide quantitative characterization of the initiation, propagation and termination stages of the slope failures. When the results obtained from LP waveforms are analyzed together with high-frequency (HF, 1-3 Hz) seismic signals, we find a relatively strong late-arriving seismic phase (dubbed Dam-forming phase or D-phase) recorded clearly in the HF waveforms at the closest stations, which potentially marks the time when the collapsed masses sliding into river and perhaps even impacting the topographic barrier on the opposite bank. Consequently, our approach to analyzing the LP and HF waveforms developed in this study has a high potential for identifying five dam-forming landquake events (DFLEs) in near real-time using broadband seismic records, which can provide timely warnings of the impending floods to downstream residents.

  20. The influence of deficient retro-aortic rim on technical success and early adverse events following device closure of secundum atrial septal defects: An Analysis of the IMPACT Registry®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Gillespie, Matthew J; Kennedy, Kevin F; Dori, Yoav; Rome, Jonathan J; Glatz, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Concern regarding aortic erosion has focused attention on the retro-aortic rim in patients undergoing device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD), but its effect on early outcomes is not well studied. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing device occlusion of ASD between 1/2011-10/2014 was performed, using data from the IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment Registry. Subjects were divided between those with retro-aortic rim technical failure and major early adverse events. Case times were measured as surrogates of technical complexity. The effect of deficient retro-aortic rim on primary outcomes was assessed using hierarchical logistic regression, adjusting for other suspected covariates and assessing whether they represent independent risk factors RESULTS: 1,564 subjects (from 77 centers) were included, with deficient retro-aortic rim present in 40%. Technical failure occurred in 91 subjects (5.8%) and a major early adverse event in 64 subjects (4.1%). Adjusting for known covariates, the presence of a deficient retro-aortic rim was not significantly associated with technical failure (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1) or major early adverse event (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-1. 2). Total case (P = 0.01) and fluoroscopy time (P = 0.02) were greater in subjects with deficient rim, but sheath time was not significantly different (P = 0.07). Additional covariates independently associated with these outcomes were identified. Deficient retro-aortic rim was highly prevalent but not associated with increased risk of technical failure or early adverse events. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess other outcomes, including device erosion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  2. Characterization of early autophagy signaling by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer Tg; Zarei, Mostafa; Sprenger, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    . To elucidate the regulation of early signaling events upon autophagy induction, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics characterizing the temporal phosphorylation dynamics after starvation and rapamycin treatment. We obtained a comprehensive atlas of phosphorylation kinetics within the first 30 min upon...... revealing regulated phosphorylation sites on proteins involved in a wide range of cellular processes and an impact of the treatments on the kinome. To approach the potential function of the identified phosphorylation sites we performed a screen for MAP1LC3-interacting proteins and identified a group...... induction of autophagy with both treatments affecting widely different cellular processes. The identification of dynamic phosphorylation already after 2 min demonstrates that the earliest events in autophagy signaling occur rapidly after induction. The data was subjected to extensive bioinformatics analysis...

  3. The association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity and early recurrence of ischemic events after minor stroke or TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zilong; Zheng, Huaguang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Anxin; Liu, Liping; Dong, Kehui; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yilong; Cao, Yibin

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the role of HTPR in predicting early recurrence of ischemic events in patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. From January 2014 to September 2014, a single center continuously enrolled patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA and gave them antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin with clopidogrel. HTPR was assessed by TEG after 7 days of antiplatelet therapy and detected CYP2C19 genotype. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was assessed 3 months after onset. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was compared between the HTPR and NTPR groups with the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk factors associated with recurrent ischemic events. We enrolled 278 eligible patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. Through TEG testing, patients with HTPR were 22.7%, and carriers were not associated with HTPR to ADP by TEG-ADP(%) (p = 0.193). A total of 265 patients completed 3 months of follow-up, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with HTPR had a higher percentage of recurrent ischemic events compared with patients with NTPR (p = 0.002). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, history of ischemic stroke or TIA (HR 4.45, 95% CI 1.77-11.16, p = 0.001) and HTPR (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.41-7.91, p = 0.006) was independently associated with recurrent ischemic events. In patients with minor stroke or TIA, the prevalence of HTPR was 22.7%, and HTPR was independently associated with recurrent ischemic events.

  4. The incidence of parametrial tumor involvement in select patients with early cervix cancer is too low to justify parametrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, M.; Louwen, M.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; den Bakker, M. A.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of parametrial involvement in a select group of patients with early cervical cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with cervical cancer and a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm, infiltration depth <10 mm and negative pelvic lymph nodes

  5. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients

  6. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Søren M., E-mail: bentzen@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  7. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  8. Assessing the risk of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in apparent early-stage ovarian cancer: A predictors- and nomogram-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Elena; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Casarin, Jvan; Chiappa, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Scaffa, Cono; Borghi, Chiara; Montanelli, Luca; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lymph node involvement in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer in order to assess the prognostic value of lymph node dissection. Data of consecutive patients undergoing staging for early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Logistic regression and a nomogram-based analysis were used to assess the risk of lymph node involvement. Overall, 290 patients were included. All patients had lymph node dissection including pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Forty-two (14.5%) patients were upstaged due to lymph node metastatic disease. Pelvic and para-aortic nodal metastases were observed in 22 (7.6%) and 42 (14.5%) patients. Lymph node involvement was observed in 18/95 (18.9%), 1/37 (2.7%), 4/29 (13.8%), 11/63 (17.4%), 3/41 (7.3%) and 5/24 (20.8%) patients with high-grade serous, low-grade-serous, endometrioid G1, endometrioid G2&3, clear cell and undifferentiated, histology, respectively (p=0.12, Chi-square test). We observed that high-grade serous histology was associated with an increased risk of pelvic node involvement; while, histology rather than low-grade serous and bilateral tumors were independently associated with para-aortic lymph node involvement (p<0.05). Nomograms displaying the risk of nodal involvement in the pelvic and para-aortic areas were built. High-grade serous histology and bilateral tumors are the main characteristics suggesting lymph node positivity. Our data suggested that high-grade serous and bilateral early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer are at high risk of having disease harboring in the lymphatic tissues of both pelvic and para-aortic area. After receiving external validation, our data will help to identify patients deserving comprehensive retroperitoneal staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  10. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species

  11. Differences between early and late involvement of palliative home care in oncology care: A focus group study with palliative home care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, Naomi; Deliens, Luc; Van Belle, Simon; De Vleminck, Aline; Pardon, Koen

    2018-05-01

    To date, no randomised controlled trials on the integration of specialised palliative home care into oncology care have been identified. Information on whether existing models of integrated care are applicable to the home care system and how working procedures and skills of the palliative care teams might require adaptation is missing. To gain insight into differences between early and late involvement and the effect on existing working procedures and skills as perceived by palliative home care teams. Qualitative study - focus group interviews. Six palliative home care teams in Flanders, Belgium. Participants included physicians, nurses and psychologists. Differences were found concerning (1) reasons for initiation, (2) planning of care process, (3) focus on future goals versus problems, (4) opportunity to provide holistic care, (5) empowerment of patients and (6) empowerment of professional caregivers. A shift from a medical approach to a more holistic approach is the most noticeable. Being involved earlier also results in a more structured follow-up and in empowering the patient to be part of the decision-making process. Early involvement creates the need for transmural collaboration, which leads to the teams taking on more supporting and coordinating tasks. Being involved earlier leads to different tasks and working procedures and to the need for transmural collaboration. Future research might focus on the development of an intervention model for the early integration of palliative home care into oncology care. To develop this model, components of existing models might need to be adapted or extended.

  12. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  13. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO 2 and U 3 O 7 . The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated

  14. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-04-26

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated.

  15. Identification of early zygotic genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and discovery of a motif involved in early zygotic genome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedler, James K; Hu, Wanqi; Tae, Hongseok; Tu, Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    During early embryogenesis the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and all mRNAs present are of maternal origin. The maternal-zygotic transition marks the time over which embryogenesis changes its dependence from maternal RNAs to zygotically transcribed RNAs. Here we present the first systematic investigation of early zygotic genes (EZGs) in a mosquito species and focus on genes involved in the onset of transcription during 2-4 hr. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the "pure" (without maternal expression) EZGs by analyzing transcripts from four embryonic time ranges of 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 hr, which includes the time of cellular blastoderm formation and up to the start of gastrulation. Blast of 16,789 annotated transcripts vs. the transcriptome reads revealed evidence for 63 (P<0.001) and 143 (P<0.05) nonmaternally derived transcripts having a significant increase in expression at 2-4 hr. One third of the 63 EZG transcripts do not have predicted introns compared to 10% of all Ae. aegypti genes. We have confirmed by RT-PCR that zygotic transcription starts as early as 2-3 hours. A degenerate motif VBRGGTA was found to be overrepresented in the upstream sequences of the identified EZGs using a motif identification software called SCOPE. We find evidence for homology between this motif and the TAGteam motif found in Drosophila that has been implicated in EZG activation. A 38 bp sequence in the proximal upstream sequence of a kinesin light chain EZG (KLC2.1) contains two copies of the mosquito motif. This sequence was shown to support EZG transcription by luciferase reporter assays performed on injected early embryos, and confers early zygotic activity to a heterologous promoter from a divergent mosquito species. The results of these studies are consistent with the model of early zygotic genome activation via transcriptional activators, similar to what has been found recently in Drosophila.

  16. Identification of early zygotic genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and discovery of a motif involved in early zygotic genome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Biedler

    Full Text Available During early embryogenesis the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and all mRNAs present are of maternal origin. The maternal-zygotic transition marks the time over which embryogenesis changes its dependence from maternal RNAs to zygotically transcribed RNAs. Here we present the first systematic investigation of early zygotic genes (EZGs in a mosquito species and focus on genes involved in the onset of transcription during 2-4 hr. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the "pure" (without maternal expression EZGs by analyzing transcripts from four embryonic time ranges of 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 hr, which includes the time of cellular blastoderm formation and up to the start of gastrulation. Blast of 16,789 annotated transcripts vs. the transcriptome reads revealed evidence for 63 (P<0.001 and 143 (P<0.05 nonmaternally derived transcripts having a significant increase in expression at 2-4 hr. One third of the 63 EZG transcripts do not have predicted introns compared to 10% of all Ae. aegypti genes. We have confirmed by RT-PCR that zygotic transcription starts as early as 2-3 hours. A degenerate motif VBRGGTA was found to be overrepresented in the upstream sequences of the identified EZGs using a motif identification software called SCOPE. We find evidence for homology between this motif and the TAGteam motif found in Drosophila that has been implicated in EZG activation. A 38 bp sequence in the proximal upstream sequence of a kinesin light chain EZG (KLC2.1 contains two copies of the mosquito motif. This sequence was shown to support EZG transcription by luciferase reporter assays performed on injected early embryos, and confers early zygotic activity to a heterologous promoter from a divergent mosquito species. The results of these studies are consistent with the model of early zygotic genome activation via transcriptional activators, similar to what has been found recently in Drosophila.

  17. The origins of cognitive vulnerability in early childhood: mechanisms linking early attachment to later depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Tara E; Moran, Greg

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines the theory and research linking attachment relationships to cognitive vulnerability to depression and assesses evidence that early attachment experiences contribute to the development of these cognitive processes. Most research in this area has involved adult participants using self-report measures of both attachment and depressive vulnerabilities and thus cannot convincingly speak to the existence of such a developmental pathway. Several studies, however, have followed individuals from infancy and examined the emergence of self-esteem and responses to failure throughout childhood and adolescence. These studies suggest that early experiences in non-secure attachment relationships place an individual at-risk for developing a cognitive framework that increases their vulnerability to depression following stressful life events. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research might best explore specific mechanisms through which distinct attachment relationships may lead to divergent developmental pathways sharing the common outcome of cognitive processes that place individuals at risk for depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  19. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  20. Centrality of event across cultures. Emotionally positive and negative events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... an emotional event into our life story and our identity. Key findings: 1) Positive events are rated as more central to identity than negative events; 2) The extent to which highly traumatic and negative events become central to a person’s life story and identity varies as a function of post-traumatic stress...

  1. Analyzing Parental Involvement Dimensions in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    The importance of parental involvement in children's academic and social development has been widely accepted. For children's later school success, the first years are crucial. Majority of the research focuses on enhancing and supporting parental involvement in educational settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze dimensions of parental…

  2. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  3. Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

  4. The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after early left hemispheric brain lesions: An event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Damien A; Choi, Alexander H; Dosenbach, Yannic B L; Coalson, Rebecca S; Miezin, Francis M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2010-08-01

    Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon is accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we used an event-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial-related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial-related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with event-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after early childhood brain injuries. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  6. TEMAC, Top Event Sensitivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Shortencarier, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TEMAC is designed to permit the user to easily estimate risk and to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analyses with a Boolean expression such as produced by the SETS computer program. SETS produces a mathematical representation of a fault tree used to model system unavailability. In the terminology of the TEMAC program, such a mathematical representation is referred to as a top event. The analysis of risk involves the estimation of the magnitude of risk, the sensitivity of risk estimates to base event probabilities and initiating event frequencies, and the quantification of the uncertainty in the risk estimates. 2 - Method of solution: Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses associated with top events involve mathematical operations on the corresponding Boolean expression for the top event, as well as repeated evaluations of the top event in a Monte Carlo fashion. TEMAC employs a general matrix approach which provides a convenient general form for Boolean expressions, is computationally efficient, and allows large problems to be analyzed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 4000 cut sets, 500 events, 500 values in a Monte Carlo sample, 16 characters in an event name. These restrictions are implemented through the FORTRAN 77 PARAMATER statement

  7. Reminiscence bump in memory for public events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.; Meeter, M.

    2008-01-01

    People tend to recall more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than from other lifetime periods. Most evidence suggests that differential encoding causes this reminiscence bump. However, the question why personal events are encoded better in those periods is still unanswered. To

  8. Using variable transformations to perform common event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Any analytical method for studying the effect of common events on the behavior of a system is considered as being a form of common event analysis. The particular common events that are involved often represent quite different phenomena, and this has led to the development of different kinds of common event analysis. For example, common mode failure analysis, common cause analysis, critical location analysis, etc., are all different kinds of common event analysis for which the common events involved represent different phenomena. However, the problem that must be solved for each of these different kinds of common event analysis is essentially the same: Determine the effect of common events on the behavior of a system. Thus, a technique that is useful in achieving one kind of common event analysis is often useful in achieving other kinds of common event analysis

  9. Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan G; Rohde, Paul; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Kennard, Betsy D; Reinecke, Mark A; Mayes, Taryn L; Posner, Kelly; May, Diane E; March, John S

    2009-04-21

    The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) database was analyzed to determine whether suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. TADS was a 36-week randomized, controlled clinical trial of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments involving 439 youths with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Suicidal events were defined according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicidal Assessment. Patients were randomly assigned into the study between spring 2000 and summer 2003. Forty-four patients (10.0%) had at least 1 suicidal event (no suicide occurred). Events occurred 0.4 to 31.1 weeks (mean +/- SD = 11.9 +/- 8.2) after starting TADS treatment, with no difference in event timing for patients receiving medication versus those not receiving medication. Severity of self-rated pretreatment suicidal ideation (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire adapted for adolescents score > or = 31) and depressive symptoms (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale score > or = 91) predicted occurrence of suicidal events during treatment (P depression and insufficient improvement without evidence of medication-induced behavioral activation as a precursor. Severity of self-rated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms predicted emergence of suicidality during treatment. Risk for suicidal events did not decrease after the first month of treatment, suggesting the need for careful clinical monitoring for several months after starting treatment. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Early spring, severe frost events, and drought induce rapid carbon loss in high elevation meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Arnold

    Full Text Available By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous "extreme" years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013. We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency.

  11. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  13. Accident sequence precursor events with age-related contributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.A.; Kohn, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program at ORNL analyzed about 14.000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) filed by US nuclear power plants 1987--1993. There were 193 events identified as precursors to potential severe core accident sequences. These are reported in G/CR-4674. Volumes 7 through 20. Under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, the authors evaluated these events to determine the extent to which component aging played a role. Events were selected that involved age-related equipment degradation that initiated an event or contributed to an event sequence. For the 7-year period, ORNL identified 36 events that involved aging degradation as a contributor to an ASP event. Except for 1992, the percentage of age-related events within the total number of ASP events over the 7-year period ({approximately}19%) appears fairly consistent up to 1991. No correlation between plant ape and number of precursor events was found. A summary list of the age-related events is presented in the report.

  14. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Willoughby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  15. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  16. Lipotoxicity Mediated Cell Dysfunction and Death Involves Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cathepsin L Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguel, Frankis G.; Liu, Jo-Wen; Pacheco, Fabio J.; De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino

    2010-01-01

    Lipotoxicity, which is triggered when cells are exposed to elevated levels of free fatty acids, involves cell dysfunction and apoptosis and is emerging as an underlying factor contributing to various pathological conditions including disorders of the central nervous system and diabetes. We have shown that palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity (PA-LTx) in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 (NGFDPC12) cells is linked to an augmented state of cellular oxidative stress (ASCOS) and apoptosis, and that these events are inhibited by docosahexanoic acid (DHA). The mechanisms of PA-LTx in nerve cells are not well understood, but our previous findings indicate that it involves ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), and caspase activation. The present study used nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells (NGFDPC12 cells) and found that lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is an early event during PA-induced lipotoxicity that precedes MMP and apoptosis. Cathepsin L, but not cathepsin B, is an important contributor in this process since its pharmacological inhibition significantly attenuated LMP, MMP, and apoptosis. In addition, co-treatment of NGFDPC12 cells undergoing lipotoxicity with DHA significantly reduced LMP, suggesting that DHA acts by antagonizing upstream signals leading to lysosomal dysfunction. These results suggest that LMP is a key early mediator of lipotoxicity, and underscore the value of interventions targeting upstream signals leading to LMP for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with lipotoxicity. PMID:20043885

  17. Early events associated with infection of Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Halder

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV is closely associated with the development of a vast number of human cancers. To develop a system for monitoring early cellular and viral events associated with EBV infection a self-recombining BAC containing 172-kb of the Epstein Barr virus genome BAC-EBV designated as MD1 BAC (Chen et al., 2005, J.Virology was used to introduce an expression cassette of green fluorescent protein (GFP by homologous recombination, and the resultant BAC clone, BAC-GFP-EBV was transfected into the HEK 293T epithelial cell line. The resulting recombinant GFP EBV was induced to produce progeny virus by chemical inducer from the stable HEK 293T BAC GFP EBV cell line and the virus was used to immortalize human primary B-cell as monitored by green fluorescence and outgrowth of the primary B cells. The infection, B-cell activation and cell proliferation due to GFP EBV was monitored by the expression of the B-cell surface antigens CD5, CD10, CD19, CD23, CD39, CD40 , CD44 and the intercellular proliferation marker Ki-67 using Flow cytometry. The results show a dramatic increase in Ki-67 which continues to increase by 6-7 days post-infection. Likewise, CD40 signals showed a gradual increase, whereas CD23 signals were increased by 6-12 hours, maximally by 3 days and then decreased. Monitoring the viral gene expression pattern showed an early burst of lytic gene expression. This up-regulation of lytic gene expression prior to latent genes during early infection strongly suggests that EBV infects primary B-cell with an initial burst of lytic gene expression and the resulting progeny virus is competent for infecting new primary B-cells. This process may be critical for establishment of latency prior to cellular transformation. The newly infected primary B-cells can be further analyzed for investigating B cell activation due to EBV infection.

  18. Transglutaminase (TG) involvement in early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccioni, R.B.; Arechaga, J.

    1986-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) has been examined in different stages of preimplantation mouse embryogenesis. The specific activity of this enzyme in the soluble cellular fraction increases 2-fold from 2-cell embryos to 8-cell morulae and 4-fold from 2-cell embryos to blastocyst. The same developmental profile was seen when either N,N-dimethylcasein or endogenous substrates were used in the TG assay. Using high-speed supernatants from different stage embryos as a source of enzyme and [ 3 H]putrescine as acyl acceptor, the major acyl donor components were tubulin and a high molecular weight (HMW) cross-linkage product, as assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. When either assembled or monomeric cytoskeleton proteins were compared as subtrates, microtubules were the best acyl donors. These studies indicate that TG activity is modulated during the changing demands of blastomeres for microtubule cytoskeleton in early embryogenesis

  19. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  20. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  1. Marketing research for organizers of sports events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. The marketing research process, for the sport event organizers of needs, involves several steps, such as: goal definition, choice of the research method, research instruments determination, interviewer education, information gathering, data processing, data report, conclusions.

  2. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  3. Episodic retrieval involves early and sustained effects of reactivating information from encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K

    2015-02-01

    Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Timing of the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic) from correlation of astronomically forced global stratigraphic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) in the Early Jurassic Period is associated with a major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), mass extinction, marine transgression and global warming. The Toarcian OAE is thought to have been caused by flood basalt magmatism, and may have been a trigger for mass extinction. However, these proposed causes of the Toarcian OAE and associated biotic crisis are not adequately resolved by a precise chronology. The duration of the Toarcian OAE has been estimated to be anywhere from ~0.12 to ~0.9 Myr, most recently 0.74 to 3.26 Myr from U-Pb dating. The CIE associated with the Toarcian OAE has a similar pattern at numerous localities, and there is evidence for astronomical forcing of marine carbon isotopes. Here we estimate a duration of ~625 kyr for the main negative CIE, ~860 kyr for the polymorphum zone and >1.58 Myr for the levisoni zone based on 405-kyr astronomical eccentricity tuning of the marine section at Peniche (Portugal). This 405-kyr tuned series provides a ~2.5 Myr continuous high-resolution chronology through the Early Toarcian. There are 6, or possibly 7 short eccentricity cycles in the main CIE interval at Peniche. To confirm this astronomically based estimate, we analyzed five other sections at Yorkshire (UK), Dotternhausen (Germany), Valdorbia (Italy), Mechowo (Poland) and Serrucho, Neuquén (Argentina), from marine and terrestrial carbon isotopic series. These six stratigraphic sections from Early Jurassic western Tethys and eastern Panthalassa record the Toarcian OAE with ~6 prominent carbon isotope cycles in the CIE that provide us a 600 ± 100 kyr duration. The Peniche 405 kyr-tuned series indicates that the pre- and post-CIE intervals experienced strong precession-eccentricity-forced climate change, whereas the CIE interval is marked by dominant obliquity forcing. These dramatic and abrupt changes in astronomical response in the carbon isotopes point to fundamental shifting in the Early Toarcian

  5. Involvement of two microRNAs in the early immune response to DNA vaccination against a fish rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-ong, Dennis Berbulla; Schyth, Brian Dall; Zou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms that account for the high protective efficacy in teleost fish of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (G) of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are thought to involve early innate immune responses mediated by interferons (IFNs). Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a diverse...... class of small (18–22 nucleotides) endogenous RNAs that potently mediate post-transcriptional silencing of a wide range of genes and are emerging as critical regulators of cellular processes, including immune responses. We have recently reported that miR-462 and miR-731 were strongly induced in rainbow......RNAs using anti-miRNA oligonucleotides was conducted in poly I:C-treated rainbow trout fingerlings. Following VHSV challenge, anti-miRNA-injected fish had faster development of disease and higher mortalities than control fish, indicating that miR-462/731 may be involved in IFN-mediated protection conferred...

  6. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  7. First experience of simultaneous PET/MRI for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nappi, Carmela; Altiero, Michele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Giudice, Caterina Anna; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Diomiaiuti, Claudio Tommaso [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); Pisani, Antonio [University Federico II, Department of Public Health, Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-26

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe multiorgan dysfunction and premature death. Early diagnosis and treatment strategies play a key role in patient outcome. We investigated the potential role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in the assessment of early cardiac involvement in AFD patients. Thirteen AFD patients without cardiac symptoms and with normal left ventricular function underwent simultaneous cardiac PET/MR imaging after administration of {sup 18}F-FDG. Cardiac FDG uptake was quantified by measuring the standardized uptake value in 17 myocardial segments in each subject. The coefficient of variation (COV, i.e. the standard deviation divided by the average) of the uptake of the 17 segments was calculated as an index of heterogeneity in the heart. Six patients exhibited focal late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) indicating intramyocardial fibrosis, and four of these also had positive short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. All patients with LGE and positive STIR MR images showed focal FDG uptake in the corresponding myocardial segments indicating inflammation. Of the seven patients with negative LGE and STIR images, five showed homogeneous FDG cardiac uptake and two showed heterogeneous FDG uptake. The COV was significantly greater in patients with focal FDG uptake (0.25 ± 0.02) than in those without (0.14 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). PET/MR imaging is clinically feasible for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with AFD. Further studies evaluating the role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in management of the disease in larger patient populations are warranted. (orig.)

  8. First experience of simultaneous PET/MRI for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nappi, Carmela; Altiero, Michele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Giudice, Caterina Anna; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Diomiaiuti, Claudio Tommaso; Pisani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe multiorgan dysfunction and premature death. Early diagnosis and treatment strategies play a key role in patient outcome. We investigated the potential role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in the assessment of early cardiac involvement in AFD patients. Thirteen AFD patients without cardiac symptoms and with normal left ventricular function underwent simultaneous cardiac PET/MR imaging after administration of 18 F-FDG. Cardiac FDG uptake was quantified by measuring the standardized uptake value in 17 myocardial segments in each subject. The coefficient of variation (COV, i.e. the standard deviation divided by the average) of the uptake of the 17 segments was calculated as an index of heterogeneity in the heart. Six patients exhibited focal late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) indicating intramyocardial fibrosis, and four of these also had positive short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. All patients with LGE and positive STIR MR images showed focal FDG uptake in the corresponding myocardial segments indicating inflammation. Of the seven patients with negative LGE and STIR images, five showed homogeneous FDG cardiac uptake and two showed heterogeneous FDG uptake. The COV was significantly greater in patients with focal FDG uptake (0.25 ± 0.02) than in those without (0.14 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). PET/MR imaging is clinically feasible for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with AFD. Further studies evaluating the role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in management of the disease in larger patient populations are warranted. (orig.)

  9. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. Setting The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Participants Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Main exposure Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers’ responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Outcome Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. Results 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers’ emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers’ involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers’ feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Conclusions Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct

  10. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-11-22

    To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers' emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers' involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, is associated with positive behavioural outcomes in children

  11. Ratios of involved nodes in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Royce, Melanie; Verschraegen, Claire; Promish, Donald I; Cserni, Gábor; Van de Steene, Jan; Tai, Patricia; Vlastos, Georges; Voordeckers, Mia; Storme, Guy

    2004-01-01

    The number of lymph nodes found to be involved in an axillary dissection is among the most powerful prognostic factors in breast cancer, but it is confounded by the number of lymph nodes that have been examined. We investigate an idea that has surfaced recently in the literature (since 1999), namely that the proportion of node-positive lymph nodes (or a function thereof) is a much better predictor of survival than the number of excised and node-positive lymph nodes, alone or together. The data were abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic T1–T2 primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997, in whom axillary node dissection was performed. The end-point was death from breast cancer. Cox models based on different expressions of nodal involvement were compared using the Nagelkerke R 2 index (R 2 N ). Ratios were modeled as percentage and as log odds of involved nodes. Log odds were estimated in a way that avoids singularities (zero values) by using the empirical logistic transform. In node-negative cases both the number of nodes excised and the log odds were significant, with hazard ratios of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.986–0.997) and 1.150 (1.058–1.249), respectively, but without improving R 2 N . In node-positive cases the hazard ratios were 1.003–1.088 for the number of involved nodes, 0.966–1.005 for the number of excised nodes, 1.015–1.017 for the percentage, and 1.344–1.381 for the log odds. R 2 N improved from 0.067 (no nodal covariate) to 0.102 (models based on counts only) and to 0.108 (models based on ratios). Ratios are simple optimal predictors, in that they provide at least the same prognostic value as the more traditional staging based on counting of involved nodes, without replacing them with a needlessly complicated alternative. They can be viewed as a per patient standardization in which the number of involved nodes is standardized

  12. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal

  13. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  14. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  15. Patient involvement in own rehabilitation after early discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Boolsen, Merete Watt

    2017-01-01

    _en.pdf). Recent research suggests that patient involvement after hip replacement is a very effective strategy in older adults with regard to improving walking ability and reducing pain and thereby lessening loss of physical, mental and social aspects of the quality of life. The growing number of older adults all...... hospital and home. Population: Empirical data were collected by carrying out three randomised clinical trials (RCT) focusing on self-rated health and involvement of patients undergoing total hip replacement in three Danish orthopaedic clinics. Based on power calculation, 260 patients (mean age 67.5 years...

  16. Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events on crop yield: a case study in Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Zhao; Meng, Yongchang; Luan, Yibo; Wang, Jiwei

    2017-09-01

    Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events on crop yield is of paramount importance to climate change adaptation, resilience, and mitigation. Previous studies lack systematic and explicit assessment of these three fundamental aspects of climate change on crop yield. This research attempts to separate out the impacts on rice yields of climatic trend (linear trend change related to mean value), fluctuations (variability surpassing the "fluctuation threshold" which defined as one standard deviation (1 SD) of the residual between the original data series and the linear trend value for each climatic variable), and extreme events (identified by absolute criterion for each kind of extreme events related to crop yield). The main idea of the research method was to construct climate scenarios combined with crop system simulation model. Comparable climate scenarios were designed to express the impact of each climate change component and, were input to the crop system model (CERES-Rice), which calculated the related simulated yield gap to quantify the percentage impacts of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events. Six Agro-Meteorological Stations (AMS) in Hunan province were selected to study the quantitatively impact of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events involving climatic variables (air temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) on early rice yield during 1981-2012. The results showed that extreme events were found to have the greatest impact on early rice yield (-2.59 to -15.89%). Followed by climatic fluctuations with a range of -2.60 to -4.46%, and then the climatic trend (4.91-2.12%). Furthermore, the influence of climatic trend on early rice yield presented "trade-offs" among various climate variables and AMS. Climatic trend and extreme events associated with air temperature showed larger effects on early rice yield than other climatic variables, particularly for high-temperature events (-2.11 to -12

  17. The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children's academicperformance : a panelstudy of primary school pupils in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Kloosterman, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on

  18. Event Boundaries in Memory and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2017-10-01

    Research on event cognition is rapidly developing and is revealing fundamental aspects of human cognition. In this paper, we review recent and current work that is driving this field forward. We first outline the Event Horizon Model, which broadly describes the impact of event boundaries on cognition and memory. Then, we address recent work on event segmentation, the role of event cognition in working memory and long-term memory, including event model updating, and long term retention. Throughout we also consider how event cognition varies across individuals and groups of people and consider the neural mechanisms involved.

  19. Different frontal involvement in ALS and PLS revealed by Stroop event-related potentials and reaction times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninfa eAmato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests a link between cognitive and pathological changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and in frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD. Cognitive deficits have been investigated much less extensively in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS than in ALS. OBJECTIVE: to investigate bioelectrical activity to Stroop test, assessing frontal function, in ALS, PLS and control groups. METHODS: 32 non-demented ALS patients, 10 non-demented PLS patients and 27 healthy subjects were included. Twenty-nine electroencephalography (EEG channels with binaural reference were recorded during covert Stroop task performance, involving mental discrimination of the stimuli and not vocal or motor response. Group effects on event related potentials (ERPs latency were analyzed using statistical multivariate analysis. Topographic analysis was performed using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA. RESULTS: ALS patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs. The main ERP components were delayed in ALS, but not in PLS, compared with controls. Moreover, RTs speed but not ERP latency correlated with clinical scores. ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3 and N4 time windows compared to controls. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS. The former is increasingly recognized to be a multisystems disorder, with a spectrum of executive and behavioural impairments reflecting frontotemporal dysfunction. The latter seems to mainly involve the motor system, with largely spared cognitive functions. Moreover, our results suggest that the covert version of the Stroop task used in the present study, may be useful to assess cognitive state in the very advanced stage of the disease, when other cognitive tasks are not

  20. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  1. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Deep-Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers February 2013/Vol. 72, pp 1-8 Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa? H.M. van Akena,*, J.R.E.... Lutjeharms b, M. Rouault b,c, C. Whittle d,b, W.P.M. de Ruijter e aNIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, PO Box 59, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands bDepartment of Oceanography, Mare Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South...

  2. The influence of negative life events on hippocampal and amygdala volumes in old age: a life-course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, L; Kalpouzos, G; Westman, E; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L O; Bäckman, L; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H X

    2015-04-01

    Psychosocial stress has been related to changes in the nervous system, with both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of negative events experienced throughout the entire lifespan and hippocampal and amygdala volumes in older adults. In 466 non-demented old adults (age range 60-96 years, 58% female), hippocampal and amygdala volumes were segmented using Freesurfer. Negative life events and the age at which these events occurred were assessed by means of a structured questionnaire. Using generalized linear models, hippocampal and amygdala volumes were estimated with life events as independent variables. The statistical analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and cognitive functioning. Total number of negative life events and of late-life events, but not of early-life, early-adulthood, or middle-adulthood events, was related to larger amygdala volume. There were interactions of early-life events with age and gender. Participants who reported two or more early-life events had significantly smaller amygdala and hippocampal volumes with increasing age. Furthermore, smaller hippocampal volume was found in men who reported two or more early-life events, but not in women. These results suggest that the effect of negative life events on the brain depends on the time when the events occurred, with the strongest effects observed during the critical time periods of early and late life.

  3. Archaeal remains dominate marine organic matter from the early Albian oceanic anoxic event 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, M.M.M.; Blokker, P.; Hopmans, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    The sources for both soluble and insoluble organic matter of the early Albian (∼112 Myr) oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b black shales of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 1049C (North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida) and the Ravel section of the Southeast France Basin (SEFB) were...... in C/C ratios was used to estimate that up to ∼40% of the organic matter of the SEFB and up to ∼80% of the organic matter of ODP site 1049C preserved in the black shales is derived from archaea. Furthermore, it is shown that, even though there are apparent similarities (high organic carbon (OC) content......, distinct lamination, C-enrichment of OC) between the black shales of OAE1b and the Cenomanian/Turonian (∼94 Myr) OAE, the origin of the organic matter (archaeal versus phytoplanktonic) and causes for C-enrichment of OC are completely different....

  4. Discrete event simulation for petroleum transfers involving harbors, refineries and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcella S.R.; Lueders, Ricardo; Delgado, Myriam R.B.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays a great effort has been spent by companies to improve their logistics in terms of programming of events that affect production and distribution of products. In this case, simulation can be a valuable tool for evaluating different behaviors. The objective of this work is to build a discrete event simulation model for scheduling of operational activities in complexes containing one harbor and two refineries interconnected by a pipeline infrastructure. The model was developed in Arena package, based on three sub-models that control pier allocation, loading of tanks, and transfers to refineries through pipelines. Preliminary results obtained for a given control policy, show that profit can be calculated by taking into account many parameters such as oil costs on ships, pier using, over-stay of ships and interface costs. Such problem has already been considered in the literature but using different strategies. All these factors should be considered in a real-world operation where decision making tools are necessary to obtain high returns. (author)

  5. Meiotic events in Oenothera - a non-standard pattern of chromosome behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Musiał, Krystyna; Rauwolf, Uwe; Meurer, Jörg; Herrmann, Reinhold G; Greiner, Stephan

    2008-11-01

    The genus Oenothera shows an intriguing extent of permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reciprocal translocations of chromosome arms in species or populations result in various kinds of chromosome multivalents in diakinesis. Early meiotic events conditioning such chromosome behaviour are poorly understood. We found a surprising uniformity of the leptotene-diplotene period, regardless of the chromosome configuration at diakinesis (ring of 14, 7 bivalents, mixture of bivalents and multivalents). It appears that the earliest chromosome interactions at Oenothera meiosis are untypical, since they involve pericentromeric regions. During early leptotene, proximal chromosome parts cluster and form a highly polarized Rabl configuration. Telomeres associated in pairs were seen at zygotene. The high degree of polarization of meiotic nuclei continues for an exceptionally long period, i.e., during zygotene-pachytene into the diplotene contraction stage. The Rabl-polarized meiotic architecture and clustering of pericentromeres suggest a high complexity of karyotypes, not only in structural heterozygotes but also in bivalent-forming homozygous species.

  6. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  8. The Heart of China revisited: II Early Paleozoic (ultra)high-pressure and (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic Qinling orogenic collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Thomas; Franz, Leander; Ratschbacher, Lothar; de Capitani, Christian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Yang, Zhao; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Orogens with multiple (ultra)high-pressure ((U)HP) and (ultra)high-temperature ((U)HT) metamorphic events provide a complex but telling record of oceanic and continental interaction. The Early Paleozoic history of the "Heart of China," the Qinling orogenic collage, offers snapshots of at least three (U)HP and two (U)HT metamorphic events. The preservation of remnants of both oceanic and continental domains together with a ≥110 Myr record of magmatism allows the reconstruction of the processes that resulted in this disparate metamorphism. Herein, we first illuminate the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) evolution of the Early Paleozoic (U)HP and (U)HT events by refining the petrographic descriptions and P-T estimates, assess published, and employ new U/Th-Pb zircon, monazite, and titanite, and 40Ar-39Ar phengite geochronology to date the magmatic and metamorphic events. Then we explore how the metamorphic and magmatic events are related tectonically and how they elucidate the affinities among the various complexes in the Qinling orogenic collage. We argue that a Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal fragment—the Qinling complex—localized subduction-accretion events that involved subduction, oceanic-arc formation, and back-arc spreading along its northern margin, and mtantle-wedge exhumation and spreading-ridge subduction along its southern margin.

  9. Association between father involvement and attitudes in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in the pre-adolescent period in a UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    2017-10-15

    Much of the research on parenting and its influence on child development has emphasised the mother's role. However, increasing evidence highlights the important role of fathers in the development, health and well-being of their children. We sought to explore the association between paternal involvement in early child-rearing and depressive symptoms in 9 and 11 year-old children. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the southwest of England. The outcome was depressive symptoms measured using the short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) score. The main exposure was father involvement measured through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Scores on factor 1 measured fathers' emotional response to the child; scores on factor 2 measured the frequency of father involvement in domestic and childcare activities; scores on factor 3 measured fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 13% (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.77-0.98, p = 0.024) and 9% (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.80-1.03, p = 0.129) respectively lower adjusted odds of depressive symptoms at 9 and 11 years. For factor 2, there was weak evidence of a 17% increase in odds of depressive symptoms associated with 1 unit higher factor scores at both ages (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.00-1.37, p = 0.050). In these observational data, the possibility of residual confounding in the association between the exposure and the outcome cannot be ruled out. Positive psychological and emotional aspects of father involvement in children's early upbringing, but not the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, may protect children against developing symptoms of depression in their pre-teen years. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  11. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Methods Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines’ scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. Results The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Conclusions Although large consensus exists on standards for early psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation. PMID:23393613

  12. Microglial involvement in neuroplastic changes following focal brain ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Madinier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is a complex sequence of events including inflammatory reaction, for which the microglia appears to be a major cellular contributor. However, whether post-ischemic activation of microglial cells has beneficial or detrimental effects remains to be elucidated, in particular on long term brain plasticity events. The objective of our study was to determine, through modulation of post-stroke inflammatory response, to what extent microglial cells are involved in some specific events of neuronal plasticity, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis. Since microglia is a source of neurotrophic factors, the identification of the brain-derived neurophic factor (BDNF as possible molecular actor involved in these events was also attempted. As a means of down-regulating the microglial response induced by ischemia, 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB, 90 mg/kg, i.p. was used to inhibit the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1. Indeed, PARP-1 contributes to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kB, which is essential to the upregulation of proinflammatory genes, in particular responsible for microglial activation/proliferation. Experiments were conducted in rats subjected to photothrombotic ischemia which leads to a strong and early microglial cells activation/proliferation followed by an infiltration of macrophages within the cortical lesion, events evaluated at serial time points up to 1 month post-ictus by immunostaining for OX-42 and ED-1. Our most striking finding was that the decrease in acute microglial activation induced by 3-AB was associated with a long term down-regulation of two neuronal plasticity proteins expression, synaptophysin (marker of synaptogenesis and GAP-43 (marker of neuritogenesis as well as to a significant decrease in tissue BDNF production. Thus, our data argue in favour of a supportive role for microglia in brain neuroplasticity stimulation possibly through BDNF production, suggesting that a targeted

  13. Recent life events and psychosis: The role of childhood adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Life events are commonly reported to be related to psychosis. However, less attention has been given to the role that recent events play on psychosis, in relation to exposure to childhood adversity. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between recent events and psychosis, taking into account the role of early adversities. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Childhood adversity was evaluated using a validated semi-structured interview and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Recent events were recorded using a semi-structured interview with a normative and contextual approach. The diagnosis of psychosis was made according to Jablenski's criteria. Chi-square, t-test, odds ratio, and binary logistic regression statistical analyses were performed. Psychotic patients reported an excess of recent events. The occurrence of more than one recent event increased the risk of psychosis; there was a cumulative effect between recent and childhood events on psychosis. Recent events were significantly related to psychosis, even in the absence of childhood adversity or when adjusted for it. Our findings suggested that the effect of recent events on psychosis may be amplified by previous exposure to early adversity. Recent events alone, could be also linked to psychosis independently of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Organization of public authorities in France for the event of an incident or accident involving nuclear safety: Simulation of a nuclear crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartigny, J.; Majorel, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The French nuclear safety regulations lay down the action to be taken in the event of an incident or accident involving the types of radiological hazard that could arise in a nuclear installation or during the transport of radioactive material. The organization established for this purpose is designed to ensure that the technical measures taken by the authorities responsible for nuclear safety, radiation protection, public order and public safety are fully effective. The Interministerial Nuclear Safety Committee (Comite interministeriel de la securite nucleaire), which reports to the Prime Minister, co-ordinates the measures taken by the public authorities. The public authorities and the operators together organize exercises designed to verify the whole complex of measures foreseen in the event of an incident or accident. These exercises, which have been carried out in a systematic manner in France for some years, are based on scenarios which are as realistic as possible and enable the following objectives to be achieved: (1) analysis of the crisis apparatus (ORSECRAD plans, individual intervention plans, information conventions); (2) uncovering gaps or inadequacies; (3) arrangements for interchange of information between the various participants whose responsibilities involve them in the emergency; and (4) allowance for the information requirements of the media and the population. The information drawn from these exercises enables the various procedures to be improved step by step. (author)

  15. End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallan, Lauren Cole; Coates, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    The Devonian marks a critical stage in the early evolution of vertebrates: It opens with an unprecedented diversity of fishes and closes with the earliest evidence of limbed tetrapods. However, the latter part of the Devonian has also been characterized as a period of global biotic crisis marked by two large extinction pulses: a "Big Five" mass extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary (374 Ma) and the less well-documented Hangenberg event some 15 million years later at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary (359 Ma). Here, we report the results of a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these events on early vertebrate evolution, which was obtained from a database of vertebrate occurrences sampling over 1,250 taxa from 66 localities spanning Givetian to Serpukhovian stages (391 to 318 Ma). We show that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide. Marine and nonmarine faunas were equally affected, precluding the existence of environmental refugia. The subsequent recovery of previously diverse groups (including placoderms, sarcopterygian fish, and acanthodians) was minimal. Tetrapods, actinopterygians, and chondrichthyans, all scarce within the Devonian, undergo large diversification events in the aftermath of the extinction, dominating all subsequent faunas. The Hangenberg event represents a previously unrecognized bottleneck in the evolutionary history of vertebrates as a whole and a historical contingency that shaped the roots of modern biodiversity.

  16. Probabilistic assessment of fire related events in CWPH (Pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, D.; Maity, S.C.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of Fire PSA for KAPS, a pilot study has been taken up identifying CWPH as the important zone vulnerable to fire. As the CWPH houses pumps belonging to all important cooling (APWC, FFW, NAHPPW, NALPW, etc.) of both the units, a single fire leads to failure of multiple safety/safety support system cooling affecting the safety of the plant. The objective of this study is as follows: Familiarising with the various published Fire-PSA study, comparing and finalisation of the computer code amongst various codes available with DAE, identifying and sequencing different activities involved for carrying out Fire PSA, i.e. Zoning and Sub-Zoning of Fire Source Area, Fire vulnerability of System and Component surrounding Fire Source, etc., finalization of report format and documentation. Computer Code FDS is used to carry out Fire Hazard Analysis. FDS is the latest state-of the-art software package extensively used for Fire Hazard Analysis. It develops a 3D scenario for any given fire giving credit to actual physical location of fire load and ventilation. It gives the time dependent of any fire in a specific zone crediting the time required by operator to take necessary preventive action which helps in quantifying the probability of error for any particular operator's for PSA study. To identify the most vulnerable sub-zone in CWPH, a walk down was organized and physical location of each load; their separation, fire barrier, ventilator in the room, arrangement of fire protection/fighting system, localized operator's room were reviewed. Fire in the middle diesel tank with pump is considered as initiating event in the sub-zone of CWPH. The Event Tree for this initiating event for CWPH was developed. Event Tree end states are identified as large fire i.e. fire which is failed to be detected by both means, i.e. early and late and failure in fighting by both means i.e. early and late. (author)

  17. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption.

  18. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly B. Dierkhising

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective: This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method: The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results: Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions: The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.

  19. Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Katia G; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Sharps, Phyllis; Lee, Jerry

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  1. Involvement and necessity of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel outer membrane protein assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Henri; Leiser, Owen P.; Bennion, Drew; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Cpx and σE regulons help maintain outer membrane integrity; the Cpx pathway monitors the biogenesis of cell surface structures, such as pili, while the σE pathway monitors the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs). In this study we revealed the importance of the Cpx regulon in the event of β-barrel OMP mis-assembly, by utilizing mutants expressing either a defective β-barrel OMP assembly machinery (Bam) or assembly defective β-barrel OMPs. Analysis of specific mRNAs showed that ΔcpxR bam double mutants failed to induce degP expression beyond the wild type level, despite activation of the σE pathway. The synthetic conditional lethal phenotype of ΔcpxR in mutant Bam or β-barrel OMP backgrounds was reversed by wild type DegP expressed from a heterologous plasmid promoter. Consistent with the involvement of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, the expression of cpxP, the archetypal member of the cpx regulon, was upregulated in defective Bam backgrounds or in cells expressing a single assembly-defective β-barrel OMP species. Together, these results showed that both the Cpx and σE regulons are required to reduce envelope stress caused by aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, with the Cpx regulon principally contributing by controlling degP expression. PMID:20487295

  2. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest a possible involvement of HPV infection in the early stage of breast carcinogenesis via APOBEC3B induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ohba

    Full Text Available High prevalence of infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV ranging from 25 to 100% (average 31% was observed in breast cancer (BC patients in Singapore using novel DNA chip technology. Early stage of BC demonstrated higher HPV positivity, and BC positive for estrogen receptor (ER showed significantly higher HPV infection rate. This unique association of HPV with BC in vivo prompted us to investigate a possible involvement of HPV in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. Using normal breast epithelial cells stably transfected with HPV-18, we showed apparent upregulation of mRNA for the cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3B (A3B which is reported to be a source of mutations in BC. HPV-induced A3B overexpression caused significant γH2AX focus formation, and DNA breaks which were cancelled by shRNA to HPV18 E6, E7 and A3B. These results strongly suggest an active involvement of HPV in the early stage of BC carcinogenesis via A3B induction.

  3. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  4. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  5. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  6. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures is monitoring for radioactive materials at borders. This Technical Document (TECDOC) provides information to front-line officers on response to events involving the detection of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The emphasis in this publication is on operational and tactical response measures. These may entail a multi-agency response, particularly at the tactical level. Detailed scientific information has been kept to a minimum as it is recognized that the majority of law enforcement personnel will not have the background necessary to use such information effectively. The prime objective of this TECDOC is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated. This information is aimed primarily at police, customs and other law enforcement officers who may become involved in incidents concerning inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. Effective inter-agency co-operation can only be achieved if personnel who are not normally involved with radiological emergencies are aware of the issues associated with

  7. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  8. T-cell activation and early gene response in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally-Anne Mortlock

    Full Text Available T-cells play a crucial role in canine immunoregulation and defence against invading pathogens. Proliferation is fundamental to T-cell differentiation, homeostasis and immune response. Initiation of proliferation following receptor mediated stimuli requires a temporally programmed gene response that can be identified as immediate-early, mid- and late phases. The immediate-early response genes in T-cell activation engage the cell cycle machinery and promote subsequent gene activation events. Genes involved in this immediate-early response in dogs are yet to be identified. The present study was undertaken to characterise the early T-cell gene response in dogs to improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating immune function. Gene expression profiles were characterised using canine gene expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR, and paired samples from eleven dogs. Significant functional annotation clusters were identified following stimulation with phytohemagluttinin (PHA (5μg/ml, including the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and phosphorylation pathways. Using strict statistical criteria, 13 individual genes were found to be differentially expressed, nine of which have ontologies that relate to proliferation and cell cycle control. These included, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2/COX2, early growth response 1 (EGR1, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene (GADD45B, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, V-FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS, early growth response 2 (EGR2, hemogen (HEMGN, polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2 and polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3. Differential gene expression was re-examined using qRT-PCR, which confirmed that EGR1, EGR2, PMAIP1, PTGS2, FOS and GADD45B were significantly upregulated in stimulated cells and ALAS2 downregulated. PTGS2 and EGR1 showed the highest levels of response in these dogs. Both of these genes are involved in

  9. Adverse events associated with pediatric exposures to dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Reynolds, Kate M; Kauffman, Ralph E; Banner, William; Bond, G Randall; Palmer, Robert B; Burnham, Randy I; Green, Jody L

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication. We sought to characterize adverse events associated with dextromethorphan in children dextromethorphan with ≥1 adverse event from multiple U.S. sources (National Poison Data System, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, manufacturer safety reports, news/media, medical literature) reported between 2008 and 2014. An expert panel determined the relationship between exposure and adverse events, estimated dose ingested, intent of exposure, and identified contributing factors to exposure. 1716 cases contained ≥1 adverse event deemed at least potentially related to dextromethorphan; 1417 were single product exposures. 773/1417 (55%) involved only one single-ingredient dextromethorphan product (dextromethorphan-only). Among dextromethorphan-only cases, 3% followed ingestion of a therapeutic dose; 78% followed an overdose. 69% involved unsupervised self-administration and 60% occurred in children dextromethorphan-only ingestion. Adverse events were predominantly associated with overdose, most commonly affecting the central nervous and autonomic systems.

  10. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  11. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  12. Landquake dynamics inferred from seismic source inversion: Greenland and Sichuan events of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    In June 2017 two catastrophic landquake events occurred in Greenland and Sichuan. The Greenland event leads to tsunami hazard in the small town of Nuugaarsiaq. A landquake in Sichuan hit the town, which resulted in over 100 death. Both two events generated the strong seismic signals recorded by the real-time global seismic network. I adopt an inversion algorithm to derive the landquake force time history (LFH) using the long-period waveforms, and the landslide volume ( 76 million m3) can be rapidly estimated, facilitating the tsunami-wave modeling for early warning purpose. Based on an integrated approach involving tsunami forward simulation and seismic waveform inversion, this study has significant implications to issuing actionable warnings before hazardous tsunami waves strike populated areas. Two single-forces (SFs) mechanism (two block model) yields the best explanation for Sichuan event, which demonstrates that secondary event (seismic inferred volume: 8.2 million m3) may be mobilized by collapse-mass hitting from initial rock avalanches ( 5.8 million m3), likely causing a catastrophic disaster. The later source with a force magnitude of 0.9967×1011 N occurred 70 seconds after first mass-movement occurrence. In contrast, first event has the smaller force magnitude of 0.8116×1011 N. In conclusion, seismically inferred physical parameters will substantially contribute to improving our understanding of landquake source mechanisms and mitigating similar hazards in other parts of the world.

  13. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gender Differences in Early Mother-Child Interactions: Talking about an Imminent Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Examines maternal modes of organizing an imminent emotional event, a brief separation from the child. Finds that the mothers displayed two ways of structuring the future event, and these different modes were related statistically to the gender of the child. Investigates how the mother directs the child's mental processes by using augments of…

  15. The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children's academic performance: A panel study of primary school pupils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, J.G.; Notten, N.J.W.R.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on

  16. The effects of parental reading socialization and early school involvement on children's academic performance: a panel study of primary school pupils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloostermann, R.; Notten, N.; Tolsma, J.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental reading socialization and early school involvement account for performance differences between low-status and high-status children in successive primary school grades. It investigates not only the direct effects of these parental practices on

  17. Timing of Childhood Events and Early-Adult Household Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Martha S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Identified a number of risk factors contributing to early household formation. Found that for girls, factors included mother's educational level and birth order; for boys, parental divorce at any stage of childhood. Risk factors common to boys and girls were age of mother at time of child's birth and race. (HTH)

  18. Trending analysis of precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  19. Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoff, Ronald; Wood, Jillian; Chernock, Maria C; Tipping, Diane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of visual freeze indicators on vaccines would assist health care providers in identifying vaccines that may have been exposed to potentially damaging temperatures. Twenty-seven sites in Connecticut involved in the Vaccine for Children Program participated. In addition to standard procedures, visual freeze indicators (FREEZEmarker ® L; Temptime Corporation, Morris Plains, NJ) were affixed to each box of vaccine that required refrigeration but must not be frozen. Temperatures were monitored twice daily. During the 24 weeks, all 27 sites experienced triggered visual freeze indicator events in 40 of the 45 refrigerators. A total of 66 triggered freeze indicator events occurred in all 4 types of refrigerators used. Only 1 of the freeze events was identified by a temperature-monitoring device. Temperatures recorded on vaccine data logs before freeze indicator events were within the 35°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) range in all but 1 instance. A total of 46,954 doses of freeze-sensitive vaccine were stored at the time of a visual freeze indicator event. Triggered visual freeze indicators were found on boxes containing 6566 doses (14.0% of total doses). Of all doses stored, 14,323 doses (30.5%) were of highly freeze-sensitive vaccine; 1789 of these doses (12.5%) had triggered indicators on the boxes. Visual freeze indicators are useful in the early identification of freeze events involving vaccines. Consideration should be given to including these devices as a component of the temperature-monitoring system for vaccines.

  20. Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Kliger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies of the early events in cytochrome c folding are reviewed with a focus on the evidence for folding intermediates on the submillisecond timescale. Evidence from time-resolved absorption, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, fluorescence energy and electron transfer, small-angle X-ray scattering and amide hydrogen exchange studies on the t £ 1 ms timescale reveals a picture of cytochrome c folding that starts with the ~ 1-ms conformational diffusion dynamics of the unfolded chains. A fractional population of the unfolded chains collapses on the 1 – 100 ms timescale to a compact intermediate IC containing some native-like secondary structure. Although the existence and nature of IC as a discrete folding intermediate remains controversial, there is extensive high time-resolution kinetic evidence for the rapid formation of IC as a true intermediate, i.e., a metastable state separated from the unfolded state by a discrete free energy barrier. Final folding to the native state takes place on millisecond and longer timescales, depending on the presence of kinetic traps such as heme misligation and proline mis-isomerization. The high folding rates observed in equilibrium molten globule models suggest that IC may be a productive folding intermediate. Whether it is an obligatory step on the pathway to the high free energy barrier associated with millisecond timescale folding to the native state, however, remains to be determined.

  1. Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Holinka

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscular (IM administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasal (IN challenged with BICv 3 days after FlagT4Gv infection, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-α three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.

  2. TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL EVENTS DESIGNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to prove and disclose the essence of the author’s technology of educational events designing.Methodology and methods of research. Methodological basis of work is humanitarian approach. The method of pedagogical modeling was used for the model development of educational events influence on pedagogical activity formation. The content analysis of texts descriptions, case-study method, expert estimations of event projects were applied as the main methods of efficiency confirmation of the technology of educational events design.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristics of an educational event are emphasized by means of an empirical way: opening (what a person opens for himself; generation (a result of a personal action; and participation in creation of something "new" (new communications, relations and experience. The structure of technology of educational events design including work with concepts (an educational event, substantial and procedural components is presented. The technology of educational events designing is considered as the process of the well-grounded choice of designing technologies, mutual activity, pedagogical communication, components of educational activity: contents, methods, means, and organizational forms depending on educational aims due to age-specific peculiarities of participants of the educational event. The main conditions providing successful use of the technology are the involvement into joint cognitive activity of all its participants and importance of the events for each of them that qualitatively change the nature of a cognitive process and generate real transformations of the reality.Practical significance. The author’s experience in teaching testifies to introduction of the module «Technology of Design of Educational Events» into the basic educational subject-module «Design Competence of the Teacher» (degree program «Pedagogical Education», considering this module as

  3. An analysis of risk factors and adverse events in ambulatory surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Kent, Julia Metzner, Laurent BollagDepartment of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Care for patients undergoing ambulatory procedures is a broad and expanding area of anesthetic and surgical practice. There were over 35 million ambulatory surgical procedures performed in the US in 2006. Ambulatory procedures are diverse in both type and setting, as they span the range from biopsies performed under local anesthesia to intra-abdominal laparoscopic procedures, and are performed in offices, freestanding ambulatory surgery centers, and ambulatory units of hospitals. The information on adverse events from these varied settings comes largely from retrospective reviews of sources, such as quality-assurance databases and closed malpractice claims. Very few if any ambulatory procedures are emergent, and in comparison to the inpatient population, ambulatory surgical patients are generally healthier. They are still however subject to most of the same types of adverse events as patients undergoing inpatient surgery, albeit at a lower frequency. The only adverse events that could be considered to be unique to ambulatory surgery are those that arise out of the circumstance of discharging a postoperative patient to an environment lacking skilled nursing care. There is limited information on these types of discharge-related adverse events, but the data that are available are reviewed in an attempt to assist the practitioner in patient selection and discharge decision making. Among ambulatory surgical patients, particularly those undergoing screening or cosmetic procedures, expectations from all parties involved are high, and a definition of adverse events can be expanded to include any occurrence that interrupts the rapid throughput of patients or interferes with early discharge and optimal patient satisfaction. This review covers all types of adverse events, but focuses on the more

  4. Sex differences in face gender recognition: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueting; Gao, Xiaochao; Han, Shihui

    2010-04-23

    Multiple level neurocognitive processes are involved in face processing in humans. The present study examined whether the early face processing such as structural encoding is modulated by task demands that manipulate attention to perceptual or social features of faces and such an effect, if any, is different between men and women. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from male and female adults while they identified a low-level perceptual feature of faces (i.e., face orientation) and a high-level social feature of faces (i.e., gender). We found that task demands that required the processing of face orientations or face gender resulted in modulations of both the early occipital/temporal negativity (N170) and the late central/parietal positivity (P3). The N170 amplitude was smaller in the gender relative to the orientation identification task whereas the P3 amplitude was larger in the gender identification task relative to the orientation identification task. In addition, these effects were much stronger in women than in men. Our findings suggest that attention to social information in faces such as gender modulates both the early encoding of facial structures and late evaluative process of faces to a greater degree in women than in men.

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of strategic monitoring in event-based and time-based prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cona

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM is the ability to remember to accomplish an action when a particular event occurs (i.e., event-based PM, or at a specific time (i.e., time-based PM while performing an ongoing activity. Strategic Monitoring is one of the basic cognitive functions supporting PM tasks, and involves two mechanisms: a retrieval mode, which consists of maintaining active the intention in memory; and target checking, engaged for verifying the presence of the PM cue in the environment. The present study is aimed at providing the first evidence of event-related potentials (ERPs associated with time-based PM, and at examining differences and commonalities in the ERPs related to Strategic Monitoring mechanisms between event- and time-based PM tasks.The addition of an event-based or a time-based PM task to an ongoing activity led to a similar sustained positive modulation of the ERPs in the ongoing trials, mainly expressed over prefrontal and frontal regions. This modulation might index the retrieval mode mechanism, similarly engaged in the two PM tasks. On the other hand, two further ERP modulations were shown specifically in an event-based PM task. An increased positivity was shown at 400-600 ms post-stimulus over occipital and parietal regions, and might be related to target checking. Moreover, an early modulation at 130-180 ms post-stimulus seems to reflect the recruitment of attentional resources for being ready to respond to the event-based PM cue. This latter modulation suggests the existence of a third mechanism specific for the event-based PM; that is, the "readiness mode".

  6. Suicide and Murder-Suicide Involving Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Watson, Dougal; Preitner, Claude

    2016-04-01

    This is a systematic review of suicide and homicide-suicide events involving aircraft. In aeromedical literature and in the media, these very different events are both described as pilot suicide, but in psychiatry they are considered separate events with distinct risk factors. Medical databases, internet search engines, and aviation safety databases were searched in a systematic way to obtain relevant cases. Relevant articles were searched for additional references. There were 65 cases of pilot suicide and 6 cases of passengers who jumped from aircraft found. There were also 18 cases of homicide-suicide found involving 732 deaths. Pilots perpetrated 13 homicide-suicide events. Compared to non-aviation samples, a large percentage of pilot suicides in this study were homicide-suicides (17%). Homicide-suicide events occur extremely rarely. However, their impact in terms of the proportion of deaths is significant when compared to deaths from accidents. There is evidence of clustering where pilot suicides occur after by media reports of suicide or homicide-suicide. Five of six homicide-suicide events by pilots of commercial airliners occurred after they were left alone in the cockpit. This, along with a sixth incident in which active intervention by a Japan Air crew saved 147 lives, suggests that having two flight members in the cockpit is potentially protective. No single factor was associated with the risk for suicide or homicide-suicide. Factors associated with both events included legal and financial crises, occupational conflict, mental illness, and relationship stressors. Drugs and/or alcohol played a role in almost half of suicides, but not in homicide-suicides.

  7. Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

  8. The impact of emotional involvement on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meina; Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2015-12-02

    When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers' emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals' emotional involvement toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers' evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions.

  9. Epigenome remodelling in breast cancer: insights from an early in vitro model of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Warwick J; Clark, Susan J

    2012-11-15

    Epigenetic gene regulation has influence over a diverse range of cellular functions, including the maintenance of pluripotency, differentiation, and cellular identity, and is deregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Whereas the involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in cancer is well documented, much of the mechanistic detail involved in triggering these changes remains unclear. In the current age of genomics, the development of new sequencing technologies has seen an influx of genomic and epigenomic data and drastic improvements in both resolution and coverage. Studies in cancer cell lines and clinical samples using next-generation sequencing are rapidly delivering spectacular insights into the nature of the cancer genome and epigenome. Despite these improvements in technology, the timing and relationship between genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during the process of carcinogenesis are still unclear. In particular, what changes to the epigenome are playing a driving role during carcinogenesis and what influence the temporal nature of these changes has on cancer progression are not known. Understanding the early epigenetic changes driving breast cancer has the exciting potential to provide a novel set of therapeutic targets or early-disease biomarkers or both. Therefore, it is important to find novel systems that permit the study of initial epigenetic events that potentially occur during the first stages of breast cancer. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) provide an exciting in vitro model of very early breast carcinogenesis. When grown in culture, HMECs are able to temporarily escape senescence and acquire a pre-malignant breast cancer-like phenotype (variant HMECs, or vHMECs). Cultured HMECs are composed mainly of cells from the basal breast epithelial layer. Therefore, vHMECs are considered to represent the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. The transition from HMECs to vHMECs in culture recapitulates the epigenomic

  10. Assessing traumatic event exposure: general issues and preliminary findings for the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L A; Corcoran, C; Turner, K; Yuan, N; Green, B L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), a recently developed trauma history screening measure, and discusses the complexities involved in assessing trauma exposure. There are relatively few general measures of exposure to a variety of types of traumatic events, and most of those that exist have not been subjected to rigorous psychometric evaluation. The SLESQ showed good test-retest reliability, with a median kappa of .73, adequate convergent validity (with a lengthier interview) with a median kappa of .64, and good discrimination between Criterion A and non-Criterion A events. The discussion addresses some of the challenges of assessing traumatic event exposure along the dimensions of defining traumatic events, assessment methodologies, reporting consistency, and incident validation.

  11. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  12. CISN ShakeAlert: Faster Warning Information Through Multiple Threshold Event Detection in the Virtual Seismologist (VS) Early Warning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, G. B.; Fischer, M.; Caprio, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Project Team

    2010-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network since February 2009. We discuss recent enhancements to the VS EEW algorithm that are being integrated into CISN ShakeAlert. We developed and continue to test a multiple-threshold event detection scheme, which uses different association / location approaches depending on the peak amplitudes associated with an incoming P pick. With this scheme, an event with sufficiently high initial amplitudes can be declared on the basis of a single station, maximizing warning times for damaging events for which EEW is most relevant. Smaller, non-damaging events, which will have lower initial amplitudes, will require more picks to initiate an event declaration, with the goal of reducing false alarms. This transforms the VS codes from a regional EEW approach reliant on traditional location estimation (and the requirement of at least 4 picks as implemented by the Binder Earthworm phase associator) into an on-site/regional approach capable of providing a continuously evolving stream of EEW information starting from the first P-detection. Real-time and offline analysis on Swiss and California waveform datasets indicate that the

  13. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy; Comparison between Duchenne and Fukuyama types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yumi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author).

  14. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early trauma and increased risk for physical aggression during adulthood: the moderating role of MAOA genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Frazzetto

    Full Text Available Previous research has reported that a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA gene promoter can moderate the association between early life adversity and increased risk for violence and antisocial behavior. In this study of a combined population of psychiatric outpatients and healthy volunteers (N = 235, we tested the hypothesis that MAOA genotype moderates the association between early traumatic life events (ETLE experienced during the first 15 years of life and the display of physical aggression during adulthood, as assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire. An ANOVA model including gender, exposure to early trauma, and MAOA genotype as between-subjects factors showed significant MAOAxETLE (F(1,227 = 8.20, P = 0.005 and genderxMAOAxETLE (F(1,227 = 7.04, P = 0.009 interaction effects. Physical aggression scores were higher in men who had experienced early traumatic life events and who carried the low MAOA activity allele (MAOA-L. We repeated the analysis in the subgroup of healthy volunteers (N = 145 to exclude that the observed GxE interactions were due to the inclusion of psychiatric patients in our sample and were not generalizable to the population at large. The results for the subgroup of healthy volunteers were identical to those for the entire sample. The cumulative variance in the physical aggression score explained by the ANOVA effects involving the MAOA polymorphism was 6.6% in the entire sample and 12.1% in the sub-sample of healthy volunteers. Our results support the hypothesis that, when combined with exposure to early traumatic life events, low MAOA activity is a significant risk factor for aggressive behavior during adulthood and suggest that the use of dimensional measures focusing on behavioral aspects of aggression may increase the likelihood of detecting significant gene-by-environment interactions in studies of MAOA-related aggression.

  16. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  17. Early peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulated genes involved in expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivas Yurena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression towards type 2 diabetes depends on the allostatic response of pancreatic beta cells to synthesise and secrete enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The endocrine pancreas is a plastic tissue able to expand or regress in response to the requirements imposed by physiological and pathophysiological states associated to insulin resistance such as pregnancy, obesity or ageing, but the mechanisms mediating beta cell mass expansion in these scenarios are not well defined. We have recently shown that ob/ob mice with genetic ablation of PPARγ2, a mouse model known as the POKO mouse failed to expand its beta cell mass. This phenotype contrasted with the appropriate expansion of the beta cell mass observed in their obese littermate ob/ob mice. Thus, comparison of these models islets particularly at early ages could provide some new insights on early PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses involved in the process of beta cell mass expansion Results Here we have investigated PPARγ dependent transcriptional responses occurring during the early stages of beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance in wild type, ob/ob, PPARγ2 KO and POKO mice. We have identified genes known to regulate both the rate of proliferation and the survival signals of beta cells. Moreover we have also identified new pathways induced in ob/ob islets that remained unchanged in POKO islets, suggesting an important role for PPARγ in maintenance/activation of mechanisms essential for the continued function of the beta cell. Conclusions Our data suggest that the expansion of beta cell mass observed in ob/ob islets is associated with the activation of an immune response that fails to occur in POKO islets. We have also indentified other PPARγ dependent differentially regulated pathways including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis through TGF-β signaling and decreased oxidative phosphorylation.

  18. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Italy is characterized by a great coastal extension, and by a series of possible tsunamigenic sources: many active faults, onshore and offshore, also near the shoreline and in shallow water, active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Campi Flegrei for example), continental margins where landslides can occur. All these threats justify the establishment of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), especially in Southern Italy where most of the sources capable of large disastrous tsunamis are located. One of the main characteristics of such sources, that however is common to other countries in not only in the Mediterranean, is their vicinity to the coast, which means that the tsunami lead time for attacking the coastal system is expected to be within 10-15 minutes in several cases. This constraint of time imposes to conceive and adopt specific plans aiming at a quick tsunami detection and alert dissemination for the TEWS, since obviously the TEWS alert must precede and not follow the tsunami first arrival. The need to be quick introduces the specific problem of uncertainty that is though inherent to any forecast system, but it is a very big issue especially when time available is short, since crucial decisions have to be taken in presence of incomplete data and incomplete processing. This is just the big problem that has to be faced by a system like the a TEWS in Italy. Uncertainties can be reduced by increasing the capabilities of the tsunami monitoring system by densifying the traditional instrumental networks (e.g. by empowering seismic and especially coastal and offshore sea-level observation systems) in the identified tsunamigenic source areas. However, uncertainties, though are expected to have a decreasing trend as time passes after the tsunami initiation, cannot be eliminated and have to be appropriately dealt with: uncertainties lead to under- and overestimation of the tsunami size and arrival times, and to missing or to false alerts, or in other terms they degrade the

  19. Enhancement of thermal photon production in event-by-event hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Rupa; Holopainen, Hannu; Renk, Thorsten; Eskola, Kari J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal photon emission is widely believed to reflect properties of the earliest, hottest evolution stage of the medium created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Previous computations of photon emission have been carried out using a hydrodynamical medium description with smooth, averaged initial conditions. Recently, more sophisticated hydrodynamical models that calculate observables by averaging over many evolutions with event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions (ICs) have been developed. Given their direct connection to the early time dynamics, thermal photon emission appears to be an ideal observable to probe fluctuations in the medium initial state. In this work, we demonstrate that including fluctuations in the ICs may lead to an enhancement of the thermal photon yield of about a factor of 2 in the region 2 T <4 GeV/c (where thermal photon production dominates the direct photon yield) compared to a scenario using smooth, averaged ICs. Consequently, a much better agreement with PHENIX data is found. This can be understood in terms of the strong temperature dependence of thermal photon production, translating into a sensitivity to the presence of hotspots in an event and thus establishing thermal photons as a suitable probe to characterize IC fluctuations.

  20. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Glial Alterations From Early to Late Stages in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence of Autophagy Involvement in Aβ Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1 + cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. PMID:26235241

  2. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  3. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardumian, J.; Fadden, M.

    1992-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1991. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  4. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 1, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from pre-NRC through December 31, 1989. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  5. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  6. Towards a better understanding of caregiver distress in early psychosis: a systematic review of the psychological factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Gleeson, John; Cotton, Sue

    2015-02-01

    We sought to review empirical studies of psychological factors accounting for distress in caregivers of young people with early psychosis. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we included studies that empirically tested psychological models of caregiver distress in early psychosis by searching the following databases up until March 2014: PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). This was followed by additional manual searches of reference lists and relevant journals. The search identified 15 papers describing 13 studies together comprising 1056 caregivers of persons with early psychosis. The mean age of caregivers was 47.2years (SD=9.8), of whom 71.5% were female and 74.4% were parents. Nine different psychological variables were examined in the included studies, which were categorised in the following non-mutually exclusive groups: coping, appraisal/attribution and interpersonal response. There was considerable data to support the link between distress and psychological factors such as avoidant coping, appraisal and emotional over-involvement. However, the possibilities of drawing conclusions were limited by a number of methodological issues, including cross-sectional data, small sample sizes, confounding variables not being accounted for, and a wide variation in outcome measures. The strengths of the review were the systematic approach, the exclusion of non-empirical papers and the rating of methodological quality by two independent raters. Limitations were that we excluded studies published in languages other than English, that data extraction forms were developed for this study and hence not tested for validity, and that there was a potential publication bias in favour of significant findings. A better grasp of the psychological factors accounting for caregiver distress early in the course of illness may help us understand the trajectory of distress. This is an important step in preventing long-term distress in caregivers and

  7. Dependency models and probability of joint events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerjasaeter, O.

    1982-08-01

    Probabilistic dependencies between components/systems are discussed with reference to a broad classification of potential failure mechanisms. Further, a generalized time-dependency model, based on conditional probabilities for estimation of the probability of joint events and event sequences is described. The applicability of this model is clarified/demonstrated by various examples. It is concluded that the described model of dependency is a useful tool for solving a variety of practical problems concerning the probability of joint events and event sequences where common cause and time-dependent failure mechanisms are involved. (Auth.)

  8. Teacher Training in Family Involvement: An Interpersonal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways to develop family-school-community involvement, based on an early childhood teacher training course in family involvement. Discusses strategies for using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to facilitate family involvement interactions, and using student teachers' experiences for structuring reflective thought about family involvement…

  9. Student involvement and research for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear engineering is one of the modern and rapidly advancing technologies. Those already involved in it are continually updating their knowledge to keep abreast of the developments. Of course the sound basic principles of engineering still apply but the scene of application can be transformed in a few years. In fact, because of this, many engineers from more traditional industries often express the view that presently the total range of nuclear engineering is research and development. How can students be trained for such a rapidly advancing technology. Is not the answer early involvement. Effective early involvement for students can only come about by the close co-operation and involvement of the staff of universities and industry. The theme is developed. (author)

  10. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: on behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, M.C.; Girinsky, T.; Berthelsen, A.K.; Aleman, B.; Beijert, M.; Hutchings, M.; Lievens, Y.; Meijnders, P.; Petersen, P.M.; Schut, D.; Maraldo, M.V.; Maazen, R.W. van der; Specht, L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition

  11. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma : On behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, Marianne C.; Girinsky, Theodore; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Aleman, Berthe M.; Beijert, Max; Hutchings, Martin; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Schut, Deborah; Maraldo, Maja V.; van der Maazen, Richard W.; Specht, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition

  12. Early events triggering delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Carl Christian

    2013-01-01

    shown to be mediated by intracellular signalling via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2)--extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. However, it is not known what event(s) that trigger MEK-ERK1/2 activation and vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation after SAH.We hypothesise...

  13. Visual event-related potentials to biological motion stimuli in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletsch, Anke; Krick, Christoph; Siniatchkin, Michael; Jarczok, Tomasz A.; Freitag, Christine M.; Bender, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical visual processing of biological motion contributes to social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the exact temporal sequence of deficits of cortical biological motion processing in ASD has not been studied to date. We used 64-channel electroencephalography to study event-related potentials associated with human motion perception in 17 children and adolescents with ASD and 21 typical controls. A spatio-temporal source analysis was performed to assess the brain structures involved in these processes. We expected altered activity already during early stimulus processing and reduced activity during subsequent biological motion specific processes in ASD. In response to both, random and biological motion, the P100 amplitude was decreased suggesting unspecific deficits in visual processing, and the occipito-temporal N200 showed atypical lateralization in ASD suggesting altered hemispheric specialization. A slow positive deflection after 400 ms, reflecting top-down processes, and human motion-specific dipole activation differed slightly between groups, with reduced and more diffuse activation in the ASD-group. The latter could be an indicator of a disrupted neuronal network for biological motion processing in ADS. Furthermore, early visual processing (P100) seems to be correlated to biological motion-specific activation. This emphasizes the relevance of early sensory processing for higher order processing deficits in ASD. PMID:23887808

  14. Interpretation of unusual events from CERN and DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, L.J.; Jaffee, R.L.; Rosner, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several classes of interesting and unusual events from the Sp-barpS and from PETRA are studied with two purposes in mind. Firstly, varieties of background within the standard SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model are described, together with estimates of the number of expected events. Secondly, a review of the recent explanations of the events involving new physics is given. Critical assessments of these proposals focus on the assumptions made, expected rates for the unusual events, and the ability to account for events of several categories

  15. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol’s postabsortive effects during early ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Mabel March

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD, the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of acetaldehyde in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that propose how differential concentrations of central catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol affinity.

  16. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  17. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  18. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.

  19. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities. PMID:27030784

  20. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  1. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  2. Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) whole colony irradiation: Do senescent zooid resorption and immunological resorption involve similar recognition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri undergoes cyclic blastogenesis where feeding zooids are senescened and resorbed and a new generation of zooids takes over the colony. When non-identical colonies come into direct contact, they either reject each other or fuse. Fusion is usually followed by the resorption of one of the partners in the chimera (immunological resorption). The striking morphological similarities between the two resorption phenomena suggest that both may involve tissue destruction following self-nonself recognition events. Here we attempt to modify these two events by whole colony gamma irradiation assays. Three sets of experiments were performed: (1) different doses of whole colony irradiation for determination of irradiation effects (110 colonies); (2) pairs of irradiated-nonirradiated isografts of clonal replicates for the potential of reconstruction of the irradiated partners (23 pairs); (3) chimeras of irradiated-nonirradiated partners for analysis of resorption hierarchy. Mortality increased with the irradiation dose. All colonies exposed to more than 5,000 rads died within 19 days, while no colony died below 2,000 rads. The average mortality periods, in days, for doses of 6,000-8,000, 5,000, and 2,500-4,000 rads were 14.4 +/- 3.1 (n = 24), 19.8 +/- 6.0 (n = 15), and 19.6 + 5.1 (n = 22), respectively. Younger colonies (3-6 months old) may survive radiation better than older ones (more than 13 months). Many morphological alterations were recorded in irradiated colonies: ampullar contraction and/or dilation, accumulation of pigment cells within ampullae, abnormal bleeding from blood vessels, sluggish blood circulation, necrotic zones, reduction in bud number, and irregularities in zooid and system structures. With doses of 3,000-4,000 rads and above, irradiation arrested the formation of new buds and interrupted normal takeover

  3. Episodic events in long-term geological processes: A new classification and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term geological processes are usually described with curves reflecting continuous changes in the characteristic parameters through the geological history, and such curves can be employed directly for recognition of episodic (relatively long-term events linked to these changes. The episodic events can be classified into several categories according to their scale (ordinary and anomalous events, “shape” (positive, negative, and neutral events, and relation to long-term trend change (successive, interruptive, facilitative, stabilizing, transformative, increasing, and decreasing. Many types of these events can be defined depending on the combination of the above-mentioned patterns. Of course, spatial rank, duration, and origin can be also considered in description of these events. The proposed classification can be applied to events in some real long-term geological processes, which include global sea-level changes, biodiversity dynamics, lithospheric plate number changes, and palaeoclimate changes. Several case examples prove the usefulness of the classification. It is established that the Early Valanginian (Early Cretaceous eustatic lowstand (the lowest position of the sea level in the entire Cretaceous was negative, but ordinary and only interruptive event. In the other case, it becomes clear that the only end-Ordovician and the Permian/Triassic mass extinctions transformed the trends of the biodiversity dynamics (from increase to decrease and from decrease to increase respectively, and the only Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction was really anomalous event on the Phanerozoic biodiversity curve. The new palaeontological data are employed to reconstruct the diversity dynamics of brachiopods in Germany (without the Alps and the Swiss Jura Mountains. The further interpretation of the both diversity curves implies that the Early Toarcian mass extinction affected the regional brachiopod faunas strongly, but this event was only decreasing

  4. Inhibition of Rho kinase regulates specification of early differentiation events in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman J Krawetz

    Full Text Available The Rho kinase pathway plays a key role in many early cell/tissue determination events that take place in embryogenesis. Rho and its downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK play pivotal roles in cell migration, apoptosis (membrane blebbing, cell proliferation/cell cycle, cell-cell adhesion and gene regulation. We and others have previously demonstrated that inhibition of ROCK blocks endoderm differentiation in embryonal carcinoma stem cells, however, the effect of ROCK inhibition on mesoderm and ectoderm specification has not been fully examined. In this study, the role of ROCK within the specification and differentiation of all three germ layers was examined.P19 cells were treated with the specific ROCK inhibitor Y-27623, and increase in differentiation efficiency into neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal lineages was observed. However, as expected a dramatic decrease in early endodermal markers was observed when ROCK was inhibited. Interestingly, within these ROCK-inhibited RA treated cultures, increased levels of mesodermal or ectodermal markers were not observed, instead it was found that the pluripotent markers SSEA-1 and Oct-4 remained up-regulated similar to that seen in undifferentiated cultures. Using standard and widely accepted methods for reproducible P19 differentiation into all three germ layers, an enhancement of mesoderm and ectoderm differentiation with a concurrent loss of endoderm lineage specification was observed with Y-27632 treatment. Evidence would suggest that this effect is in part mediated through TGF-β and SMAD signaling as ROCK-inhibited cells displayed aberrant SMAD activation and did not return to a 'ground' state after the inhibition had been removed.Given this data and the fact that only a partial rescue of normal differentiation capacity occurred when ROCK inhibition was alleviated, the effect of ROCK inhibition on the differentiation capacity of pluripotent cell populations should be further examined to elucidate the

  5. Perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an early pathogenesis event of drug induced liver injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Makoto; Miyake, Manami; Sato, Hiroko; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa [Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818 (Japan); Adam, Klaus-Peter; Alexander, Danny C.; Lawton, Kay A.; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Wulff, Jacob E. [Metabolon Inc., 617 Davis Drive, Suite 400, Durham, NC 27713 (United States); Guo, Lining, E-mail: lguo@metabolon.com [Metabolon Inc., 617 Davis Drive, Suite 400, Durham, NC 27713 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats treated with thirteen known hepatotoxins causing various types of DILI: necrosis (acetaminophen, bendazac, cyclosporine A, carbon tetrachloride, ethionine), cholestasis (methapyrilene and naphthylisothiocyanate), steatosis (tetracycline and ticlopidine), and idiosyncratic (carbamazepine, chlorzoxasone, flutamide, and nimesulide) at two doses and two time points. Statistical analysis and pathway mapping of the nearly 1900 metabolites profiled in the plasma, urine, and liver revealed diverse time and dose dependent metabolic cascades leading to DILI by the hepatotoxins. The most consistent change induced by the hepatotoxins, detectable even at the early time point/low dose, was the significant elevations of a panel of bile acids in the plasma and urine, suggesting that DILI impaired hepatic bile acid uptake from the circulation. Furthermore, bile acid amidation in the hepatocytes was altered depending on the severity of the hepatotoxin-induced oxidative stress. The alteration of the bile acids was most evident by the necrosis and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by the steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. Taking together, our data suggest that the perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an early event of DILI. Upon further validation, selected bile acids in the circulation could be potentially used as sensitive and early DILI preclinical biomarkers. - Highlights: ► We used metabolomics to gain insights on drug induced liver injury (DILI) in rats. ► We profiled rats treated with thirteen hepatotoxins at two doses and two time points. ► The toxins decreased the

  6. The underlying event in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, F.

    2009-05-15

    In this thesis, studies of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s) = 10 TeV are presented. Crucial ingredient to underlying event models are multiple parton-parton scatters in single proton-proton collisions. The feasibility of measuring the underlying event was investigated with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using charged particles and charged-particle jets. Systematic uncertainties of the underlying event measurement due to detector misalignment and imperfect track reconstruction are found to be negligible after {integral}Ldt=1 pb{sup -1} of data are available. Different model predictions are compared with each other using fully simulated Monte Carlo samples. It is found, that distinct models differ strongly enough to tell them apart with early data. (orig.)

  7. Emergency preparedness: medical management of nuclear accidents involving large groups of victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of overexposed individuals implies hospitalisation in a specialized unit applying hematological intense care. If the accident results in a small number of casualties, the medical management does not raise major problems in most of the countries, where specialized units exist, as roughly 7% of the beds are available at any time. But an accident which would involved tens or hundreds of people raises much more problems for hospitalization. Such problems are also completely different and will involve steps in the medical handling, mainly triage, (combined injuries), determination of whole body dose levels, transient hospitalization. In this case, preplanning is necessary, adapted to the system of medical care in case of a catastrophic event in the given Country, with the main basic principles : emergency concerns essentially the classical injuries (burns and trauma) - and contamination problems in some cases - treatment of radiation syndrome is not an emergency during the first days but some essential actions have to be taken such as early blood sampling for biological dosimetry and for HLa typing

  8. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  9. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-07-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  10. Proteomic Insights into the Protective Mechanisms of an In Vitro Oxidative Stress Model of Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bauereis, Brian; Haskins, William E.; LeBaron, Richard G.; Renthal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) models suggest that early events along the path to neurodegeneration involve activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), and the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, in both the sporadic and familial forms of the disease, and thus ER stress may be a common feature. Furthermore, impairments in protein degradation have been linked to oxidative stress as well as pathways associated wit...

  11. The Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis. Final report, September 1, 1988--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The ASU Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis was established in 1988 with funding through a five-year grant from the USDA/DOE/NSF Plant Science Center program and a grant from the NSF Biological Facilities program. Its scientific objective is to elucidate the basic principles that govern photosynthetic energy collection and storage. Understanding these principles is vital to mankind, as photosynthesis provides most of our food, fiber and energy needs. The Center attempts to fulfill this objective through research of the highest standard, coupled inextricably with quality education at the undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels. These goals are met via a network of collaborative, interdisciplinary research groups comprising 100 personnel within the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, the Department of Botany, and the Department of Physics and Astronomy. The work of these research groups is facilitated by the Center through a variety of important infrastructural functions.

  12. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods...... and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive life events from adolescence and early adulthood, also known as the reminiscence bump period....

  13. Application of declarative modeling approaches for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoba, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are increasingly being used as a tool for supporting the acceptability of design, procurement, construction, operation, and maintenance activities at Nuclear Power Plants. Since the issuance of Generic Letter 88-20 and subsequent IPE/IPEEE assessments, the NRC has issued several Regulatory Guides such as RG 1.174 to describe the use of PSA in risk-informed regulation activities. Most PSA have the capability to address internal events including internal floods. As the more demands are being placed for using the PSA to support risk-informed applications, there has been a growing need to integrate other eternal events (Seismic, Fire, etc.) into the logic models. Most external events involve spatial dependencies and usually impact the logic models at the component level. Therefore, manual insertion of external events impacts into a complex integrated fault tree model may be too cumbersome for routine uses of the PSA. Within the past year, a declarative modeling approach has been developed to automate the injection of external events into the PSA. The intent of this paper is to introduce the concept of declarative modeling in the context of external event applications. A declarative modeling approach involves the definition of rules for injection of external event impacts into the fault tree logic. A software tool such as the EPRI's XInit program can be used to interpret the pre-defined rules and automatically inject external event elements into the PSA. The injection process can easily be repeated, as required, to address plant changes, sensitivity issues, changes in boundary conditions, etc. External event elements may include fire initiating events, seismic initiating events, seismic fragilities, fire-induced hot short events, special human failure events, etc. This approach has been applied at a number of US nuclear power plants including a nuclear power plant in Romania. (authors)

  14. Communication regarding the thorp event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, P.

    2007-01-01

    HSE investigated the circumstances of the leak of highly radioactive product liquor inside the cell of the THORP plant at Sellafield which went undetected for a period of approximately 9 months between 2004 and 2005. The leak resulted in 83 000 litres of the liquor being deposited on the floor of the cell and although all indications are that none of this liquor escaped into the ground and no--one was harmed, it did attract considerable media attention. HSE's Nuclear Safety Directorate instigated its own investigation which resulted in enforcement action being taken. BNG Sellafield was charged with 3 offenses under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, pleaded guilty and was fined pounds 500 k in Crown Court in January 2007. The incident was categorized as '3' on the International Nuclear Event Scale and attracted a lot of attention in this country and abroad. The event is useful in illustrating the difficulties in handling communications related to a high hazard nuclear site which even in normal operation can attract considerable attention. The role of the safety regulator is considered. It is proposed that communications issues can be grouped in to three distinct areas; - Early information by the licensee on the incident, status of the plant etc. which would be aimed at the public and media. - Ministerial reporting and as a result reporting to OGDs and our responsibility to early notify our international neighbours. - Lessons learnt from the event which in this case are fed hack to the industry through an HSE openly published report. This presentation covers each type of communication in the context of this event and draws conclusions on what can be considered good practice and what are some of the difficulties which may need to be overcome. (author)

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity are independent events, both of which involve protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D J; Frank, D W; Finck-Barbançon, V; Wu, C; Fleiszig, S M

    1998-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exhibit invasive or cytotoxic phenotypes. Cytotoxic strains acquire some of the characteristics of invasive strains when a regulatory gene, exsA, that controls the expression of several extracellular proteins, is inactivated. exsA mutants are not cytotoxic and can be detected within epithelial cells by gentamicin survival assays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epithelial cell invasion precedes and/or is essential for cytotoxicity. This was tested by measuring invasion (gentamicin survival) and cytotoxicity (trypan blue staining) of PA103 mutants deficient in specific exsA-regulated proteins and by testing the effect of drugs that inhibit invasion for their effect on cytotoxicity. A transposon mutant in the exsA-regulated extracellular factor exoU was neither cytotoxic nor invasive. Furthermore, several of the drugs that inhibited invasion did not prevent cytotoxicity. These results show that invasion and cytotoxicity are mutually exclusive events, inversely regulated by an exsA-encoded invasion inhibitor(s). Both involve host cell protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, but they differ in that invasion requires Src family tyrosine kinases and calcium-calmodulin activity. PTK inhibitor drugs such as genistein may have therapeutic potential through their ability to block both invasive and cytotoxicity pathways via an action on the host cell.

  16. University Response to Crisis Events Involving International Populations: The Case of Seven Directors of International Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study focuses on crisis events affecting university international populations. It explores how seven directors of university international offices at seven different geographical locations in Texas respond to those events. The study findings shed light on the current state of crisis preparedness in higher education from…

  17. Early disrupted neurovascular coupling and changed event level hemodynamic response function in type 2 diabetes: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João V; Pereira, João M S; Quendera, Bruno; Raimundo, Miguel; Moreno, Carolina; Gomes, Leonor; Carrilho, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients develop vascular complications and have increased risk for neurophysiological impairment. Vascular pathophysiology may alter the blood flow regulation in cerebral microvasculature, affecting neurovascular coupling. Reduced fMRI signal can result from decreased neuronal activation or disrupted neurovascular coupling. The uncertainty about pathophysiological mechanisms (neurodegenerative, vascular, or both) underlying brain function impairments remains. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated if the hemodynamic response function (HRF) in lesion-free brains of patients is altered by measuring BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent) response to visual motion stimuli. We used a standard block design to examine the BOLD response and an event-related deconvolution approach. Importantly, the latter allowed for the first time to directly extract the true shape of HRF without any assumption and probe neurovascular coupling, using performance-matched stimuli. We discovered a change in HRF in early stages of diabetes. T2DM patients show significantly different fMRI response profiles. Our visual paradigm therefore demonstrated impaired neurovascular coupling in intact brain tissue. This implies that functional studies in T2DM require the definition of HRF, only achievable with deconvolution in event-related experiments. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying impaired neurovascular coupling is needed to understand and potentially prevent the progression of brain function decrements in diabetes.

  18. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students Eventos negativos na infância e ansiedade social em estudantes universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Binelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i the loss of someone close, (ii emotional abuse, (iii physical abuse, (iv family violence, and (v sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. RESULTS: Mean (SD age was 21 (4.5, 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22, 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03. None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.INTRODUÇÃO: Existem evidências substanciais sobre o impacto de eventos negativos da vida durante a infância na etiologia dos transtornos psiquiátricos. Examinamos a associação entre os eventos negativos ocorridos na infância e a ansiedade social em uma amostra de 571 estudantes universitários espanhóis. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo transversal realizado em 2007, foram coletados os dados de variáveis sociodemográficas, história psiquiátrica pessoal e familiar e abuso de substâncias por meio de um questionário semiestruturado e avaliamos cinco eventos negativos ocorridos na infância: (i a perda de

  19. [Specification of cell destiny in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenberg, E

    1997-02-01

    Embryogenesis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been described completely on a cell-by-cell basis and found to be essentially invariant. With this knowledge in hands, micromanipulated embryos and mutants have been analyzed for cell lineage defects and the distribution of specific gene products. The results challenge the classical view of cell-autonomous development in nematodes and indicate that the early embryo of C. elegans is a highly dynamic system. A network of inductive events between neighboring cells is being revealed, which is necessary to assign different developmental programs to blastomeres. In those cases where molecules involved in these cell-cell interactions have been identified, homologies to cell surface receptors, ligands and transcription factors found in other systems have become obvious.

  20. Kinases Involved in Both Autophagy and Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xin

    2017-08-31

    Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides into two daughter cells. Autophagy is a process in which the cell digests its own cellular contents. Although autophagy regulation has mainly been studied in asynchronous cells, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is in fact tightly regulated in mitosis. Here in this review, we will discuss kinases that were originally identified to be involved in only one of either mitosis or autophagy, but were later found to participate in both processes, such as CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), Aurora kinases, PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1), BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), PI3K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase) and protein kinase B (AKT). By focusing on kinases involved in both autophagy and mitosis, we will get a more comprehensive understanding about the reciprocal regulation between the two key cellular events, which will also shed light on their related therapeutic investigations.

  1. Kinases Involved in Both Autophagy and Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides into two daughter cells. Autophagy is a process in which the cell digests its own cellular contents. Although autophagy regulation has mainly been studied in asynchronous cells, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is in fact tightly regulated in mitosis. Here in this review, we will discuss kinases that were originally identified to be involved in only one of either mitosis or autophagy, but were later found to participate in both processes, such as CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases, Aurora kinases, PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1, BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1, MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases, mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, PI3K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase and protein kinase B (AKT. By focusing on kinases involved in both autophagy and mitosis, we will get a more comprehensive understanding about the reciprocal regulation between the two key cellular events, which will also shed light on their related therapeutic investigations.

  2. Early nutrition and immunity - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calder, PC; Krauss-Etschmann, S; de Jong, EC

    2006-01-01

    and maintenance of tolerance are lifelong processes which start very early in life, even prenatally. Profound immunologic changes occur during pregnancy, involving a polarization of T helper (Th) cells towards a dominance of Th2 and regulatory T cell effector responses in both mother and fetus. This situation...... is important to maintain pregnancy through avoidance of the rejection of the immunologically incompatible fetus. During the third trimester of human pregnancy, fetal T cells are able to mount antigen-specific responses to environmental and food-derived antigens and antigen-specific T cells are detectable...... becomes competent and functional and that the gut becomes colonized with bacteria. Exposure to bacteria during birth and from the mother's skin and the provision of immunologic factors in breast milk are amongst the key events that promote maturation of the infant's gut and gut-associated and systemic...

  3. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  4. More evidence for a one-to-one correlation between Sprites and Early VLF perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldoupis, C.; Amvrosiadi, N.; Cotts, B. R. T.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ∼50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple...... VLF events. However, the one‐to‐one visible sprite to early VLF event correspondence, if viewed conversely, appears not to be always reciprocal. This is because the number of early events detected in some case studies was considerably larger than the number of visible sprites. Since the great majority...

  5. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint Models of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data with More Than One Event Time Outcome: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Philipson, Pete; Jorgensen, Andrea; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi

    2018-01-31

    Methodological development and clinical application of joint models of longitudinal and time-to-event outcomes have grown substantially over the past two decades. However, much of this research has concentrated on a single longitudinal outcome and a single event time outcome. In clinical and public health research, patients who are followed up over time may often experience multiple, recurrent, or a succession of clinical events. Models that utilise such multivariate event time outcomes are quite valuable in clinical decision-making. We comprehensively review the literature for implementation of joint models involving more than a single event time per subject. We consider the distributional and modelling assumptions, including the association structure, estimation approaches, software implementations, and clinical applications. Research into this area is proving highly promising, but to-date remains in its infancy.

  7. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  8. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  9. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  10. The public of media events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Morgner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the growing importance of large-scale events and their central role in a globalised media world in relation to public reactions and public involvement. The peculiar structure of such events requires a different understanding of mass communication and its audience. Therefore, the audience is further examined with regard to its impact on and inclusion in the media itself. Consequently, questions are raised as to how the public is incorporated, the form this inclusion takes and the effect that this has on the audience’s participation.The article examines different types of semantic inclusion, with a focus on emotional reactions towards three different media events: the Titanic disaster, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and the death of Princess Diana.

  11. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  12. Forced migrants involved in setting the agenda and designing research to reduce impacts of complex emergencies: combining Swarm with patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Julii Suzanne; Al Assaf, Enana; Omasete, Judith; Leach, Steve; Hammer, Charlotte C; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research. To further focus the research, two representatives of forced migrant communities were invited to join the project team as patient and public (PPI) representatives. They attended regular project meetings, insightfully contributed to and advised on practical aspects of potential research areas. The representatives identified cultural obstacles and community needs and helped choose the final research study design, which was to interview forced migrants about their strategies to build emotional resilience and prevent mental illness. The representatives also helped design recruitment documents, and undertake recruitment and interviewer training. Many events with wide-ranging negative health impacts are notable for complexity: lack of predictability, non-linear feedback mechanisms and unexpected consequences. A multi-disciplinary research team was tasked with reducing the public health impacts from complex events, but without a pre-specified topic area or research design. This report describes using patient and public involvement within an adaptable but structured development process to set research objectives and aspects of implementation. An agile adaptive development approach, sometimes described as swarm , was used to identify possible research areas. Swarm is meant to quickly identify strengths and weaknesses of any candidate project, to accelerate early failure before resources are invested. When aspects of the European migration crisis

  13. Astronomy on Tap: A New Event Series for Outreach and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Muna, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have established an innovative public outreach event series called Astronomy on Tap. The venues, format, timing, and content of the events aim to bring science to the public in an informal, engaging, creative way and to reach a larger, more diverse audience than typical public science lectures at academic and cultural institutions. Each event is held on a weekday evening at a bar and features several short astronomy-related presentations, usually electronic slides with other media formats encouraged. The presenters are typically early-career scientists (grad students, postdocs and new faculty) and occasionally educators, writers, and artists with experience relevant to astronomy. The informal and interactive environment is encouraged by allowing ample time for questions and conversations between presenters and the audience before, during, and after presentations. We also have a designated host who provides introductions, interludes, games, prizes, and give aways. The events serve as professional development by providing opportunities for early-career scientists to practice communication and presentation skills in a decidedly non-academic environment. We have successfully held over ten events in three cities in 2012-2013 and received extremely positive feedback from presenters, attendees, and venue staff. We present key practical considerations for hosting a similar event and share initial evaluation results collected at events in October 2013.

  14. The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly. Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy. The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably. This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  16. Anticipating and addressing event-specific alcohol consumption among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Jongenelis, Michelle I

    2016-07-29

    Various specific events and celebrations are associated with excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. End-of-school celebrations such as Schoolies in Australia are of particular concern given high levels of documented harm among underage and young drinkers. The present study investigated high school students' expectations of their Schoolies celebrations to inform future interventions to reduce adverse outcomes among members of this vulnerable group and other young people involved in similar rites of passage. A link to an online survey was distributed via high schools and Schoolies-related websites. The survey included qualitative questions that invited respondents to discuss (i) aspects of Schoolies they were looking forward to most and least and (ii) their perceptions of the likely consequences if they refrained from consuming alcohol during the event. In total, 435 students provided responses. Respondents discussed the role of Schoolies in marking their transition to adulthood. Their comments revealed a cross-temporal focus indicating that Schoolies is simultaneously symbolic of the past, present, and future. Through its ability to enhance social interaction, alcohol was perceived to have a vital role in realising the potential of this event to signify and facilitate this temporal progression. Results suggest interventions that treat Schoolies as an isolated event that occurs in specific locations may fail to appreciate the extent to which these events transcend time for those involved. Instead, harm reduction is likely to involve a reconceptualisation of the event among both participants and authority figures to facilitate the provision of alternative pastimes to drinking during Schoolies that yield similar social benefits.

  17. Early events in speciation: polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2004-06-15

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage.

  18. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  20. Early thromboembolic events ≤1week after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    characteristics, complete follow-up through the Danish National Patient Register, and detailed evaluation on disposing factors and consequences of "early" TEEs through review of medical records. RESULTS: In 13,775 procedures with a median LOS of 2days, 43 (0.32%; 95% CI: 0.23-0.42) "early" and 90 (0.65%; 95% CI...... reduced by improving perioperative treatment of anemia. Further research is needed regarding interventions for prevention of "early" TEE in disposed patients....

  1. What happens when we compare the lifespan distributions of life script events and autobiographical memories of life story events? A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    Cultural Life Script Theory (Berntsen and Rubin, 2004), provides a cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump: adults older than 40 years remember a significantly greater amount of life events happening between 15 - 30 years of age (Rubin, Rahal, & Poon, 1998), compared to other lifetime periods....... Most of these memories are rated as emotionally positive (Rubin & Berntsen, 2003). The cultural life script represents culturally shared expectations about the order and timing of life events in an typical, idealised life course. By comparing the lifespan distribution of the life scripts events...... and memories of life story events, we can determine the degree to which the cultural life script serves as a recall template for autobiographical memories, especially of positive life events from adolescence and early adulthood, also known as the reminiscence bump period....

  2. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.111 Early coordination... applicant for incorporation into the environmental assessment (EA) or draft EIS. (f) In order to ensure... obtained from: Director, Office of Human and Natural Environment, Federal Transit Administration...

  3. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  4. Early user involvement in designing intelligent products and environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.; Steen, M.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on user involvement in design. The focus of the review was on how researchers and designers attempt to cooperate with end-users, with the goal of making a better match with end-users’ needs and preferences. The main goal of the research was to get insight in which

  5. Prediction of Early Recurrent Thromboembolic Event and Major Bleeding in Patients With Acute Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation by a Risk Stratification Schema: The ALESSA Score Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Procopio, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Bandini, Fabio; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict early ischemic events and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) and severe atrial enlargement (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.87) were predictors for ischemic outcome events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism) at 90 days from acute stroke. Small lesions (≤1.5 cm) were inversely correlated with both major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.39; P =0.03) and ischemic outcome events (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.00). We assigned to age ≥80 years 2 points and between 70 and 79 years 1 point; ischemic index lesion >1.5 cm, 1 point; severe atrial enlargement, 1 point (ALESSA score). A logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure (C statistic) showed an area under the curve of 0.697 (0.632-0.763; P =0.0001) for ischemic outcome events and 0.585 (0.493-0.678; P =0.10) for major bleedings. The validation cohort consisted of 994 patients included in prospective series between April 2014 and June 2016. Logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure showed an area under the curve of 0.646 (0.529-0.763; P =0.009) for ischemic outcome events and 0.407 (0.275-0.540; P =0.14) for hemorrhagic outcome events. In acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, high ALESSA scores were associated with a high risk of ischemic events but not of major bleedings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Nurses involved in whistleblowing incidents: sequelae for their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Lesley M; Peters, Kath; Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Nurses involved in whistleblowing often face economic and emotional retaliation, victimization and abuse. Yet for many nurses, one major part of their whistleblowing experience is the negative impact it has on their families. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study pertaining to the effects of whistleblowing on family life from the perspective of the nurses. Using a narrative inquiry approach, fourteen nurses were interviewed who were directly involved in whistleblowing complaints. Data analysis drew out three themes: strained relationships with family members, dislocation of family life, and exposing family to public scrutiny. The harm caused to the nurses involved in a whistleblowing event is not restricted to one party but to all those involved, as the harrowing experience and its consequences are echoed in the family life as well. It is important for organizations to seek strategies that will minimize the harmful effects on nurses' families during whistleblowing events.

  7. Events Marketing Model of Dubai Shopping Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash Vel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities and places have become major destinations through taking the extra mile of creativity and offering a well-researched package of offerings through systematically planned events. One such leading example in the list of successful festivals that have earned a global reputation due to its uniqueness and creative event offerings is the Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF in the United Arab Emirates. This paper is a case study based description of the internal and external drivers involved in planning and implementing a global event successfully and has captured the various drivers through a structured framework. The analysis serves as a good addition to the existing literature on ‘Events Marketing’. 

  8. Considerations about radioactive events and their psycho social effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Laercia Abreu

    1995-01-01

    This study presents some behavioral patterns which are observed in the context of a radioactive accident. Comparing three different situations involving radioactive elements, Three Mile Island (USA), Chernobyl (ISC) and Goiania (Brazil), it is observed that, despite the differences in radiological levels, the populations involved show similar response characteristics. The impact of the radioactive events on health has been the main concern of the exposed population, and the response patterns observed in the different radioactive events seem to be less variable than it was proposed in the first studies. (author)

  9. Mechanisms involved in the p62-73 idiopeptide-modulated delay of lupus nephritis in SNF(1) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, J F; Stoll, M L; Jiang, F; Feng, F; Gavalchin, J

    2012-12-01

    The F(1) progeny of the (SWR × NZB) cross develop a lupus-like disease with high serum titers of autoantibodies, and increased frequency and severity of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in females. In previous work, we found that an idiotypic peptide corresponding to aa62-73 (p62-73) of the heavy chain variable region of autoantibody 540 (Id(LN)F(1)) induced the proliferation of p62-73 idiotype-reactive T cell clones. Further, monthly immunization of pre-nephritic SNF(1) female mice with p62-73 resulted in decreased nephritis and prolonged life spans. Here we show that this treatment modulated proliferative responses to Id(LN)F(1) antigen, including a reduction in the population of idiopeptide-presenting antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as early as two weeks after immunization (10 weeks of age). Th1-type cytokine production was increased at 12 weeks of age. The incidence and severity of nephritis was reduced by 14 weeks compared to controls. Clinical indicators of nephritis, specifically histological evidence of glomerulonephritis and urine protein levels, were reduced by 20 weeks. Together these data suggest that events involved in the mechanism(s) whereby p62-73 immunization delayed nephritis occurred early after immunization, and involved modulation of APCs, B and T cell populations.

  10. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  11. Parent Educational Involvement in Middle School: Longitudinal Influences on Student Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, S Andrew; Zerr, Argero A; Dishion, Thomas J; Seeley, John R; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2018-05-01

    The present study examined influences of 6 th grade student-reported parent educational involvement on early adolescent peer group affiliations at 7 th and 8 th grade. In addition, student gender and ethnicity were explored as possible moderators. Drawn from a large effectiveness trial, participants in this study were 5,802 early adolescents across twenty middle schools in the Northwest region of the United States. Findings suggested that specifically parent's educational involvement in 6 th grade predicted increases in positive peer affiliation, when controlling for a general score of parent monitoring practices. The relation between parent educational involvement and peer affiliation varied by student ethnicity but not by gender. Findings suggest the social benefits of parent's engagement with the school context on early adolescent development.

  12. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  13. Traumatic Experiences, Stressful Events, and Alexithymia in Chronic Migraine With Medication Overuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bottiroli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many factors are involved in the prognosis and outcome of Chronic Migraine and Medication Overuse Headache (CM+MOH, and their understanding is a topic of interest. It is well known that CM+MOH patients experience increased psychiatric comorbidity, such as anxiety, depression, or personality disorders. Other psychological factors still need to be explored. The present study is aimed to evaluate whether early life traumatic experiences, stressful life events, and alexithymia can be associated with CM+MOH.Methods: Three hundred and thirty-one individuals were recruited for this study. They belonged to one of the two following groups: CM+MOH (N = 179; 79% females, Age: 45.2 ± 9.8 and episodic migraine (EM (N = 152; 81% females; Age: 40.7 ± 11.0. Diagnosis was operationally defined according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-IIIβ. Data on early life (physical and emotional traumatic experiences, recent stressful events and alexithymia were collected by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Stressful life-events Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, respectively.Results: Data showed a higher prevalence of emotional (χ2 = 6.99; d.f. = 1; p = 0.006 and physical (χ2 = 6.18; d.f. = 1; p = 0.009 childhood trauma and of current stressful events of important impact (χ2 = 4.42; d.f. = 1; p = 0.025 in CM+MOH patients than in EM ones. CM+MOH patients were characterized by higher difficulties in a specific alexithymic trait (Factor 1 subscale of TAS-20 [F(1, 326 = 6.76, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.02] when compared to the EM group. The role of these factors was confirmed in a multivariate analysis, which showed an association of CM+MOH with emotional (OR 2.655; 95% CI 1.153–6.115, p = 0.022 or physical trauma (OR 2.763; 95% CI 1.322–5.771, p = 0.007, and a high score at the Factor 1 (OR 1.039; 95% CI 1.002–1.078, p = 0.040.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated a clear

  14. More evidence for a one-to-one correlation between Sprites and Early VLF perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldoupis, C.; Amvrosiadi, N.; Cotts, B. R. T.; van der Velde, O. A.; Chanrion, O.; Neubert, T.

    2010-07-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ˜50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple transmitter-receiver VLF pairs with great circle paths (GCPs) passing near a sprite-producing thunderstorm were available. In this setup, the multiple paths act in a complementary way that makes the detection of early VLF perturbations much more probable compared to a single VLF path that can miss several of them, a fact that was overlooked in past studies. The evidence shows that visible sprite occurrences are accompanied by early VLF perturbations in a one-to-one correspondence. This implies that the sprite generation mechanism may cause also sub-ionospheric conductivity disturbances that produce early VLF events. However, the one-to-one visible sprite to early VLF event correspondence, if viewed conversely, appears not to be always reciprocal. This is because the number of early events detected in some case studies was considerably larger than the number of visible sprites. Since the great majority of the early events not accompanied by visible sprites appeared to be caused by positive cloud to ground (+CG) lightning discharges, it is possible that sprites or sprite halos were concurrently present in these events as well but were missed by the sprite-watch camera detection system. In order for this option to be resolved we need more studies using highly sensitive optical systems capable of detecting weaker sprites, sprite halos and elves.

  15. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two high energy photons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event where two energetic photons ("gammas") are produced in a proton-proton collision in ATLAS. Many events of this type are produced by well-understood Standard Model processes ("backgrounds") which do not involve Higgs particles. A small excess of events of this type with similar masses could indicate evidence for Higgs particle production, but any specific event is most likely to be from the background. The photons are indicated, in the different projections and views, by the clusters of energy shown in yellow.

  16. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-12-17

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI.

  17. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  18. Reducing the occurrence of plant events through improved human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.; Burkhart, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    During a routine control room surveillance, the reactor operator is distracted by an alarming secondary annunciator and a telephone call. When the reactor operator resumes the surveillance, he inadvertently performs the procedural steps out of order. This causes a reportable nuclear event. How can procedure-related human performance problems such as this be prevented? The question is vitally important for the nuclear industry. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data observed, open-quotes With the perceived reduction in the number of events caused by equipment failures, INPO and other industry groups and human performance experts agree that a key to continued improvement in plant performance and safety is improved human performance.close quotes In fact, open-quotes more than 50% of the reportable events occurring at nuclear power plants involve human error.close quotes Prevention (or correction) of a human performance problem is normally based on properly balancing the following three factors: (1) supervisory involvement; (2) personnel training; and (3) procedures. The nuclear industry is implementing a formula known as ACME, which better balances supervisory involvement, personnel training, and procedures. Webster's New World Dictionary defines acme as the highest point, the peak. ACME human performance is the goal: ACME Adherence to and use of procedures; Self-Checking; Management Involvement; and Event Investigations

  19. Identification of ER Proteins Involved in the Functional Organisation of the Early Secretory Pathway in Drosophila Cells by a Targeted RNAi Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Vangelis; Tang, Yang; Fuchs, Florian; Boutros, Michael; Rabouille, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background In Drosophila, the early secretory apparatus comprises discrete paired Golgi stacks in close proximity to exit sites from the endoplasmic reticulum (tER sites), thus forming tER-Golgi units. Although many components involved in secretion have been identified, the structural components sustaining its organisation are less known. Here we set out to identify novel ER resident proteins involved in the of tER-Golgi unit organisation. Results To do so, we designed a novel screening strategy combining a bioinformatics pre-selection with an RNAi screen. We first selected 156 proteins exhibiting known or related ER retention/retrieval signals from a list of proteins predicted to have a signal sequence. We then performed a microscopy-based primary and confirmation RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells directly scoring the organisation of the tER-Golgi units. We identified 49 hits, most of which leading to an increased number of smaller tER-Golgi units (MG for “more and smaller Golgi”) upon depletion. 16 of them were validated and characterised, showing that this phenotype was not due to an inhibition in secretion, a block in G2, or ER stress. Interestingly, the MG phenotype was often accompanied by an increase in the cell volume. Out of 6 proteins, 4 were localised to the ER. Conclusions This work has identified novel proteins involved in the organisation of the Drosophila early secretory pathway. It contributes to the effort of assigning protein functions to gene annotation in the secretory pathway, and analysis of the MG hits revealed an enrichment of ER proteins. These results suggest a link between ER localisation, aspects of cell metabolism and tER-Golgi structural organisation. PMID:21383842

  20. Barriers to School Involvement: Are Immigrant Parents Disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Parental involvement at school offers unique opportunities for parents, and this school-based involvement has important implications for children's academic and behavioral outcomes. The authors used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001) to examine race and immigrant…

  1. Prediction of early recurrent thromboembolic event and major bleeding in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation by a risk stratification schema: the ALESSA score study

    OpenAIRE

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purposes—This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict early ischemic events and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.\\ud \\ud Methods—The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.11) and severe atrial enlar...

  2. Memory for past public events depends on retrieval frequency but not memory age in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Saur, Ralf; Leyhe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by retrograde memory deficits primarily caused by dysfunction of the hippocampal complex. Unresolved questions exist concerning the time course of hippocampal involvement in conscious recollection of declarative knowledge, as reports of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia is mediated by retrieval frequency or, in contrast, whether it depends on the age of the memory according to the assumptions of the main current theories of memory formation. We compared recall of past public events in patients with AD and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Historic Events Test (HET). The HET assesses knowledge about famous public events of the past 60 years divided into four time segments and consists of subjective memory rating, dating accuracy, and contextual memory tasks. Although memory for public events was impaired in AD patients, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency across all time segments and both groups. As AD and HC groups derived similar benefits from greater retrieval frequency, cortical structures other than the hippocampal complex may mediate memory retrieval. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved events and facts become more independent of the hippocampal complex and thus better protected against early damage of AD. This could explain why cognitive activity may delay the onset of memory decline in persons who develop AD.

  3. Sencity : A multi-sensory music event for deaf and hearing people

    OpenAIRE

    van der Peet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project thesis was to provide an insight into event management, especially when organising an event for a specific target group like the deaf community. The event in question is Sencity, a multi-sensory music event for deaf and hearing people which has been organized in various territories but never before in the United Kingdom. Event and project management are an essential part of organising an event. It is important to observe all aspects involved in organising an...

  4. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Anticipating and addressing event-specific alcohol consumption among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pettigrew

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various specific events and celebrations are associated with excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. End-of-school celebrations such as Schoolies in Australia are of particular concern given high levels of documented harm among underage and young drinkers. The present study investigated high school students’ expectations of their Schoolies celebrations to inform future interventions to reduce adverse outcomes among members of this vulnerable group and other young people involved in similar rites of passage. Methods A link to an online survey was distributed via high schools and Schoolies-related websites. The survey included qualitative questions that invited respondents to discuss (i aspects of Schoolies they were looking forward to most and least and (ii their perceptions of the likely consequences if they refrained from consuming alcohol during the event. In total, 435 students provided responses. Results Respondents discussed the role of Schoolies in marking their transition to adulthood. Their comments revealed a cross-temporal focus indicating that Schoolies is simultaneously symbolic of the past, present, and future. Through its ability to enhance social interaction, alcohol was perceived to have a vital role in realising the potential of this event to signify and facilitate this temporal progression. Conclusions Results suggest interventions that treat Schoolies as an isolated event that occurs in specific locations may fail to appreciate the extent to which these events transcend time for those involved. Instead, harm reduction is likely to involve a reconceptualisation of the event among both participants and authority figures to facilitate the provision of alternative pastimes to drinking during Schoolies that yield similar social benefits.

  6. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). January 1, 1990--December 31, 1994, Volume 2, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List provides brief summaries of hundreds of safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Events are described under the categories: Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing/Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms-related, Radiological Sabotage, Non-radiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. Because of the public interest, the Miscellaneous category also includes events reported involving source material, byproduct material, and natural uranium, which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Information in the event descriptions was obtained from official NRC sources

  7. Long-term effect of early treatment with interferon beta-1b after a first clinical event suggestive of multiple sclerosis: 5-year active treatment extension of the phase 3 BENEFIT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappos, Ludwig; Freedman, Mark S; Polman, Chris H

    2009-01-01

    with interferon beta-1b on time to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) and other disease outcomes, including disability progression. METHODS: Patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis and a minimum of two clinically silent lesions in MRI were randomly assigned to receive interferon...... index (FAMS-TOI) at 5 years. Analysis of the primary endpoints was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00185211. FINDINGS: 235 (80%) patients from the early treatment and 123 (70%) from the delayed treatment group completed the 5-year study. Early treatment...

  8. Early Events in Populus Hybrid and Fagus sylvatica Leaves Exposed to Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Desotgiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate early responses to ozone in leaves of Fagus sylvatica (beech and Populus maximowiczii x Populus berolinensis (poplar. The experimental setup consisted of four open-air (OA plots, four charcoal-filtered (CF open-top chambers (OTCs, and four nonfiltered (NF OTCs. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out on nonsymptomatic (CF and symptomatic (NF and OA leaves of both species. Qualitative analyses were performed applying microscopic techniques: Evans blue staining for detection of cell viability, CeCl3 staining of transmission electron microscope (TEM samples to detect the accumulation of H2O2, and multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry to investigate the accumulation of fluorescent phenolic compounds in the walls of the damaged cells. Quantitative analyses consisted of the analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients (fast kinetics. The early responses to ozone were demonstrated by the Evans blue and CeCl3 staining techniques that provided evidence of plant responses in both species 1 month before foliar symptoms became visible. The fluorescence transients analysis, too, demonstrated the breakdown of the oxygen evolving system and the inactivation of the end receptors of electrons at a very early stage, both in poplar and in beech. The accumulation of phenolic compounds in the cell walls, on the other hand, was a species-specific response detected in poplar, but not in beech. Evans blue and CeCl3 staining, as well as the multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry, can be used to support the field diagnosis of ozone injury, whereas the fast kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence provides evidence of early physiological responses.

  9. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  10. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdy, P.; Davidson, J.; Lin, H.

    1981-09-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  11. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  12. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  13. Observation of monojet events and tentative interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztazabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Donvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Foà, L.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliwsi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; San Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-08-01

    A data sample corresponding to almost two million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP has been searched for monojet events. Three events were found, in agreement with the expectation from the process ee→γ*vvbar, with γ*→ffbar. Two events are hadronic, the third one being an e+e- pair. All monojet masses are in excess of 3 GeV/c2, and two of the event have large transverse momenta: 18.5 and 20.3 GeV/c. These kinematic characteristics are quite unlikely in the process ee→γ*vvbar. The probability of their occurence increases substantially when processes involving further Z or W exchanges are taken into account, but still remains at the 5% level.

  14. 'Finding a balance' in involving patients in goal setting early after stroke: a physiotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Roberts, A R; Freeman, J A

    2014-09-01

    Collaborative goal setting (between patient and professional) confers benefits within stroke and neurological rehabilitation, and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, evidence suggests that patient participation in rehabilitation goal setting is not maximized, particularly within the hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiotherapists' perceptions about their experiences of collaborative goal setting with patients in the sub-acute stages after stroke, in the hospital setting. This qualitative study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Nine physiotherapists, of varying experience, were selected using purposive then theoretical sampling from three National Health Service hospital stroke units in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory to find common themes. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) 'coming to terms with stroke' - the individual patient journey; 2) the evolution of goal setting skill - the individual physiotherapist journey; and 3) 'finding a balance' - managing expectations and negotiating interactions. A provisional grounded theory was constructed, which highlighted that, from the physiotherapists' perspective, collaboration with patients within goal setting early after stroke involved finding a balance between numerous different drivers, which have the potential to compete. Patient-directed and therapist-directed goal setting approaches could be viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, along which patient-centred goal setting is possible. Physiotherapists perceived that collaborating with patients in goal setting was important but challenging. Goal setting interactions with other professionals, patients and families were perceived as complex, difficult and requiring significant effort. The importance of individuality and temporality were recognized suggesting that

  15. Parent Educational Involvement in Middle School: Longitudinal Influences on Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, S. Andrew; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Seeley, John R.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined influences of 6th grade student-reported parent educational involvement on early adolescent peer group affiliations at 7th and 8th grade. In addition, student gender and ethnicity were explored as possible moderators. Drawn from a large effectiveness trial, participants in this study were 5,802 early adolescents across twenty middle schools in the Northwest region of the United States. Findings suggested that specifically parent’s educational involvement in 6th grade predicted increases in positive peer affiliation, when controlling for a general score of parent monitoring practices. The relation between parent educational involvement and peer affiliation varied by student ethnicity but not by gender. Findings suggest the social benefits of parent’s engagement with the school context on early adolescent development. PMID:29731534

  16. Family events and the residential mobility of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves

  17. The Data Party: Involving Stakeholders in Meaningful Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of Extension includes the involvement of stakeholders in research and program needs assessment, design, implementation, evaluation, and reporting. A data party can be used to enhance this stakeholder involvement specifically in data analysis. This type of event can not only increase client participation in Extension programming and…

  18. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVDAC2 Is Involved in ABA-Mediated Early Seedling Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is the major transport protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria and plays crucial roles in energy metabolism, apoptosis, and metabolites transport. In plants, the expression of VDACs can be affected by different stresses, including drought, salinity and pathogen defense. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of AtVDAC2 in A. thaliana and found ABA suppressed the accumulation of AtVDAC2 transcripts. Further, phenotype analysis of this VDAC deregulated-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants indicated that AtVDAC2 anti-sense line showed an ABA-insensitivity phenotype during the early seedling development under ABA treatment. The results suggested that AtVDAC2 might be involved in ABA signaling in A. thaliana.

  19. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  20. Meaning in meaninglessness: The propensity to perceive meaningful patterns in coincident events and randomly arranged stimuli is linked to enhanced attention in early sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Christian; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Papousek, Ilona

    2018-05-01

    Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Self-reported and behavioral indicators of the perception of meaningful patterns were assessed in non-clinical individuals, along with EEG auditory evoked potentials during the performance of an attention related lateralized speech perception task (Dichotic Listening Test). A greater propensity to perceive meaningful patterns was associated with higher N1 amplitudes of the evoked potentials to the onset of the dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllables, indicating enhanced automatic attention in early sensory processing. The study suggests that more basic mechanisms in how people associate events may play a greater role in the cognitive biases that are manifest in personality expressions such as positive schizotypy, rather than that positive schizotypy moderates these cognitive biases directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  2. Reconstruction of the gene regulatory network involved in the sonic hedgehog pathway with a potential role in early development of the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is crucial for pattern formation in early central nervous system development. By systematically analyzing high-throughput in situ hybridization data of E11.5 mouse brain, we found that Shh and its receptor Ptch1 define two adjacent mutually exclusive gene expression domains: Shh+Ptch1- and Shh-Ptch1+. These two domains are associated respectively with Foxa2 and Gata3, two transcription factors that play key roles in specifying them. Gata3 ChIP-seq experiments and RNA-seq assays on Gata3-knockdown cells revealed that Gata3 up-regulates the genes that are enriched in the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. Important Gata3 targets include Slit2 and Slit3, which are involved in the process of axon guidance, as well as Slc18a1, Th and Qdpr, which are associated with neurotransmitter synthesis and release. By contrast, Foxa2 both up-regulates the genes expressed in the Shh+Ptch1- domain and down-regulates the genes characteristic of the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. From these and other data, we were able to reconstruct a gene regulatory network governing both domains. Our work provides the first genome-wide characterization of the gene regulatory network involved in the Shh pathway that underlies pattern formation in the early mouse brain.

  3. Influence of novobiocin on mitotic events and radiation-induced G2-arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1987-01-01

    Novobiocin was used in CHO cells to test for an involvement of topoisomerase II activity in; 1) the induction of, and recovery from, radiation-induced G 2 -arrest and 2) progression through mitosis. Novobiocin blocked recovery from G 2 -arrest with a concentration dependency which suggested that this effect resulted from protein synthesis inhibition. Novobiocin alone, at concentrations above 500 μgml, blocked cell progression in early mitosis. The transition point was distinct from that of protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors and was the only arrest point in mitosis. A similar block was imposed by coumermycin. While this may indicate a requirement for topoisomerase II activity during chromosome condensation, it was also associated with inhibition of histone phosphorylation. Histone H3 phosphorylation is believed to be necessary for chromosome condensation and, when inhibited by novobiocin, correlates with a block in premature chromatin condensation in tsBN2 cells. The authors' data thus unite these two findings, provide an opportunity to analyse the temporal relationship between histone phosphorylation and mitotic events and suggest that topological reorganization of the chromatin is not involved in radiation-induced G 2 arrest

  4. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  6. a model for quantity estimation for multi-coded team events

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in multi-coded sports events often involves travel to international ... Medication use by Team south africa during the XXVIIIth olympiad: a model .... individual sports included in the programme (e.g. athletes involved in contact sports ...

  7. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  8. Four-Month-Old Infants? Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    OpenAIRE

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to s...

  9. Early tectonic history of the Marymia Inlier and correlation with the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagas, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Archaean granite-greenstone rocks of the Marymia Inlier outcrop within Proterozoic rocks forming the Capricorn Orogen. Five major deformation events are recognised in the rocks of the Plutonic Well and Baumgarten greenstone belts. The first two events were Late Archaean and synchronous with major epithermal gold mineralisation in the belts. Palaeoproterozoic extensional faulting was probably related to the early stages of the Capricorn Orogeny. The fourth event records a compressional phase of the Capricorn Orogeny associated with greenschist-facies metamorphism, whereas the last major event involved wrench faulting associated with minor folding. The Archaean tectonic history, rock types and timing of mineralisation strongly suggest that the Marymia Inlier is part of the Yilgarn Craton, and that each of the provinces in the craton experienced the same geological history since 2.72 Ga. The inlier is now interpreted to include two components, one is the eastern or northern extension of either the Narryer Terrane. Murchison Province or Southern Cross Province, and the other is the northwestern extension of the Eastern Goldfields Province. The Jenkin Fault, which was active in Proterozoic times, separates these two components. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Importance of individual events in temporal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Masuda, Naoki; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Records of time-stamped social interactions between pairs of individuals (e.g. face-to-face conversations, e-mail exchanges and phone calls) constitute a so-called temporal network. A remarkable difference between temporal networks and conventional static networks is that time-stamped events rather than links are the unit elements generating the collective behavior of nodes. We propose an importance measure for single interaction events. By generalizing the concept of the advance of events proposed by Kossinets et al (2008 Proc. 14th ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining p 435), we propose that an event is central when it carries new information about others to the two nodes involved in the event. We find that the proposed measure properly quantifies the importance of events in connecting nodes along time-ordered paths. Because of strong heterogeneity in the importance of events present in real data, a small fraction of highly important events is necessary and sufficient to sustain the connectivity of temporal networks. Nevertheless, in contrast to the behavior of scale-free networks against link removal, this property mainly results from bursty activity patterns and not heterogeneous degree distributions. (paper)

  11. Early nongenomic events in aldosterone action in renal collecting duct cells: PKCalpha activation, mineralocorticoid receptor phosphorylation, and cross-talk with the genomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moëllic, Cathy; Ouvrard-Pascaud, Antoine; Capurro, Claudia; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Fay, Michel; Jaisser, Frederic; Farman, Nicolette; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel

    2004-05-01

    Effects of aldosterone on its target cells have long been considered to be mediated exclusively through the genomic pathway; however, evidence has been provided for rapid effects of the hormone that may involve nongenomic mechanisms. Whether an interaction exists between these two signaling pathways is not yet established. In this study, the authors show that aldosterone triggers both early nongenomic and late genomic increase in sodium transport in the RCCD(2) rat cortical collecting duct cell line. In these cells, the early (up to 2.5 h) aldosterone-induced increase in short-circuit current (Isc) is not blocked by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist RU26752, it does not require mRNA or protein synthesis, and it involves the PKCalpha signaling pathway. In addition, this early response is reproduced by aldosterone-BSA, which acts at the cell surface and presumably does not enter the cells (aldo-BSA is unable to trigger the late response). The authors also show that MR is rapidly phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by aldosterone or aldosterone-BSA. In contrast, the late (4 to 24 h) aldosterone-induced increase in ion transport occurs through activation of the MR and requires mRNA and protein synthesis. Interestingly, nongenomic and genomic aldosterone actions appear to be interdependent. Blocking the PKCalpha pathway results in the inhibition of the late genomic response to aldosterone, as demonstrated by the suppression of aldosterone-induced increase in MR transactivation activity, alpha1 Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase mRNA, and Isc. These data suggest cross-talk between the nongenomic and genomic responses to aldosterone in renal cells and suggest that the aldosterone-MR mediated increase in mRNA/protein synthesis and ion transport depends, at least in part, upon PKCalpha activation. E-mail: marcel.blot-chabaud@pharmacie.univ-mrs.fr

  12. Nuclear. Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident. Treaty series 1990 no.21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The States present at this convention are aware that comprehensive measures have been are being taken to ensure a high level of safety in nuclear activities, aimed at preventing nuclear accidents and minimizing the consequences of any such accident should it occur. The States are convinced of the need to provide relevant information about nuclear accidents as early as possible in order that transboundary radiological consequences can be minimized. In the event of an accident the State involved will notify, through the International Energy Agency the other States which may be physically affected, as to the nature of the accident, the time of occurrence and its exact location.

  13. Nuclear. Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident. Treaty series 1990 no.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The States present at this convention are aware that comprehensive measures have been are being taken to ensure a high level of safety in nuclear activities, aimed at preventing nuclear accidents and minimizing the consequences of any such accident should it occur. The States are convinced of the need to provide relevant information about nuclear accidents as early as possible in order that transboundary radiological consequences can be minimized. In the event of an accident the State involved will notify, through the International Energy Agency the other States which may be physically affected, as to the nature of the accident, the time of occurrence and its exact location

  14. Root cause analysis of critical events in neurosurgery, New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Vanessa; Sheridan, Mark M P

    2015-09-01

    Adverse events reportedly occur in 5% to 10% of health care episodes. Not all adverse events are the result of error; they may arise from systemic faults in the delivery of health care. Catastrophic events are not only physically devastating to patients, but they also attract medical liability and increase health care costs. Root cause analysis (RCA) has become a key tool for health care services to understand those adverse events. This study is a review of all the RCA case reports involving neurosurgical patients in New South Wales between 2008 and 2013. The case reports and data were obtained from the Clinical Excellence Commission database. The data was then categorized by the root causes identified and the recommendations suggested by the RCA committees. Thirty-two case reports were identified in the RCA database. Breaches in policy account for the majority of root causes identified, for example, delays in transfer of patients or wrong-site surgery, which always involved poor adherence to correct patient and site identification procedures. The RCA committees' recommendations included education for staff, and improvements in rostering and procedural guidelines. RCAs have improved the patient safety profile; however, the RCA committees have no power to enforce any recommendation or ensure compliance. A single RCA may provide little learning beyond the unit and staff involved. However, through aggregation of RCA data and dissemination strategies, health care workers can learn from adverse events and prevent future events from occurring. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. A Spectroscopic and Photometric Study of Gravitational Microlensing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.

    2000-08-01

    Gravitational microlensing has generated a great deal of scientific interest over recent years. This has been largely due to the realization of its wide-reaching applications, such as the search for dark matter, the detection of planets, and the study of Galactic structure. A significant observational advance has been that most microlensing events can be identified in real-time while the source is still being lensed. More than 400 microlensing events have now been detected towards the Galactic bulge and Magellanic Clouds by the microlensing survey teams EROS, MACHO, OGLE, DUO, and MOA. The real-time detection of these events allows detailed follow-up observations with much denser sampling, both photometrically and spectroscopically. The research undertaken in this project on photometric studies of gravitational microlensing events has been performed as a member of the PLANET (Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork) collaboration. This is a worldwide collaboration formed in the early part of 1995 to study microlensing anomalies - departures from an achromatic point source, point lens light curve - through rapidly-sampled, multi-band, photometry. PLANET has demonstrated that it can achieve 1% photometry under ideal circumstances, making PLANET observations sensitive to detection of Earth-mass planets which require characterization of 1%--2% deviations from a standard microlensing light curve. The photometric work in this project involved over 5 months using the 1.0 m telescope at Canopus Observatory in Australia, and 3 separate observing runs using the 0.9 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. Methods were developed to reduce the vast amount of photometric data using the image analysis software MIDAS and the photometry package DoPHOT. Modelling routines were then written to analyse a selection of the resulting light curves in order to detect any deviation from an achromatic point source - point lens light curve. The photometric

  16. Abnormalities of Early “Memory-Scanning” Event-Related Potentials in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grippo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recorded auditory event-related potentials (ERPs evoked by the “memory-scanning” (digit-probe identification/matching paradigm that was originally described by Sternberg (1966, in 17 patients with complex partial seizures (temporal lobe epilepsy and in 17 matched healthy control subjects. The patients, who had all complained spontaneously of memory difficulties, had significantly reduced scores on psychological tests of memory with relatively intact digit span and cognition. Their performance of the memory-scanning task was characterized by a higher error rate, longer reaction times and an increased slope of the reaction time/set size relationship. The associated ERPs in both patients and controls showed there were significant effects of memory load on several major components, but only a reduced amplitude of the N170 and a prolonged latency of the N290 waves distinguished the patients. In addition, the N170 wave in the patients decreased further as memory load increased. The prolonged N290 latency in the patients appeared to reflect the slowed processing time. This study has shown that ERPs generated by a short-term memory task are abnormal in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have neuropsychologically documented cognitive and memory deficits. Some of the significant waveform alterations occur earlier than those reported in previous ERP studies and provide electrophysiological support for the hypothesis that abnormalities of the early stages of short-term memory processing may contribute to the memory difficulties experienced by patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  17. Involvement of the iNKT Cell Pathway Is Associated With Early-Onset Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Response to Allergen Avoidance Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexmond, Willem S.; Neves, Joana F.; Nurko, Samuel; Olszak, Torsten; Exley, Mark A.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent experimental evidence suggests that environmental microbial factors early in life determine susceptibility to allergic diseases through inappropriate chemotaxis and local activation of CD1d-restricted, invariant chain natural killer T (iNKT) cells. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of these pathways in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) before and after dietary allergen elimination. METHODS mRNA expression levels of components of the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16)–iNKT–CD1d axis were compared in esophageal biopsies from EoE patients vs. normal or inflammatory controls and before and after treatment. RESULTS CXCL16, iNKT cell–associated cell marker Vα24, and CD1d were significantly upregulated in esophageal biopsies from EoE patients and correlated with the expression of inflammatory mediators associated with allergy. Upregulation of each of these factors was significantly more pronounced in patients aged < 6 years at diagnosis, and this early-onset EoE subpopulation was characterized by a more prominent food allergic disease phenotype in a cohort-wide analysis. Successful, but not unsuccessful, treatment of early-onset EoE patients with dietary elimination of instigating allergens led to reduction in infiltrating iNKT cells and complete normalization of mRNA expression levels of CXCL16 and CD1d. CONCLUSIONS Our observations place iNKT cells at the center of allergic inflammation associated with EoE, which could have profound implications for our understanding, treatment and prevention of this and other human allergic diseases. PMID:24513807

  18. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  19. Early Involvement of Death-Associated Protein Kinase Promoter Hypermethylation in the Carcinogenesis of Barrett's Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Its Association with Clinical Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerthe Kuester

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BA develops through a multistage process, which is associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by promoter CpG island hypermethylation. In this study, we explored the promoter hypermethylation and protein expression of proapoptotic deathassociated protein kinase (DAPK during the multistep Barrett's carcinogenesis cascade. Early BA and paired samples of premalignant lesions of 61 patients were analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. For the association of clinicopathological markers and protein expression, an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis of 66 additional BAs of advanced tumor stages was performed. Hypermethylation of DAPK promoter was detected in 20% of normal mucosa, 50% of Barrett's metaplasia, 53% of dysplasia, and 60% of adenocarcinomas, and resulted in a marked decrease in DAPK protein expression (P < .01. The loss of DAPK protein was significantly associated with advanced depth of tumor invasion and advanced tumor stages (P < .001. Moreover, the severity of reflux esophagitis correlated significantly with the hypermethylation rate of the DAPK promoter (P < .003. Thus, we consider DAPK inactivation by promoter hypermethylation as an early event in Barrett's carcinogenesis and suggest that a decreased protein expression of DAPK likely plays a role in the development and progression of BA.

  20. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  1. Analyzing phenological extreme events over the past five decades in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleip, Christoph; Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Graeser, Philipp

    2010-05-01

    As climate change may alter the frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures, we analysed whether warming of the last 5 decades has already changed the statistics of phenological extreme events. In this context, two extreme value statistical concepts are discussed and applied to existing phenological datasets of German Weather Service (DWD) in order to derive probabilities of occurrence for extreme early or late phenological events. We analyse four phenological groups; "begin of flowering, "leaf foliation", "fruit ripening" and "leaf colouring" as well as DWD indicator phases of the "phenological year". Additionally we put an emphasis on a between-species analysis; a comparison of differences in extreme onsets between three common northern conifers. Furthermore we conducted a within-species analysis with different phases of horse chestnut throughout a year. The first statistical approach fits data to a Gaussian model using traditional statistical techniques, and then analyses the extreme quantile. The key point of this approach is the adoption of an appropriate probability density function (PDF) to the observed data and the assessment of the PDF parameters change in time. The full analytical description in terms of the estimated PDF for defined time steps of the observation period allows probability assessments of extreme values for e.g. annual or decadal time steps. Related with this approach is the possibility of counting out the onsets which fall in our defined extreme percentiles. The estimation of the probability of extreme events on the basis of the whole data set is in contrast to analyses with the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV). The second approach deals with the extreme PDFs itself and fits the GEV distribution to annual minima of phenological series to provide useful estimates about return levels. For flowering and leaf unfolding phases exceptionally early extremes are seen since the mid 1980s and especially for the single years 1961

  2. Urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels: an early sign of cardio-renal syndrome in young adults born preterm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios; Mussap, Michele; Flore, Giovanna; Noto, Antonio; Puddu, Melania; Saba, Luca; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Prematurity at birth is a known risk factor for the development of an early chronic renal disease. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a well established biomarker of kidney injury, while high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with the future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. (1) to verify the presence of statistically significant differences between urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (<1000 g; ex-ELBW) and those of a control group of healthy adults born at term (C) (2) to seek correlations between NGAL and ADMA levels, which would indicate the presence of an early cardio-renal involvement in ex-ELBW. Twelve ex-ELBW subjects (six males and six female, mean age: 23.9 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 12 C (six males and six female). Urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels were assessed. Urinary NGAL levels were higher in ex- ELBW subjects compared to C (p < 0.05), as well as hematic ADMA concentrations (p < 0.05). A statistically significant correlation was found between urinary NGAL and ADMA (r = -0.60, p < 0.04). Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that in ex-ELBW subjects the development of an early chronic kidney disease contributes towards inducing an increase in the atherosclerotic process and in the risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.

  3. Early trigeminal nerve involvement in Listeria monocytogenes rhombencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William K; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Roed, Casper

    2017-01-01

    dysfunction on that side. In addition, we identified another 120 cases of Listeria rhombencephalitis following a systematic review. Cranial nerves VII, V, IX, and X, respectively, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and pons, were the most frequently involved brain structures. The present clinical and radiological...... findings corroborate earlier data from animal experiments, indicating that L. monocytogenes may be capable of retrograde intra-axonal migration along the cranial nerves. We suggest that in a subset of patients with rhombencephalitis L. monocytogenes enters the cerebellopontine angle through the trigeminal......Listeria monocytogenes is associated with rhombencephalitis. However, the exact mechanisms of brainstem invasion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate clinical and radiological data suggesting that Listeria may invade the brainstem via the trigeminal nerve. Three females (41, 64 and 70...

  4. An Event Reporting and Early-Warning Safety System Based on the Internet of Things for Underground Coal Mines: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wan Jo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatal accidents associated with underground coal mines require the implementation of high-level gas monitoring and miner’s localization approaches to promote underground safety and health. This study introduces a real-time monitoring, event-reporting and early-warning platform, based on cluster analysis for outlier detection, spatiotemporal statistical analysis, and an RSS range-based weighted centroid localization algorithm for improving safety management and preventing accidents in underground coal mines. The proposed platform seamlessly integrates monitoring, analyzing, and localization approaches using the Internet of Things (IoT, cloud computing, a real-time operational database, application gateways, and application program interfaces. The prototype has been validated and verified at the operating underground Hassan Kishore coal mine. Sensors for air quality parameters including temperature, humidity, CH4, CO2, and CO demonstrated an excellent performance, with regression constants always greater than 0.97 for each parameter when compared to their commercial equivalent. This framework enables real-time monitoring, identification of abnormal events (>90%, and verification of a miner’s localization (with <1.8 m of error in the harsh environment of underground mines. The main contribution of this study is the development of an open source, customizable, and cost-effective platform for effectively promoting underground coal mine safety. This system is helpful for solving the problems of accessibility, serviceability, interoperability, and flexibility associated with safety in coal mines.

  5. Human Hsp10 and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF) and their relationship and involvement in cancer and immunity: current knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Simona; Campanella, Claudia; Anzalone, Rita; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Conway de Macario, Everly; Macario, Alberto J L; Cappello, Francesco; La Rocca, Giampiero

    2010-01-30

    This article is about Hsp10 and its intracellular and extracellular forms focusing on the relationship of the latter with Early Pregnancy Factor and on their roles in cancer and immunity. Cellular physiology and survival are finely regulated and depend on the correct functioning of the entire set of proteins. Misfolded or unfolded proteins can cause deleterious effects and even cell death. The chaperonins Hsp10 and Hsp60 act together inside the mitochondria to assist protein folding. Recent studies demonstrated that these proteins have other roles inside and outside the cell, either together or independently of each other. For example, Hsp10 was found increased in the cytosol of different tumors (although in other tumors it was found decreased). Moreover, Hsp10 localizes extracellularly during pregnancy and is often indicated as Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF), which is released during the first stages of gestation and is involved in the establishment of pregnancy. Various reports show that extracellular Hsp10 and EPF modulate certain aspects of the immune response with anti-inflammatory effects in patients with autoimmune conditions improving clinically after treatment with recombinant Hsp10. Moreover, Hsp10 and EPF are involved in embryonic development, acting as a growth factor, and in cell proliferation/differentiation mechanisms. Therefore, it becomes evident that Hsp10 is not only a co-chaperonin, but an active player in its own right in various cellular functions. In this article, we present an overview of various aspects of Hsp10 and EPF as they participate in physiological and pathological processes such as the antitumor response and autoimmune diseases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed.

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This document represents a revision of the list published December 1980 of safeguards-related events involving NRC licensees and licensed material. It summarizes events occurring between June 30, 1982 and December 31, 1982. Editorial changes to earlier pages are also included

  8. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  9. EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAITO, N.; SCHAEFER, A.

    1999-01-01

    This volume archives the reports from the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics II'' held during the week March 15, 1999 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It was the second meeting on the subject following a first one in last September. This workshop has been initiated to establish a firm collaboration between theorists and experimentalists involved in RHIC spin physics with the aim of developing a reliable, high-precision event generator for RHIC spin physics. Needless to say, adequate event generators are indispensable tools for high energy physics programs in general, especially in the process of: planning the experimental programs; developing algorithms to extract the physics signals of interest; estimating the background in the extracted results, and connecting the final particle kinematics to the fundamental i.e. partonic level processes. Since RHIC is the first polarized collider, dedicated efforts are required to obtain a full-fledged event generator which describes spin dependent reactions in great detail

  10. Ontology-based prediction of surgical events in laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    Context-aware technologies have great potential to help surgeons during laparoscopic interventions. Their underlying idea is to create systems which can adapt their assistance functions automatically to the situation in the OR, thus relieving surgeons from the burden of managing computer assisted surgery devices manually. To this purpose, a certain kind of understanding of the current situation in the OR is essential. Beyond that, anticipatory knowledge of incoming events is beneficial, e.g. for early warnings of imminent risk situations. To achieve the goal of predicting surgical events based on previously observed ones, we developed a language to describe surgeries and surgical events using Description Logics and integrated it with methods from computational linguistics. Using n-Grams to compute probabilities of followup events, we are able to make sensible predictions of upcoming events in real-time. The system was evaluated on professionally recorded and labeled surgeries and showed an average prediction rate of 80%.

  11. Early diversification trend and Asian origin for extent bat lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Wu, Y; Yang, G

    2014-10-01

    Bats are a unique mammalian group, which belong to one of the largest and most diverse mammalian radiations, but their early diversification is still poorly understood, and conflicting hypotheses have emerged regarding their biogeographic history. Understanding their diversification is crucial for untangling the enigmatic evolutionary history of bats. In this study, we elucidated the rate of diversification and the biogeographic history of extant bat lineages using genus-level chronograms. The results suggest that a rapid adaptive radiation persisted from the emergence of crown bats until the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, whereas there was a major deceleration in diversification around 35-49 Ma. There was a positive association between changes in the palaeotemperature and the net diversification rate until 35 Ma, which suggests that the palaeotemperature may have played an important role in the regulation of ecological opportunities. By contrast, there were unexpectedly higher diversification rates around 25-35 Ma during a period characterized by intense and long-lasting global cooling, which implies that intrinsic innovations or adaptations may have released some lineages from the intense selective pressures associated with these severe conditions. Our reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests an Asian origin for bats, thereby indicating that the current panglobal but disjunct distribution pattern of extant bats may be related to events involving seriate cross-continental dispersal and local extinction, as well as the influence of geological events and the expansion and contraction of megathermal rainforests during the Tertiary. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. NPP unusual events: data, analysis and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, V.

    1990-01-01

    Subject of the paper are the IAEA cooperative patterns of unusual events data treatment and utilization of the operating safety experience feedback. The Incident Reporting System (IRS) and the Analysis of Safety Significant Event Team (ASSET) are discussed. The IRS methodology in collection, handling, assessment and dissemination of data on NPP unusual events (deviations, incidents and accidents) occurring during operations, surveillance and maintenance is outlined by the reports gathering and issuing practice, the experts assessment procedures and the parameters of the system. After 7 years of existence the IAEA-IRS contains over 1000 reports and receives 1.5-4% of the total information on unusual events. The author considers the reports only as detailed technical 'records' of events requiring assessment. The ASSET approaches implying an in-depth occurrences analysis directed towards level-1 PSA utilization are commented on. The experts evaluated root causes for the reported events and some trends are presented. Generally, internal events due to unexpected paths of water in the nuclear installations, occurrences related to the integrity of the primary heat transport systems, events associated with the engineered safety systems and events involving human factor represent the large groups deserving close attention. Personal recommendations on how to use the events related information use for NPP safety improvement are given. 2 tabs (R.Ts)

  13. Skin carcinomas in organ-transplant recipients : from early oncogenic events to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Ymke Grete Leontien de

    2008-01-01

    Skin carcinomas develop at a high rate in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immune suppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. The present study dealt with a broad range of aspects of this elevated carcinoma risk, starting from the earliest oncogenic events to the ultimate therapy.

  14. Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisi