WorldWideScience

Sample records for early european explorations

  1. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated....... Understanding the historical premises of European education would allow us to understand the trajectory that education systems have had till today, in Europe and beyond........ This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  2. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within and betw...

  3. First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wambeke, L.; Sanderson, D.J.; Dolan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration' organized by the Commission of the European Communities in February 1985 took stock of the results obtained within the European Community on the application of remote sensing techniques in exploration. The papers presented in this publication are essentially based on data obtained with the first generation of satellites and some airborne experiments. Important progress in data processing and interpretation has been made in the EEC since 1979 and is continuing to be made. The main aim is to provide the EC mining industry with a new tool for exploration. Significant results have already been obtained with the EEC playing an important role in the promotion of this relatively new technique. The main R and D trend is towards an integration of multidata sets (remote sensing, geochemical, geophysical and other data) to improve the methodology for delineating new targets in exploration. Another general trend is the participation of mining companies in remote sensing experiments. Further improvement for exploration is expected in the near future with the thematic mapper and the spot imageries as well as new airborne sensors

  4. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Maria; O'Shea, Miriam; J Larkin, Philip; Kamionka, Stine Lundstroem; Berry, Jay; Hiscock, Harriet; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey . A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. We identified 'in-principle' complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues. The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  5. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  6. Exploring the Early Universe on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The widespread adoption of smart phones and tablet computers has the potential to revolutionize the way in which educational material is shared with the general public. As part of the outreach effort for the CANDELS survey, we have developed a free interactive astronomy education application named Hubble Universe for iPad and iPhone devices. The application focuses on extragalactic science topics related to the CANDELS legacy survey, which is documenting galaxy evolution in the early universe. I will provide an overview of the application, which contains a wide range of interactive content, including 3D models of astrophysical phenomenon, informative diagrams and computer simulations. I will discuss how the application can be used to enhance classroom learning both by providing a database of interactive media and by encouraging students to explore astronomical topics away from traditional settings like the classroom or the desktop computer.

  7. Housing First: exploring participants’ early support needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing First has become a popular treatment model for homeless adults with mental illness, yet little is known about program participants’ early experiences or trajectories. This study used a mixed methods design to examine participant changes in selected domains 6 months after enrolment in a Canadian field trial of Housing First. Methods The study sample included 301 participants receiving the Housing First intervention at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi project. This study used a pre-post design to compare quantitative 6-month outcome data to baseline values in key domains and multivariate regression to identify baseline demographic, clinical or service use variables associated with observed changes in these domains. In addition, qualitative data exploring participant and service provider perspectives and experiences was collected via stakeholder interviews and focus groups, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The majority (60 to 72%) of participants followed the expected trajectory of improvement, with the remaining experiencing difficulties in community integration, mental health symptom severity, substance use, community functioning and quality of life 6 months after program enrolment. Diagnosis of psychotic disorder was associated with a reduction in quality of life from baseline to 6-months, while substance use disorders were associated with reduced mental illness symptoms and substance use related problems and an improvement in quality of life. Participants housed in independent housing at 6-months had greater improvements in community integration and quality of life, and greater reduction in mental illness symptoms, compared to those not independently housed. The quality of the working alliance was positively associated with improvements in physical and psychological community integration and quality of life. Qualitative data provided a unique window into the loneliness and isolation experienced by Housing First

  8. ISRU in the Context of Future European Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. M.; Tomatis, C.

    2002-01-01

    ISRU or In-Situ Resource Utilisation is the use of Martian resources to manufacture, typically, life support consumables (e.g. water, oxygen, breathing buffer gases), and propellant for a return journey to Earth. European studies have shown that some 4kg of reaction mass must be launched to LEO to send 1kg payload to Mars orbit, with landing on the Mars surface reducing payload mass still further. This results in very high transportation costs to Mars, and still higher costs for returning payloads to Earth. There is therefore a major incentive to reduce payload mass for any form of Mars return mission (human or otherwise) by generating consumables on the surface. ESA through its GSTP programme has been investigating the system level design of a number of mission elements as potential European contributions to an international human Mars exploration mission intended for the 2020-2030 timeframe. One of these is an ISRU plant, a small chemical factory to convert feedstock brought from Earth (hydrogen), and Martian atmospheric gases (CO2 and trace quantities of nitrogen and argon) into methane and oxygen propellant for Earth return and life support consumables, in advance of the arrival of astronauts. ISRU technology has been the subject of much investigation around the world, but little detailed research or system level studies have been reported in Europe. Furthermore, the potential applicability of European expertise, technology and sub- system studies to Martian ISRU is not well quantified. Study work covered in this paper has compared existing designs (e.g. NASA's Design Reference Mission, DLR and Mars Society studies) with the latest ESA derived requirements for human Mars exploration, and has generated a system level ISRU design. This paper will review and quantify the baseline chemical reactions essential for ISRU, including CO2 collection and purification, Sabatier reduction of CO2 with hydrogen to methane and water, and electrolysis of water in the context of

  9. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  10. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  11. Contextualizing Female Infanticide: Ming China in Early Modern European Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Sachdev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of the early modern European response to China was an emphasis on the fabulous wealth and social organization of Chinese society. Despite their knowledge of the wide-scale abandonment and killing of newborns within the society, and despite the categorization of infanticide as a great moral sin by the early Christian church, the European travelers to China commented on infanticide dispassionately, without any moral revulsion, and continued to project an image of China as a virtual utopia for its residents. One reason for the detached descriptions of abandonment of children and infanticide in China might be the fact that conditions with regard to children in Europe were no superior to those in China and were probably far worse; the vast numbers of abandoned and dead children in Europe blunted the edge of criticism with regard to Chinese customs. Another might be that infanticide was practiced within Europe contemporaneously, even though the killing of newborn children there was practiced much more surreptitiously, and public opinion had firmed up connections among single women, illegitimacy, concealment, and murder. However, the dire social circumstances within their own countries had not prevented the Europeans from soundly criticizing and morally reproving cannibalism or infanticide in other cultures. In order to understand their acceptance of this “sinful” practice in China, we must look elsewhere.

  12. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  13. Exploring Equity in Early Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Heather L.; Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines how postsecondary practitioners are encouraged to work collaboratively with child welfare agencies and other community-based organizations to identify and implement culturally responsive supports for former foster youth to promote early academic achievement.

  14. Disability, fatigue, pain and their associates in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: the European Scleroderma Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peytrignet, Sébastien; Denton, Christopher P; Lunt, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to describe the burden of early dcSSc in terms of disability, fatigue and pain in the European Scleroderma Observational Study cohort, and to explore associated clinical features. Methods: Patients completed questionnaires at study entry, 12 and 24 months, including the HA...

  15. EURADOS intercomparison 2006 to harmonise European early warning dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.; Thompson, I. M. G.; Wissmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Radiation Dosimetry (EURADOS) Working Group on Environmental Radiation Monitoring (WG3) organised a third European intercomparison of dosimetry systems operated in national early warning networks. Similar to the intercomparisons in 1999 and 2002, the main aim of this exercise was to support the process of harmonisation of area monitoring in Europe by providing the network operators with basic information on the calibration and performance of their dosimetry systems. In order to characterise these systems, their following basic parameters were investigated: the response to terrestrial and cosmic radiation, the detectors' inherent background, the response at low dose rates, the energy dependence of the response as well as the sensitivity of the detector systems to small changes of the dose rate in a natural environmental radiation field. In the 2006 EURADOS intercomparison, scientists from seven countries participated to study the characteristics of 11 detector systems. All results are presented in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H * (10). The advent of this quantity has caused the development of new detector systems for area monitoring. Some of these new systems participated in a EURADOS intercomparison for the first time. The results are consistently presented together with uncertainties so that statistical effects can be distinguished from real detector features, which improves the interpretation of the results. By using the results of this intercomparison, some detectors were re-calibrated. The achievable improvements concerning harmonisation in dose-rate measurements in the natural environment are discussed. (authors)

  16. Exploring integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European union and European economic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Maria; O’Shea, Miriam; Larkin, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Theory and methods: Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted...... from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey. A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. Results: We identified ‘in-principle’ complex problems...

  17. Compassion Fatigue: Exploring Early-Career Oncology Nurses' Experiences
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Brooke A; Sheppard, Kate G

    2017-06-01

    Oncology nurses have a higher risk and rate of compassion fatigue (CF) compared to professionals in other specialties. CF exhibits tangible negative outcomes, affecting nurses' health and professional practice.
. Early-career oncology nurses' unique CF experiences lack thorough scientific exploration. This secondary analysis seeks to qualitatively augment this paucity and illuminate targeted interventions.
. Open-ended interviews were conducted with five early-career inpatient oncology nurses. Subsequent transcripts were explored for CF themes secondarily using thematic analysis.
. Themes indicate that early-career oncology nurses enjoy connecting with patients and families, but over-relating, long patient stays, and high patient mortality rates trigger CF. Symptoms include internalizing patients' and families' pains and fears, being haunted by specific patient deaths, feeling emotionally depleted, assuming that all patients will die, and experiencing burnout, physical exhaustion, and hypervigilance protecting loved ones.

  18. European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or

  19. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st...

  20. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty: Challenges for European Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseman, Paul P. M.; Slot, Pauline L.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development, academic achievement and behavioural adjustment.…

  1. The Early History of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and of ESSSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    The early history of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and ESSSAT, the European Society for the Study of Science And Theology, is documented and discussed. In Europe, there were, and still are, genuine differences in attitude towards methodology, ideas about the reach of knowledge,

  2. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN70595832...

  3. State Power and the Acquis Communautaire in the European Community of the early 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses in a historical perspective the so-called acquis communautaire, i.e. the body of law, rules, including informal decisions/norms, taken by the European Community/European Union. In the first part of the article the early history of the concept from the establishment of the EC...... in 1958 to the early 1970s is analysed. The second part of the article analyses the impact of the acquis communautaire on the way the EC negotiated during the first successful enlargement negotiations from 1970 to 1972 with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and Britain. The article demonstrates empirically...... that even if national governments continued to play a leading role in European cooperation, the existence of a common body of law, rules and norms was difficult for single governments to set aside in their pursuance after of narrow national interest. This did not mean that laws could not be bent, or broken...

  4. European descriptions of the art and architecture of early Accra ca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    European descriptions of the art and architecture of early Accra ca. ... The fifteenth to nineteenth centuries produced some interesting art works in the coastal ... art and craft production, and acquisition of new skills by Ga craftsmen and women. ... The history of the Ga has therefore not only been determined by their natural ...

  5. The Vendian-Early Palaeozoic sedimentary basins of the East European Craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliaupa, S.; Fokin, P.A.; Lazauskiene, J.; Stephenson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Vendian-Early Palaeozoic sedimentation on the East European Craton (EEC) was confined to the cratonic margins with limited intracratonic subsidence. Generally, there are two geodynamic stages involved: in stage 1, basins formed in response to continental break-up processes; in stage 2, basins formed

  6. Public services in early modern European towns: An agenda for further research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Starting with a set of key questions formulated by Walter Prevenier in 1984, this article proposes an agenda for future research on urban public services in early modern European towns. The author suggests, first of all, a shift in research strategy toward a greater emphasis on actor-oriented

  7. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... forms a large perivitelline space, reaching an egg diameter of 1.45 ± 0.12 mm at 3.0 to 3.5 h post fertilization. Embryonic development from fertilization to larval hatch lasted ~46–48 h at 20 °C with the larvae emerging in a relatively undeveloped stage with a protuberant yolk sac. During the period......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  8. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  9. The influence of global sea level changes on European shale distribution and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.; Cornelius, C.T.; Clarke, H. [Cuadrilla Resources Ltd., Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Technological advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have unlocked new supplies of shale gas from reservoirs that were previously considered to be uneconomic. Several companies, both experienced majors and small independents, are currently evaluating the unconventional resource potential of mainland Europe. This paper demonstrated that global sea level changes govern the distribution of marine black shales. The Hallam Curve was used in this study to identify periods of prospective gas shale deposition. In general, these correspond to post-glacial periods of relatively high sea level. Under-filled marginal sedimentary basins are key exploration targets. The geochemical and petrophysical characteristics of the shales deposited under these conditions are often comparable to North American shales, particularly the Barnett Shale which is currently in production. Many orogenic events influence European shales in terms of organic maturity, hydrocarbon generation and fracture generation. The main prospective horizons in ascending stratigraphic sequence are the Alum Shale, Llandovery Shale, Fammenian/Frasnian Shale, Serpukhovian Shale, Toarcian Shale, Kimmeridge Clay and the Tertiary Eocene and Oligocene shales common to central Europe. This paper presented the authors initial exploration strategy, with particular focus on the Lower Palaeozoic of central Europe, the Namurian of northwest England and the Jurassic Posidonia Formation of the Roer Valley Graben in Holland. The potential obstacles to unconventional exploration in Europe include restricted access to surface locations, high water usage, a lack of convenient pipeline infrastructure, strict environmental regulations, a high population density and lack of suitable drilling rigs and well completion equipment. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Multi-sectoral action for child safety-a European study exploring implicated sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  12. Exploring the relationship between perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours in European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, M G M; Mackenbach, J D; Charreire, H; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Rutter, H; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Beulens, J W J; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J

    2017-04-26

    Dietary behaviours may be influenced by perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Using data from a large cross-European study (N = 5900), we explored associations between various perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours among adults from urban regions in five European countries and examined whether associations differed across regions and socio-demographic backgrounds. Frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, breakfast and home-cooked meals were split by the median into higher and lower consumption. We tested associations between barriers (irregular working hours; giving up preferred foods; busy lifestyle; lack of willpower; price of healthy food; taste preferences of family and friends; lack of healthy options and unappealing foods) and dietary variables using multilevel logistic regression models. We explored whether associations differed by age, sex, education, urban region, weight status, household composition or employment. Respondents who perceived any barrier were less likely to report higher consumption of healthier foods and more likely to report higher consumption of fast food. 'Lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were most consistently associated with consumption. For example, those perceiving lack of willpower ate less fruit [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.64], and those with a busy lifestyle ate less vegetables (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62). Many associations differed in size, but not in direction, by region, sex, age and household composition. Perceived 'lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were barriers most strongly related to dietary behaviours, but the association between various barriers and lower intake of fruit and vegetables was somewhat more pronounced among younger participants and women.

  13. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  14. Exploring energy efficiency in several European countries. An attribution analysis of the Divisia structural change index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new attribution analysis approach to study structural change index. • Based on LMDI method, we decompose changes in AEI in the EU in 1995–2010. • Mild AEI drop as a result of structural change, particularly in Eastern economies. • Transport, hotels and restaurants: positive contributors, specifically in Western EU. • Strategies should be focused on Industry: the most influential sector in reducing AEI. - Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the influence that the changes in sectoral composition in most EU economies have had on aggregate energy intensity. We rely on the so-called Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, implemented within a multiplicative energy intensity approach. Then, based on the Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), we present, develop and apply a new methodology that enables the exploration of the contribution of each sector to the percent change in the structural factors index. Our findings show: (a) a greater importance of the intensity factor over the structural one, (b) a positive influence of structural change in some ex-communist countries, and (c) a strong, negative contribution of the industrial sector (including construction) to changes in aggregate energy intensity in most European economies, particularly in the Western ones. In short, adaptation to more efficient techniques, innovation, R and D, and substitution for higher quality energies, seem to be the action lines to follow, although in former communist countries these strategies should be accompanied by other policies aiming at accelerating the transition processes

  15. Exploring Intercultural Sensitivity in Early Adolescence: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellizo, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore levels of intercultural sensitivity in a sample of fourth to eighth grade students in the United States (n = 162). "Intercultural sensitivity" was conceptualised through Bennett's Developmental Model of Sensitivity, and assessed through the Adapted Intercultural Sensitivity Index.…

  16. ESSC-ESF Position Paper: Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December......'s exploration programme, dubbed "Emergence and co-evolution of life with its planetary environments," focusing on those targets that can ultimately be reached by humans, i.e., Mars, the Moon, and Near Earth Objects. Mars was further recognized as the focus of that programme, with Mars sample return...

  17. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    stakeholders, such as territorial experts, to learn and promote the use and improvement of environmental and sustainability tools such as SEA. - Highlights: • Explored the views and perspectives of European small island experts • Showed the need for cooperation networks while developing SEA in these territories • Encouraged the development of specific guidelines as opposed to more legal frameworks • Highlighted SEA capability for the enhancement of small island sustainability

  18. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  19. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C.; Sheikh, Sana

    2014-01-01

    Based on Lakoff’s (2002) Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father) predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1) reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2). Political liberalism wa...

  20. Rock 'n roller coaster : an explorative study on the evolution of the European steel roller coaster industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Bordoli, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the 50 years evolution of the European steel roller coaster industry, which can be classified as a complex products systems (CoPS) industry. This industry is characterized as a non-shake out industry where entry can be divided in three waves, i.e. early diversifiers, new

  1. Thermo-mechanical models of the European lithosphere for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberger, Jon; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Tesauro, Magdala; Bonté, Damien; Lipsey, Lindsay; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    One of the critical exploration parameters for geothermal systems is the subsurface temperature. Temperature data are reliable up to a depth of 1 km in most parts of Europe. Accordingly, the robustness of temperature estimation rapidly decreases with depth, as temperature data from wells become sparser and unevenly distributed. We developed a two-layer temperature model for assessing the prospective resource base of enhanced geothermal systems in Europe. The surface heat flow and the Moho depth were used to constrain the radiogenic heat production in the upper crust. Only conduction was considered for heat transfer. The most recent and comprehensive regional temperature models and maps available were directly used to constrain the 3D temperature distribution up to a depth of 6 km. The model shows high average geothermal gradients of up to 60 °C in volcanically active regions such as Iceland, parts of Italy, Greece and Turkey. Temperatures at 5 km depth range between 40 °C and 310 °C and at 10 km depth between 80 °C and 590 °C. However, this direct use of regional models is not fully consistent with the calculated and observed heat flow. Furthermore, only fixed thermal conductivity values were assigned to the sediments and the crystalline basement. As part of the EU FP7-funded Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration (IMAGE) project we are going to develop a methodology to obtain a more advanced 3D lithosphere-scale thermal model of Europe. This will include a more realistic distribution of thermal properties, according with lithological variations of the European crust. Further improvements of the thermal model, aiming at consistency between temperature and heat flow observations and tectonic model predictions, will be obtained by adopting data assimilation techniques derived from reservoir engineering best practices. The newly derived thermal model of the European lithosphere together with compositional data will be used to estimate the strength

  2. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-03-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica ( n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.

  3. SCOREBOARD AND THE POSSIBILITY OF EARLY STAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IMBALANCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius, Gust

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In late 2011, the European Union (EU Council and European Parliament adopted a series of new rules on economic governance, perfecting the process begun in 2010 to strengthen the monitoring and prevention of macroeconomic imbalances, fiscal and competitiveness disparities among EU countries. In the same direction, of strengthening fiscal surveillance under the Stability and Growth Pact, also goes the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, through the fiscal Compact. Thus, the macroeconomic imbalances procedure provided in the new legislation requires as a first step the realization of a scoreboard consisting of 10 indicators, which, according to promoters, allow an early identification of imbalances, of both short-term, as well as structural, of longer-term. European Commission reports and statistics for EU Member States in 2010 and 2011, indicate that in the post-crisis period there has been a pronounced adjustment of external imbalances, but a number of countries continue to record higher values than indicative levels in the dashboard .

  4. Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Stoyanov, Slavi; Van Maele, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rusman, E., Rajagopal, K., Stoyanov, S., & Van Maele, J. (2011, 20-21 October). Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference ICT for Language Learning, Florence, Italy.

  5. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  6. Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Stoyanov, Slavi; Van Maele, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rusman, E., Rajagopal, K., Stoyanov, S., & Van Maele, J. (2011, 20-21 October). Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference ICT for Language Learning, Florence, Italy. Available at: http://www.pixel-online.net/ICT4LL2011/conferenceproceedings.php

  7. Space Travel is Utter Bilge: Early Ideas on Interplanetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    2003-12-01

    Until a few decades ago, interplanetary travel was the stuff of dreams but the dreamers often turned out to be farsighted while the predictions of some eminent scientists were far too conservative. The prescient dreamers include the Russian schoolteacher, Konstanin Tsiolkovsky who, in 1883, was the first to note that only rockets could serve the needs of space travel. In 1923, Herman Oberth published a treatise discussing various aspects of interplanetary travel including the impulse necessary to escape the Earth's gravitational pull. In his spare time, a German civil engineer, Walter Hohmann, established in 1925 that the optimal energy transfer orbit between planets is an ellipse that is tangent to the orbits of both bodies. Four year later, an Austrian army officer, Hermann Potocnik outlined the benefits of space stations including those in geosynchronous orbits. Whereas Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Hohmann, and Potocnik provided ideas and theories, the American, Robert H. Goddard, was testing liquid fueled rockets by as early as 1925. By the time he was finished in 1941, Goddard flew liquid fueled rockets that reached speeds of 700 mph and altitudes above 8,000 feet. In direct contrast to the advances by these mostly amateur engineers, many respected authorities scoffed at space travel because of the insurmountable technological difficulties. One year prior to the launch of Sputnik, the British Astronomer Royal, Sir Richard Wooley, declared, "space travel is utter bilge." While the theories of space travel were well developed by the late 1920's, space travel technology was still a poorly funded, mostly amateur, endeavor until the German army hired Oberth's student, Werner von Braun, and others to develop long range rockets for military purposes. In the early 1940's, Von Braun's team developed the rocket propulsion and guidance systems that would one day form the basis of the American space program.

  8. Health professional mobility in the European Union: Exploring the equity and efficiency of free movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A

    2015-12-01

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is a landmark in the health workforce migration debate. Yet its principles apply only partly within the European Union (EU) where freedom of movement prevails. The purpose of this article is to explore whether free mobility of health professionals contributes to "equitably strengthen health systems" in the EU. The article proposes an analytical tool (matrix), which looks at the effects of health professional mobility in terms of efficiency and equity implications at three levels: for the EU, for destination countries and for source countries. The findings show that destinations as well as sources experience positive and negative effects, and that the effects of mobility are complex because they change, overlap and are hard to pin down. The analysis suggests that there is a risk that free health workforce mobility disproportionally benefits wealthier Member States at the expense of less advantaged EU Member States, and that mobility may feed disparities as flows redistribute resources from poorer to wealthier EU countries. The article argues that the principles put forward by the WHO Code appear to be as relevant within the EU as they are globally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Light impacts embryonic and early larval development of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the natural ecology of European eel during early life history. Weextend our understandings on the ecology of this species by studying howearly life stages perform under various light regimes.We assessed the effects of intensity, photoperiod (12:12 and 24:0 h light/dark) and ......Little is known about the natural ecology of European eel during early life history. Weextend our understandings on the ecology of this species by studying howearly life stages perform under various light regimes.We assessed the effects of intensity, photoperiod (12:12 and 24:0 h light...... stages. In particular, for the 12:12 h photoperiod, embryonic survival, until 26 h post-fertilization was significantly higher when reared under low (62 ± 13%) than those reared under high intensity light (42 ± 13%). Furthermore, embryos reared in low light had a higher hatch success (16 ± 7%) than those...... in high intensity light (12 ± 7%). Larval yolk-sac area was significantly affected by photoperiod and body area was significantly affected by the interaction between intensity × photoperiod. The highest incidence of deformities (75%) occurred when embryos were reared in high intensity white light under...

  10. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2017-12-04

    Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. A total of 735 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5.55], self-efficacy, OR = .95, 95% CI [.92, .98], social support, OR = .94, 95% CI [.90, .99], and pregnancy-related worries (socioeconomic: OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.15]; health: OR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; relationship: OR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.05, 1.31]). Mental health problems are common in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. ISRCTN70595832 , 02.12.2011.

  11. Exploring the classroom: Teaching science in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.N. DEJONCKHEERE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tested and integrated the effects of an inquiry-based didactic method for preschool science in a real practical classroom setting. Four preschool classrooms participated in the experiment (N= 57 and the children were 4–6 years old. In order to assess children’s attention for causal events and their understanding at the level of scientific reasoning skills, we designed a simple task in which a need for information gain was created. Compared to controls, children in the post-test showed significant learning gains in the development of the so-called control of variables strategy. Indeed, they executed more informative and less uninformative explorations during their spontaneous play. Furthermore, the importance of such programmes was discussed in the field of STEM education.

  12. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakoff’s (2002 Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1 reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2. Political liberalism was associated with a Social Justice orientation, but was not predicted by nurturant parenting in either study. Study 1 included mothers’ reports of their own parenting, and these were correlated with the students’ responses. Findings support a restrictive moral underpinning for conservatism, but raise questions about the assumed unique association between parental nurturance and political liberalism, which is addressed in the discussion.

  13. The neglected shadow: European perspectives on emotional supports for early school leaving prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Downes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OECD reports emphasise ten key steps to equity in education, with concrete targets related to low attainment and early school leaving. Such steps, however, neglect the importance of emotional dimensions to early school leaving and the consequent need for system level emotional supports. The current study involves qualitative research interviews with senior government officials and secondary school management representatives across eight European countries, with a particular focus on school climate and emotional support issues. Issues raised by interviewees for students at risk of early school leaving include supports for withdrawn children, for those at risk of suicide and those being bullied at school affecting their nonattendance. Other emerging themes include alternatives to suspension and teacher education for improving their conflict resolution skills. Some interviewees explicitly observe the dearth of emotional support services available in practice in their countries. The pervasive policy gaps across national levels for a mental health and emotional support strategy, as part of an early school leaving prevention strategy, requires serious and immediate attention.

  14. Talking about quality: exploring how 'quality' is conceptualized in European hospitals and healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Aase, Karina; von Plessen, Christian; Burnett, Susan; Nunes, Francisco; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Anderson-Gare, Boel; Calltorp, Johan; Fulop, Naomi

    2014-10-11

    Conceptualization of quality of care - in terms of what individuals, groups and organizations include in their meaning of quality, is an unexplored research area. It is important to understand how quality is conceptualised as a means to successfully implement improvement efforts and bridge potential disconnect in language about quality between system levels, professions, and clinical services. The aim is therefore to explore and compare conceptualization of quality among national bodies (macro level), senior hospital managers (meso level), and professional groups within clinical micro systems (micro level) in a cross-national study. This cross-national multi-level case study combines analysis of national policy documents and regulations at the macro level with semi-structured interviews (383) and non-participant observation (803 hours) of key meetings and shadowing of staff at the meso and micro levels in ten purposively sampled European hospitals (England, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, and Norway). Fieldwork at the meso and micro levels was undertaken over a 12-month period (2011-2012) and different types of micro systems were included (maternity, oncology, orthopaedics, elderly care, intensive care, and geriatrics). The three quality dimensions clinical effectiveness, patient safety, and patient experience were incorporated in macro level policies in all countries. Senior hospital managers adopted a similar conceptualization, but also included efficiency and costs in their conceptualization of quality. 'Quality' in the forms of measuring indicators and performance management were dominant among senior hospital managers (with clinical and non-clinical background). The differential emphasis on the three quality dimensions was strongly linked to professional roles, personal ideas, and beliefs at the micro level. Clinical effectiveness was dominant among physicians (evidence-based approach), while patient experience was dominant among nurses (patient

  15. Pink programming across Europe: exploring identity politics at European LGBT film festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaenens, Frederik

    2018-01-01

    LGBT film festivals curate programs that are expected to cater to LGBT identity politics, conform to normative cinematic standards of European film festivals and consider the manifold desires of their target audiences. Since programmers are crucial to this process, the present study investigated European programmers’ approaches to identity politics. The analysis of in-depth expert interviews with 24 film programmers from 17 film festivals in 17 European countries revealed that most programmer...

  16. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  17. Early assessment of medical devices in development for company decision making : An exploration of best practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Van Til, Janine; IJzerman, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    To improve successful development and clinical use of medical technologies, it is suggested that manufacturers should start collecting evidence on devices effectiveness and eficiency early in their development. The aim of this study was to explore whether and how Dutch manufacturers perform an early

  18. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille Nm

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: An explorative mixed methods,

  19. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was

  20. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  1. [European birth cohorts: Early life exposure to microorganisms and health impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, S; Reboux, G

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many birth cohorts have been initiated in Europe, to assess the early life microbiological exposure of children in the indoor environment and better understanding the different effects (adverse/protectors) on health. The results of 12 European cohorts, with different methodologies for exposure and allergic risk assessment are summarized in this review. Four meta-analyzes of cohort are presented too. Microbiological researches in indoor environment seem to turn to a metrology of microbiological exposure, but few studies provide real quantitative data. Thus, the establishment of dose-effect relationship is not possible and can only be done by having a global view of the situation, provided by an identical metrological approach in the different studies, in a large-scale, in the context of large birth cohorts with children followed with strict criteria to establish the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Vanuatu mortuary practices over three millenia : Lapita to early European contact period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, F.; Spriggs, M.; Bedford, S.; Buckley, H.

    2011-01-01

    New discoveries and previously-unpublished data on burials from south, central, and north Vanuatu are reviewed in this paper, offering a synthesis of mortuary practices over three millennia, from Lapita to the early European contact period. Relying on five attributes describing the practices and behaviours (body and bone treatment, position and orientation of the body, ornaments and associated artefacts, and use of single or multiple burial), the analysis emphasizes two major episodes of structural changes in the overall funerary system following initial settlement of Vanuatu. The first occurred towards the end of the Lapita period and the second is indicated by the distinctiveness of the second millennium AD burials. A possible interpretation of these changes, following the lines of Thomas's 'genealogical approach' (2001) is proposed. (author). 70 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental...... health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. RESULTS: A total of 735 pregnant women were...

  4. Accounting for early action in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arto, Inaki; Gallastegui, Carmen; Ansuategi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In the context of emission markets, failure to include early action (EA) as a criterion when sharing out the reduction effort may be unfair. This paper presents (1) a method based on index decomposition that seeks to quantify EA and (2) a method for determining effort sharing considering EA. It is shown that, in the case of European industry (EU-15) and for the period 1995-2005, EA accounted for a reduction of 21% in energy-related CO 2 emissions. Considering two alternative schemes for sharing out the reduction effort in European industry, equal shares (all industries in all countries reduce their emissions by the same percentage) and taking EA into account, we find that Spain, Austria, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden would be better off under an equal shares scheme as opposed to one that takes EA into account. The efforts of the remaining countries would be greater than if EA was taken into account. An equal shares scheme would also greatly benefit the textile, non-metallic mineral, paper and 'other' industries, and would be particularly detrimental to the chemical, non-ferrous and other metal, and engineering industries.

  5. Accounting for early action in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arto, Inaki [IEP, Instituto de Economia Publica, University of the Basque Country, Avd. Lehendakari Agirre, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, University of the Basque Country, Avd. Lehendakari Agirre, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Gallastegui, Carmen [IEP, Instituto de Economia Publica, University of the Basque Country, Avd. Lehendakari Agirre, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Ansuategi, Alberto [Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, University of the Basque Country, Avd. Lehendakari Agirre, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    In the context of emission markets, failure to include early action (EA) as a criterion when sharing out the reduction effort may be unfair. This paper presents (1) a method based on index decomposition that seeks to quantify EA and (2) a method for determining effort sharing considering EA. It is shown that, in the case of European industry (EU-15) and for the period 1995-2005, EA accounted for a reduction of 21% in energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. Considering two alternative schemes for sharing out the reduction effort in European industry, equal shares (all industries in all countries reduce their emissions by the same percentage) and taking EA into account, we find that Spain, Austria, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden would be better off under an equal shares scheme as opposed to one that takes EA into account. The efforts of the remaining countries would be greater than if EA was taken into account. An equal shares scheme would also greatly benefit the textile, non-metallic mineral, paper and 'other' industries, and would be particularly detrimental to the chemical, non-ferrous and other metal, and engineering industries. (author)

  6. First Steps into the Wild - Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Schmitz

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758 was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1 how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2 how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3 did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European

  7. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  8. A new crested pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Spain: the first European tapejarid (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Vullo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Tapejaridae is a group of unusual toothless pterosaurs characterized by bizarre cranial crests. From a paleoecological point of view, frugivorous feeding habits have often been suggested for one of its included clades, the Tapejarinae. So far, the presence of these intriguing flying reptiles has been unambiguously documented from Early Cretaceous sites in China and Brazil, where pterosaur fossils are less rare and fragmentary than in similarly-aged European strata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Europejara olcadesorum gen. et sp. nov. is diagnosed by a unique combination of characters including an unusual caudally recurved dentary crest. It represents the oldest known member of Tapejaridae and the oldest known toothless pterosaur. The new taxon documents the earliest stage of the acquisition of this anatomical feature during the evolutionary history of the Pterodactyloidea. This innovation may have been linked to the development of new feeding strategies. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery of Europejara in the Barremian of the Iberian Peninsula reveals an earlier and broader global distribution of tapejarids, suggesting a Eurasian origin of this group. It adds to the poorly known pterosaur fauna of the Las Hoyas locality and contributes to a better understanding of the paleoecology of this Konservat-Lagerstätte. Finally, the significance of a probable contribution of tapejarine tapejarids to the early angiosperm dispersal is discussed.

  9. Continuity or discontinuity in the European Early Pleistocene human settlement: the Atapuerca evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carbonell, Eudald

    2013-09-01

    The nature, timing, pattern, favourable circumstances and impediments of the human occupation of the European continent during the Early Pleistocene are hot topics in Quaternary studies. In particular, the problem of the (dis) continuity of the settlement of Europe in this period is an important matter of discussion, which has been approached in the last decade from different points of view. The Gran Dolina (TD) and Sima del Elefante (TE) cave sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca, (Spain) include large and quasi-continuous stratigraphic sequences that stretch back from at least 1.2 million years ago (Ma) to the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary. The archaeological and paleontological record from these sites can help to test different hypotheses about the character of the human settlement in this region and period. Furthermore, the TD6 level has yielded a large collection of human fossil remains attributed to Homo antecessor. According to different geochronological methods, as well as to paleomagnetic and biostratigraphical analyses, these hominins belong to an age range of 0.96-0.80 Ma. Unfortunately, the finding in 2007 of some human fossil remains in the TE9 level, dated to about 1.22 Ma, was not enough to conclude whether H. antecessor had deep roots in the European Early Pleistocene. A set of derived features of H. antecessor shared with both the Neanderthal lineage and modern humans suggests that this species is related, and not far, from the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. If we assume that there was a lineal biological relationship between the TE9 and TD6 hominins, we should reconsider many of the conclusions achieved in previous paleontological and genetic studies. In addition, we would be obliged to build a highly complicated paleogeographical scenario for the origin of the MRCA. Although continuity in the settlement of Europe during the entire late Early Pleistocene is not discarded (e.g. in refuge areas), it seems that

  10. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  11. The Stranger within: Luxembourg's Early School System as a European Prototype of Nationally Legitimized International Blends (ca. 1794-1844)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Geert

    2013-01-01

    This comparative analysis of Luxembourg's early school (law) system reveals the extent to which European school systems reflect "national-cultural idiosyncrasies" apart from "structural isomorphism". It first examines the legal soil into which the Luxembourg school system was implanted. Legislative pendular swings, reflecting…

  12. European Explorers' Engagements with Sexuality in Indigenous Cultures : The Forsters' Interpretations of Tahitian Sexual Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    While current analyses of European interpretations of non-western cultures are guided by a modern concept of sexuality, this article argues for a more encompassing, historical awareness by drawing historical constructs of sexuality into the analysis. To illustrate the point, it will analyze the

  13. Exploring the secret history of the legal service of the European Executives, 1952-1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    key private archives, consequently constitutes the first attempt to write a history of the legal service of the European executives from 1952 to 1967. With the functions and actions of the legal service being very far from the public spotlight, the story presented here has until now been completely...... to finally be able to affirm, reject or nuance Stein’s classic claim....

  14. The Early Career Paths of UK-Educated Intra-European Mobile Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Students and graduates alike are encouraged to enhance their skills and knowledge by moving to a different European country as both national governments and European institutions anticipate individual skill gains, closer European networks and a boost to national economies as a result. Using data from a longitudinal survey, this paper follows…

  15. The reform of the European energy tax directive: Exploring potential economic impacts in the EU27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Paola; Serrano, Mònica; Roca, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect that the Energy Tax Directive reform proposed in 2011 would have, if implemented, on the level of prices in the different sectors of the 27 countries of the European Union. We apply a multiregional and multisectoral model of trade flows that takes into account all the intersectoral and intercountry interdependences in the production processes. Using the World Input–Output Database we perform two different simulations. The first one considers the tax changes proposed by the reform; the second one shows the impact the reform would have entailed if it were applied also to sectors belonging to the European Trade System. The main finding of the first simulation shows that the new energy tax regime would have had a low economic cost in terms of impact on prices (less than 1% in all the countries). So, the concerns about competitiveness do not find empirical support in our results, suggesting the need for further analyses to find out the reasons that caused the failure of a reform that was an important step to introduce a taxation explicitly linked to CO 2 emissions. The second simulation, however, leads to strongly different results, pointing out the relevance of maintaining significant economic incentives to reduce carbon emissions for the European Trade System sectors, by improving the emission market performance or by applying carbon taxation also to these sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze the reform of the European energy tax proposed in 2011, rejected in 2012. • We simulate what potential economic effect this reform would have if implemented. • We find that this reform would have weak effects on prices in all 27 EU countries. • We study the effect of the reform if applied to European emission market sectors. • In this second scenario, the economic impacts would have been much stronger

  16. A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couse, Leslie J.; Chen, Dora W.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability of tablet computers in early education by investigating preschool children's ease in acclimating to tablet technology and its defectiveness in engaging them to draw. A total of 41 three- to six-year-old children were videotaped while they used the tablets. The study found significant differences in level of tablet…

  17. Qualitative Shadowing as a Research Methodology for Exploring Early Childhood Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  19. Exploring the Learning of Mathematics Word Problems by African Immigrant Early Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahofa, Ernest; Adendorff, Stanley; Kwenda, Chiwimbiso

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the learning of mathematics word problems by African immigrant early learners in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study and also informed the research method. Purposive sampling methods were used to select 10 African immigrant…

  20. Injuries in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Levy, Susan E.; Sabourin, Katherine R.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven; Lee, Li-Ching; Moody, Eric; Schieve, Laura A.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined caregiver-reported medically-attended injuries among 30-68 month old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to general population (POP) and non-ASD developmental disorders (DD) controls in the Study to Explore Early Development. Injuries were common in ASD cases (32.3%) as well as POP (30.2%) and DD (27.8%)…

  1. Complementing, competing, or co-operating? Exploring newspapers' portrayals of the European Parliament and national parliaments in EU affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Olga

    2017-06-07

    The paper explores newspapers' portrayals of the European Parliament and national parliaments (NPs) in European Union (EU) affairs. To understand underlying perceptions of journalists, it takes public parliamentary activities and looks at their influence on parliaments' news visibility in Finland, Germany and the UK in routine periods in 2011 and 2012. This is done against the background that parliaments, regarded as ultimate legitimisers of state power, depend on the mass media to reach their citizenry. However, journalists follow their own agenda in publishing parliamentary news. In this regard, they may highlight the complementarity, competition or cooperation of parliaments in the EU's unique multi-tier environment. Overall, our results suggest that NPs correspond stronger with newsmakers' anticipation of readership interest. In addition, findings seem to support the assumption that parliaments in the EU are mostly perceived as complementary, separate legislative branches in EU decision-making.

  2. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Inflation Aversion in the European Union: Exploring the Myth of a North-South Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, David; Rommerskirchen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Our study seeks to prove that German Stability Culture is a myth. The concept is a core legitimizing element of economic policy discourse in Germany and used regularly to juxtapose Germany and northern Europe and the euro area periphery. Using Eurobarometer surveys we construct a measurement for Stability Culture which is based on the priority assigned to the fight against inflation. Our empirical analysis covers the 2002 to 2010 timespan and includes 27 European Union Member States. Our resu...

  4. Exploring the public-private sector wage gap in European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Michael, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the public-private sector pay gap for 27 European countries, using the 2008 EU SILC. The coefficients of conditional (on personal and job characteristics) public sector controls give a first impression on wage differences, while decompositions into explained and unexplained components (also accounting for selectivity) allow for a more complete analysis, which helps to identify possible causes of the gap. Regional patterns exist. Separate subsample decompositions based on age, educ...

  5. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G; de-la-Rua, Concepcion

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.

  6. Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soubrier, Julien; Gower, Graham; Chen, Kefei

    2016-01-01

    The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (<...

  7. Exploring consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Sanjuán, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This papers' objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a crosssectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n......=2437 of which 2156 were dry-cured ham consumers). Satisfaction was evaluated as overall satisfaction, as well as specific satisfaction with healthfulness, price, convenience and taste. The findings show that the main determinant of overall satisfaction is taste satisfaction, hence, producers...... are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age >52 years) and frequent consumers...

  8. Exploring the development of a cultural care framework for European caring science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran, John; Rosser, Elizabeth; Bach, Shirley; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Lundberg, Pranee; Law, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of a cultural care framework that seeks to inform and embrace the philosophical ideals of caring science. Following a review of the literature that identified a lack of evidence of an explicit relationship between caring science and cultural care, a number of well-established transcultural care frameworks were reviewed. Our purpose was to select one that would resonate with underpinning philosophical values of caring science and that drew on criteria generated by the European Academy of Caring Science members. A modified framework based on the work of Giger and Davidhizar was developed as it embraced many of the values such as humanism that are core to caring science practice. The proposed caring science framework integrates determinants of cultural lifeworld-led care and seeks to provide clear directions for humanizing the care of individuals. The framework is offered to open up debate and act as a platform for further academic enquiry.

  9. Exploring the use of tools for urban sustainability in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings from case studies analysed within the Practical Evaluation Tools for Urban Sustainability (PETUS) project, about the practical use of tools for sustainable urban development in European cities. The paper looks across 60 case studies and identifies the main...... drivers for using tools, the benefits gained by using them and discusses why, in genera, there is limited use of available tools. The main question raised by the PETUS project was, ' why are so few tools for urban sustainability being used, when so many are available?' Recent years have shown a growing...... number of theoretical tools to assess and evaluate urban sustainability. However, experience also shows that only a few of such tools are being used in practice. The paper outlines the motivations for actors to use tools, the benefits achieved and the barriers for using tools. From this, different...

  10. Labour onset and early labour. An exploration of first-time mothers’ and midwives’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Eri, Tine Schauer

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is about how women experience waiting for the onset of labour, and how first-time mothers and midwives communicate during the early phases of labour. Most women in Norway give birth in public hospitals, which is the context used for this study, with the experiences explored within a scientific tradition of lifeworld research. Seventeen women and 18 midwives participated in the study. The empirical material stems from diaries, observations of admissions and in-...

  11. Exploring Unanticipated Consequences of Strategy Amongst Stakeholder Segments: The Case of a European Revenue Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Money, K.G.; Hillenbrand, C.; Henseler, J.; Da Camara, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article applies FIMIX-PLS segmentation methodology to detect and explore unanticipated reactions to organisational strategy among stakeholder segments. For many large organisations today, the tendency to apply a “one-size-fits-all” strategy to members of a stakeholder population, commonly

  12. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. JUICE: A European mission to explore the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witasse, O.

    2017-09-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The mission was selected in May 2012 and adopted in November 2014. The implementation phase started in July 2015, following the selection of the prime industrial contractor, Airbus Defense and Space (Toulouse, France). Due to launch in June 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in October 2029, it will spend at least three ½ years making detailed observations of Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa.

  14. Mergers and acquisitions in Western European health care: exploring the role of financial services organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Federica; Maarse, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Recent policy developments in Western European health care - for example in the Netherlands - aim to enhance efficiency and curb public expenditures by strengthening the role of private sector. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) play an important role in this respect. This article presents an analysis of 1606 acquisition deals targeting health care provider organizations in Western Europe between 1990 and 2009. We particularly investigate the role of financial services organisations as acquirers. Our analysis highlights (a) a rise of M&As in Western Europe since 2000, (b) an increase of M&As with financial service organisations acting as acquirer in absolute terms, and (c) a dominant role of the latter type of M&As in cross-border deals. To explain these developments, we make a distinction between an integration and a diversification rationale for M&As and we argue that the deals with financial services organisations in the role of acquirer are driven by a diversification rationale. We then provide arguments why health care, from the acquirer's perspective, can be considered as an interesting target in a diversification strategy and we advance reasons why health care providers may welcome this development. Although caution in drawing conclusions is needed, our findings suggest a penetration of private capital into health care provision that may be interpreted as a specific form of privatisation. Furthermore, they point to a rising internationalisation of health care. Both findings may entail far-reaching implications for health care, as they may induce both cultural privatisation and cultural internationalisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The European Common Agricultural Policy on fruits and vegetables: exploring potential health gain from reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2006-02-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The European Union Common Agricultural Policy keeps prices high by limiting the availability of fruits and vegetables. This policy is at odds with public health interests. We assess the potential health gain for the Dutch population of discontinuing EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables. The maximum effect of the reform was estimated by assuming that a quantity equivalent to the amount of produce withdrawn in recent years would be brought onto the market. For the calculation of the effect of consumption change on health we constructed a multi-state life table model in which consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, lung and breast. Uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. The reform would maximally increase the average consumption of fruits and vegetables by 1.80% (95% uncertainty interval 1.12-2.73), with an ensuing increase in life expectancy of 3.8 (2.2-5.9) days for men and 2.6 (1.5-4.2) days for women. The reform is also likely to decrease socio-economic inequalities in health. Ending EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables could result in a modest health gain for the Dutch population, though uncertainty in the estimates is high. A more comprehensive examination of the health effects of the EU agricultural policy could help to ensure health is duly considered in decision-making.

  16. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  17. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  18. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available  The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  19. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2016-01-01

    We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women.

  20. Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollongino, R; Edwards, C J; Alt, K W; Burger, J; Bradley, D G

    2006-03-22

    We present an extensive ancient DNA analysis of mainly Neolithic cattle bones sampled from archaeological sites along the route of Neolithic expansion, from Turkey to North-Central Europe and Britain. We place this first reasonable population sample of Neolithic cattle mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in context to illustrate the continuity of haplotype variation patterns from the first European domestic cattle to the present. Interestingly, the dominant Central European pattern, a starburst phylogeny around the modal sequence, T3, has a Neolithic origin, and the reduced diversity within this cluster in the ancient samples accords with their shorter history of post-domestic accumulation of mutation.

  1. European Anarchism and its Early Influences in Mexico after the Paris Commune: 1871- 1881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Lida

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the links between European anarchism and social and agrarian movements in Mexico  after the Paris Commune. During those years, while anarchists remained in clandestinity, they developed new revolutionary theories and practices. These included the organization in freely federated autonomous communes, and the right to the land and the product of labor. Occasionally, such reivindications intertwined with those of the agrarian communities in Mexico allowing for European anarchism and Mexican social and peasant groups to come in contact with each other.

  2. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Rivollat

    Full Text Available An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers

  3. Using European travellers as an early alert to detect emerging pathogens in countries with limited laboratory resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grais Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The volume, extent and speed of travel have dramatically increased in the past decades, providing the potential for an infectious disease to spread through the transportation network. By collecting information on the suspected place of infection, existing surveillance systems in industrialized countries may provide timely information for areas of the world without adequate surveillance currently in place. We present the results of a case study using reported cases of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1 in European travellers to detect "events" of Sd1, related to either epidemic cases or endemic cases in developing countries. Methods We identified papers from a Medline search for reported events of Sd1 from 1940 to 2002. We requested data on shigella infections reported to the responsible surveillance entities in 17 European countries. Reports of Sd1 from the published literature were then compared with Sd1 notified cases among European travellers from 1990 to 2002. Results Prior to a large epidemic in 1999–2000, no cases of Sd1 had been identified in West Africa. However, if travellers had been used as an early warning, Sd1 could have been identified in this region as earlier as 1992. Conclusion This project demonstrates that tracking diseases in European travellers could be used to detect emerging disease in developing countries. This approach should be further tested with a view to the continuous improvement of national health surveillance systems and existing European networks, and may play a significant role in aiding the international public health community to improve infectious disease control.

  4. EARLY PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR DISABILITY IN MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS, A EUROPEAN MULTICENTER STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIISE, T; GRONNING, M; FERNANDEZ, O; LAUER, K; MIDGARD, R; MINDERHOUD, JM; NYLAND, H; PALFFY, G; POSER, S; AARLI, JA

    The effects of initial clinical variables on short-term prognosis are analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 574 multiple sclerosis patients from 7 centers in 5 European countries. Patients with a primary progressive course had a 2.3 higher mean disability score (EDSS) than the primary remittent

  5. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... cholesterol (r = 0.33), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.48), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.25), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.39) and IMT (r = 0.30), and reduced insulin sensitivity (r = -0.43), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.50), adiponectin (r = -0.42), and physical activity (r = -0...

  6. Exploring the utility of real-time hydrologic data for landslide early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, B. B.; Smith, J. B.; Becker, R.; Baum, R. L.; Koss, E.

    2017-12-01

    Early warning systems can provide critical information for operations managers, emergency planners, and the public to help reduce fatalities, injuries, and economic losses due to landsliding. For shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides early warning systems typically use empirical rainfall thresholds, whereas the actual triggering mechanism involves the non-linear hydrological processes of infiltration, evapotranspiration, and hillslope drainage that are more difficult to quantify. Because hydrologic monitoring has demonstrated that shallow landslides are often preceded by a rise in soil moisture and pore-water pressures, some researchers have developed early warning criteria that attempt to account for these antecedent wetness conditions through relatively simplistic storage metrics or soil-water balance modeling. Here we explore the potential for directly incorporating antecedent wetness into landslide early warning criteria using recent landslide inventories and in-situ hydrologic monitoring near Seattle, WA, and Portland, OR. We use continuous, near-real-time telemetered soil moisture and pore-water pressure data measured within a few landslide-prone hillslopes in combination with measured and forecasted rainfall totals to inform easy-to-interpret landslide initiation thresholds. Objective evaluation using somewhat limited landslide inventories suggests that our new thresholds based on subsurface hydrologic monitoring and rainfall data compare favorably to the capabilities of existing rainfall-only thresholds for the Seattle area, whereas there are no established rainfall thresholds for the Portland area. This preliminary investigation provides a proof-of-concept for the utility of developing landslide early warning criteria in two different geologic settings using real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements from in-situ instrumentation.

  7. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL DIVERSITY OF EARLY TYPE IA SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    During the first several days after explosion, Type Ia supernova light curves probe the outer layers of the exploding star, and therefore provide important clues for identifying their progenitors. We investigate how both the shallow {sup 56}Ni distribution and the presence of circumstellar material shape these early light curves. This is performed using a series of numerical experiments with parameterized properties for systematic exploration. Although not all of the considered models may be realized in nature (and indeed there are arguments why some of them should not occur), the spirit of this work is to provide a broader exploration of the diversity of possibilities. We find that shallower {sup 56}Ni leads to steeper, bluer light curves. Differences in the shape of the rise can introduce errors in estimating the explosion time, and thus impact efforts to infer upper limits on the progenitor or companion radius from a lack of observed shock cooling emission. Circumstellar material can lead to significant luminosity during the first few days, but its presence can be difficult to identify depending on the degree of nickel mixing. In some cases, the hot emission of circumstellar material may even lead to a signature similar to an interaction with a companion, and thus in the future additional diagnostics should be gathered for properly assessing early light curves.

  8. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M; Sanchez, Sophie; Garwood, Russell J; Edwards, Nicholas P; Wogelius, Roy A; Sellers, William I; Manning, Phillip L; Ortega, Francisco; Serrano, Francisco J; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Cuesta, Elena; Escaso, Fernando; Sanz, Jose Luis

    2018-03-05

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages of development. Comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.

  9. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  10. Kilometric Scale Modeling of the North West European Shelf Seas: Exploring the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihou, K.; Polton, J.; Harle, J.; Wakelin, S.; O'Dea, E.; Holt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The North West European Shelf break acts as a barrier to the transport and exchange between the open ocean and the shelf seas. The strong spatial variability of these exchange processes is hard to fully explore using observations, and simulations generally are too coarse to simulate the fine-scale processes over the whole region. In this context, under the FASTNEt program, a new NEMO configuration of the North West European Shelf and Atlantic Margin at 1/60° (˜1.8 km) has been developed, with the objective to better understand and quantify the seasonal and interannual variability of shelf break processes. The capability of this configuration to reproduce the seasonal cycle in SST, the barotropic tide, and fine-resolution temperature profiles is assessed against a basin-scale (1/12°, ˜9 km) configuration and a standard regional configuration (7 km resolution). The seasonal cycle is well reproduced in all configurations though the fine-resolution allows the simulation of smaller scale processes. Time series of temperature at various locations on the shelf show the presence of internal waves with a strong spatiotemporal variability. Spectral analysis of the internal waves reveals peaks at the diurnal, semidiurnal, inertial, and quarter-diurnal bands, which are only realistically reproduced in the new configuration. Tidally induced pycnocline variability is diagnosed in the model and shown to vary with the spring neap cycle with mean displacement amplitudes in excess of 2 m for 30% of the stratified domain. With sufficiently fine resolution, internal tides are shown to be generated at numerous bathymetric features resulting in a complex pycnocline displacement superposition pattern.

  11. The European Research Agenda for career guidance and counseling - and beyond. ECADOC - Early stage researchers symposium 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Weber, Peter C.

    Research in CGC is an expanding field of research still it is important to attract doctoral candidates to commit themselves to participation in scholarly exchange at central conferences. IAEVG is a central conference to the research field of Career Guidance and Counseling. With this symposium we...... to present their research in progress and to open up for discussion on the inclusion process into the research field of CGC. The Early stage researchers symposium 2016 includes work in progress presentations 1) the European Research Agenda 2) recognition in adult education and the role of guidance, 3......) quality in career guidance, 4) an ESR experience of entering the CGC research community. The symposium will support and encourage Early stage researchers participation in the international career guidance research community and allow for symposium participants to hear about the newest research ideas...

  12. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  13. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-04-15

    stakeholders, such as territorial experts, to learn and promote the use and improvement of environmental and sustainability tools such as SEA. - Highlights: • Explored the views and perspectives of European small island experts • Showed the need for cooperation networks while developing SEA in these territories • Encouraged the development of specific guidelines as opposed to more legal frameworks • Highlighted SEA capability for the enhancement of small island sustainability.

  14. Radial nerve palsy in mid/distal humeral fractures: is early exploration effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, Geffrey; Hermans, Deborah; Lawton, Vidya; Duckworth, David

    2018-03-01

    Radial nerve palsies are a common complication with displaced distal humeral fractures. This case series examines the outcomes of early operative exploration and decompression of the nerve with fracture fixation with the view that this provides a solid construct for optimisation of nerve recovery. A total of 10 consecutive patients with a displaced distal humeral fracture and an acute radial nerve palsy were treated by the senior author by open reduction and internal fixation of the distal humerus and exploration and decompression of the radial nerve. Motor function and sensation of the radial nerve was assessed in the post-operative period every 2 months or until full recovery of the radial nerve function had occurred. All patients (100%) had recovery of motor and sensation function of their upper limb in the radial nerve distribution over a 12-month period. Recovery times ranged between 4 and 32 weeks, with the median time to recovery occurring at 26 weeks and the average time to full recovery being 22.9 weeks. Wrist extension recovered by an average of 3 months (range 2-26 weeks) and then finger extension started to recover 2-6 weeks after this. Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores ranged from 0 to 11.8 at greater than 1 year post-operatively. Our study demonstrated that early operative exploration of the radial nerve when performing an open stabilization of displaced distal humeral fractures resulted in a 100% recovery of the radial nerve. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  16. American social sciences and Europeanization: theories of integration in the early 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Flora McIntyre

    2017-01-01

    This thesis seeks to investigate the influence of American intellectual trends, namely structural functionalism, on the first fifteen years of Europeanization after the end of World War Two. In particular, it examines the role played by German intellectual refugees in the development of neofunctionalist theories of integration that accompanied American policymaking in this era by focusing on the work of Karl Deutsch and Ernst Haas in the 1940s and 1950s. It analyses their account of the condi...

  17. Exploring Academic Motivation, Academic Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Teaching in Pre-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers and to investigate the relationships among those variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered to 251 pre-service early childhood education teachers. Results indicated…

  18. Early Childhood Teachers' Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Potential Predictors of Depression, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Grant, Ashley A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Early childhood teachers' psychological well-being influences the nurturing and learning classroom climate in early care and education as well as children's development. However, less is known about predictors of teachers' psychological well-being in preschool. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between…

  19. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris. We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old, at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old, and once the birds were independent (55 days old. Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  20. Marine data management: from early explorers to e-infrastructures (Ian McHarg Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Ocean observations have been made for as long as Man has been exploring the seas. Early Phoenician and Viking explorers developed extensive knowledge of currents, tides and weather patterns that they shared directly with their peers. Eighteenth century log books from whaling ships and the voyages of explorers, such as Captain Cook, documented sea conditions and weather patterns, and it is these records that are used today to extend oceanographic records back to a time before systematic observing of the ocean began. This historical information is now being used to address the grand challenges being faced by Society in the 21st century in ways that the 18th century seafarers could never have imagined. Systematic ocean observation and the science of modern oceanography began in the late 19th century with the voyages of HMS Challenger. Since these early scientific cruises ocean observation has become more and more sophisticated. Increasingly diverse types of equipment mounted on different types of platforms are generating huge amounts of data delivered in a variety of formats and conforming to a range of standards and best practice. It is this heterogeneity of marine data that has presented one of the greatest challenges for the modern researcher. As marine research becomes increasingly international, cross-disciplinary and multiscale, it presents new and more complex challenges for data stewardship. Increasingly large volumes of interoperable data are needed to address fundamental questions such as the assessment of Man's impact on the marine environment or the sustainable exploitation of available marine resources whilst maintaining the good environmental status of the ocean. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the acquisition and sharing of information about the marine environment from the earliest explorers to the modern day. It will look at some of the challenges faced by today's marine researcher seeking to make use of multidisciplinary and

  1. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European

  2. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  3. The European Lead Factory: A Blueprint for Public-Private Partnerships in Early Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M; de Vlieger, Jon S B; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public-private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time.

  4. The European Lead Factory: A Blueprint for Public–Private Partnerships in Early Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M.; de Vlieger, Jon S. B.; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public–private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time. PMID:28154815

  5. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  6. Exploring the early steps of aggregation of amyloid-forming peptide KFFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown recently that even a tetrapeptide can form amyloid fibrils sharing all the characteristics of amyloid fibrils built from large proteins. Recent experimental studies also suggest that the toxicity observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is not only related to the mature fibrils themselves, but also to the soluble oligomers formed early in the process of fibrillogenesis. This raises the interest in studying the early steps of the aggregation process. Although fibril formation follows the nucleation-condensation process, characterized by the presence of lag phase, the exact pathways remain to be determined. In this study, we used the activation-relaxation technique and a generic energy model to explore the process of self-assembly and the structures of the resulting aggregates of eight KFFE peptides. Our simulations show, starting from different states with a preformed antiparallel dimer, that eight chains can self-assemble to adopt, with various orientations, four possible distant oligomeric well-aligned structures of similar energy. Two of these structures show a double-layer β-sheet organization, in agreement with the structure of amyloid fibrils as observed by x-ray diffraction; another two are mixtures of dimers and trimers. Our results also suggest that octamers are likely to be below the critical size for nucleation of amyloid fibrils for small peptides

  7. Exploring the early steps of aggregation of amyloid-forming peptide KFFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guanghong [Departement de Physique and Regroupement Quebecois sur les Materiaux de Pointe, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, succursale centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Mousseau, Normand [Departement de Physique and Regroupement Quebecois sur les Materiaux de Pointe, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, succursale centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Derreumaux, Philippe [Laboratoire de Biochimie, Theorique, UPR 9080 CNRS, IBPC, Universite Paris 7 Denis-Diderot, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2004-11-10

    It has been shown recently that even a tetrapeptide can form amyloid fibrils sharing all the characteristics of amyloid fibrils built from large proteins. Recent experimental studies also suggest that the toxicity observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is not only related to the mature fibrils themselves, but also to the soluble oligomers formed early in the process of fibrillogenesis. This raises the interest in studying the early steps of the aggregation process. Although fibril formation follows the nucleation-condensation process, characterized by the presence of lag phase, the exact pathways remain to be determined. In this study, we used the activation-relaxation technique and a generic energy model to explore the process of self-assembly and the structures of the resulting aggregates of eight KFFE peptides. Our simulations show, starting from different states with a preformed antiparallel dimer, that eight chains can self-assemble to adopt, with various orientations, four possible distant oligomeric well-aligned structures of similar energy. Two of these structures show a double-layer {beta}-sheet organization, in agreement with the structure of amyloid fibrils as observed by x-ray diffraction; another two are mixtures of dimers and trimers. Our results also suggest that octamers are likely to be below the critical size for nucleation of amyloid fibrils for small peptides.

  8. ESSC-ESF Position Paper-Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella; Beebe, Reta; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Blamont, Jacques; Blanc, Michel; Bonnet, Roger; Brucato, John R.; Chassefière, Eric; Coradini, Angioletta; Crawford, Ian; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Falcke, Heino; Gerzer, Rupert; Grady, Monica; Grande, Manuel; Haerendel, Gerhard; Horneck, Gerda; Koch, Bernhard; Lobanov, Andreï; Lopez-Moreno, José J.; Marco, Robert; Norsk, Peter; Rothery, Dave; Swings, Jean-Pierre; Tropea, Cam; Ulamec, Stephan; Westall, Frances; Zarnecki, John

    2009-02-01

    In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December 2005 Ministerial Conference of ESA Member States, held in Berlin. A first interim report was presented to ESA at the second stakeholders meeting on 30 and 31 May 2005. A second draft report was made available at the time of the final science stakeholders meeting on 16 September 2005 in order for ESA to use its recommendations to prepare the Executive proposal to the Ministerial Conference. The final ESSC report on that activity came a few months after the Ministerial Conference (June 2006) and attempted to capture some elements of the new situation after Berlin, and in the context of the reduction in NASA's budget that was taking place at that time; e.g., the postponement sine die of the Mars Sample Return mission. At the time of this study, ESSC made it clear to ESA that the timeline imposed prior to the Berlin Conference had not allowed for a proper consultation of the relevant science community and that this should be corrected in the near future. In response to that recommendation, ESSC was asked again in the summer of 2006 to initiate a broad consultation to define a science-driven scenario for the Aurora Programme. This exercise ran between October 2006 and May 2007. ESA provided the funding for staff support, publication costs, and costs related to meetings of a Steering Group, two meetings of a larger ad hoc group (7 and 8 December 2006 and 8 February 2007), and a final scientific workshop on 15 and 16 May 2007 in Athens. As a result of these meetings a draft report was produced and examined by the Ad Hoc Group. Following their endorsement of the report and its approval by the plenary meeting of the ESSC, the draft report was externally refereed, as is now normal practice

  9. Preliminary results of the search for possible Martian landing sites to be considered for future European exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.

    2007-08-01

    The recently adopted European Space Policy aims at expanding and coordinating the role and activities of Europe's space actors with the purpose of increasing both scientific knowledge in selected space domains and the European presence in the Solar System, as well as optimising the relevant societal benefits. With our Moon and in particular Mars as primary targets of exploration goals for the Solar System, and following a number of very successful orbital missions performing detailed remote sensing and mapping of these planetary bodies, probe landings on the surface of the Moon and Mars represent the next stepping stone of the exploration of our close planetary environment. Along with developing the hardware capabilities required for Europe to reach such ambitious goals, it therefore becomes increasingly important to pinpoint with precision a number of landing sites well suited for the safety and scientific success of future robotic missions. Focusing on Mars, and although a number of candidate landing sites and associated catalogs with available scientific justification already exist, the results being obtained by orbiters such as Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter are fundamentally transforming our knowledge of the planet's surface, which in turns highlights the need to review, update and revise the candidate sites for future landing missions on Mars. Detailed investigations of possible future Martian landing sites for European missions are ongoing, based on the wealth of scientific data and high-resolution mapping products available. In order to support the identification of suitable sites, various mapping products (geological, hyperspectral and compositional) can be consolidated, and various areas of Mars identified in the recent scientific literature as primary targets for landing can be taken into account for further, refined assessment of their suitability for landing. Seasonal and climatic effects potentially influencing landing shall also be

  10. Exploring embodied methodologies for transformative practice in early childhood and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill Helen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of gendered identities during early childhood and youth occurs in a context of ‘body culture’ and the hyper-visibility of ‘perfect’ bodies, which align with traditional gender ideals. Embodied methods can assist to make complexity more visible, and to allow participants to see fluidity, shifts, and becoming. Whilst there has been significant theoretical development, further methodological innovations are needed to enable children and youth to articulate their perceptions of the way multiple influences shape their relations with their own bodies. Informed by ‘new materialist’ feminist theory this article will examine the work of Australian educators exploring use of creative and embodied drama-based play. The chapter advances methodologies to support pedagogical engagement with young children and youth about gender, identity and social change. The authors explore how embodied creative play can be used across ages to support children and young people to articulate the ways social norms and expectations influence their desires, imaginings, fears and actions and their perceptions of what is possible, desirable or appropriate in relation to performances of gender in their everyday worlds.

  11. Mobility in Central European Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age: femoral cross-sectional geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Vladimír; Berner, M.; Sailer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 3 (2006), s. 320-332 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/01/D018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : biomechanics * mobility * bone strength * Late Eneolithic * Early Bronze Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.136, year: 2006

  12. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  13. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Taking the struggle elsewhere. Minority representation in the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005......This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005...

  15. Incentives for early adoption of carbon capture technology: further considerations from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal-Estanol, Albert; Eckhause, Jeremy; Massol, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This note details two comments on a recent policy proposal in Comello and Reichelstein (2014) aimed at favoring the early adoption of Carbon Capture (CC) technology in the next generation of thermal-based power plants to be installed in the United States. First, we examine the implications of a worst-case scenario in which no new CC is adopted internationally beyond what is in place in 2014. Second, we show the potential, under the original proposed subsidy, for the emergence of coordination failures capable of hampering the desired early CC deployment. We propose and evaluate modified schedules of tax-credits sufficient to overcome these concerns. These additions strengthen the argument in the original article: namely, though higher incentive levels are necessary, our findings confirm that the cost of the proposed policy is not out of reach. (authors)

  16. A European precipitation index for extreme rain-storm and flash flood early warning

    OpenAIRE

    ALFIERI LORENZO; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Extreme rain-storms are known for triggering devastating flash floods in various regions of Europe and particularly along the Mediterranean coasts. Despite recent notable advances in weather forecasting, most operational early warning systems for extreme rainstorms and flash floods are based on rainfall estimation, rather than on forecasts. As a result, warning lead times are bounded to few hours and warnings are usually issued when the event is already taking place. This work proposes a n...

  17. Proton Therapy for Craniopharyngioma - An Early Report from a Single European Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajithkumar, T; Mazhari, A-L; Stickan-Verfürth, M; Kramer, P-H; Fuentes, C-S; Lambert, J; Thomas, H; Müller, H; Fleischhack, G; Timmermann, B

    2018-05-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) is being increasingly used for craniopharyngioma. We describe our early outcome of patients treated with PBT. Between August 2013 and July 2016, 18 patients with craniopharyngiomas were treated with 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in 30 fractions over 6 weeks at our centre. The early outcome of 16 patients included in a registry study was analysed. Radiological response was assessed by RECIST criteria and the disease- and treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the CTCAE 4.0. All patients are alive at a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range 9.2-70.6 months) from initial diagnosis. The median age at PBT was 10.2 years (range 5.4-46.9 years). One patient progressed 8.7 months after PBT and subsequently had complete resection of the tumour. At a median follow-up of 18.4 months after PBT, five patients remained in complete remission, four in partial remission and seven with stable disease. The most common adverse effects during PBT were grade 1 (cutaneous in seven patients and fatigue in six patients). There were no treatment-related grade 3 toxicities. Our early results are encouraging and comparable with the limited literature on PBT for craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Exploring dementia management attitudes in primary care: a key informant survey to primary care physicians in 25 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Vinker, Shlomo; Koskela, Tuomas H; Frese, Thomas; Buono, Nicola; Soler, Jean Karl; Ahrensberg, Jette; Asenova, Radost; Foguet Boreu, Quintí; Ceyhun Peker, Gülsen; Collins, Claire; Hanževački, Miro; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Iftode, Claudia; Kurpas, Donata; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Lichtwarck, Bjørn; Petek, Davorina; Pinto, Daniel; Schrans, Diego; Streit, Sven; Tang, Eugene Yee Hing; Tatsioni, Athina; Torzsa, Péter; Unalan, Pemra C; van Marwijk, Harm; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-09-01

    Strategies for the involvement of primary care in the management of patients with presumed or diagnosed dementia are heterogeneous across Europe. We wanted to explore attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) when managing dementia: (i) the most popular cognitive tests, (ii) who had the right to initiate or continue cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine treatment, and (iii) the relationship between the permissiveness of these rules/guidelines and PCP's approach in the dementia investigations and assessment. Key informant survey. Primary care practices across 25 European countries. Four hundred forty-five PCPs responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of the informants and the responses to the survey. Two by two contingency tables with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the association between categorical variables. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association of multiple variables (age class, gender, and perceived prescription rules) with the PCPs' attitude of "trying to establish a diagnosis of dementia on their own." Discrepancies between rules/guidelines and attitudes to dementia management was found in many countries. There was a strong association between the authorization to prescribe dementia drugs and pursuing dementia diagnostic work-up (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% CI 2.28-5.23). Differing regulations about who does what in dementia management seemed to affect PCP's engagement in dementia investigations and assessment. PCPs who were allowed to prescribe dementia drugs also claimed higher engagement in dementia work-up than PCPs who were not allowed to prescribe.

  19. Explicating how parent-child communication increases Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Yang, Sijia

    2014-08-01

    This study used primary socialization theory and a focus theory of normative conduct to examine whether anti-substance-use norms mediated targeted parent-child communication against substance (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana) use's effects on Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance use. Further, this study investigated whether familism interacted with targeted parent-child communication to predict anti-substance-use norms, and whether this mediated moderation model functioned differently for Latino and European American early adolescents. Self-reported longitudinal survey data were collected from 6th-8th grade students (N = 627), attending rural IL public schools. Multigroup mediated moderation analyses revealed that as Latino and European American early adolescents engaged in targeted mother-child communication against substance use, they were more likely to develop anti-substance-use parent injunctive norms, and in turn, more likely to report anti-substance-use personal norms. Thus, they were more likely to report that if their friend used substances, they would talk to their friend, seek help from others, and end the friendship. They were, however, less likely to ignore the friend's substance use. Familism was not a significant moderator, and the hypothesized effects did not differ for Latino and European American early adolescents. The results suggest that parents of Latino and European American adolescents may discourage substance use by engaging in targeted parent-child communication, which may indirectly benefit their children's friends, as well.

  20. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  1. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  2. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  3. Virtual assessment of the endocranial morphology of the early modern European fossil calvaria from cioclovina, romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena F; Holloway, Ralph; Senck, Sascha; Ciprut, Tudor; Grigorescu, Dan; Harvati, Katerina

    2011-07-01

    Endocasts provide evidence on size and shape characteristics, blood supply trajectories, and neurological features of the brain, allowing comparative analyses of fossil hominins crucial to our understanding of human brain evolution. Here, we assess the morphological features of the virtual endocast of the Cioclovina Upper Paleolithic calvarium, one of the earliest reliably dated European modern human fossils. Our study was conducted on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the original specimen. The endocranial profile was approximated via a semiautomatic segmentation of the CT data. Virtual reconstructions of the endocast were used for assessing the morphological features of the endocranium and for the estimation of the endocranial volume. Cioclovina exhibits a clockwise torque with a small anterior extension of the left frontal lobe over the right one and a protrusion of the right occipital lobe over the left, most likely due to the superior sagittal sinus coursing over the occipital pole. There is an obvious right predominance of the posterior drainage system. Interestingly, the area of the frontal sinus is occupied by dense bony tissue with small air cells corresponding probably to a natural bony loss in the diploë and to vascular spaces. An estimated endocranial volume of 1498.53 cc was calculated. The convolutional details of the third inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's caps) are indistinguishable from those found in modern Homo sapiens, and the left occipital lobe appears wider than the right, a possible correlate of right-handedness. Our metric analysis of endocranial measurements also aligns Cioclovina with modern humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Moscow Autocracy of XVI - XVII Centuries: Eastern ‘’Despotism’’ or an Early Modern European Monarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij A. Zajcev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems related to the peculiarities of the Russian state political and legal development during the early New Time (XVI-XVII centuries in a comparative-historical aspect against the background of similar processes taking place in neighboring European states. The authors come to the conclusion that, despite certain, dictated by objective reasons (first of all, the conditions for the emergence and subsequent development, there are more common features than the differences between the processes of the political and legal sphere development in Russia and Western Europe. The fact that this community escaped from the view of researchers is related, in the authors' opinion, to the fact that foreign observers, describing the political system of an early Russian state, dealt only with an outer shell, while its internal contents remained if not a secret, then, in any case, a mystery for them. They were not admitted to the Russian political cuisine, and therefore the details of Russian political and legal institution functioning remained unavailable to them.

  5. The difficulties of Indonesian fourth graders in learning fractions: An early exploration of TIMSS 2015 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Ariyadi

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates Indonesian fourth-graders low performance in dealing with fractions in TIMSS 2015. Furthermore, the present study also explores possible reasons for this low performance. The data for this study was drawn from TIMSS 2015 data which included test results and responses to Teacher Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Indonesian textbooks were also analyzed to portrait a broader scope of possible reasons for students' low performance. The analysis of TIMSS test result reveals that Indonesian students, in comparison to students from other countries, had low understanding of the basic concepts of fractions. From the Teacher Questionnaire it was found that a possible reason for this low understanding was the Indonesian curriculum for third grade which gave low emphasis on the basic concepts of fractions and introduced operations of fractions rather early. Furthermore, the result of textbook analysis shows that Indonesian textbooks restricted only to one definition of fractions, i.e. fractions as parts of wholes. This finding might also explain Indonesian fourth graders' low understanding of fractions.

  6. Exploring the Impact of Early Decisions in Variable Ordering for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ortiz-Bayliss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs, it is a common practice to rely on heuristics to decide which variable should be instantiated at each stage of the search. But, this ordering influences the search cost. Even so, and to the best of our knowledge, no earlier work has dealt with how first variable orderings affect the overall cost. In this paper, we explore the cost of finding high-quality orderings of variables within constraint satisfaction problems. We also study differences among the orderings produced by some commonly used heuristics and the way bad first decisions affect the search cost. One of the most important findings of this work confirms the paramount importance of first decisions. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. We propose a simple method to improve early decisions of heuristics. By using it, performance of heuristics increases.

  7. Exploring the Impact of Early Decisions in Variable Ordering for Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bayliss, José Carlos; Amaya, Ivan; Conant-Pablos, Santiago Enrique; Terashima-Marín, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    When solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), it is a common practice to rely on heuristics to decide which variable should be instantiated at each stage of the search. But, this ordering influences the search cost. Even so, and to the best of our knowledge, no earlier work has dealt with how first variable orderings affect the overall cost. In this paper, we explore the cost of finding high-quality orderings of variables within constraint satisfaction problems. We also study differences among the orderings produced by some commonly used heuristics and the way bad first decisions affect the search cost. One of the most important findings of this work confirms the paramount importance of first decisions. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. We propose a simple method to improve early decisions of heuristics. By using it, performance of heuristics increases.

  8. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith G. M. Jelsma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p<0.05. Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women.

  9. Predictive value of European Scleroderma Group Activity Index in an early scleroderma cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskaya, Tatiana; Baron, Murray; Pope, Janet E

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effect of disease activity, as measured by the European Scleroderma Research Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI), on the risk of subsequent organ damage in a large systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort. Of 421 SSc patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group database with disease duration of ⩽ 3 years, 197 who had no evidence of end-stage organ damage initially and available 3 year follow-up were included. Disease activity was assessed by the EScSG-AI with two variability measures: the adjusted mean EScSG-AI (the area under the curve of the EScSG-AI over the observation period) and persistently active disease/flare. Outcomes were based on the Medsger severity scale and included accrual of a new severity score (Δ ⩾ 1) overall and within organ systems or reaching a significant level of deterioration in health status. After adjustment for covariates, the adjusted mean EScSG-AI was the most consistent predictor of risk across the study outcomes over 3 years in dcSSc: disease progression defined as Δ ⩾ 1 in any major internal organ, significant decline in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, severity of visceral disease and HAQ Disability Index worsening. In multivariate analysis, progression of lung disease was predicted solely by adjusted mean EScSG-AI, while the severity of lung disease was predicted the adjusted mean EScSG-AI, older age, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and initial severity. The EScSG-AI was associated with patient- and physician-assessed measures of health status and overpowered the mRSS in predicting disease outcomes. Disease activity burden quantified with the adjusted mean EScSG-AI predicted the risk of deterioration in health status and severe organ involvement in dcSSc. The EScSG-AI is more responsive when done repeatedly and averaged. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  10. Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Wolfgang; Balanovsky, Oleg; Sanchez, Juan J.; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Adler, Christina J.; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Brandt, Guido; Schwarz, Carolin; Nicklisch, Nicole; Dresely, Veit; Fritsch, Barbara; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W.; Cooper, Alan

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000–4,000 b.c.) from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 b.c.). However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500–4,900 calibrated b.c.) and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42) and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500–4,900 calibrated b.c.). We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394) and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting a major

  11. Ancient DNA from European early neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Haak

    Full Text Available In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000-4,000 B.C. from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 B.C.. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C. and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42 and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C.. We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394 and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting

  12. Evolutionary demography and the population history of the European early Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I propose that evolutionary demography and associated theory from human behavioral ecology provide a strong basis for explaining the available evidence for the patterns observed in the first agricultural settlement of Europe in the 7th-5th millennium cal. BC, linking together a variety of what have previously been disconnected observations and casting doubt on some long-standing existing models. An outline of relevant aspects of life history theory, which provides the foundation for understanding demography, is followed by a review of large-scale demographic patterns in the early Neolithic, which point to rapid population increase and a process of demic diffusion. More localized socioeconomic and demographic patterns suggesting rapid expansion to local carrying capacities and an associated growth of inequality in the earliest farming communities of central Europe (the Linear Pottery Culture, or LBK) are then outlined and shown to correspond to predictions of spatial population ecology and reproductive skew theory. Existing models of why it took so long for farming to spread to northern and northwest Europe, which explain the spread in terms of the gradual disruption of hunter-gatherer ways of life, are then questioned in light of evidence for population collapse at the end of the LBK. Finally, some broader implications of the study are presented, including the suggestion that the pattern of an initial agricultural boom followed by a bust may be relevant in other parts of the world.

  13. The Roles of Parental Inductions, Moral Emotions, and Moral Cognitions in Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…

  14. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  15. Exploring the early stages of the pH-induced conformational change of influenza hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Lifeng; Huang, Niu

    2014-10-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates the membrane fusion process of influenza virus through its pH-induced conformational change. However, it remains challenging to study its structure reorganization pathways in atomic details. Here, we first applied continuous constant pH molecular dynamics approach to predict the pK(a) values of titratable residues in H2 subtype HA. The calculated net-charges in HA1 globular heads increase from 0e (pH 7.5) to +14e (pH 4.5), indicating that the charge repulsion drives the detrimerization of HA globular domains. In HA2 stem regions, critical pH sensors, such as Glu103(2), His18(1), and Glu89(1), are identified to facilitate the essential structural reorganizations in the fusing pathways, including fusion peptide release and interhelical loop transition. To probe the contribution of identified pH sensors and unveil the early steps of pH-induced conformational change, we carried out conventional molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with determined protonation state for each titratable residue in different environmental pH conditions. Particularly, energy barriers involving previously uncharacterized hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are identified in the fusion peptide release pathway. Nevertheless, comprehensive comparisons across HA family members indicate that different HA subtypes might employ diverse pH sensor groups along with different fusion pathways. Finally, we explored the fusion inhibition mechanism of antibody CR6261 and small molecular inhibitor TBHQ, and discovered a novel druggable pocket in H2 and H5 subtypes. Our results provide the underlying mechanism for the pH-driven conformational changes and also novel insight for anti-flu drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  18. An International Evaluation of Cognitive Reserve and Memory Changes in Early Old Age in 10 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Dorina; Robitaille, Annie; Clouston, Sean; Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive reserve was postulated to explain individual differences in susceptibility to ageing, offering apparent protection to those with higher education. We investigated the association between education and change in memory in early old age. Immediate and delayed memory scores from over 10,000 individuals aged 65 years and older, from 10 countries of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, were modeled as a function of time in the study over an 8-year period, fitting independent latent growth models. Education was used as a marker of cognitive reserve and evaluated in association with memory performance and rate of change, while accounting for income, general health, smoking, body mass index, gender, and baseline age. In most countries, more educated individuals performed better on both memory tests at baseline, compared to those less educated. However, education was not protective against faster decline, except for in Spain for both immediate and delayed recall (0.007 [SE = 0.003] and 0.006 [SE = 0.002]), and Switzerland for immediate recall (0.006 [SE = 0.003]). Interestingly, highly educated Italian respondents had slightly faster declines in immediate recall (-0.006 [SE = 0.003]). We found weak evidence of a protective effect of education on memory change in most European samples, although there was a positive association with memory performance at individuals' baseline assessment. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of suitability of natural Polish resources for production of ceramic proppants applied in gas exploration from European shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Joanna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-04-01

    Poland is one of few European countries undertaking innovative research towards effective exploration of hydrocarbons form shale deposits. With regard for strict geological conditions, which occur during hydraulic fracturing, it is required to apply ceramic proppants enhancing extraction of shale gas. Ceramic proppants are granules (16/30 - 70/120 Mesh) classified as propping agents. These granules located in the newly created fissures (due to injected high pressure fluid) in the shale rock, act as a prop, what enables gas flow up the well. It occurs if the proppants can resist high stress of the closing fractures. Commonly applied proppants are quartz sands used only for shallow reservoirs and fissile shales (in the USA). Whereas, the ceramic granules are proper for extraction of gas on the high depths at hard geomechanical conditions (in Europe) to increase output even by 30 - 50%. In comparison to other propping materials, this kind of proppants predominate with mechanical strength, smoother surface, lower solubility in acids and also high stability in water. Such parameters can be available through proper raw materials selection to further proppants production. The Polish ceramic proppants are produced from natural resources as kaolin, bauxite and white clay mixed with water and binders. Afterwards, the slurries are subjected to granulation in a mechanical granulator and sintered at high temperatures (1200 - 1550°C). Taking into consideration presence of geomechanical barriers, that prevent fracture propagation beyond shale formations, it is crucial to determine quality of applied natural deposits. Next step is to optimize the proppants production and select the best kind of granules, what was the aim of this research. Utility of the raw materials was estimated on basis of their particle size distribution, bulk density, specific surface area (BET) and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry). Morphology and shape were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  1. CityDelta: A model intercomparison study to explore the impact of emission reductions in European cities in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuvelier, C.; Thunis, P.; Vignati, E.; Vautard, R.; Hodzic, A.; Vautard, R.; Hodzic, A.; Amann, M.; Bessagnet, B.; Honore, C.; Rouil, L.; Bedogni, M.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.; Brocheton, F.; Peuch, V.H.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Carnavale, C.; Volta, M.; Coppalle, A.; Denby, B.; Douros, J.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Graf, A.; Hellmuth, O.; Jonson, J.; Tarrason, L.; Wind, P.; Kerschbaumer, A.; Stern, R.; De Leeuw, F.; Minguzzi, E.; Pertot, C.; Pirovano, G.; Sauter, F.; White, L.; Zuber, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the set up, methodology and the obtained results of the CityDelta (phase 1 and 2) project. In the context of the Clean Air For Europe programme of the European Commission, the CityDelta project was designed to evaluate the impact of emission-reduction strategies on air quality at the European continental scale and in European cities. Ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the main components that have been studied. To achieve this goal, a model intercomparison study was organized with the participation of more than 20 modelling groups with a large number of modelling configurations. Two following main topics can be identified in the project. First, in order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating models were evaluated against observations in a control year (1999). An accompanying paper will discuss in detail this evaluation aspect for four European cities. The second topic is the actual evaluation of the impact of emission reductions on levels of ozone and PM, with particular attention to the differences between large-scale and fine-scale models. An accompanying paper will discuss this point in detail. In this overview paper the main input to the intercomparison is described as well as the use of the ensemble approach. Finally, attention is given to the policy relevant issue on how to implement the urban air quality signal into large-scale air quality models through the use of functional relationships. (authors)

  2. The common European asylum system and the rights of the child : an exploration of meaning and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smyth, Ciara Mary

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of whether the EU Common European Asylum System (CEAS) complies with the rights of the child. A significant proportion of people seeking asylum in EU countries are children. These children may be totally alone, with people who are not their customary caregivers

  3. Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W; Atnafou, Rebkha; Chilet, Elisa; de Meyer, Sara; El-Gibaly, Omaima; Basu, Sharmistha; Bello, Bamidele; Maina, Beatrice; Zuo, Xiayun

    2017-10-01

    The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was launched in 2014 with the primary goal of understanding the factors in early adolescence that predispose young people to subsequent sexual risks, and conversely, those that promote healthy sexuality across different cultural contexts. The present article describes the methodology that was used for the first phase of GEAS, which consisted of conducting qualitative research to understand the gendered transitions into adolescence and the role that gender norms play within the key relationships of adolescents. Researchers from each of the sites that had completed data collection were also elicited for their feedback on the key strengths, challenges, and lessons learned from conducting research among 11- to 14-year-old adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the description of each of the methods that were used in GEAS, as well as the researchers' perspectives of using the methods among early adolescents in their sites. The GEAS is being implemented through a collaboration of university and nongovernmental institutions from 15 cities: Assiut (Egypt) Baltimore (U.S.), Blantyre (Malawi), Cape Town (South Africa), Cochabomba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador), Edinburgh (Scotland), Ghent (Belgium), Hanoi (Vietnam), Ile-Ife (Nigeria), Kinshasa (DRC), Nairobi (Kenya), New Delhi (India), Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and Shanghai (China). Approximately 30 in-depth interviews among adolescents and 30 in-depth interviews with their parent/guardian were conducted at each site, with adults and adolescents interviewed separately. To build trust and increase engagement among the adolescent participants, we used two different visual research methods: (1) timeline exercise which was small group based and (2) the Venn diagram exercise which was conducted individually and used at the start of the in-depth interview. The visual aspects of both the timeline and the Venn diagrams not only helped to produce data for the purposes of the

  4. Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Kathryn; George, Elizabeth C; Evans, Jennifer A; Kiguli, Sarah; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Opoka, Robert O; Engoru, Charles; Nyeko, Richard; Mtove, George; Reyburn, Hugh; Brent, Bernadette; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Mpoya, Ayub; Prevatt, Natalie; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Semakula, Daniel; Ddungu, Ahmed; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Timbwa, Molline; Otii, Benedict; Levin, Michael; Crawley, Jane; Babiker, Abdel G; Gibb, Diana M

    2013-03-14

    Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload. Pre-defined presentation syndromes (PS; severe acidosis or severe shock, respiratory, neurological) and predominant terminal clinical events (cardiovascular collapse, respiratory, neurological) were described by randomized arm (bolus versus control) in 3,141 severely ill febrile children with shock enrolled in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial. Landmark analyses were used to compare early mortality in treatment groups, conditional on changes in shock and hypoxia parameters. Competing risks methods were used to estimate cumulative incidence curves and sub-hazard ratios to compare treatment groups in terms of terminal clinical events. Of 2,396 out of 3,141 (76%) classifiable participants, 1,647 (69%) had a severe metabolic acidosis or severe shock PS, 625 (26%) had a respiratory PS and 976 (41%) had a neurological PS, either alone or in combination. Mortality was greatest among children fulfilling criteria for all three PS (28% bolus, 21% control) and lowest for lone respiratory (2% bolus, 5% control) or neurological (3% bolus, 0% control) presentations. Excess mortality in bolus arms versus control was apparent for all three PS, including all their component features. By one hour, shock had resolved (responders) more frequently in bolus versus control groups (43% versus 32%, P <0.001), but excess mortality with boluses was evident in responders (relative risk 1.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 4.17, P = 0.06) and 'non-responders' (relative risk 1

  5. Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…

  6. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  7. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Participation of Parents in the Early Exploration of Tactile Graphics by Children Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryles, Ruby; Bell, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Seventy-three children with visual impairments aged 2-10 and their parents participated in a project that examined the children's interest in and exploration of tactile graphics. The parents reported that the children's interest in and conceptual understanding of the project's tactile workbook were high and that the children explored the…

  9. The Vernacular Revolution: Reclaiming Early Modern Grammatical Traditions in the Ottoman Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the remarkable shift toward new literate uses of vernacular languages in the early modern Ottoman empire. It argues that this vernacularization occurred independently of Western European (and, more specifically, German romantic) influences. It explores, first, how vernacular

  10. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  11. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Baig

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are pa...

  12. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  13. Mental Representation and Early Language Development: Directions for Exploring Relationships. Souvenir of Conversation Hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolich, Lorraine McCune; And Others

    This collection of conference abstracts focuses on new directions for research on mental representation and early language development. One page summaries are provided on the following topics: Mental Representation and Initial Language Learning, by Lorraine M. Nicolich; Critical Issues in Language and Cognitive Development, by Roberta Corrigan;…

  14. Exploring teacher roles and pupil outcomes in technology-rich early literacy learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cviko, Amina; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Orey, Michael; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the involvement of Dutch kindergarten teachers in curriculum (design and) implementation of PictoPal activities in three different roles: executor-only, re-designer, and co-designer. PictoPal refers to ICT-rich on- and off-computer activities for early literacy. In the

  15. Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Reesa

    2013-01-01

    Belonging to "a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community" (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7) is integral to children's early development and learning. Acknowledging families as "children's first and most influential educators" (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7), DEEWR notes…

  16. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  17. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  18. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  19. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to…

  20. An Exploration of Parenting Behaviours and Attitudes during Early Infancy: Association with Maternal and Infant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, B.; Brown, A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of warm and democratic parenting styles for optimal social, emotional and cognitive outcomes in children over the age of five is well established. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring variations in parenting styles during infancy, despite many popular parenting books aimed at this period. The primary aim of this study…

  1. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  3. Exploring the acceptable travel time concept in the US and European contexts. Results from Berkeley, CA and Delft, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milakis, D.; van Wee, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    “Do people consider an acceptable travel time?” We raised this question in Milakis, Cervero, and van Wee (2015) to explore the validity of the acceptable travel time concept as a possible factor in the travel and destination decision-making process. Results from interviews with 20 subjects in

  4. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    Full Text Available Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question

  5. Explore the Possibility of Early Clinical Diagnosis of Endocrine Ophthalmopathy Based on Eye Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    V. G. Likhvantseva; E. A. Rudenko; S. G. Kapkova; V. A. Vygodin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to study the possibility of early clinical diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy based on ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods: we analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism in 139 patients (278 orbits) with newly diagnosed endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 1), developed on the background of diffuse toxic goiter. The comparison group consisted of 80 patients (160 orbits) with newly diagnosed diffuse toxic goiter with no radiographic evidence of en...

  6. Exploring the victimization‒early substance misuse relationship: In search of moderating and mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2018-07-01

    This study was designed to address two research questions. The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands of peers, and the abuse x bullying interaction encouraged early involvement in substance misuse. The second research question inquired as to whether the victimization‒substance misuse relationship was mediated by variables proposed by various theories and research studies-specifically, cognitive impulsivity, negative affect, and low self-esteem. A moderated mediation hypothesis was tested in a group of 865 (417 boys, 448 girls) schoolchildren from the Illinois Study of Bullying and Sexual Violence who were 10 to 15 years of age at the time of initial contact. A path analysis performed with three waves of data revealed that physical abuse and bullying victimization predicted substance misuse with mediation by cognitive impulsivity, but there was no evidence of moderation. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that victimization, whether through parental physical abuse or peer bullying, increases cognitive impulsivity, and that cognitive impulsivity, in turn, encourages early involvement in substance misuse. The practical implications of these results are that interventions designed to counter cognitive impulsivity and encourage cognitive control may be effective in preventing children traumatized by physical abuse and bullying from entering the early stages of a drug or substance using lifestyle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, B A; Dupuy, B M; Spurkland, A; Fernández-Viña, M A; Hagelberg, E; Thorsby, E

    2007-01-01

    Most archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island (Rapanui), and this view has been supported by the identification of Polynesian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in prehistoric skeletal remains. However, some evidence of an early South American contact also exists (the sweet potato, bottle gourd etc.), but genetic studies have so far failed to show an early Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island. To address this issue, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome markers and performed high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping of DNA harvested from previously collected sera of 48 reputedly nonadmixed native Easter Islanders. All individuals carried mtDNA types and HLA alleles previously found in Polynesia, and most men carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin, providing further evidence of a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island. A few individuals carried HLA alleles and/or Y chromosome markers of European origin. More interestingly, some individuals carried the HLA alleles A*0212 and B*3905, which are of typical Amerindian origin. The genealogy of some of the individuals carrying these non-Polynesian HLA alleles and their haplotypic backgrounds suggest an introduction into Easter Island in the early 1800s, or earlier. Thus, there may have been an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool of Easter Island.

  8. Exploring reasons for late identification of children with early-onset hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Dos Santos, Johnny Cesconetto; Grandpierre, Viviane; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada. The study also sought to determine the reasons for delayed confirmation of hearing loss in children. Population level data related to age of first assessment, age of identification and clinical characteristics were collected prospectively for all children identified through the UNHS program. We documented the number of children who experienced delay (defined as more than 3 months) from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of hearing loss. A detailed chart review was subsequently performed to examine the reasons for delay to confirmation. Of 418 children identified from 2003 to 2013, 182 (43.5%) presented with congenital or early onset hearing loss, of whom 30 (16.5%) experienced more than 3 months delay from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of their hearing disorder. The median age of first assessment and confirmation of hearing loss for these 30 children was 3.7 months (IQR: 2.0, 7.6) and 13.8 months (IQR: 9.7, 26.1) respectively. Close examination of the factors related to delay to confirmation revealed that for the overwhelming majority of children, a constellation of factors contributed to late diagnosis. Several children (n = 22; 73.3%) presented with developmental/medical issues, 15 of whom also had middle ear dysfunction at assessment, and 9 of whom had documented family follow-up concerns. For the remaining eight children, additional reasons included ongoing middle ear dysfunction for five children, complicated by family follow-up concerns (n = 3) and mild

  9. Exploring the Impact of Early Decisions in Variable Ordering for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Bayliss, José Carlos; Amaya, Ivan; Conant-Pablos, Santiago Enrique; Terashima-Marín, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    When solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), it is a common practice to rely on heuristics to decide which variable should be instantiated at each stage of the search. But, this ordering influences the search cost. Even so, and to the best of our knowledge, no earlier work has dealt with how first variable orderings affect the overall cost. In this paper, we explore the cost of finding high-quality orderings of variables within constraint satisfaction problems. We also study differen...

  10. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CZECH REPUBLIC BEHIND THE STEERING WHEEL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: EXPLORING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE FIRST CZECH EU PRESIDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Král

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic will be only the second of the EU members that joined in 2004 to preside over what is viewed as the most powerful and influential institution within the European structures – the Council. While technical preparations have been well underway for several years, the current political constellation inside the EU seems to be leaving certain signs of nervousness among Prague-based decision makers. The uncertainty surrounding the future of the Lisbon Treaty with the Irish ‘no’ and uncompleted ratification in the Czech Republic itself, recent controversy between the EU and Russia and not least highly complicated political situation at home are all likely to have an impact on the first, and – in the current form – perhaps also the last Czech presidency of the EU. This article will try to have a look at a critical assessment of the preparations for the Czech presidency, various factors, both internal and external, that are likely to influence its execution, as well as at its priorities as they are tabled at the moment.

  13. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  14. Validity of exploration for suitable vessels for replantation in the distal fingertip amputation in early childhood: replantation or composite graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ishida, Kunihiro; Arashiro, Ken; Nishizeki, Osamu

    2013-09-01

    Composite grafting, grafting without microvascular anastomoses, has been widely performed for distal fingertip amputation in children with variable results, whereas successful replantation of these amputations using microsurgical technique has been reported. However, most of these reports included a wide age-range and a mix of different amputation levels. This study reviewed our cases of paediatric digital amputation, in order to verify the value of distal fingertip replantation over composite grafting, especially in early childhood. Seventeen young children (aged 3 years and 8 months on average), with single-digit fingertip amputations in Tamai zone I were reviewed from 1993-2008. Each amputation was subdivided into three types: distal, middle, and proximal. There were three distal, 13 middle, and one proximal type zone I amputations. All were crush or avulsion injuries. All three distal-type cases were reattached as primary composite grafts with one success. For middle-type cases, the survival rate of primary composite graft without exploration for possible vessels for anastomosis was 57%. On exploration, suitable vessels for anastomosis were found 50% of the time, in which all replantations were succeeded. The remaining cases were reattached as secondary composite grafts, with one success using the pocket method. Consequently, the success rate after exploration was 67%. The only one proximal-type amputation was failed in replantation. For the middle-type zone I amputation in early childhood, replantation has a high success rate if suitable vessels can be found. Therefore, exploration is recommended for amputations at this level with a view to replantation, irrespective of the mechanism of injury.

  15. An exploration of addiction in adults experiencing early-life stress: a metasynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Araujo Bastos Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to review and synthesize qualitative research on the links between early-life stress and addiction behaviours in adulthood. Method: metasynthesis to review qualitative research findings based on procedures that outline how to identify themes or constructs across studies in a specific area. Comprehensive searches of multiple electronic databases were performed. The initial search yielded 1050 articles and the titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion based on predetermined criteria. Thirty-eight full text, peer-reviewed articles were retrieved and assessed by three independent reviewers. Twelve articles were eligible for full review and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tools. Results: the findings revealed that clear associations exist between early-life stress and addictive behaviours in adulthood, such as between trauma in childhood, violence, and addictive behaviours. A common theme in the findings indicates that participants turn to addictive substances as a way of strategically coping with stressful childhood experiences, regardless of the harmful side effects or detrimental social outcomes. Conclusion: it can be inferred that addiction may be viewed as a way to deal with adversity in childhood and that there is an interrelationship between addiction, domestic violence and crime.

  16. Amyloid PET in European and North American cohorts; and exploring age as a limit to clinical use of amyloid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiotis, Konstantinos [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Carter, Stephen F. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Farid, Karim [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); APHP, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Savitcheva, Irina [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Collaboration: for the Diagnostic Molecular Imaging (DiMI) network and the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-09-15

    Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)

  17. Amyloid PET in European and North American cohorts; and exploring age as a limit to clinical use of amyloid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotis, Konstantinos; Carter, Stephen F.; Farid, Karim; Savitcheva, Irina; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)

  18. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  19. Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR): A New Frontiers Mission to Explore the Origin and Evolution of the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Olkin, C.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The orbital properties, compositions, and physical properties of the diverse populations of small outer solar system bodies provide a forensic map of how our solar system formed and evolved. Perhaps the most potentially diagnostic, but least explored, of those populations are the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, which orbit at ~5 AU in the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter. More than 6200 Jupiter Trojans are presently known, but these are predicted to be only a small fraction of the 500,000 to 1 million Trojans >1 km in size. The Trojans are hypothesized to be either former Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that were scattered into the inner solar system by early giant planet migration and then trapped in the 1:1 Jupiter mean motion resonance, or bodies formed near 5 AU in a much more quiescent early solar system, and then trapped at L4 and L5. The 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey identified important questions about the origin and evolution of the solar system that can be addressed by studying of the Trojan asteroids, including: (a) How did the giant planets and their satellite systems accrete, and is there evidence that they migrated to new orbital positions? (b) What is the relationship between large and small KBOs? Is the small population derived by impact disruption of the large one? (c) What kinds of surface evolution, radiation chemistry, and surface-atmosphere interactions occur on distant icy primitive bodies? And (d) What are the sources of asteroid groups (Trojans and Centaurs) that remain to be explored by spacecraft? The Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR) is a New Frontiers-class mission designed to answer these questions, and to test hypotheses for early giant planet migration and solar system evolution. Via close flybys of a large number of these objects,, and orbital characterization of at least one large Trojan, TTR will enable the first-time exploration of this population. Our primary mission goals are to characterize the overall surface geology

  20. Sufficiently well Informed and Seriously Concerned? European Union Policy Responses to Marginalisation, Structural Racism, and Institutionalised Exclusion in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union, children from marginalised communities experience an appalling reality of poverty, exclusion, discrimination, and racism. Growing up in poverty and social exclusion shapes the reality of the lived experience for an increasing number of children in one of the wealthiest regions of the world. In the UK, a member of the…

  1. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  2. Exploring the geochemical distribution of organic carbon in early land plants: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D; Fletcher, Ian W; Tardio, Sabrina; Hack, Ethan

    2018-02-05

    Terrestrialization depended on the evolution of biosynthetic pathways for biopolymers including lignin, cutin and suberin, which were concentrated in specific tissues, layers or organs such as the xylem, cuticle and roots on the submillimetre scale. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible especially for individual cells, to resolve the biomolecular composition of the different components of fossil plants on such a scale using the well-established coupled techniques of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here, we report the application of techniques for surface analysis to investigate the composition of Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of two different spots (both 300 µm × 600 µm) confirmed the presence of carbon. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed 'chemical maps' (imaging mode with 300 nm resolution) of aliphatic and aromatic carbon in the intact fossil that correlate with the vascular structures observed in high-resolution optical images. This study shows that imaging ToF-SIMS has value for determining the location of the molecular components of fossil embryophytes while retaining structural information that will help elucidate how terrestrialization shaped the early evolution of land plant cell wall biochemistry.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  4. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker to Explore the Role of Maternal Stress in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Chandra Pani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student’s t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol ( than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (. A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (. Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect.

  5. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  6. An exploration of reminiscence and post-war European immigrants living in a multicultural aged-care setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Cherie; Schmidt, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions of the telling of life stories of four post-war immigrants living in a multicultural residential aged-care setting in Australia. This study aims to shed light on what participants feel about life stories, and the prospect of involvement in the documentation of their life story in order to provide insight and understanding for optimum programme facilitation and better resident care.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four participants. Data were audiotaped and transcribed. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate data.Three main themes emerged: diminution of guilt, social sharing - common bonds and, the urge to 'feel' the past to 'fill' the present. It is apparent that aged survivors of war, and displacement to a new country, feel residual guilt regarding the leaving of their homeland. The prospect of documenting their life stories offers an opportunity to provide an explanation for their decision.Immersion in life stories allows the re-experiencing and sharing of past emotions and sensations. Engagement in occupational reminiscence enhances understanding a person's lived life experience, which adds meaning to one's life. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Explore the Possibility of Early Clinical Diagnosis of Endocrine Ophthalmopathy Based on Eye Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the possibility of early clinical diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy based on ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods: we analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism in 139 patients (278 orbits with newly diagnosed endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 1, developed on the background of diffuse toxic goiter. The comparison group consisted of 80 patients (160 orbits with newly diagnosed diffuse toxic goiter with no radiographic evidence of endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 2. All patients were examined by an ophthalmologist and endocrinologist. We analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism (symptom Dalrymple’, Mobius’, Zenger’, and combinations thereof, often encountered in diffuse toxic goiter, flowing with endocrine ophthalmopathy, and/or lack thereof - in the group of “thyrotoxic exophthalmos”. We took into account the frequency distribution of these clinical signs, and their combinations. We analyzed the clinical sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis based on the three most common symptoms, and their combinations, associated both with thyrotoxicosis and with endocrine ophthalmopathy. Results: Dalrymple’ symptom, is more common in thyrotoxic exophthalmos than with endocrine ophthalmopathy (compared to 100.0% versus 61.9 %, p<0,001. This suggests that Dalrymple’ symptom leads to over diagnosis aspect endocrine ophthalmopathy. It is obvious that it can be used to recognize and thyrotoxic exophthalmos hyperthyroidism, but you cann’t credibly claim based on orbit about the presence of the disease. In this aspect, the greatest practical interest to provide a comparative assessment of the frequency of detection of symptoms of Mobius’ and Zenger’ and their combinations in a population of endocrine ophthalmopathy and in the group of thyrotoxic exophthalmos. Significantly more symptoms Zenger’ and Mobius’ developed with endocrine ophthalmopathy (66,2% and 81

  8. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Baig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are passed on to the students, who play an important role in the gender identity construction of these children. The study also indicated that the teachers’ personal experiences greatly affect their perceptions regarding gender identities. There was also evidence of teachers having different expectations for girls and boys. Schools were hence found promoting stereotypes regarding gender roles and responsibilities in a social context.

  10. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alison B; Windham, Gayle C; Croen, Lisa A; Daniels, Julie L; Lee, Brian K; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E; Fallin, M Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one job during pregnancy. Asthmagen exposure was estimated from a published job-exposure matrix. The adjusted odds ratio for ASD comparing asthmagen-exposed to unexposed was 1.39 (95 % CI 0.96-2.02). Maternal workplace asthmagen exposure was not associated with ASD risk in this study, but this result does not exclude some involvement of maternal exposure to asthma-causing agents in ASD.

  11. Socialization, Indifference, and Convenience: Exploring the Uptake of Influenza Vaccine Among Medical Students and Early Career Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Rhiannon; Goodwin, Dawn; Isba, Rachel; Keegan, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The Chief Medical Officer recommends that all health care workers receive an influenza vaccination annually. High vaccination coverage is believed to be the best protection against the spread of influenza within a hospital, although uptake by health care workers remains low. We conducted semistructured interviews with seven medical students and nine early career doctors, to explore the factors informing their influenza vaccination decision making. Data collection and analysis took place iteratively, until theoretical saturation was achieved, and a thematic analysis was performed. Socialization was important although its effects were attenuated by participants' previous experiences and a lack of clarity around the risks and benefits of vaccination. Many participants did not have strong intentions regarding vaccination. There was considerable disparity between an individual's opinion of the vaccine, their intentions, and their vaccination status. The indifference demonstrated here suggests few are strongly opposed to the vaccination-there is potential to increase vaccination coverage.

  12. Homogeneous Subgroups of Young Children with Autism Improve Phenotypic Characterization in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Tian, Lin H; Levy, Susan E; Rice, Catherine; Lee, Li-Ching; Schieve, Laura; Pandey, Juhi; Daniels, Julie; Blaskey, Lisa; Hepburn, Susan; Landa, Rebecca; Edmondson-Pretzel, Rebecca; Thompson, William

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algorithms. Four classes of children with ASD were identified from latent class analysis: mild language delay with cognitive rigidity, mild language and motor delay with dysregulation, general developmental delay, and significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors. We conclude that a four-class phenotypic model of children with ASD best describes our data and improves phenotypic characterization of young children with ASD. Implications for screening, diagnosis, and research are discussed.

  13. Design of the NL-ENIGMA study: Exploring the effect of Souvenaid on cerebral glucose metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltens, Nienke M E; Kuyper, Ingrid S; Boellaard, Ronald; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Broersen, Laus M; Lansbergen, Marieke M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Berckel, Bart N M; Scheltens, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with early synaptic loss. Specific nutrients are known to be rate limiting for synapse formation. Studies have shown that administering specific nutrients may improve memory function, possibly by increasing synapse formation. This Dutch study explores the Effect of a specific Nutritional Intervention on cerebral Glucose Metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease (NL-ENIGMA, Dutch Trial Register NTR4718, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4718). The NL-ENIGMA study is designed to test whether the specific multinutrient combination Fortasyn Connect present in the medical food Souvenaid influences cerebral glucose metabolism as a marker for improved synapse function. This study is a double-blind, randomized controlled parallel-group single-center trial. Forty drug-naive patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia with evidence of amyloid deposition are 1:1 randomized to receive either the multinutrient combination or placebo once daily. Main exploratory outcome parameters include absolute quantitative positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (including arterial sampling) and standard uptake value ratios normalized for the cerebellum or pons after 24 weeks. We expect the NL-ENIGMA study to provide further insight in the potential of this multinutrient combination to improve synapse function.

  14. A Qualitative Application of the Belsky Model to Explore Early Care and Education Teachers' Mealtime History, Beliefs, and Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Patterson, Zachary; Boden, Carrie J

    Studies on factors associated with nutrition practices in early care and education settings often focus on sociodemographic and programmatic characteristics. This qualitative study adapted and applied Belsky's determinants of parenting model to inform a broader exploration of Early Care and Education Teachers (ECETs) practices. Qualitative cross-sectional study with ECETs. The researchers interviewed ECETs in their communities across a Southern state. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit ECETs (n = 28) from Head Start or state-funded centers serving low-income families. Developmental histories of ECETs regarding food and nutrition, beliefs about child nutrition, and teaching interactions related to food. Qualitative interviews were coded using a deductive content analysis approach. Three distinct interrelationships were observed across the themes. First, rules and routines regarding food and mealtime in the educators' childhood often aligned with educator beliefs and behaviors at meals in their classroom. Second, some ECETs described motivations to leave a healthy food legacy for children in their class. Finally, an experience of food insecurity appeared in narratives that also emphasized making sure children got enough through various strategies. The influence of ECET developmental histories and their related beliefs can be addressed through professional development and ongoing support. Future study should quantify model constructs in a larger sample and study their relationships over time. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intervention among new parents followed up by an interview study exploring their experiences of telemedicine after early postnatal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbjørg, D B; Wagner, L; Kristensen, B R; Clemensen, J

    2015-06-01

    a move towards earlier postnatal discharge raises the challenge of finding new ways to support families when they are discharged early after childbirth. to explore how postnatal parents experienced the use of telemedicine following early discharge from hospital (i.e. 24 hours after childbirth) by investigating if they consider that their postnatal needs are met, and whether or not they experience a sense of security and parental self-efficacy. intervention followed by a qualitative interview study. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1000 births a year. An app including chat, a knowledgebase and automated messages was trialled between postnatal parents at home and the hospital. Parents had access to the app for seven days after discharge. 42 new mothers were recruited from the postnatal ward in accordance with the inclusion criteria (i.e. discharged within 24 hours of childbirth). Both parents were invited for interview. 42 sets of parents participated in the trial, and 28 sets agreed to be interviewed. Interviews (n=28) were conducted with 27 mothers and 11 fathers. Parents were interviewed together in 10 cases, 17 mothers were interviewed alone, and one father was interviewed alone. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation based on Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological method. parents were confident in use of the app, and did not experience any barriers in contacting the nurses via asynchronous communication. Parents received timely information and guidance by communicating online, and felt that their follow-up support needs were met. parents viewed the app as a lifeline, and saw it as a means of informing and guiding them following early discharge from hospital after childbirth. As such, this app shows potential for enhancing self-efficacy and postnatal sense of security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accountable to whom, for what? An exploration of the early development of Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath; Allen, Pauline; Coleman, Anna; Segar, Julia; McDermott, Imelda; Harrison, Stephen; Petsoulas, Christina; Peckham, Stephen

    2013-12-10

    One of the key goals of the current reforms in the English National Health Service (NHS) under the Health and Social Care Act, 2012, is to increase the accountability of those responsible for commissioning care for patients (clinical commissioning groups (CCGs)), while at the same time allowing them a greater autonomy. This study was set out to explore CCG's developing accountability relationships. We carried out detailed case studies in eight CCGs, using interviews, observation and documentary analysis to explore their multiple accountabilities. We interviewed 91 people, including general practitioners, managers and governing body members in developing CCGs, and undertook 439 h of observation in a wide variety of meetings. CCGs are subject to a managerial, sanction-backed accountability to NHS England (the highest tier in the new organisational hierarchy), alongside a number of other external accountabilities to the public and to some of the other new organisations created by the reforms. In addition, unlike their predecessor commissioning organisations, they are subject to complex internal accountabilities to their members. The accountability regime to which CCGs are subject to is considerably more complex than that which applied their predecessor organisations. It remains to be seen whether the twin aspirations of increased autonomy and increased accountability can be realised in practice. However, this early study raises some important issues and concerns, including the risk that the different bodies to whom CCGs are accountable will have differing (or conflicting) agendas, and the lack of clarity over the operation of sanction regimes.

  17. Worse, Not Better?’ Reinvigorating Early Warning For Conflict Prevention In The Post Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Meyer, Christoph O.; Brante, John

    it right all of the time. However, we advance a number of recommendations addressed primarily to the EU, which could help to mitigate some of the problems obstructing warning for early action: • to reinvigorate its commitments to conflict prevention and ring-fence institutional resources against competing...... Representatives to avoid the bottleneck problem; • to lend more financial and intelligence support to regional and local early warning systems/NGOs, particularly those which integrate warning and response under one roof. Our paper also addresses the growing importance of the news media and nongovernmental...... in order to challenge some of the disincentives to act on the part of governments and the EU. NGOs also play an important role in holding decisionmakers to account for failing to act despite early, clear and well-substantiated warnings. In order to enhance the role of NGOs and the news media we recommend...

  18. Early Childhood in Central and Eastern Europe: Issues and Challenges. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph No. 13/2000. First Central and Eastern European Early Childhood Care and Development Meeting (Budapest, Hungary, October 24-28, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korintus, Marta

    This document is comprised of the proceedings from the first Central and Eastern European Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) meeting in Budapest, Hungary, October 24-28, 1999, convened to begin the development of an ECCD network in the region to address the similar needs and concerns of children in these countries. Following an…

  19. The early postnatal period: Exploring women's views, expectations and experiences of care using focus groups in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayner Jo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence from Australia and overseas that the care provided in hospital in the early postnatal period is less than ideal for both women and care providers. Many health services face increasing pressure on hospital beds and have limited physical space available to care for mothers and their babies. We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. Methods We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006. Fifty-two people participated in eight focus groups and four interviews. Participants included eight pregnant women, of whom seven were pregnant with their first baby; 42 women who were in the postpartum period (some up to twelve months after the birth of their baby; and two partners. All participants were fluent in English. Focus group guides were developed specifically for the study and explored participants' experiences and/or expectations of early postnatal care in hospital and at home, with an emphasis on length of hospital stay, professional and social support, continuity of care, and rest. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic network was constructed to describe and connect categories with emerging basic, organizing, and global themes. Results Global themes that emerged were: anxiety and/or fear; and the transition to motherhood and parenting. The needs of first time mothers were considered to be different to the needs of women who had already experienced motherhood. The women in this study were generally concerned about the safety of their new baby, and lacked confidence in themselves as new mothers regarding their ability to care for their baby. There was a consistent view that the physical presence and availability of professional support helped alleviate these concerns, and this was especially the case for women having a first baby. Conclusion Women have anxieties and fears

  20. ‘Talkin’ ‘Bout My Generation’: Using a Mixed-Methods Approach to Explore Changes in Adolescent Well-Being across Several European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cosma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of positive mental health is a becoming priority worldwide. Despite all the efforts invested in preventive and curative work, it is estimated that one in four persons will experience a mental health condition at some point in their lives. Even more worrying is the fact that up to a half of all mental health problems have their onset before the age of 14. Recent statistics (national and international surveys, meta-analyses, international reports point out to the fact that child and adolescent mental health problems are on the rise. The present study will try to corroborate these results and further explore their meaning, by employing a sequential mixed methods research design (quantitative–qualitative. The quantitative part will analyze time trends using Health Behaviors in School-aged Children data (four survey cycles: 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014 on mental well-being from four European countries (the Czechia, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom. The qualitative part will rely on focus groups to explore the perspectives of 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls on gender differences and on the changes in adolescent mental well-being over time, as well as measures through which these issues could be addressed. Thematic analysis will be employed to analyze qualitative data. The results of this study could make a major contribution to our understanding of the current trends in adolescent mental well-being, as well as the ways in which existing data could be linked to international and national health policies.

  1. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-10-01

    Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

  2. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  3. Addressing the impact of mercury estuarine contamination in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) - An early diagnosis in glass eel stage based on erythrocytic nuclear morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D; Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Guilherme, S; Marques, A; Santos, M A; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E; Pacheco, M

    2018-02-01

    The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) population throughout Europe has been partially attributed to pollution. As glass eel estuarine migration may represent a considerable threat, the impact of mercury (Hg) contamination at this stage was evaluated through an in situ experiment (7days). Total Hg (tHg) bioaccumulation was evaluated concomitantly with erythrocytic nuclear morphology alterations: erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay (ENA), frequency of immature erythrocytes (IE) and the erythrocytic maturity index (EMI). The ENA results suggested a genotoxic pressure at the most contaminated sites, in line with the tHg increase. The EMI data, together with IE frequency, showed that fish exposed to high levels of Hg exhibited alterations of haematological dynamics, translated into an erythropoiesis increment. Despite the presence of these compensatory mechanisms, the present findings suggest a harmful impact of Hg on genome integrity at this early development stage, potentially affecting eels' condition and ultimately the population sustainability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. An exploration of Early Childhood Education students’ knowledge and preparation to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Olivia JM; Tucker, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood educators play an important role in influencing preschoolers’ physical activity levels. The current study sought to explore Early Childhood Education (ECE) students’ physical activity-related knowledge and educational experience during their formal training in Ontario. Methods A total of 1,113 ECE students from 20 Ontario Colleges completed the study survey (online or on paper), which examined students’ physical activity course content; awareness of physical activit...

  5. Exploring predictors of scientific performance with decision tree analysis: The case of research excellence in early career mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to introduce the exploratory method of decision tree analysis as a complementary alternative to current confirmatory methods used in scientometric prediction studies of research performance; and (2) as an illustrative case, to explore predictors of future research excellence at the individual level among 493 early career mathematicians in the sub-field of number theory between 1999 and 2010. A conceptual introduction to decision tree analysis is provided including an overview of the main steps of the tree-building algorithm and the statistical method of cross-validation used to evaluate the performance of decision tree models. A decision tree analysis of 493 mathematicians was conducted to find useful predictors and important relationships between variables in the context of predicting research excellence. The results suggest that the number of prestige journal publications and a topically diverse output are important predictors of future research excellence. Researchers with no prestige journal publications are very unlikely to produce excellent research. Limitations of decision three analysis are discussed. (Author)

  6. The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in Early-Modern Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Mike A

    2018-05-19

    By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in early-modern alchemy. Specifically, I argue that there were three aspects that could distinguish manuscript from print: provenance, materiality, and exclusivity. These can be seen at work in the fate of Johann Heinrich Vierordt, an itinerant alchemist and cavalry captain whose career is inextricably linked to the scribal dissemination of the Speculum Sapientiae. In addition to manuscript copies of that text at libraries across Europe, a significant cache of correspondence preserved in Gotha documents Vierordt's dealings with Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha. The verisimilitudinous provenance of Vierordt's alchemical secrets and tincture played a crucial role in allowing him to gain Friedrich's trust. Yet it was only after Vierordt presented him with a precious parchment manuscript of the Speculum Sapientiae that he truly succeeded in gaining the duke's patronage. Subsequently, reports of multiple conflicting copies surfacing in Amsterdam sealed Vierordt's fall from favour.

  7. Early history of extended irreversible thermodynamics (1953-1983): An exploration beyond local equilibrium and classical transport theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, G.; Jou, D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper gives a historical account of the early years (1953-1983) of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). The salient features of this formalism are to upgrade the thermodynamic fluxes of mass, momentum, energy, and others, to the status of independent variables, and to explore the consistency between generalized transport equations and a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This requires going beyond classical irreversible thermodynamics by redefining entropy and entropy flux. EIT provides deeper foundations, closer relations with microscopic formalisms, a wider spectrum of applications, and a more exciting conceptual appeal to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We first recall the historical contributions by Maxwell, Cattaneo, and Grad on generalized transport equations. A thermodynamic theory wide enough to cope with such transport equations was independently proposed between 1953 and 1983 by several authors, each emphasizing different kinds of problems. In 1983, the first international meeting on this theory took place in Bellaterra (Barcelona). It provided the opportunity for the various authors to meet together for the first time and to discuss the common points and the specific differences of their previous formulations. From then on, a large amount of applications and theoretical confirmations have emerged. From the historical point of view, the emergence of EIT has been an opportunity to revisit the foundations and to open new avenues in thermodynamics, one of the most classical and well consolidated physical theories.

  8. Shakespearean Intertexts and European Identities in Contemporary Black British Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Valdivieso, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the presence of William Shakespeare as intertext in three recent novels by black British writers which deploy the work of the Bard as they explore British and European identities. Caryl Phillips's "The Nature of Blood" recreates an Othello-like figure who in early Modern Venice struggles to come to terms with his…

  9. Unexpected early extinction of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Sweden and climatic impact on its Holocene range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert S; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Persson, Arne; Bringsøe, Henrik; Rhodin, Anders G J; Schneeweiss, Norbert; Siroký, Pavel; Bachmann, Lutz; Fritz, Uwe

    2009-03-01

    Using ancient DNA sequences of subfossil European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from Britain, Central and North Europe and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating for turtle remains from most Swedish sites, we provide evidence for a Holocene range expansion of the pond turtle from the southeastern Balkans into Britain, Central Europe and Scandinavia, according to the 'grasshopper pattern' of Hewitt. Northeastern Europe and adjacent Asia were colonized from another refuge located further east. With increasing annual mean temperatures, pond turtles reached southern Sweden approximately 9800 years ago. Until approximately 5500 years ago, rising temperatures facilitated a further range expansion up to Ostergötland, Sweden (approximately 58 degrees 30'N). However, around 5500 years ago pond turtle records suddenly terminate in Sweden, some 1500 years before the Holocene thermal maximum ended in Scandinavia and distinctly earlier than previously thought. This extinction coincides with a temporary cooling oscillation during the Holocene thermal maximum and is likely related to lower summer temperatures deteriorating reproductive success. Although climatic conditions improved later again, recolonization of Sweden from southern source populations was prevented by the Holocene submergence of the previous land connection via the Danish Straits that occurred approximately 8500 years ago.

  10. Early diagenesis driven by widespread meteoric infiltration of a Central European carbonate ramp: A reinterpretation of the Upper Muschelkalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arthur; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric diagenesis of carbonate ramps is often difficult to interpret and can commonly be confused with other coinciding diagenetic processes. The Middle Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of Switzerland provides an insightful case in which the effects of several overprinting diagenetic environments, including matrix dolomitization, can be clearly unravelled. Previous studies suggested that diagenesis took place in connate marine waters, with later meteoric waters being invoked to explain recrystallization of dolomite. In this study, diagenetic analyses (C-O stable isotope ratios, thin-section point counting, cathodoluminescence and UV-fluorescence microscopy) of calcitic bioclastic samples have revealed that early diagenesis (pre-stylolitization) and the accompanying porosity evolution did not occur exclusively in the presence of marine fluids. Five sequential stages of diagenesis have been identified: marine, shallow burial, mixing-zone, meteoric and dolomitization. Marine diagenesis induced precipitation of bladed and inclusion-rich syntaxial cements that fluoresce strongly under UV-light. Both cements account for a mean 7.5 vol% reduction in the porosity of bioclastic beds. Shallow burial diagenesis likely induced mouldic porosity and associated fluorescent dog-tooth cementation. Based on light oxygen isotope and elevated strontium isotope ratios, matrix aragonite-calcite neomorphism is interpreted to have occurred in a mixture of marine and meteoric fluids. The combination of shallow burial and mixing-zone processes reduced porosity on average by 4.8 vol%. Evidence for subsequent meteoric diagenesis is found in abundant dog-tooth and blocky calcite cements that have mean δ18OVPDB of - 9.36‰ and no signs of recrystallization. These meteoric cements reduced porosity by a further 13.4 vol%. Percolation of meteoric water through the ramp was driven by hydraulic gradients on an adjacent basement high, which was exposed by a cycle of early Ladinian regressions

  11. Is there flexibility in the European Semester process? : Exploring interactions between the EU and member states within post-crisis socio-economic governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Sonja

    The consequences of the Eurozone crisis has spurred increased coordination of member state public finances at European level. This also entails the scrutiny of socio-economic issues within the framework of the European semester. However, this process also includes aspects of negotiation in which the

  12. Interannual differences in growth and hatch-date distributions of early juvenile European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: implications for recruitment

    KAUST Repository

    Aldanondo, Naroa

    2016-01-22

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. In order to understand better the recruitment variability in European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay, it is important to investigate the processes that affect survival during the early life stages. Anchovy juvenile growth trajectories and hatch-date distributions were inferred over a 3-year period based on otolith microstructure analysis. Otolith growth trajectories showed a characteristic shape depending on their hatch-date timing. Earlier-born juveniles had notably broader maximum increments than later born conspecifics, resulting in higher growth rates. This observation suggests that early hatching would be beneficial for larval and juvenile growth, and, therefore, survival. The estimated juvenile hatch-date distributions were relatively narrow compared with the extended anchovy spawning season (March-August) in the Bay of Biscay and indicated that only individuals originated mainly from the summer months (June-August) survived until autumn. Hatch-date distributions were markedly different among years and seemed to influence the interannual recruitment strength of anchovy. We conclude that years characterized by juvenile survivors originating from the peak spawning period (May and June) would lead to considerable recruitment success. Downwelling events during the peak spawning period seem to affect larval survival.

  13. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students' Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group…

  14. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrempft, S.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Fisher, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of

  15. Confirmatory versus explorative endpoint analysis: Decision-making on the basis of evidence available from market authorization and early benefit assessment for oncology drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ines; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2018-03-26

    The early benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany and their preceding market authorization pursue different objectives. This is reflected by the inclusion of varying confirmatory endpoints within the evaluation of oncology drugs in early benefit assessment versus market authorization, with both relying on the same evidence. Data from assessments up to July 2015 are used to estimate the impact of explorative in comparison to confirmatory endpoints on market authorization and early benefit assessment by contrasting the benefit-risk ratio of EMA and the benefit-harm balance of the HTA jurisdiction. Agreement between market authorization and early benefit assessment is examined by Cohen's kappa (k). 21 of 41 assessments were considered in the analysis. Market authorization is more confirmatory than early benefit assessment because it includes a higher proportion of primary endpoints. The latter implies a primary endpoint to be relevant for the benefit-harm balance in only 67% of cases (0.078). Explorative mortality endpoints reached the highest agreement regarding the mutual consideration for the risk-benefit ratio and the benefit-harm balance (0.000). For explorative morbidity endpoints (-0.600), quality of life (-0.600) and side effects (-0.949) no agreement is ascertainable. To warrant a broader confirmatory basis for decisions supported by HTA, closer inter-institutional cooperation of approval authorities and HTA jurisdictions by means of reliable joint advice for manufacturers regarding endpoint definition would be favorable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial inequalities in infant survival at an early stage of the longevity revolution: A pan-European view across 5000+ regions and localities in 1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Klüsener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial inequalities in human development are of great concern to international organisations and national governments. Demographic indicators like the infant mortality rate are important measures for determining these inequalities. Using demographic indicators over long time periods at relatively high levels of geographical detail, we can examine the long-term continuities and changes in spatial inequalities. Objective: This paper presents the initial outcomes of a larger project that aims to analyse spatial variation in infant survival across Europe over the last 100 years. In this paper, we focus on spatial disparities in infant survival in 1910. At that time, the longevity revolution was still at an early stage. We look at general spatial variation patterns within and across countries, and discuss some of the challenges related to the comparativeness of the data. Methods: We link official infant mortality data from more than 5,000 European regions and localities for the period around 1910 to a European historical GIS of administrative boundaries. The data are analysed using descriptive spatial analysis techniques. Results: In 1910, a number of countries in northern and western Europe led the longevity revolution in Europe, with the area of low infant mortality also extending into the northwestern parts of the German Empire. Other areas with low infant mortality levels included the Belgian region of Wallonia, most parts of Switzerland, as well as central and south-western France. In eastern and southern Europe, we find significant variation within and across countries, which might stem in part from data quality problems.

  17. A qualitative analysis exploring preferred methods of peer support to encourage adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Christina M; McEvoy, Claire T; Moore, Sarah E; Prior, Lindsay; Lawton, Julia; Kee, Frank; Cupples, Margaret E; Young, Ian S; Appleton, Katherine; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2018-02-05

    Epidemiological and randomised controlled trial evidence demonstrates that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, methods used to support dietary change have been intensive and expensive. Peer support has been suggested as a possible cost-effective method to encourage adherence to a MD in at risk populations, although development of such a programme has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use mixed-methods to determine the preferred peer support approach to encourage adherence to a MD. Qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative methods (questionnaire and preference scoring sheet) were used to determine preferred methods of peer support. Sixty-seven high CVD risk participants took part in 12 focus groups (60% female, mean age 64 years) and completed a questionnaire and preference scoring sheet. Focus group data were transcribed and thematically analysed. The mean preference score (1 being most preferred and 5 being least preferred) for group support was 1.5, compared to 3.4 for peer mentorship, 4.0 for telephone peer support and 4.0 for internet peer support. Three key themes were identified from the transcripts: 1. Components of an effective peer support group: discussions around group peer support were predominantly positive. It was suggested that an effective group develops from people who consider themselves similar to each other meeting face-to-face, leading to the development of a group identity that embraces trust and honesty. 2. Catalysing Motivation: participants discussed that a group peer support model could facilitate interpersonal motivations including encouragement, competitiveness and accountability. 3. Stepping Stones of Change: participants conceptualised change as a process, and discussed that, throughout the process, different models of peer support might be more or less useful. A group-based approach was the preferred method of peer support to encourage a population at high

  18. Transforming the European legal order: The European Court of Justice at 60+

    OpenAIRE

    Guth, J

    2016-01-01

    The European Court of Justice has played a pivotal role in the transformation of international law obligations between Member States into an integrated legal order with direct applicability and effect in those Member States. This article explores whether or not the ECJ continues to be relevant to EU governance and integration and whether it continues to transform the legal orders of the Member States. It briefly outlines the early case law which transformed the legal order, and the preliminar...

  19. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  20. An Assessment of Coherence Between Early Warning and Response Systems and Serious Cross-Border Health Threats in the European Union and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreaks have attracted the attention of the public health community to early warning and response systems (EWRS) for communicable diseases and other cross-border threats to health. The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published regulations in this area. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought a new approach the management of public health threats in EU member states. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought several innovations, which included establishing a Health Security Committee; preparedness and response planning; joint procurement of medical countermeasures; ad hoc monitoring for biological, chemical, and environmental threats; EWRS; and recognition of an emergency situation and interoperability between various sectors. Turkey, as an acceding country to the EU and a member of the WHO, has been improving its national public health system to meet EU legislations and WHO standards. This article first explains EWRS as defined in Decision 1082/2013/EU and Turkey's obligations to align its public health laws to the EU acquis. EWRS in Turkey are addressed, particularly their coherence with EU policies regarding preparedness and response, alert notification, and interoperability between health and other sectors. Finally, the challenges and limitations of the current Turkish system are discussed and further improvements are suggested. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:883-892).

  1. Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, W H

    2011-11-01

    The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society.

  2. Expressed sequence tags from larval gut of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Exploring candidate genes potentially involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Andre LB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2

  3. The early adoption of green power by Dutch households An empirical exploration of factors influencing the early adoption of green electricity for domestic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, Karlijn; Oerlemans, Leon

    2005-01-01

    The results of this study provide empirical insight into factors influencing the early adoption of green electricity by Dutch residential users. Earlier research revealed that early adoption is closely related to social visibility, which is lacking in the case of green power. This raises the question of which factors influence adoption in the absence of visibility. The contributions of this study are threefold. First, we used a theoretical perspective in which a cognitive approach was combined with an economic approach leading to a more comprehensive framework. Second, the empirical focus on residential users of renewable resources is relatively new. Third, the results of our analyses provide insights into factors influencing early (non-)adoption, knowledge which could be valuable to market actors and governments stimulating the adoption of sustainable consumer products. For our theoretical framework, we distinguished three sets of independent variables: factors related to (1) the technical system, (2) individuals, and (3) economic issues. Data collection took place among households just 1 month before the liberalisation of the Dutch green electricity market, creating a unique database of residential (non-)users. Our results show that the proposed extended model is more powerful than partial models. Moreover, our findings suggest that cognitive and economic intentional variables, as well as variables indicating basic knowledge and actual environmental behaviour in the past, are strong predictors of the probability of adoption. The paper closes with research-based recommendations for practitioners

  4. Common market but divergent regulatory practices: exploring European regulation and the effect on regulatory uncertainty in the marketing authorization of medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The medical product sector is characterised by a regulatory patchwork of European and national laws and guidelines operating concurrently with each other. Each of these sectors are characterised by different levels of regulatory uncertainty that may undermine the effectiveness of the regulatory

  5. Exploring the feasibility of the visual language in autism program for children in an early intervention group setting: views of parents, educators, and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Cynthia; Shane, Howard C; Hemsley, Bronwyn

    2014-04-01

    To explore the views of key stakeholders on using visual supports for children with developmental disabilities in early intervention group settings. Specifically, this study aimed to determine stakeholders' views on the barriers to and facilitators for the use of visual supports in these settings to inform the feasibility of implementing an immersive Visual Language in Autism program. This study involved three focus groups of parents, educators, and health professionals at one Australian early intervention group setting. Lack of time, limited services, negative attitudes in society, and inconsistent use were cited as common barriers to using visual supports. Facilitators included having access to information and evidence on visual supports, increased awareness of visual supports, and the use of mobile technologies. The Visual Language in Autism program is feasible in early intervention group settings, if barriers to and facilitators for its use are addressed to enable an immersive visual language experience.

  6. The early design stage for building renovation with a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) heat pump water heating system: Techno-economic analysis in three European climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Jingchun; Adkins, Deborah; Yang, Tong; Tang, Llewellyn; Zhao, Xudong; He, Wei; Xu, Peng; Liu, Chenchen; Luo, Huizhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LHP-STF was evaluated from both technical and economic aspects for three EU climates. • The impact of LHP-STF on the overall building socio-energy performance was explored. • A dedicated business model was developed to study the economic feasibility of LHP-STF. • Three fundamental methods for financial measurement of LHP-STF were analysed. • Four investment options were considered in this business model. - Abstract: Most of the building renovation plans are usually decided in the early design stage. This delicate phase contains the greatest opportunity to achieve the high energy performance buildings after refurbishment. It is therefore important to provide the pertinent energy performance information for the designers or decision-makers from multidisciplinary and comparative points of view. This paper investigates the renovation concept of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) installed on a reference residential building by technical evaluation and economic analysis in three typical European climates, including North Europe (represented by Stockholm), West Europe (represented by London) and South Europe (represented by Madrid). The aim of this paper is firstly to explore the LHP-STF’s sensitivity with regards to the overall building socio-energy performance and secondly to study the LHP-STF’s economic feasibility by developing a dedicated business model. The reference building model was derived from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial buildings research, in which the energy data for the building models were from the ASHRAE codes and other standard practices. The financial data were collected from the European statistic institute and the cost of system was based on the manufactured prototype. Several critical financial indexes were applied to evaluate the investment feasibility of the LHP-STF system in building renovation, such as Payback Period (PP), Net Present Value (NPV), and the modified internal

  7. In situ gamma spectrometry aspects of an European intercomparison of national networks used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurriaran, R.; Lemercier, M.; Bouisset, P.; Cagnat, X.; Saez-Vergara, J. C.; Tyler, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, the EURADOS Working Group on Environmental Monitoring organised the second European intercomparison exercise of national network systems used to provide early warning in case of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise is to ensure consistent and comparable results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident, hence avoiding that the dose rate measurements reported present steps at national borders due to different calibrations or different measurement quantities being used. The exercise studied the response of the detectors to different situations: Free field site, a flat area covered with grass. The detectors where in presence of environmental radiation and point sources. Radioactive plume simulator. An incident was simulated by gradually increasing the ambient dose rate by values up to 50% of the normal value. Cosmic radiation site. A platform installed in the middle of a lake permitted to study the response of detectors to cosmic rays in the absence of other components. Ultra low background laboratory (UDO). Situated at 925 m in a salt mine this unique facility has a very low ambient dose (<1 nSv/h) and permitted the study of the response of detectors to collimated beams, in the absence of other components. The exercise was focused on the systems that continuously monitor the ambient dose rate but a novelty in the 2002 intercomparison was the participation of in situ gamma spectrometry teams. This presentation will focus on the in situ gamma spectrometry aspects: The interest of having the energy spectra information in order to discriminate the different contributors to the ambient dose, and the work that has been done in order to ensure an agreement between the dosimetry aspects and the spectrometry results

  8. The influence of early feeding practices on healthy diet variety score among pre-school children in four European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Moschonis, George; Oliveira, Andreia; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Manios, Yannis; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Charles, Marie Aline; Emmett, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether maternal diet and early infant feeding experiences relating to being breast-fed and complementary feeding influence the range of healthy foods consumed in later childhood. Data from four European birth cohorts were studied. Healthy Plate Variety Score (HPVS) was calculated using FFQ. HPVS assesses the variety of healthy foods consumed within and across the five main food groups. The weighted numbers of servings consumed of each food group were summed; the maximum score was 5. Associations between infant feeding experiences, maternal diet and the HPVS were tested using generalized linear models and adjusted for appropriate confounders. The British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de L'Enfant study (EDEN), the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort and the Greek EuroPrevall cohort. Pre-school children and their mothers. The mean HPVS for each of the cohorts ranged from 2.3 to 3.8, indicating that the majority of children were not eating a full variety of healthy foods. Never being breast-fed or being breast-fed for a short duration was associated with lower HPVS at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in all cohorts. There was no consistent association between the timing of complementary feeding and HPVS. Mother's HPVS was strongly positively associated with child's HPVS but did not greatly attenuate the relationship with breast-feeding duration. Results suggest that being breast-fed for a short duration is associated with pre-school children eating a lower variety of healthy foods.

  9. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  10. Exploring health, safety and environment in central and Eastern Europe: an introduction to the European Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and the Environment (ECOHSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Robson, M; Watterson, A; Woolfson, C

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of the European Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and the Environment (ECOHSE) at the University of Glasgow. ECOHSE recently has been designated a Thematic Network by the European Union which is providing administrative support through 2004. The de facto de-regulation that accompanied emergent capitalism in Eastern Europe created opportunities for exploitation of the work force. Voluntary efforts of a loose network of occupational and environmental health academics led to a series of yearly conferences to discuss these problems and the lack of research about them. Then, in 1999, a more formal organization was established at Glasgow to pursue continuity and funding. The first occupational and environmental health conference under ECOHSE was held last year in Lithuania, and selected presentations of that meeting are offered in this journal. A second ECOHSE conference will be held this fall in Romania.

  11. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Oral Communicative Competence and Peer Rejection: An Explorative Study in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…

  12. Interpersonal Trauma and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: Exploring the Moderating Roles of Parent and School Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Cox, Ronald B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal traumas experienced early in life adversely impact psychological well-being in children and adolescents, yet the specific role that social support can have in reducing negative outcomes following trauma exposure is unclear. Using a general population sample of seventh-grade students in an urban public school district in the South…

  13. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo. Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  14. Move, Act, Play, Sing (MAPS): Exploring Early Childhood Arts Teaching and Learning Strategies and Concepts through Community Arts Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, David; Naughton, Chris; Roder, John; Matapo, Jacoba; Whyte, Marjolein; Liao, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This project/report worked with three early childhood education centres who have adopted the Reggio Emilia philosophy of educational practice. Each centre works with children and parents in close collaboration and all the staff and centre management are committed to the project. The aim of this project was to work with each centre in developing…

  15. Songs from the Car Seat: Exploring the Early Childhood Music-Making Place of the Family Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the musical "place" of the family vehicle by describing the music making of nine young children, ages 10 months to 4.5 years, that occurred in vehicles over the course of 9 weeks during which the children were enrolled in a researcher-led early childhood music course. Research…

  16. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the Mi...... and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, international history, early modern history and sociology.......This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia......, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and Russia to explore patterns of cross-cultural exchange and civilizational encounters. The authors analyze a series of regional international orders which were primarily defined by local interests, agendas and institutions, with European interlopers often playing...

  17. Early emotional processing deficits in depersonalization : An exploration with event-related potentials in an undergraduate sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Meijer, Ewout; Merckelbach, Harald; de Jong, Peter J.; Thorsteinsson, Haraldur; Smeets, Tom; Simeon, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli may draw attention to such an extent that they hamper the processing of subsequent signals, a phenomenon termed emotion-induced blindness (EIB). As depersonalization is associated with self-reported attenuated emotional responses, the present study explored whether individuals

  18. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  19. Multiple populations within globular clusters in Early-type galaxies Exploring their effect on stellar initial mass function estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Usher, C.; Bastian, N.

    2018-05-01

    It is now well-established that most (if not all) ancient globular clusters host multiple populations, that are characterised by distinct chemical features such as helium abundance variations along with N-C and Na-O anti-correlations, at fixed [Fe/H]. These very distinct chemical features are similar to what is found in the centres of the massive early-type galaxies and may influence measurements of the global properties of the galaxies. Additionally, recent results have suggested that M/L variations found in the centres of massive early-type galaxies might be due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We present an analysis of the effects of globular cluster-like multiple populations on the integrated properties of early-type galaxies. In particular, we focus on spectral features in the integrated optical spectrum and the global mass-to-light ratio that have been used to infer variations in the stellar initial mass function. To achieve this we develop appropriate stellar population synthesis models and take into account, for the first time, an initial-final mass relation which takes into consideration a varying He abundance. We conclude that while the multiple populations may be present in massive early-type galaxies, they are likely not responsible for the observed variations in the mass-to-light ratio and IMF sensitive line strengths. Finally, we estimate the fraction of stars with multiple populations chemistry that come from disrupted globular clusters within massive ellipticals and find that they may explain some of the observed chemical patterns in the centres of these galaxies.

  20. Xenohormesis in early life: New avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medina, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease. Following this logic, studying the modification of maternal diet during early life may provide innovative new anti-aging approaches. Nutritional and psychological stresses during gestation are associated with poorer offspring health conditions in late life, and must be avoided during pregnancy. Besides these recommendations, very little has been published about the possible use of maternal diet to program offspring for healthy aging and an extended lifespan. Such health benefits may be provided by different foreign molecules, and particularly the phytochemicals produced by stressed plants, or xenohormetins. The xenohormesis hypothesis proposes that xenohormetins are signals of environmental change and trigger a beneficial adaptive response in individuals who consume them. No studies to date have investigated whether the consumption of stressed plants during pregnancy and lactation could provide chemical cues that impact early life programming and thus influence the future health and lifespan of offspring. Investigating the effect of xenohormesis in early life will involve adding edible plants exposed to different stressors (i.e. UV light, heat, ozone, etc.) to maternal diet and the exposure of offspring to this xenohormetin-enriched maternal diet at different periods of their prenatal life. The hypothesis proposed in this article is a potential tool to decipher the possible impact of xenohormesis during early

  1. An exploration of the coping strategies of early adolescents in two Gauteng schools / Anneté Nel

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Anneté

    2014-01-01

    In the South African context adolescents need to cope with societal and family-related stressors seen as everyday stressors, such as parental divorce, violence in communities, bereavement and pressure in schools. Research has shown that these everyday stressors could have negative effects on their well-being. It was further seen that such a high exposure to everyday stress like school-based stressors leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviour, such as smoking and alcohol use in early adolesc...

  2. Ethics and the European countries in transition--the past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovecki, Ana; ten Have, Henk; Oreskovic, Stiepan

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the situation regarding bioethical issues in the European transitional societies. It aims at exploring past, present and future characteristics of bioethics in the European countries in transitions, analysing similarities, differences and common themes together with the historical development of bioethics. By carefully studying articles published since the early 1990s, one can perceive a number of bioethical issues, varying from specificities for certain countries to similar problems for all transitional European societies. It seems that more than 15 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Central and Eastern European societies were able to achieve significant improvements in the development of bioethics. However, looking at the bioethical issues important for European transitional societies, it seems that the invisible wall between eastern and western European societies is still there and that it will take years to remove it.

  3. Disclosure, stigma of HIV positive child and access to early infant diagnosis in the rural communities of OR Tambo District, South Africa: a qualitative exploration of maternal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Vincent Oladele; Thomson, Elza; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Idowu Anthony

    2015-08-26

    Despite the overwhelming evidence confirming the morbidity and mortality benefits of early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected infants, some children are still disadvantaged from gaining access to care. The understanding of the maternal perspective on early infant HIV diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART has not been adequately explored, especially in the rural communities of South Africa. This study explores the perspectives of mothers of HIV-exposed infants with regard to early infant diagnosis (EID) through a lens of social and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews at two primary healthcare centres in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality of the OR Tambo district, South Africa. Twenty-four purposive sample of mothers of HIV-exposed infants took part in the study. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and field notes were obtained. The findings were triangulated with two focus group discussions in order to enrich and validate the qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse the data. The participants have fairly good knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the risks during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The majority of participants were confident of the protection offered by anti-retroviral drugs provided during pregnancy, however, lack knowledge of optimal time for early infant diagnosis of HIV. Reasons for not accessing EID included fear of finding out that their child is HIV positive, feelings of guilt and/or shame and embarrassment with respect to raising an HIV infected infant. Personal experiences of HIV diagnosis and HAART were associated with participants' attitudes and beliefs toward care-seeking behaviours. Stigma resulting from their own disclosure to others reduced their likelihood of recommending EID to other members of

  4. Early Vessels Exploration of Pink Pulseless Hand in Gartland III Supracondylar Fracture Humerus in Children: Facts and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunku-Naziha TZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of pink pulseless limbs in supracondylar fractures has remained controversial, especially with regards to the indication for exploration in a clinically well-perfused hand. We reviewed a series of seven patients who underwent surgical exploration of the brachial artery following supracondylar fracture. All patients had a non-palpable radial artery, which was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography revealed complete blockage of the artery with good collateral and distal run-off. Two patients were more complicated with peripheral nerve injuries, one median nerve and one ulnar nerve. Only one patient had persistent arterial constriction which required reverse saphenous graft. The brachial arteries were found to be compressed by fracture fragments, but were in continuity. The vessels were patent after the release of obstruction and the stabilization of the fracture. There was no transection of major nerves. The radial pulse was persistently present after 12 weeks, and the nerve activity returned to full function.

  5. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  6. Exploring the persona model as a tool to generate user insight through co-creation with users in the early phase of a design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jane Holm; Haase, Louise Møller

    2017-01-01

    The persona model is a widely know tool for synthesizing user research. A persona is a hypothetical archetype based on actual users, which is typically created to create a shared understanding of the user in the design team. Previous research has focused on the personal model as a consensus......-making tool. However, in this paper the aim is to explore, whether the persona model can also be useful and valuable for collecting user insights. More specifically, the paper investigates the potentials and challenges of using the persona model as a generative tool to achieve user insight, when co......-creating with the user in the early phase of a design project. A modified persona template with fixed parameters has been introduced to users in two co-creation workshops. The users were asked to fill in the persona template based on their own experiences. This study is a first endeavor into exploring the persona model...

  7. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  8. 'The Playing-Exploring Child' : Re-conceptualizing the Relationship between Play and Learning in  Early Childhood Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Monica; Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we problematize the dichotomization of play and learning that often shapes the agenda of early childhood education research and practice. This dichotomization is driven in part by the tendency to define lerning in terms of formal learning (i.e. learning as an outcome of direct instruction; and of school-based approaches that focus on teacher-led, goal directed activities and declarative knowledge; and learning in the content areas, such as math and literacy). We argue for a re-c...

  9. A qualitative descriptive exploration of the educational and career plans of early career neonatal nurses and midwives: An Irish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Linda Martina; Patton, Declan

    2018-01-01

    The scarcity of appropriately qualified nurses and midwives is a major obstacle in achieving an effective health system. Neonatal nurses and midwives require a high level of skill and education to fulfil their role. It is also an area that sees high staff turnover rates. For this study a descriptive qualitative approach was used to ascertain early career neonatal nurses' and midwives' experiences of further education, their future career plans, and their perceived facilitators and barriers to further education and career progression. After receiving ethical approval, twelve nurses and midwives were recruited across three tertiary level neonatal units in Ireland. Semi structured interviews were carried out and interview transcripts were subsequently analysed using Attride-Stirling's (2001) Thematic Networks to deduce themes from the data. Support and involvement, mentoring, and career progression and retention were the three main themes identified upon analysis of the data. The majority of participants identified definitive career plans but some felt their goals were unachievable in their current workplace. Consequently a large number of participants have plans to leave their employment in neonates and pursue a career in other areas of nursing. Staff appraisals and succession planning programmes may assist early career nurses and midwives in focusing on their individual career goals, leading to a greater uptake of further specialised education and improved retention of neonatal nurses and midwives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. European Agri-Environmental Policy Facing the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    This paper: reviews the development to date of agri-environmental policy in Europe; provides a critical assessment of its achievements and shortcomings; explores its likely future trajectory in the context of continuing CAP reform; highlights potential conflicts that may result; and draws comparisons with policy approaches in Australia and the US. The paper argues that the first generation of agri-environmental measures, implemented by northern European states in the early 1980s, focused on p...

  11. Do We Reap What We Sow? Exploring the Association between the Strength of European Primary Healthcare Systems and Inequity in Unmet Need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Detollenaere

    Full Text Available Access to healthcare is inequitably distributed across different socioeconomic groups. Several vulnerable groups experience barriers in accessing healthcare, compared to their more wealthier counterparts. In response to this, many countries use resources to strengthen their primary care (PC system, because in many European countries PC is the first entry-point to the healthcare system and plays a central role in the coordination of patients through the healthcare system. However it is unclear whether this strengthening of PC leads to less inequity in access to the whole healthcare system. This study investigates the association between strength indicators of PC and inequity in unmet need by merging data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions database (2013 and the Primary Healthcare Activity Monitor for Europe (2010. The analyses reveal a significant association between the Gini coefficient for income inequality and inequity in unmet need. When the Gini coefficient of a country is one SD higher, the social inequity in unmet need in that particular country will be 4.960 higher. Furthermore, the accessibility and the workforce development of a country's PC system is inverse associated with the social inequity of unmet need. More specifically, when the access- and workforce development indicator of a country PC system are one standard deviation higher, the inequity in unmet healthcare needs are respectively 2.200 and 4.951 lower. Therefore, policymakers should focus on reducing income inequality to tackle inequity in access, and strengthen PC (by increasing accessibility and better-developing its workforce as this can influence inequity in unmet need.

  12. Minding experience: An exploration of the concept of "experience" in the early French anthropology of Durkheim, Lévy-Bruhl, and Lévi-Strauss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, C Jason

    2003-01-01

    In line with the growing concern with the unexamined reliance upon the concept of "experience" in anthropology, this article explores in some detail the various usages and definitions of the concept in the work of three of early French anthropology's most influential theorists: Emile Durkheim (1858-1918), Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939), and Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-). With its important influence on both British and American anthropology, the early French anthropological tradition, as epitomized in the writings of these three thinkers, has indeed played a pivotal role in shaping many current taken-for-granted understandings of the concept of experience in the discipline of anthropology as a whole. In the process of exploring how experience is viewed by these three scholars, this paper will thus take some initial steps toward the historical contextualization of many of the unquestioned assumptions underpinning current understandings of experience in the discipline of anthropology and the social sciences more generally. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exploring revictimization process among Turkish women: The role of early maladaptive schemas on the link between child abuse and partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: a distinct mass distribution explored in slow-rotating early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Li, Ran; Ge, Junqiang; Jing, Yingjie; Pan, Jun; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ortíz, Erik Aquino

    2018-06-01

    We study the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SDSS MaNGA MPL5 data set. The complete ETG sample show a slightly offset RAR from the relation reported by McGaugh et al. (2016) at the low-acceleration end; we find that the deviation is due to the fact that the slow rotators show a systematically higher acceleration relation than the McGaugh's RAR, while the fast rotators show a consistent acceleration relation to McGaugh's RAR. There is a 1σ significant difference between the acceleration relations of the fast and slow rotators, suggesting that the acceleration relation correlates with the galactic spins, and that the slow rotators may have a different mass distribution compared with fast rotators and late-type galaxies. We suspect that the acceleration relation deviation of slow rotators may be attributed to more galaxy merger events, which would disrupt the original spins and correlated distributions of baryons and dark matter orbits in galaxies.

  16. Establishment of intestinal microbiota during early life: a longitudinal, explorative study of a large cohort of Danish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Licht, Tine Rask

    2014-05-01

    Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention.

  17. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K

    2015-01-01

    in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...

  18. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  19. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  20. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  1. Exploring the impact of early life factors on inequalities in risk of overweight in UK children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massion, Samuel; Wickham, Sophie; Pearce, Anna; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood are socially patterned, with higher prevalence in more disadvantaged populations, but it is unclear to what extent early life factors attenuate the social inequalities found in childhood overweight/obesity. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for being overweight (combining with obesity) at age 11 in 11 764 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) according to socio-economic circumstances (SEC). Early life risk factors were explored to assess if they attenuated associations between SECs and overweight. 28.84% of children were overweight at 11 years. Children of mothers with no academic qualifications were more likely to be overweight (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.01) compared to children of mothers with degrees and higher degrees. Controlling for prenatal, perinatal, and early life characteristics (particularly maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and maternal smoking during pregnancy) reduced the RR for overweight to 1.44, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.69 in the group with the lowest academic qualifications compared to the highest. We observed a clear social gradient in overweight 11-year-old children using a representative UK sample. Moreover, we identified specific early life risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, that partially account for the social inequalities found in childhood overweight. Policies to support mothers to maintain a healthy weight, breastfeed and abstain from smoking during pregnancy are important to improve maternal and child health outcomes, and our study provides some evidence that they may also help to address the continuing rise in inequalities in childhood overweight. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. European innovation and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation

  3. Exploring DNA methylation changes in promoter, intragenic, and intergenic regions as early and late events in breast cancer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Garth H.; Kresovich, Jacob K.; Poulin, Matthew; Yan, Liying; Macias, Virgilia; Mahmoud, Abeer M.; Al-Alem, Umaima; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Wiley, Elizabeth L.; Tonetti, Debra; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer formation is associated with frequent changes in DNA methylation but the extent of very early alterations in DNA methylation and the biological significance of cancer-associated epigenetic changes need further elucidation. Pyrosequencing was done on bisulfite-treated DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections containing invasive tumor and paired samples of histologically normal tissue adjacent to the cancers as well as control reduction mammoplasty samples from unaffected women. The DNA regions studied were promoters (BRCA1, CD44, ESR1, GSTM2, GSTP1, MAGEA1, MSI1, NFE2L3, RASSF1A, RUNX3, SIX3 and TFF1), far-upstream regions (EN1, PAX3, PITX2, and SGK1), introns (APC, EGFR, LHX2, RFX1 and SOX9) and the LINE-1 and satellite 2 DNA repeats. These choices were based upon previous literature or publicly available DNA methylome profiles. The percent methylation was averaged across neighboring CpG sites. Most of the assayed gene regions displayed hypermethylation in cancer vs. adjacent tissue but the TFF1 and MAGEA1 regions were significantly hypomethylated (p ≤0.001). Importantly, six of the 16 regions examined in a large collection of patients (105 – 129) and in 15-18 reduction mammoplasty samples were already aberrantly methylated in adjacent, histologically normal tissue vs. non-cancerous mammoplasty samples (p ≤0.01). In addition, examination of transcriptome and DNA methylation databases indicated that methylation at three non-promoter regions (far-upstream EN1 and PITX2 and intronic LHX2) was associated with higher gene expression, unlike the inverse associations between cancer DNA hypermethylation and cancer-altered gene expression usually reported. These three non-promoter regions also exhibited normal tissue-specific hypermethylation positively associated with differentiation-related gene expression (in muscle progenitor cells vs. many other types of normal cells). The importance of considering the exact DNA region analyzed and the

  4. The European Union's four-man team of experts attending a demonstration of the DataGrid Project at CERN in early February.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The DataGrid Project is reviewed by a team of European experts on a yearly basis. At the beginning of February it passed the second of these reviews with flying colours, the four experts issuing enthusiastic statements on the latest progress made, which was quite considerable in 2002.

  5. Exploring the contributions of vegetation and dune size to early dune development using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijenbroek, Marinka E. B.; Nolet, Corjan; de Groot, Alma V.; Suomalainen, Juha M.; Riksen, Michel J. P. M.; Berendse, Frank; Limpens, Juul

    2017-12-01

    Dune development along highly dynamic land-sea boundaries is the result of interaction between vegetation and dune size with sedimentation and erosion processes. Disentangling the contribution of vegetation characteristics from that of dune size would improve predictions of nebkha dune development under a changing climate, but has proven difficult due to the scarcity of spatially continuous monitoring data. This study explored the contributions of vegetation and dune size to dune development for locations differing in shelter from the sea. We monitored a natural nebkha dune field of 8 ha, along the coast of the island Texel, the Netherlands, for 1 year using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with camera. After constructing a digital surface model and orthomosaic we derived for each dune (1) vegetation characteristics (species composition, vegetation density, and maximum vegetation height), (2) dune size (dune volume, area, and maximum height), (3) degree of shelter (proximity to other nebkha dunes and the sheltering by the foredune). Changes in dune volume over summer and winter were related to vegetation, dune size and degree of shelter. We found that a positive change in dune volume (dune growth) was linearly related to initial dune volume over summer but not over winter. Big dunes accumulated more sand than small dunes due to their larger surface area. Exposed dunes increased more in volume (0.81 % per dune per week) than sheltered dunes (0.2 % per dune per week) over summer, while the opposite occurred over winter. Vegetation characteristics did not significantly affect dune growth in summer, but did significantly affect dune growth in winter. Over winter, dunes dominated by Ammophila arenaria, a grass species with high vegetation density throughout the year, increased more in volume than dunes dominated by Elytrigia juncea, a grass species with lower vegetation density (0.43 vs. 0.42 (m3 m-3) week-1). The effect of species was irrespective of dune size or

  6. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Ralf; Steinert, Martin; Teufel, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework. (author)

  7. A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathryn Grow; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2017-11-01

    Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D 2 -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Exploring the possible reasons why the UK Government commended the EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) excellence model as the framework for delivering governance in the new NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S

    1999-01-01

    A brief introduction into recent developments of the EFQM Excellence Model and the United Kingdom (UK) Government's agenda for ensuring that quality is at the heart of all decision making is given. In view of the Government explicitly commending the use of the EFQM Excellence Model to all organisations within the National Health Service, the author decides to explore the possible reasons behind the commendation. When comparing the EFQM Excellence Model with the Government's vision for quality, the former emerges as a more than ideal tool for any organisation wishing to commence or strengthen their journey on the road to quality and/or excellence; particularly as the EFQM Excellence Model is based on the principles of self-assessment, continuous improvement, learning and innovation, teamwork and a culture totally focused on the customer. Finally, ten possible reasons behind the Government commending the use of the Model are given.

  10. A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.; Frewer, L.J.; Cope, S.F.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Rowe, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the

  11. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  12. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  13. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  14. Stop. Think. Delirium! A quality improvement initiative to explore utilising a validated cognitive assessment tool in the acute inpatient medical setting to detect delirium and prompt early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Angela; Harlan, Todd; Cobb, Janice

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the ability of nursing staff to detect delirium and apply early intervention to decrease adverse events associated with delirium. To characterise nursing practices associated with staff knowledge, delirium screening utilising the Modified Richmond Assessment Sedation Score (mRASS), and multicomponent interventions in an acute inpatient medical unit. Delirium incidence rates are up to 60% in frail elderly hospitalised patients. Under-recognition and inconsistent management of delirium is an international problem. Falls, restraints, and increased hospital length of stay are linked to delirium. A descriptive study. Exploration of relationships between cause and effect among cognitive screening, knowledge assessment and interventions. Success in identifying sufficient cases of delirium was not evident; however, multicomponent interventions were applied to patients with obvious symptoms. An increase in nursing knowledge was demonstrated after additional training. Delirium screening occurred in 49-61% of the target population monthly, with challenges in compliance and documentation of screening and interventions. Technological capabilities for trending mRASS results do not exist within the current computerised patient record system. Delirium screening increases awareness of nursing staff, prompting more emphasis on early intervention in apparent symptoms. Technological support is needed to effectively document and visualise trends in screening results. The study imparts future research on the effects of cognitive screening on delirium prevention and reduction in adverse patient outcomes. Evidence-based literature reveals negative patient outcomes associated with delirium. However, delirium is highly under-recognised indicating future research is needed to address nursing awareness and recognition of delirium. Additional education and knowledge transformation from research to nursing practice are paramount in the application of innovative strategies

  15. Is blended learning and problem-based learning course design suited to develop future public health leaders? An explorative European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könings, Karen D; de Jong, Nynke; Lohrmann, Christa; Sumskas, Linas; Smith, Tony; O'Connor, Stephen J; Spanjers, Ingrid A E; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Public health leaders are confronted with complex problems, and developing effective leadership competencies is essential. The teaching of leadership is still not common in public health training programs around the world. A reconceptualization of professional training is needed and can benefit from innovative educational approaches. Our aim was to explore learners' perceptions of the effectiveness and appeal of a public health leadership course using problem-based, blended learning methods that used virtual learning environment technologies. In this cross-sectional evaluative study, the Self-Assessment Instrument of Competencies for Public Health Leaders was administered before and after an online, blended-learning, problem-based (PBL) leadership course. An evaluation questionnaire was also used to measure perceptions of blended learning, problem-based learning, and tutor functioning among 19 public health professionals from The Netherlands ( n  = 8), Lithuania ( n  = 5), and Austria ( n  = 6).Participants showed overall satisfaction and knowledge gains related to public health leadership competencies in six of eight measured areas, especially Political Leadership and Systems Thinking. Some perceptions of blended learning and PBL varied between the institutions. This might have been caused by lack of experience of the educational approaches, differing professional backgrounds, inexperience of communicating in the online setting, and different expectations towards the course. Blended, problem-based learning might be an effective way to develop leadership competencies among public health professionals in international and interdisciplinary context.

  16. Exploring the association between television advertising of healthy and unhealthy foods, self-control, and food intake in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Helge; König, Laura M; Tăut, Diana; Ollila, Hanna; Băban, Adriana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Building upon previous results, the present study explored the relationship between exposure to unhealthy and healthy food TV commercials, trait self-control, and food intake. In total, 825 Finns (53% female), 1,055 Germans (55% female), and 971 Romanians (55% female) aged 8-21 reported advertisement exposure, self-control, and food intake. Altogether, participants indicated higher exposure to unhealthy compared to healthy food advertisements (F(1, 2848) = 354.73, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with unhealthy food intake (all β ≥ .16, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (β = .10, p advertising and self-control were mainly independent (interactions: β ≤ |.07|, p ≥ .002). Even though the results suggest that healthy advertisement exposure and self-control might be beneficial for children's and adolescents' diet, self-control might be insufficient to alleviate the positive relationship between unhealthy food advertising and unhealthy eating. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  17. Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Daniels, Julie L; Fallin, Daniele M; Rosenberg, Steven A; Schieve, Laura A; Thomas, Kathleen C; Windham, Gayle C; Goss, Cynthia W; Soke, Gnakub N; Currie, Dustin W; Singer, Alison B; Lee, Li-Ching; Bernal, Pilar; Croen, Lisa A; Miller, Lisa A; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Young, Lisa M; Schendel, Diana E

    2016-07-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is designed to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and etiologies. This paper describes the demographic profile of enrolled families and examines sociodemographic differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and children with other developmental problems or who are typically developing. This multi-site case-control study used health, education, and birth certificate records to identify and enroll children aged 2-5 years into one of three groups: 1) cases (children with autism spectrum disorder), 2) developmental delay or disorder controls, or 3) general population controls. Study group classification was based on sampling source, prior diagnoses, and study screening tests and developmental evaluations. The child's primary caregiver provided demographic characteristics through a telephone (or occasionally face-to-face) interview. Groups were compared using ANOVA, chi-squared test, or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Of 2768 study children, sizeable proportions were born to mothers of non-White race (31.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (11.4%), and foreign birth (17.6%); 33.0% of households had incomes below the US median. The autism spectrum disorder and population control groups differed significantly on nearly all sociodemographic parameters. In contrast, the autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or disorder groups had generally similar sociodemographic characteristics. SEED enrolled a sociodemographically diverse sample, which will allow further, in-depth exploration of sociodemographic differences between study groups and provide novel opportunities to explore sociodemographic influences on etiologic risk factor associations with autism spectrum disorder and phenotypic subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Harris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. Methods A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites. Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10. Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. Results All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded

  19. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fiona M; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Connor, Rory; Coyne, James C; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Koburger, Nicole; Gusmão, Ricardo; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Cserhati, Zoltan; McDaid, David; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-03-15

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites). Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10). Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC) also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention) in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign) and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded) activity that shared the goals of suicide prevention

  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in newborns and early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals - analysis of three European mother-child cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel R; Govarts, Eva; Iszatt, Nina; Palkovicova, Lubica; Lamoree, Marja H; Schoeters, Greet; Eggesbø, Merete; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various studies report interactions between thyroid hormones and early life chemical exposure. Our objective was to analyse associations between markers of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure and thyroid function in newborns, determined in heel prick blood spots. METHODS: Three

  1. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  2. Modelling the recruitment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) throughout its European range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornarel, Virginie; Lambert, Patrick; Briand, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    phase remains difficult given its widespread distribution among heterogeneous and separate river catchments. Hence, it is currently considered by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) more feasible to use glass eel recruitment data to assess the status of the overall population......European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment has been declining at least since the early 1980s at the scale of its distribution area. Since the population is panmictic, its stock assessment should be carried out on a range-wide basis. However, assessing the overall stock during the continental....... In this study, we used Glass Eel Recruitment Estimation Model (GEREM) to estimate annual recruitment (i) at the river catchment level, a scale for which data are available, (ii) at an intermediate scale (6 European regions), and (iii) at a larger scale (Europe). This study provides an estimate of the glass eel...

  3. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  4. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  5. An exploration of differences between Japan and two European countries in the self-reporting and valuation of pain and discomfort on the EQ-5D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Herdman, Mike; van Nooten, Floortje; Cleeland, Charles; Parkin, David; Ikeda, Shunya; Igarashi, Ataru; Devlin, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the systematic differences in the self-reporting and valuation of overall health and, in particular, pain/discomfort between three countries (England/UK, Japan, and Spain) on the EQ-5D. Existing datasets were used to explore differences in responses on the EQ-5D descriptive system between Japan (3L and 5L), the UK (3L), England (5L), and Spain (5L), particularly on the dimension of pain/discomfort. The role of different EQ dimensions in determining self-reported overall health scores for the EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) was investigated using ordinary least squares regression. Time trade-off (TTO) results from Japanese and UK respondents for the EQ-5D-3L as well as Japanese and English respondents for the EQ-5D-5L were compared using t tests. For the EQ-5D-3L, a higher percentage of respondents in Japan than in the UK reported 'no pain/discomfort' (81.6 vs 67.0%, respectively); for the EQ-5D-5L, the proportions were 79.2% in Spain, 73.2% in Japan, and 63-64% in England, after adjusting for age differences in samples. The 'pain/discomfort' dimension had the largest impact on respondents' self-reported EQ-VAS only for EQ-5D-3L in Japan. Using the EQ-5D-3L, Japanese respondents were considerably less willing to trade off time to avoid pain/discomfort than the UK respondents; for example, moving from health state, 11121 (some problems with pain/discomfort) to 11131 (extreme pain/discomfort) represented a decrement of 0.65 on the observed TTO value in the UK compared with 0.15 in Japan. Using the EQ-5D-5L, Japanese respondents were also less willing to trade off time to avoid pain/discomfort than respondents in England; however, the difference in values was much smaller than that observed using EQ-5D-3L data. This study provides evidence of between-country differences in the self-reporting and valuation of health, including pain/discomfort, when using EQ-5D in general population samples. The results suggest a need for caution when comparing or

  6. The Early Years: Exploring Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    The importance of biodiversity to human life and the benefits of a diverse ecosystem are not often obvious to young children. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. The objective in this month's issue is to introduce children to the diversity of plant life in a given area through a plant…

  7. Plant life form based habitat monitoring in a European landscape framework for early warning of changes in land cover and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin; Bloch-Petersen, Margit

    and habitat composition and quality. The focus on essential features of the habitat that can be expressed easily and quantitatively for identification and mapping of small but significant changes at a landscape level has resulted in the reintroduction of Raunkiaers plant life form concept from 1907...... of agricultural land use, general land cover and tree and shrub cover of small biotopes), it has not been difficult to integrate the BioHab framework in the SBMP-monitoring system, thus permitting the monitoring system to deliver an additional important European perspective with only very limited extra resources...

  8. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  9. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  10. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  11. Understanding of catalysis on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through exploration of surface structure and chemistry during catalysis using in-situ approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Franklin [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-09-14

    Two main categories of heterogeneous catalysts are metal and metal oxide which catalyze 80% chemical reactions at solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces. Metal oxide catalysts are much more complicated than metal catalysts. The reason is that the cations of the metal atoms could exhibit a few different oxidation states on surface of the same catalyst particle such as Co3O4 or change of their oxidation states under different reactive environments. For a metal catalyst, there is only one oxidation state typically. In addition, surface of a metal oxide can be terminated with multiple surface functionalities including O atoms with different binding configurations and OH group. For metal, only metal atoms are exposed typically. Obviously, the complication of surface chemistry and structure of a metal oxide makes studies of surface of an oxide catalyst very challenging. Due to the complication of surface of a meal oxide, the electronic and geometric structures of surface of a metal oxide and the exposed species have received enormous attention since oxide catalysts catalyze at least 1/3 chemical reactions in chemical and energy industries. Understanding of catalytic reactions on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts is fundamentally intriguing and of great practical interest in energy- and environment-related catalysis. Exploration of surface chemistry of oxide-based catalysts at molecular level during catalysis has remained challenging though it is critical in deeply understanding catalysis on oxide-based catalysts and developing oxide-based catalysts with high activity and selectivity. Thus, the overall objective of this project is to explore surface chemistry and structure of early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through in-situ characterization of surface of catalysts, measurements of catalytic performances, and then build an intrinsic correlation of surface chemistry and structure with their catalytic performances in a few

  12. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  13. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, B.; Landewe, R.; Lukas, C.; Bolosiu, H. D.; Breedveld, F.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Ferraccioli, G.; Hazes, J. M. W.; Klareskog, L.; Machold, K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Nielsen, H.; Silman, A.; Smolen, J.; Yazici, H.

    2007-01-01

    To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. In accordance with EULAR's "standardised operating procedures", the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10

  14. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia Hm; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-10-12

    The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of self-report measures. A total of 15 primary caregivers of young children (mean age of child 4 years) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI). Around 12 days after the HEI, participants wore the SenseCam at home for 4 days. A semistructured interview assessed participants' experience of wearing the SenseCam. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), percent agreement, and kappa statistics were used as validity estimates for 54 home environment features. Wearing the SenseCam was generally acceptable to those who participated. The SenseCam captured all 54 HEI features but with varying detail; 36 features (67%) had satisfactory validity (ICC or kappa ≥0.40; percent agreement ≥80 where kappa could not be calculated). Validity was good or excellent (ICC or kappa ≥0.60) for fresh fruit and vegetable availability, fresh vegetable variety, display of food and drink (except sweet snacks), family meals, child eating lunch or dinner while watching TV, garden and play equipment, the number of TVs and DVD players, and media equipment in the child's bedroom. Validity was poor (ICC or kappa Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.

  15. Five political ideas of European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian,

  16. The early development phases of a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module to assess patient reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, H J; Winters, Z E; Brandberg, Y; Didier, F; Blazeby, J M; Mills, J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of breast reconstruction (BRR) surgery includes measurement of patient reported outcomes (PROs). There is, however, a lack of validated BRR-specific PRO measures (PROMs) that adequately assess relevant issues. This study is developing a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire/module specific for PROs in BRR to supplement the cancer-core and breast cancer EORTC questionnaires, respectively: the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23. Phases I and II of questionnaire development followed EORTC guidelines including a systematic literature review to identify all potential 'issues' (concepts relevant to PROs) and semi-structured interviews with 89 patients and 9 European multi-disciplinary health care professionals (HCPs) (Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom [UK]). Interviewers asked participants the 'relevance' of outcomes identified in the literature and captured additional 'issues' of importance. The literature search and interviews of patients and HCPs yielded 69 issues relating to BRR operationalised into 31 provisional items (single questions) for the module, which was conceptualised to contain five scales: treatment/surgery related symptoms (affecting the shoulder, arm and reconstructed breast), body image, sexuality, cosmetic outcomes (pertaining to three areas: breast, donor site and nipple) and overall satisfaction. The provisional development of the EORTC BRR module has 31 items addressing issues of importance to patients as well as HCPs. Further international testing is underway as a UK National Cancer Research Network trial to ensure that this PROM will be psychometrically and clinically robust and applicable for use in clinical trials, cohort studies, national audit and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  18. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  19. 199. Disrupted Integration in Early Psychosis: A Preliminary Exploration of the Relationship Between Neural Synchronization and Higher Order Cognition in a First-Episode Psychosis Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Bethany; Vohs, Jennifer; Lysaker, Paul; Bartolomeo, Lisa; O’Donnell, Brian; Breier, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Disruptions in the ability to integrate information into complex ideas needed to make sense of and recover from psychiatric challenges are considered a core source of dysfunction in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). These disruptions are believed to take place at the level of basic brain functioning through neural synchrony and neurocognitive functioning in which information is encountered, encoded and available for memory and at the level of higher order cognition in which ideas are formed and reflected upon. In this study, we sought to explore the link of difficulties in integration at the level of basic brain functioning with integration at the level of self-reflectivity and insight in first episode patients. The role of disrupted integration has particular importance in early phases of illness, as it may impact the likelihood that an individual is able to move toward recovery. As more work is done in early intervention in SSD, it is pivotal that underlying factors that impact ability to recover are investigated. Methods: To assess the ability to integrate information at the level of basic brain function we used electroencephalography (EEG) collected using an Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). To assess integration at the level of conscious reflection we used the Metacognition Assessment Scale Abbreviated and insight we used the Scale to Assess Awareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD). Participants were 14 adults with first episode psychosis. Results: Pearson correlations were calculated to assess the relationship of EEG power across a range of frequency bands and neurocognition with MAS-A total scores and SUMD insight score. These revealed that the MAS-A total score was significantly negatively correlated with gamma activity, and was positively correlated with BACS total score. SUMD insight was significantly positively correlated with gamma activity, and negatively

  20. Correlation between Retinal Vessel Calibre and Neurodegeneration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the European Consortium for the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy (EUROCONDOR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Soegaard Hansen, Rasmus; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    .04). In a multivariable linear regression model, CRAE was associated with macular ganglion cell layer thickness (coefficient 0.27 per micrometre, p correlated with macular retinal thickness (coefficient -0.07 per micrometre, p = 0.04) and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness at the optic disc......PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between retinal vessel calibre and measurements of neurodegeneration in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and no or early diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Baseline data on 440 patients with T2D from the EUROCONDOR clinical trial were used. DR was graded...... (coefficient 0.32 per micrometre, p

  1. Evolution of Northeastern Mexico during the early Mesozoic: potential areas for research and exploration José Rafael Barboza-Gudiño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Gudiño, R.

    2013-05-01

    Huayacocotla formations). The Middle to Upper Jurassic La Joya Formation overlies unconformable all continental and marine-marginal successions and older rocks, and records the transgressive basal deposits of the Gulf series, changing upsection to the evaporites and limestone of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Group. Successive intraoceanic subduction zones to the West sparked magmatic arcs whose accretion in the continental margin produced the consolidation of much of the Mexican territory up to the current Pacific margin. Scattered isolated outcrops from the Early Mesozoic succession in central- and northeastern Mexico allow interpretation of tectonic setting and paleogeography associated to each stratigraphic unit, revealing a strongly different geologic evolution than the previously established models, opening a range of new possibilities and areas of opportunity for mining and fossil fuels exploration. However, most of the Triassic-Jurassic rocks or stratigraphic units in northern Mexico lie under many hundreds of meters of a Cretaceous-Cenozoic cover. Their recognition and preliminary evaluation implies the use of indirect techniques like geophysical methods, before drilling or subsurface mining.

  2. HR Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1997-01-01

    At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics Research (CERN), Geneva Switzerland we are using OracleHR for managing our human resources since 1995. After the first year of production it became clear that there was a strong need for an easy-to-use Decision Support Tool exploring the data in OracleHR. This paper illustrates an approach which we have adopted to provide on-line management reporting, multi-dimensional analysis, drill-down and slicing & dicing of data, warehoused from OracleHR. The tool offers strong resource management and planning capabilities including career follow-up. The user management and security monitoring are implemented using the Oracle WebServer.

  3. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  4. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  5. The european ALARA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s the European Commission sponsored projects on the understanding and practical implementation of the ALARA principle. These projects helped ensure that ALARA was integrated into many organisations radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry. However there was still much to be done in the non-nuclear sector, as well as for the management of internal exposure. Therefore, the European Commission decided to set up, as of the first January 1996, a European ALARA Network (EAN) whose main goals are to: Further promote ALARA within non nuclear industry, research and the nuclear cycle; Provide a means for feedback experience and the exchange and dissemination of good radiological protection practices in these areas; Initiate proposals for research projects and workshops on topics dealing with optimisation of radiological protection for all types of occupational exposure. The Network has a Steering Committee of experts from 11 countries, with CEPN being the co-ordinator. Twice yearly, the EAN products for the international community a European ALARA Newsletter that reaches several thousand individuals or institutions, mainly in Europe. Each year since 1997, the EAN has organised an ALARA workshop attended by 60 to 80 experts from about ten countries. The first three Workshops were devoted to: ALARA and Decommissioning (1997, Saclay, France), Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research (1998, Chilton, United Kingdam), and ALARA and Internal Exposure (1999, Munich, Germany). Each of these Workshops gave rise to sets of recommendations to the European Commission which included proposals for further research, modification of regulations, and actions to support feedback experience within the member states. (author)

  6. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a

  7. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  8. Exploring the Impact of TeachME™ Lab Virtual Classroom Teaching Simulation on Early Childhood Education Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Boone, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a mixed-reality teaching environment, called TeachME™ Lab (TML), on early childhood education majors' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Sixty-two preservice early childhood teachers participated in the study. Analysis of the quantitative (STEBI-b) and qualitative (journal entries)…

  9. Turn around when possible: mapping European communication competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tench, R.; Verhoeven, P.; Juma, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This synopsis of the European Communication Professional Skills and Innovation (ECOPSI) benchmarking Interim Report explains the complex landscape of competencies required by European communication practitioners and explores the underlying constructs that contribute to competence namely

  10. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  11. The European Respiratory Society spirometry tent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maio, Sara; Sherrill, Duane L; MacNee, William

    2012-01-01

    In order to raise public awareness of the importance of early detection of airway obstruction and to enable many people who had not been tested previously to have their lung function measured, the European Lung Foundation and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) organised a spirometry testing...

  12. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  13. International Research Roundtable “New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American, European, and post-Soviet Experiences” (December 19, 2014 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Sabdenova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Research Roundtable “New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American, European, and post-Soviet Experiences” was held in Almaty December 19, 2014. The round table was organized by the Faculty of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. The conference was attended by renowned experts. Professor Talas Omarbekovich Omarbekov was the moderator of this round table. Each report was followed by a discussion. Among others, the following reports were presented at the conference: Uli Schamiloglu, “The Plague in the Time of Justinian and Central Eurasian History”; G.A. Bordyugov, “An Applied History: Developing Methods of Historical Knowledge in the Situation of an Interdisciplinary Inevitability”; Mehmet Şahingöz, “Problems of Studying the History of Jungar Invasion and Its Influence on the Turkic World in Turkey”; R.R. Gallyamov, “Etnogony as a Way to Study the Early Ethnogenesis and Ethnic History of Turkic Peoples of Central Eurasia”; Mehmet Derviş, “Problems of Studying the History of the Turkic Peoples in the Context of World History”; Roman Hautala, “On the Need of Introduction in Academic Circulation of New Sources on the Golden Horde History”; Ilnur Mirgaleev, “Activities of the Center for Research on the Golden Horde History”; Svetlana Hautala, “About Discrepancy of Information of the Written Sources and Material Artifacts: Herodotus on the Scythian Cauldrons”.

  14. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap.

  15. Giotto: the european space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, C.; Vandenbussche, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Giotto mission is an in situ exploration of the comet Halley. It will be the European Space Agency's first operational deep-space mission, with a spacecraft-Earth distance at comet encounter of approximately 1 AU (150 000 000 km). This paper gives a summary of the mission profile, of the spacecraft design with its associated payload and ground segment [fr

  16. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  17. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  18. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  19. An Empathetic Beginning in Education: Exploring the Prospects of Self-Regulation Skills on Pro-Social Behaviour in the Early Childhood Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    One avenue substantially researched and supported in early childhood research is the importance and the cultivation of self-regulation skills in the classroom. Most educational research on self-regulation skills has illustrated the importance between the enhancement of these skills and long-term academic success. Notwithstanding, there is little…

  20. A European Perspective on the Promotion of Women's Career Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Lahja Johanna

    Although commitment to equal opportunities in employment has been a major component of European Community legislation and although increasing numbers of European women are entering professions, women throughout Europe still face many barriers to advancing in their professions. Since the early 1970s, European governments including Finland have…

  1. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  2. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as part of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual?, I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early- and mid-career academics to navigate through this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human-scale approach to early- and mid-career mentoring through the establishment of small team-based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issues and provides new insight into teaching and learning in higher education.

  3. Adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore its feasibility and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zun; Wang, Lei; Fan, Hongjuan; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Sheng; Gu, Zhaohua; Wang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors. [Subjects] The subjects were forty-eight early stroke survivors. [Methods] Eligible subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups participated in comprehensive rehabilitation training. Low intensity aerobic training was only performed by the experimental group. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer motor score, Barthel index, exercise test time, peak heart rate, plasma glucose level and serum lipid profiles. [Results] Patients in the experimental group finished 88.6% of the total aerobic training sessions prescribed. In compliant participants (adherence≥80%), aerobic training significantly improved the Barthel index (from 40.1±21.1 to 79.2±14.2), Fugl-Meyer motor score (from 26.4±19.4 to 45.4±12.7), exercise test time (from 12.2±3.62 min to 13.9±3.6 min), 2-hour glucose level (from 9.22±1.16 mmol/L to 7.21±1.36 mmol/L) and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (from 1.72±1.01 to 1.28±0.88). [Conclusion] Preliminary findings suggest that early and severely impaired stroke patients may benefit from low intensity ergometer aerobic training.

  4. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  5. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  6. An important day for European science

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  7. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Prandini, A.; Filippi, L.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The SAFE FOODS project undertakes to design a new approach towards the early identification of emerging food safety hazards. This study explored the utility of notifications filed through RASFF, the European Commission¿s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, to identify emerging trends in food

  8. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  9. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaritella Nicolò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs in multiple sclerosis (MS has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS patients with an EDSS Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2 were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001. Low EP score (below 15–20 points, short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS.

  10. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  11. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  12. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  13. WE-FG-202-02: Exploration of High-Resolution Quantitative Ultrasonic Micro-Vascular Imaging for Early Assessment of Radiotherapy Tumor Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasoji, S; Rivera, J; Dayton, P [University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill/ North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Buse, J [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chang, S [University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill/ North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Currently, we cannot predict an individual patient’s response to a given radiotherapy which normally is not detected for weeks to months post-treatment. As a result, precious time is wasted for patients with unresponsive tumors who could have switched to an alternative treatment much earlier. Presently, no early treatment response detection method exists that is effective, low-cost, non-invasive, and safe. We hypothesize that changes in tumor microvasculature predict tumor response to radiotherapy earlier than tumor volume changes. Recent radiobiology research suggests tumors undergo vascular remodeling in response to radiation well before manifesting changes in tumor volume. We propose monitoring tumor microvasculature post-radiation using Acoustic Angiography (AA), a novel ultrasound imaging modality developed and patented in-house. In this study, we investigate whether changes in tumor microvasculature, measured using AA, can be an early indicator of high-dose radiotherapy success, compared to changes in tumor volume. Methods: Fibrosarcoma xenograft tumor tissue was subcutaneously implanted into rodent flanks (N=10). Animal tumors (N=8) were irradiated with a single treatment of 15Gy using a clinical LINAC at 100SSD and 2×2cm field size. Two untreated rats were left as tumor controls. AA imaging was performed immediately posttreatment and every third day thereafter for 30 days, or until tumors disappeared. Tumor volumes and vascular densities were measured from anatomical b-mode ultrasound and AA images, respectively. Results: Statistical differences in vascular density between treatment responders and non-responders were observed on Day 10 (p=0.005), whereas statistical differences in tumor volume were not observed until Day 19 (p=0.02). Conclusions: Tumor vascularity differences may be observed substantially earlier than differences in tumor size. In addition, significant early increases in vascular density were observed in non-responding tumors

  14. Early Child Social-Emotional Problems and Child Obesity: Exploring the Protective Role of a Primary Care-Based General Parenting Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Briggs, Rahil D; Hershberg, Rebecca S; Silver, Ellen J; Velazco, Nerissa K; Hauser, Nicole R; Racine, Andrew D

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether early social-emotional problems are associated with child feeding practices, maternal-child feeding styles, and child obesity at age 5 years, in the context of a primary care-based brief general parenting intervention led by an integrated behavioral health specialist to offer developmental monitoring, on-site intervention, and/or referrals. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of mothers with 5-year-old children previously screened using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE) during the first 3 years of life. ASQ:SE scores were dichotomized "not at risk" versus "at risk." "At risk" subjects were further classified as participating or not participating in the intervention. Regression analyses were performed to determine relationships between social-emotional problems and feeding practices, feeding styles, and weight status at age 5 years based on participation, controlling for potential confounders and using "not at risk" as a reference group. Compared with children "not at risk," children "at risk-no participation" were more likely to be obese at age 5 years (adjusted odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 9.45). Their mothers were less likely to exhibit restriction and limit setting and more likely to pressure to eat than mothers in the "not at risk" group. Children "at risk-participation" did not demonstrate differences in weight status compared with children "not at risk." Early social-emotional problems, unmitigated by intervention, were related to several feeding styles and to obesity at age 5 years. Further study is needed to understand how a general parenting intervention may be protective against obesity.

  15. Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Las argucias del concepto de integración: una exploración por el paisaje europeo (The Cunning of Integrationist Logic: An Exploration of the European Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil Araujo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that immigrant integration policies be viewed as tools for construction of the national. It does so by illuminating the links between debates about immigrant integration  and ways of imagining the nation and national identity. To this end, the article analyzes the political and socioeconomic context in which the presence of immigrants from non European Union countries is defined as a problem of integration. It centers on three traditional immigration receiving countries after World War II - the United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands - and Spain, a newer destination country of the post-Fordist era. The study shows commonalities in wording, categorizations, and problem definition across these countries in debates about non European Union immigrants without ignoring state particularities. Above all, it demonstrates the persistence of "integration" as a term to reference relationships between European societies and the non-European immigrant populationEste artículo propone pensar las políticas de integración de inmigrantes como herramientas de construcción nacional, a partir de iluminar las vinculaciones entre los debates sobre integración de inmigrantes y las formas de imaginar la nación y la identidad nacional. Con ese objetivo se analiza el contexto político y socioeconómico en el cual la presencia inmigrante de países no cumunitarios comienza a ser problematizada en términos de integración.  Se exploran los casos de tres países tradicionales receptores de inmigración después de terminada la Segunda Guerra Mundial -Reino Unido, Francia y Países Bajos-  y el Estado español, devenido en destino de inmigrantes en el contexto post-fordista. Sin dejar de considerar las particularidades estatales, el texto muestra la similitud de lenguajes, categorizaciones y problematizaciones, a la hora de debatir la presencia inmigrante no comunitaria. Y, sobre todo, la persistencia del término integración para nominar

  17. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  18. Exploring the Potential of a Global Emerging Contaminant Early Warning Network through the Use of Retrospective Suspect Screening with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alygizakis, Nikiforos A; Samanipour, Saer; Hollender, Juliane; Ibáñez, María; Kaserzon, Sarit; Kokkali, Varvara; van Leerdam, Jan A; Mueller, Jochen F; Pijnappels, Martijn; Reid, Malcolm J; Schymanski, Emma L; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Thomas, Kevin V

    2018-04-13

    A key challenge in the environmental and exposure sciences is to establish experimental evidence of the role of chemical exposure in human and environmental systems. High resolution and accurate tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS) is increasingly being used for the analysis of environmental samples. One lauded benefit of HRMS is the possibility to retrospectively process data for (previously omitted) compounds that has led to the archiving of HRMS data. Archived HRMS data affords the possibility of exploiting historical data to rapidly and effectively establish the temporal and spatial occurrence of newly identified contaminants through retrospective suspect screening. We propose to establish a global emerging contaminant early warning network to rapidly assess the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in environmental samples through performing retrospective analysis on HRMS data. The effectiveness of such a network is demonstrated through a pilot study, where eight reference laboratories with available archived HRMS data retrospectively screened data acquired from aqueous environmental samples collected in 14 countries on 3 different continents. The widespread spatial occurrence of several surfactants (e.g., polyethylene glycols ( PEGs ) and C12AEO-PEGs ), transformation products of selected drugs (e.g., gabapentin-lactam, metoprolol-acid, carbamazepine-10-hydroxy, omeprazole-4-hydroxy-sulfide, and 2-benzothiazole-sulfonic-acid), and industrial chemicals (3-nitrobenzenesulfonate and bisphenol-S) was revealed. Obtaining identifications of increased reliability through retrospective suspect screening is challenging, and recommendations for dealing with issues such as broad chromatographic peaks, data acquisition, and sensitivity are provided.

  19. Florbetaben PET in the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: A Discrete Event Simulation to Explore Its Potential Value and Key Data Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shien; Getsios, Denis; Hernandez, Luis; Cho, Kelly; Lawler, Elizabeth; Altincatal, Arman; Lanes, Stephan; Blankenburg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The growing understanding of the use of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may enable physicians to make more accurate and timely diagnoses. Florbetaben, a beta-amyloid tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET), is one of these diagnostic biomarkers. This analysis was undertaken to explore the potential value of florbetaben PET in the diagnosis of AD among patients with suspected dementia and to identify key data that are needed to further substantiate its value. A discrete event simulation was developed to conduct exploratory analyses from both US payer and societal perspectives. The model simulates the lifetime course of disease progression for individuals, evaluating the impact of their patient management from initial diagnostic work-up to final diagnosis. Model inputs were obtained from specific analyses of a large longitudinal dataset from the New England Veterans Healthcare System and supplemented with data from public data sources and assumptions. The analyses indicate that florbetaben PET has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs under certain scenarios. Key data on the use of florbetaben PET, such as its influence on time to confirmation of final diagnosis, treatment uptake, and treatment persistency, are unavailable and would be required to confirm its value. PMID:23326754

  20. Florbetaben PET in the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: A Discrete Event Simulation to Explore Its Potential Value and Key Data Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing understanding of the use of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD may enable physicians to make more accurate and timely diagnoses. Florbetaben, a beta-amyloid tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET, is one of these diagnostic biomarkers. This analysis was undertaken to explore the potential value of florbetaben PET in the diagnosis of AD among patients with suspected dementia and to identify key data that are needed to further substantiate its value. A discrete event simulation was developed to conduct exploratory analyses from both US payer and societal perspectives. The model simulates the lifetime course of disease progression for individuals, evaluating the impact of their patient management from initial diagnostic work-up to final diagnosis. Model inputs were obtained from specific analyses of a large longitudinal dataset from the New England Veterans Healthcare System and supplemented with data from public data sources and assumptions. The analyses indicate that florbetaben PET has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs under certain scenarios. Key data on the use of florbetaben PET, such as its influence on time to confirmation of final diagnosis, treatment uptake, and treatment persistency, are unavailable and would be required to confirm its value.

  1. Exploration of Postoperative Follow-up Strategies for Early Staged NSCLC Patients on the Basis of Follow-up Result of 416 Stage I NSCLC Patients after Lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang DAI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Currently, there is no consensus on the follow-up strategy (follow-up time interval and content of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in the world, and the relevant clinical evidence is also very limited. In this study, we aimed to summarize the recurrence/metastasis sites and timings of stage I NSCLC patients based on their follow-up data, aiming to provide a basis of follow-up time interval and content for this group of patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the 416 stage I NSCLC patients that underwent continuous anatomic lobectomy between Jan. 2000 to Oct. 2013 in our prospective lung cancer database. According to the recurrence/metastasis sites and timings, the long term follow-up time interval and content were explored. Results The 5-yr disease free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS in the whole group were 82.4% and 85.4%, respectively. There were 76 cases (18.3% had recurrence/metastasis during follow-up, among which the most frequent site was pulmonary metastasis (21 cases, 5.0%, followed by brain metastasis (20 cases, 4.8%, bone metastasis (12 cases, 2.9%, and mediastinal lymph node metastasis (12 cases, 2.9%. Among the factors that could influence recurrence/metastasis, patients with pT2a suffered from a higher recurrence/metastasis rate compared to patients with pT1 (P=0.006, with 5-yr DFS being 73.8% and 87.3%, respectively (P=0.002, and the 5-yr OS being 77.7% and 90.3%, respectively (P=0.011. Conclusion The commonest recurrence/metastasis sites of stage I NSCLC after anatomic lobectomy are lung, brain and mediastinal lymph nodes, the risk of recurrence/metastasis within 2 years were equal to that between 3 years and 5 years. The follow-up frequencies and content within 2 years could be adjusted according to T stages.

  2. Agenda Responsiveness in the European Council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrova, Petya; Rasmussen, Anne; Toshkov, Dimiter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of political responsiveness in multi-level systems like the EU remains an open question despite significant recent research on the topic. This article studies whether the European Council responds to the shifting policy priorities of European citizens. More specifically, it explores......, a detailed examination of the shifts in prioritisation of single issues over time reveals little evidence for dynamic issue responsiveness. Recently the European Council has paid more attention to the issues that the public considered the most pressing problems but the convergence could possibly be driven...

  3. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  4. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  5. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  6. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  7. Early versus delayed endocrine treatment of pN1-3 M0 prostate cancer without local treatment of the primary tumor: results of European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer 30846--a phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Fritz H.; Kurth, Karl Heinz; Fosså, Sophie D.; Hoekstra, Wytze; Karthaus, Peter P. M.; Debois, Muriel; Collette, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    The timing of endocrine treatment for prostate cancer remains controversial. The issue is addressed in protocol 30846 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer for patients with lymph node positive cancer without local treatment of the primary tumor. A total of 302 patients

  8. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  9. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  10. Political participation in European welfare states: Does social investment matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Nguyen, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The role of the welfare state has expanded beyond passive assistance and decommodificaton. In many countries, social investment policies now actively encourage (re)integration into the labour market. While the effectiveness of these policies is debated, we know even less about their broader social...... and political effects. In this contribution, we explore the impact of social investment policies on one key aspect of social life: political participation. Combining insights from social psychology with institutional analysis, we investigate the impact of three social investment policies (early childhood...... education, secondary education, active labour market policies) on two disadvantaged groups: young individuals from low-skill backgrounds; and single parents. Combining the European Social Survey with data on social investment, we find that these risk groups have reduced political efficacy and political...

  11. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  12. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  13. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  14. Europeans come together on qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittle, J.

    1996-01-01

    Utilities operating nuclear power plants in Europe have formed the European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) to produce a common approach to demonstrating that non-destructive testing is capable providing the information to ensure the absence of significant defects in nuclear plants. Major developments over recent months have included the issue by ENIQ of a formal document defining the methodology for the conduct of qualification which sets out the principles that detailed systems, within an individual country context, should embody. A pilot study on pipe welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops is being conducted to explore the issues involved in the practical application of the methodology. In parallel with ENIQ, the European Nuclear Regulators Working Group has set up a Task Force in an attempt to define a common regulatory position on non-destructive testing qualifications and has produced its own document which is wider in scope than that of ENIQ. (UK)

  15. Presence and strategies of European petroleum societies in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the situation of European investment in Arab countries for petroleum industry. Fifteen petroleum societies for eight European countries are studied through their investment in exploration-production activities. (N.C.)

  16. The way ahead through European collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the ''Way ahead through European Collaboration'' was presented to the seminar on ''European commercial fast reactor programme'', London, 1987. A description is given of the world energy consumption, world nuclear energy consumption, and uranium resources. It is suggested that the fast reactor is likely to be developed first in Western Europe, and more particularly in the European Economic Community. Collaboration in Europe has taken a positive step forward with the decision of the European Fast Reactor Utilities Group to open a dialogue with the design and construction companies, working together. The companies are invited to prepare jointly a new design for a demonstration fast reactor to be ordered in the early 1990's. (U.K.)

  17. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  18. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  19. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Philippe [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2012-07-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  20. Raising European Citizens: Constructing European Identities in French and English Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inari Sakki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schools play a pivotal role in the formation of identities and in the political socialization of youth. This study explores the social representations of European integration in French and English school textbooks and shows how the social representations are discursively used to construct national and European identities. By analysing the history and civics textbooks of major educational publishers, this study aims to demonstrate how European integration is understood, made familiar and concretized in the school textbooks of the two influential but different European countries. The findings suggest some shared and some diverse patterns in the way the two European countries portray and construct the political project of European integration. These representations, constructed around French Europe in French textbooks and ambivalent Europe in English textbooks, share the images of a strong European economy and a French-led political Europe. However, they position themselves differently with respect to the United States, motivation for the European unification process and the significance of common values and heritage. In both countries textbooks draw upon memories that are important for group identity. While the French textbooks make European integration meaningful in reference to a shared post-war collective memory and to a cultural memory based on a more ancient idea of Europe, shared values and heritage, the English textbooks anchor it more strongly to domestic policy.

  1. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  2. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  3. A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanella, A.; Jabiol, B.; Ponge, J.F.; Waal, de R.W.; Delft, van S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe an abundance of humus taxonomies exists starting with early approaches in the late 19th century. Frequently used in an international context, they do not cover all site conditions in the European area. Although having basic concepts and general lines, the European (and North American,

  4. US - European Union Relations: Economic Change and Political Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Steven

    1999-01-01

    .... ̂ The introduction of the euro as the currency of the EMU will aid participating European Union (EU) member states by eliminating transaction costs, exchange rate risks, and interest rate spreads across the 11 European currencies early in the coming century...

  5. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  6. First steps towards a European atlas of natural radiation: status of the European indoor radon map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, G.; Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; De Cort, M.

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of its institutional scientific support to the European Commission, in 2005 the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) group at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, started to explore the possibility of mapping indoor radon in European houses as a first step towards preparing a European Atlas of Natural Radiations. The main objective of such an atlas is to contribute to familiarizing the public with its naturally radioactive environment. The process of preparing the atlas should also provide the scientific community with a database of information that can be used for further studies and for highlighting regions with elevated levels of natural radiation. This document presents the status of the European indoor radon (Rn) map, first statistical results, and outlines of forthcoming challenges.

  7. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... scholars, should engage with it. This publication will be of key interest to scholars and students of modern European history and politics, the European integration process, EU studies, and more broadly multilateral international institutions, history, law and the social sciences....

  8. A virtual capital for the European Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the websites of the key institutions of the European Union to consider whether these applications of the new information and communication technologies may become a functional equivalent of the national capital city in the emerging supranational political arena. Three functions

  9. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  10. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  11. EUROPEAN CIVIL CODE BETWEEN DESIDERATUM AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Bogdan Ciucă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of priority and direct application of European rules in relation to the provisions that we find in the national legislation, once assumed at European level, it has generated debates and concerns about the usefulness of a single legal act in private law matters. The idea of European Civil Code, appeared somewhere in the early 80s, is becoming more current and triggers a justified and sustained interest. Considering that the civil legislation of Community Member is a legislation dominated by tradition and peculiarities of culture, religion and temper, the issue of a European Civil Code forms as a project generating discussions, restraints and even rejec tions of the Member States in relation to this proposal. The current system of European legislative acts that apply immediately and priority in EU member states remains only a temporary solution and which generates difficulties in interpretation and affects the utility of the enactment. Clarifications on the pros and cons to promote a European Civil Codex will be analyzed primarily in terms of law and, last but not least in terms of political perspective, taking into account the Community objectives undertaken by accession treaties and the need for a legislative norm, especially European, to be predictable, transparent, useful and accessible. This paper intends to submit to debate both current doctrinal arguments, the blocking of such an approach, based on the principle of autonomy and the peculiarities of the legal system of each Member State, but also considering the practical arguments and of simplification of rules met in a European Civil Code assumed and applicable in the European space.

  12. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    EuroGeographics - their pan-European umbrella association, contribute to the ELF through an enrichment of data coverage. As a result, over 20 European countries will be covered with the ELF topo Base Map in 2016. Most countries will contribute also with other harmonized thematic data for viewing or down-loading. To overcome the heterogeneity of data resources and diversity of languages in tens of European countries, ELF builds on the existing INSPIRE rules and its own coordination and interoperability measures. ELF realisation empowers the implementation of INSPIRE in Europe and it complements related activities of European NMCAs, e.g. Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (CUZK), which provides a large portfolio of spatial data/services and contributes significantly to the NSDI of Czech Republic. CUZK is also responsible for the Base Register of Territorial Identification, Addresses and Real Estates (RUIAN) - an important pillar of Czech e-Government. CUZK became an early-bird in implementing INSPIRE and it provides to the ELF a number of compliant datasets and web services. CUZK and the Polish NMCA (GUGiK) collaborate in the Central-European ELF Pilot (cluster) and test various cross-border prototypes. The presentation combines the national and crossborder view and experiences of CUZK and the European perspective of EuroGeographics.

  13. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  14. HABIT-an early phase study to explore an oral health intervention delivered by health visitors to parents with young children aged 9-12 months: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskyte, Ieva; Gray-Burrows, Kara; Owen, Jenny; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Zoltie, Tim; Gill, Susanne; Smith, Victoria; McEachan, Rosemary; Marshman, Zoe; West, Robert; Pavitt, Sue; Day, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Parental supervised brushing (PSB) when initiated in infancy can lead to long-term protective home-based oral health habits thereby reducing the risk of dental caries. However, PSB is a complex behaviour with many barriers reported by parents hindering its effective implementation. Within the UK, oral health advice is delivered universally to parents by health visitors and their wider teams when children are aged between 9 and 12 months. Nevertheless, there is no standardised intervention or training upon which health visitors can base this advice, and they often lack the specialised knowledge needed to help parents overcome barriers to performing PSB and limiting sugary foods and drinks.Working with health visitors and parents of children aged 9-24 months, we have co-designed oral health training and resources (Health Visitors delivering Advice in Britain on Infant Toothbrushing (HABIT) intervention) to be used by health visitors and their wider teams when providing parents of children aged 9-12 months with oral health advice.The aim of the study is to explore the acceptability of the HABIT intervention to parents and health visitors, to examine the mechanism of action and develop suitable objective measures of PSB. Six health visitors working in a deprived city in the UK will be provided with training on how to use the HABIT intervention. Health visitors will then each deliver the intervention to five parents of children aged 9-12 months. The research team will collect measures of PSB and dietary behaviours before and at 2 weeks and 3 months after the HABIT intervention. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention to health visitors will be explored through semi-structured diaries completed after each visit and a focus group discussion after delivery to all parents. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention and mechanism of action will be explored briefly during each home visit with parents and in greater details in 20-25 qualitative interviews after the

  15. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  16. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  17. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  18. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  19. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  20. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  1. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  2. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  3. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  4. New science at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, J L [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-05-01

    The European Spallation Source is a trans-European project aimed at the ultimate construction of a next-generation pulsed spallation neutron source that will deliver 30 times the beam power of ISIS. The reference design for the proposed source has been set, and work is in progress to develop an updated scientific case for the construction of the source early in the next century. Together with improvements in instrumentation, effective flux gains of over two orders of magnitude are likely in some areas, opening up major new opportunities for the exploitation of neutron studies in fundamental, strategic, and applied science. (author)

  5. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  6. Exploring the epididymis: a personal perspective on careers in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry T Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Science is a profession of inquiry. We ask ourselves what is it we see and why our observations happen the way they do. Answering those two question puts us in the company of those early explorers, who from Europe found the New World, and from Asia reached west to encounter Europe. Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Spain was such an explorer. He was the first European to see or "discover" the Pacific Ocean. One can imagine his amazement, his excitement when he first saw from a mountain top that vast ocean previously unknown to his culture. A career in science sends each of us seeking our own "Balboa Moments," those observations or results that surprise or even amaze us, those discoveries that open our eyes to new views of nature and medicine. Scientists aim to do what those early explorers did: discover what has previously been unknown, see what has previously been unseen, and reveal what has previously been hidden. Science requires the scientist to discover the facts from among many fictions and to separate the important facts from the trivial so that knowledge can be properly developed. It is only with knowledge that old dogmas can be challenged and corrected. Careers in science produce specific sets of knowledge. When pooled with other knowledge sets they eventually contribute to wisdom and it is wisdom, we hope, that will improve the human condition.

  7. Entheseal changes: Do they reflect socioeconomic status in the Early Medieval Central European population? (Mikulčice - Klášteřisko, Great Moravian Empire, 9th - 10th century)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelková, P.; Hladík, Marek; Velemínský, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2013), s. 237-251 ISSN 1047-482X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * enthesopathies * factor analysis * grave goods * musculoskeletal stress markers * social status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.070, year: 2013

  8. Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social

  9. Frequency and Anatomic Distribution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in the Sacroiliac Joints of Young Athletes: Exploring "Background Noise" Toward a Data-Driven Definition of Sacroiliitis in Early Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Zejden, Anna; Larsen, Ejnar; Jørgensen, Steen Hylgaard; Rufibach, Kaspar; Schioldan, Christian; Schmidt-Olsen, Søren

    2018-05-01

    Low-grade bone marrow edema (BME) has been reported in the sacroiliac (SI) joints of 25% of healthy individuals and patients with nonspecific mechanical back pain, thus challenging the specificity and predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the discrimination of early spondyloarthritis (SpA). It is unknown whether stress injury in competition sports may trigger BME. This study sought to explore the frequency and anatomic distribution of SI joint MRI lesions in recreational and elite athletes. After pretest calibration, semicoronal MRI scans of the SI joints of 20 recreational runners before and after running and 22 elite ice hockey players were assessed for BME and structural lesions. Three readers assessed the MRI scans in a blinded manner, using an SI joint quadrant-based module; scans from tumor necrosis factor inhibitor-treated patients with SpA served for masking. The readers recorded subjects who met the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) definition of active sacroiliitis. For descriptive analysis, the frequency of SI joint quadrants exhibiting BME and structural lesions, as concordantly recorded by ≥2 of 3 readers, and their distribution in 8 anatomic SI joint regions (the upper and lower ilium and sacrum, subdivided in anterior and posterior slices) were determined. The proportions of recreational runners and elite ice hockey players fulfilling the ASAS definition of active sacroiliitis, as recorded concordantly by ≥2 of 3 readers, were 30-35% and 41%, respectively. In recreational runners before and after running, the mean ± SD number of SI joint quadrants showing BME was 3.1 ± 4.2 and 3.1 ± 4.5, respectively, while in elite ice hockey players, it was 3.6 ± 3.0. The posterior lower ilium was the single most affected SI joint region, followed by the anterior upper sacrum. Erosion was virtually absent. In recreational and elite athletes, MRI revealed BME in an average of 3-4 SI joint quadrants, meeting the

  10. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  11. Obesity and cardiovascular risk: a call for action from the European Society of Hypertension Working Group of Obesity, Diabetes and the High-risk Patient and European Association for the Study of Obesity: part B: obesity-induced cardiovascular disease, early prevention strategies and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Antza, Christina; Seravalle, Gino; Coca, Antonio; Sierra, Cristina; Lurbe, Empar; Stabouli, Stella; Jelakovic, Bojan; Redon, Josep; Redon, Pau; Nilsson, Peter M; Jordan, Jens; Micic, Dragan; Finer, Nicholas; Leitner, Deborah R; Toplak, Hermann; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Athyros, Vasilios; Elisaf, Moses; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Grassi, Guido

    2018-04-12

    : Obesity predisposes for atrial fibrillation, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, renal disease and ischemic stroke, which are the main causes of cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. As obesity and the cardiovascular effects on the vessels and the heart start early in life, even from childhood, it is important for health policies to prevent obesity very early before the disease manifestation emerge. Key roles in the prevention are strategies to increase physical exercise, reduce body weight and to prevent or treat hypertension, lipids disorders and diabetes earlier and efficiently to prevent cardiovascular complications.

  12. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar......Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...

  13. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  14. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  15. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  16. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  17. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  18. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  19. The Role of Competition in the Europeanization of the Professional Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    provided by European Studies. The theoretical framework developed in this contribution will then be used to explore in a second part, through the magnifying glass of seminal rulings of the European Court of Justice, the Europeanization of the professional complex and the role of competition law...

  20. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  1. College Explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1985-01-01

    The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)

  2. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  3. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  4. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  5. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  6. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  7. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  8. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  9. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  10. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  11. European Economic Community/the European energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-30

    European Economic Community/the European energy conference (a meeting of the energy ministers of the nine member countries), held at Brussels on 3/27/79, was a continuation of the EEC Council meeting held at Paris on 3/12-13/79. Proposals for measures to be taken by the member countries included support for exploration, especially geophysical prospecting for oil off the east coast of Greenland, at a cost of 3.5 million units of account (UC); modification of the regulations for crude oil distribution among the EEC member countries in case of a supply crisis; a second series of 36 energy-conservation demonstration projects, to cost 15,626,320 UC and be undertaken in 1979-83; and the UK proposal to call for bids on the first series of 17 projects, costing 5,779,000 UC and adopted in Dec. 1978, before discussing the second series. Six of the 36 projects are French; they involve heat pumps and hybrid nuclear-electric vehicles and space-heating systems. A report on the current status of coal projects was given, and problems with fast-breeder reactors were discussed.

  12. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  13. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  14. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  15. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-01-01

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  16. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  17. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  18. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Barton, Michael; Jiang, Caigui; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  19. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-02-04

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  20. Explorative Faktorenanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Klopp, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Die explorative Faktorenanalyse (EFA) ist ein Verfahren aus der multivariaten Statistik. Mithilfe der Faktorenanalyse kann aus den Beobachtungen vieler manifester Variablen (z .B Items eines Fragebogens) auf wenige zugrunde liegende latente Variablen, die Faktoren genannt werden, geschlossen werden. Eine EFA führt zu einer Reduktion der Variablen auf wenige, den manifesten Variablen zugrunde liegende Faktoren. Der folgende Text gibt einen Überblick über die Grundlagen der EFA sowie der wichti...

  1. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  2. Uniting the Divided Continent. The Estonian National Committee of the European Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Heikkilä

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the exiled Estonian politicians in the European Movement in the early Cold War period. The ultimate goal of exiled Estonians was to restore their state’s independence. In order to promote this, Estonian leaders sought connections with Western leaders. The European Movement was the only organisation involving actors from both the East and the West, and this corresponded to the Estonian discourse on Europe as a whole. Therefore, the European Movement was appreciated, although its limited opportunities for decisive actions were also recognised. East and West European interest in the European Movement declined as West European integration rapidly intensified through the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC and particularly after the January 1952 Eastern European Conference in London. By 1957, disappointment in the inability of European unification to help regain Estonian independence became evident.

  3. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  4. Early Identification of Skill Needs in Europe. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne Liane, Ed.; Schomann, Klaus, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe: European Conference, Berlin, 30/31 May 2002" (Susanne Liane Schmidt, Klaus Schomann, Manfred Tessaring); "Welcome and Opening of the European Conference 'Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe,' 30 May 2002, Social Sciences Research Center…

  5. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  6. Mortality and cardiovascular morbidity within 30 days of discharge following acute coronary syndrome in a contemporary European cohort of patients: How can early risk prediction be improved? The six-month GRACE risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Cambeiro-González, Cristina; Álvarez-Álvarez, Belén; Pereira-López, Eva; Gestal-Romaní, Santiago; Pedreira-López, Milagros; Rigueiro-Veloso, Pedro; Virgós-Lamela, Alejandro; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-06-01

    Given the increasing focus on early mortality and readmission rates among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), this study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the GRACE risk score for identifying patients at high risk of 30-day post-discharge mortality and cardiovascular readmission. This was a retrospective study carried out in a single center with 4229 ACS patients discharged between 2004 and 2010. The study endpoint was the combination of 30-day post-discharge mortality and readmission due to reinfarction, heart failure or stroke. One hundred and fourteen patients had 30-day events: 0.7% mortality, 1% reinfarction, 1.3% heart failure, and 0.2% stroke. After multivariate analysis, the six-month GRACE risk score was associated with an increased risk of 30-day events (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04; p<0.001), demonstrating good discrimination (C-statistic: 0.79 ± 0.02) and optimal fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.83). The sensitivity and specificity were adequate (78.1% and 63.3%, respectively), and negative predictive value was excellent (99.1%). In separate analyses for each event of interest (all-cause mortality, reinfarction, heart failure and stroke), assessment of the six-month GRACE risk score also demonstrated good discrimination and fit, as well as adequate predictive values. The six-month GRACE risk score is a useful tool to predict 30-day post-discharge death and early cardiovascular readmission. Clinicians may find it simple to use with the online and mobile app score calculator and applicable to clinical daily practice. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).

  8. Electricity in european economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the electricity supply industries in the European members of the former Unified Power System/interconnected Power Systems (UPS/IPS): Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. It explores the transformation process in the electricity sector over the past five years, its relationship to other changes in the region and possible future trends. Subjects covered include structure and regulation, demand, primary fuel availability, generating capacity, financing, tariffs, interconnections and trade

  9. ENEN - European nuclear engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Paraschiva, M.V.; Banutoiu, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the main objectives and expected results of European Project FP5 - ENEN - 'European Nuclear Engineering Network'. The underlying objective of the work is safeguarding the nuclear knowledge and expertise through the preservation of higher nuclear engineering education. Co-operation between universities and universities and research centres, will entail a better use of dwindling teaching capacity, scientific equipment and research infrastructure. 'Today, the priorities of the scientific community regarding basic research lie elsewhere than in nuclear sciences. Taken together, these circumstances create a significantly different situation from three to four decades ago when much of the present competence base was in fact generated. In addition, many of the highly competent engineers and scientists, who helped create the present nuclear industry, and its regulatory structure, are approaching retirement age. These competence issues need to be addressed at Community level and a well designed Community research and training programme should play a role that is more important than ever before. This is an area where the concept of an European research area should be further explored'. The outcome from this project should be a clear road map for the way ahead in nuclear engineering education in Europe. The underlying objective of the concerted action is the preservation of nuclear knowledge and expertise through the preservation of higher nuclear engineering education. 'Many diverse technologies, currently serving nations world-wide, would be affected by an inadequate number of future nuclear scientists and engineers. Nuclear technology is widespread and multidisciplinary: nuclear and reactor physics, thermal hydraulics and mechanics, material science, chemistry, health science, information technology and a variety of other areas. Yet the advancement of this technology, with all its associated benefits, will be threatened if not curtailed unless the

  10. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  11. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  12. A European experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is an experiment in nuclear fusion research which was planned as a joint effort between national research laboratories and Euratom. Before approval was given for it to be built it became a political football in the European Communities. This book describes the background against which JET was conceived, designed and planned. It gives a chronological account of the political imbroglio which followed between 1975 and 1978 and indicates how close the project came to collapse at one point. In addition to the two years' delay caused by Ministerial conflicts over its siting, the project suffered many compromises in its financing, its staffing and its organisation. An account is given of the unique structure of the European Communities and its procedures, which shows how idealism constantly faces reality. The role of Euratom is discussed, taking into account the difference between its approach to applications of nuclear fission as opposed to those of nuclear fusion. (author)

  13. Enhancing international collaboration among early-career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer K; Albada, Akke; Farahani, Mansoureh; Lithner, Maria; Neumann, Melanie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Shepherd, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    Objective The European Association of Communication in Healthcare (EACH) Early Career Researchers Network (ECRN) aims are to (1) promote international collaboration among young investigators and (2) provide a support network for future innovative communication research projects. In October 2009, Miami, USA at a workshop facilitated by the ECRN at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) hosted by the American Academy of Communication in Healthcare we explored common facilitators and challenges faced by early career researchers in health communication research. Methods Attendees introduced themselves, their research area(s) of interest, and listed one facilitator and one barrier for their career development. EACH ECRN members then led a discussion of facilitators and challenges encountered in communication research projects and career development. We discussed potential collaboration opportunities, future goals, and activities. Results Having supportive collegial relationships, institutional support, job security, and funding are critical facilitators for early career investigators. Key challenges include difficulty with time management and prioritizing, limited resources, and contacts. Conclusion International collaboration among early career researchers is a feasible and effective means to address important challenges, by increasing opportunities for professional support and networking, problem-solving, discussion of data, and ultimately publishing. Practice Implications Future AACH-EACH Early Career Researcher Networks should continue to build collaborations by developing shared research projects, papers, and other scholarly products. PMID:20663630

  14. The European network of excellence Emil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The network of excellence EMIL (European Molecular Imaging Laboratories ) is the only European network of excellence in molecular imaging for oncology. It was set up and is coordinated by the 'in vivo imaging of gene expression' group of CEA Orsay. Included in Priority Thematic Area 1 (life sciences, genomics and biotechnology for health) of the European Commission's 6. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6), this five-year project (2004-2009) aims t o merge the leading European research teams in molecular imaging, in universities, research centres and small and medium enterprises, to focus on early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic evaluation of cancer. The EMIL network brings together 58 partners representing 43 bodies in 13 European countries, and integrates 6 technological facilities: Orsay (France), Turin (Italy), Cologne (Germany), Leiden (Netherlands), Milan (Italy) and Antwerpen (Belgium).The research and training activities of the EMIL network are based on 9 thematic working groups or 'work packages' (wp), forming a common activity programme including : Integration activities: creation of a network of technological and training facilities favouring the mobility of researchers and the integration of small and medium enterprises into the EMIL network. Dissemination of expertise activities: training, communication, common knowledge management and intellectual property rights. Research activities: a common research programme with a horizontal dimension, making use of methodological tools of physics, biology and chemistry necessary for the further development of molecular imaging (instrument techniques, molecular probes, biological engineering), and a vertical integrative dimension, bringing together cancer imaging applications (early diagnostic imaging, development of new therapies imaging for drug development). (author)

  15. The European network of excellence Emil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The network of excellence EMIL (European Molecular Imaging Laboratories ) is the only European network of excellence in molecular imaging for oncology. It was set up and is coordinated by the 'in vivo imaging of gene expression' group of CEA Orsay. Included in Priority Thematic Area 1 (life sciences, genomics and biotechnology for health) of the European Commission's 6. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6), this five-year project (2004-2009) aims t o merge the leading European research teams in molecular imaging, in universities, research centres and small and medium enterprises, to focus on early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic evaluation of cancer. The EMIL network brings together 58 partners representing 43 bodies in 13 European countries, and integrates 6 technological facilities: Orsay (France), Turin (Italy), Cologne (Germany), Leiden (Netherlands), Milan (Italy) and Antwerpen (Belgium).The research and training activities of the EMIL network are based on 9 thematic working groups or 'work packages' (wp), forming a common activity programme including : Integration activities: creation of a network of technological and training facilities favouring the mobility of researchers and the integration of small and medium enterprises into the EMIL network. Dissemination of expertise activities: training, communication, common knowledge management and intellectual property rights. Research activities: a common research programme with a horizontal dimension, making use of methodological tools of physics, biology and chemistry necessary for the further development of molecular imaging (instrument techniques, molecular probes, biological engineering), and a vertical integrative dimension, bringing together cancer imaging applications (early diagnostic imaging, development of new therapies imaging for drug development). (author)

  16. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  17. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  19. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  20. European Decommissioning Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V. S.; Hornacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 15 participants during 7–26 June 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, Slovakia as well as four day technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (author

  1. Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…

  2. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  3. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  4. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  5. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  6. Exploring ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2017-06-01

    ESASky is a science-driven discovery portal for all ESA space astronomy missions. It also includes missions from international partners such as Suzaku and Chandra. The first public release of ESASky features interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. Using the application requires no prior-knowledge of any of the missions involved and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from space-based Astronomy missions, plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues, including the Gaia Data Release 1 catalogue. We highlight here the latest features to be developed, including one that allows the user to project onto the sky the footprints of the JWST instruments, at any chosen position and orientation. This tool has been developed to aid JWST astronomers when they are defining observing proposals. We aim to include other missions and instruments in the near future.

  7. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  8. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  9. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...

  10. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  11. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  12. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  13. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  14. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  15. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  16. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  17. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  18. European Identity and European Citizenship: the Case of Missing Polis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šejvl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2008), s. 49-56 ISSN 1789-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the European integration * law of citizenship * European identity Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  19. Developments in the European methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry

  20. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  1. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  2. European Research Reloaded : Cooperation and Integration Among Europeanized States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron; Haverland, Markus

    2006-01-01

    European integration has had an ever deepening impact on the member states. The first wave of research concerned the process of institution building and policy developments at the European Union (EU) level. The second wave, on Europeanization used the resulting integration as an explanatory factor

  3. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  4. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  5. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  6. Exploring the effect of age of entry to school on boys’ attitude towards reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Lever–Chain

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: British children enter school younger than their European counterparts. Research suggests that this disadvantages boys who may be unready for formal literacy instruction.This longitudinal study explores the effect of age of entry to school on boys’ reading development, focussing on attitudes and beliefs. Data from 60 summer-born boys, divided into two cohorts, was collected on three occasions: before entry to Year One, end of Year One and end of Year Two. Comparisons were drawn between 31 boys with part-time nursery education before Year One, and 29 with full-time Reception class experience. This paper presents data collected at Time One. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies the study explores how beliefs about and attitudes towards reading emerge in the context of these contrasting early years settings. Implications of the findings are considered in the context of policies and trends in age of entry to school.

  7. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N......Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...

  8. Generation of a Catalogue of European Windstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; Baptiste Granier, Jean; Bordoy, Roger; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Souch, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The probability of multiple wind-storm events within a year is crucial to any (re)insurance company writing European wind business. Indeed, the volatility of losses is enhanced by the clustering of storms (cyclone families), as occurred in early 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke), December 1999 (Lothar, Martin) or December 2015 (Desmond, Eva, Frank), among others. In order to track winter extratropical cyclones, we use the maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa of the new-released long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from the ECMWF since the beginning of the 20th Century until 2010. We develop an automatic procedure to define events. We then quantify the severity of each storm using loss and meteorological indices at country and Europe-wide level. Validation against market losses for the period 1970-2010 is undertaken before considering the severity and frequency of European windstorms for the 110 years period.

  9. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky

    2009-01-01

    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political...

  10. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  11. European Nuclear Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-01-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  12. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  13. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  14. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Whatever option regarding their future nuclear energy development is chosen by European Union Member States, the availability of a sufficient number of well trained and experienced staff is key for the responsible use of nuclear energy. This is true in all areas including design, construction, operation, decommissioning, fuel cycle and waste management as well as radiation protection. Given the high average age of existing experts leading to a significant retirement induce a real risk of the loss of nuclear competencies in the coming years. Therefore the demand of hiring skilled employees is rising. The challenge of ensuring a sufficient number of qualified staff in the nuclear sector has been acknowledged widely among the different stakeholders, in particular the nuclear industry, national regulatory authorities and Technical Support Organisations (TSOs). Already the EURATOM Treaty refers explicitly to the obligation for the Commission to carry out training actions. Recently initiatives have been launched at EU level to facilitate and strengthen the efforts of national stakeholders. The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association aims at preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by higher education and training. The goal of the European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy (ENELA) is to educate future leaders in the nuclear field to ensure the further development of sustainable European nuclear energy solutions The European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) is a platform operated by the European Commission for a broad discussion on the opportunities and risks of nuclear energy. The nuclear programs under investigation in the Joint Research Center (JRC) are increasingly contributing to Education and Training (E and T) initiatives, promoting a better cooperation between key players and universities as well as operators and regulatory bodies in order to mutually optimise their training programmes. Another objective is to increase

  15. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  16. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  17. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  18. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  19. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and