WorldWideScience

Sample records for early diagnostic guess

  1. Prior probability (the pretest best guess) affects predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Hollis N

    2011-06-01

    Authors who publish evaluations of dichotomous (yes/no) diagnostic tests often include the predictive values of their test at a single prior probability (eg, the prevalence of the target disease within the evaluation data set). The objectives of this technical note are to demonstrate why single-probability predictive values are misleading and to show a better way to display positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for a newly evaluated test. Secondly, this technical note will show readers how to calculate predictive values from only sensitivity and specificity for any desired prior probability. As prior probability increases from 0% to 100%, PPV increases from 0% to 100%, but NPV goes in the opposite direction (drops from 100% to 0%). Because prior probabilities vary so greatly across situations, predictive values should be provided in publications for the full range of potential prior probabilities (if provided at all). This is easily done with a 2-curve graph displaying the predictive values (y-axis) against the prior probability (x-axis).

  2. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; van de Ven, Vincent G; Tong, Frank; Sack, Alexander T

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise.

  3. Guessing Geometric Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gloria J

    1987-01-01

    The game of "Guess What" is described as a stimulating vehicle for students to consider the unifying or distinguishing features of geometric figures. Teaching suggestions as well as the gameboard are provided. (MNS)

  4. Guess a New Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加春

    2010-01-01

    @@ When you read,you will find some new words,what should you do?You can look up the words in the dictionary,but it will take you a lot of time.Sometimes you can guess a new word because you know some parts of the new word.For example,a writer means a person who writes something.Sometimes it is not enough to understand a new word,but to know part of it may help you a lot.

  5. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  6. EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF HEARING DAMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodanka STOILKOVIC

    1997-01-01

    Ways of obtaining findings for detection of etiology of impairment and time of the hearing damages;· Methods of diagnostic of hearing difficulties;· Problems that appear in the early diagnostics;· The role and importance of the audiorehabilitator in diagnostic of a child with hearing difficulties;· ”Useful time” and phases of speech development;· The role and benefit of the selective amplification in the treatment of children with hearing difficulties;· Characteristic audiograms for every...

  7. EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF HEARING DAMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka STOILKOVIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Ways of obtaining findings for detection of etiology of impairment and time of the hearing damages;· Methods of diagnostic of hearing difficulties;· Problems that appear in the early diagnostics;· The role and importance of the audiorehabilitator in diagnostic of a child with hearing difficulties;· ”Useful time” and phases of speech development;· The role and benefit of the selective amplification in the treatment of children with hearing difficulties;· Characteristic audiograms for every group of children with hearing difficulties.

  8. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.

  9. THE PROBLEMS OF EARLY CLINICAL DEFECTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar CORDIC

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical defectological diagnostics, related to diagnostics of each individual's impairment of his cognitive and socializing abilities, has been applied in our country for a long time. Since it is a new area in the clinical defectological work and a new form of research in defectology, it poses a series of problems which have not been met so far. We shall to recognize some of them in this paper and to aim at their solution.This time we shall consider only the most prominent problems towards which we direct our interventions:· When does defectological diagnostics take part in diagnosis as treatment of impairments of the handicapped person? When does it function in the process of rehabilitation? For example, is working with a dyslexic child treatment or rehabilitation?· When does the early diagnostics reveal a problem arising from inappropriate intersection of different development courses, which can sometimes be solved without any particular treatment (early stuttering, various convulsions, and when does it reveal actual condition, such as oligophrenia or autism. Thereby we ask ourselves if early stimulative treatment of oligophrenic children or children with early childhood psychosis is treatment or rehabilitation.We tried to classify end explain the problems of diagnostics in the context of treatment and rehabilitation and to define the theoretical grounds for our standpoints.We wanted to point out the unity of the process of any impairment of the handicapped person from early childhood to the end of his life. Treatment and rehabilitation should be a united process and follow the course of development of early disorders which sometimes end up as handicaps, and sometimes, thanks to the treatment, may end up in successful socialization, for example, persons with impaired hearing or sight.We establish defectology as a complete theoretical standpoint and expert procedure which is parallel to and complementary with medicine. The only difference we

  10. Guessing and the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holster, Trevor A.; Lake, J.

    2016-01-01

    Stewart questioned Beglar's use of Rasch analysis of the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) and advocated the use of 3-parameter logistic item response theory (3PLIRT) on the basis that it models a non-zero lower asymptote for items, often called a "guessing" parameter. In support of this theory, Stewart presented fit statistics derived from…

  11. Electrochemical Biosensors for Early Stage Zika Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Tiwari, Sneham; Jayant, Rahul D; Vashist, Arti; Nikkhah-Moshaie, Roozbeh; El-Hage, Nazira; Nair, Madhavan

    2017-04-01

    Health agencies have declared the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection an epidemic and a public health emergency of global concern due to its association with microcephaly and serious neurological disorders. The unavailability of effective drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tools increases the demand for efficient analytical devices to detect ZIKV infection. However, high costs, longer diagnostic times, and stringent expertise requirements limit the utility of reverse transcriptase-PCR methods for rapid diagnostics. Therefore, developing portable, sensitive, selective, and cost-effective sensing systems to detect ZIKV at picomolar concentrations in biofluids would be a breakthrough in diagnostics and therapeutics. This paper highlights the advancements in developing smart sensing strategies to monitor ZIKV progression, with rapid point-of-care diagnostics as the ultimate aim.

  12. Guessing Revisited: A Large Deviations Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The problem of guessing a random string is revisited. A close relation between guessing and compression is first established. Then it is shown that if the sequence of distributions of the information spectrum satisfies the large deviation property with a certain rate function, then the limiting guessing exponent exists and is a scalar multiple of the Legendre-Fenchel dual of the rate function. Other sufficient conditions related to certain continuity properties of the information spectrum are briefly discussed. This approach highlights the importance of the information spectrum in determining the limiting guessing exponent. All known prior results are then re-derived as example applications of our unifying approach.

  13. Generically Used Expert Scheduling System (GUESS): User's Guide Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira

    1996-01-01

    This user's guide contains instructions explaining how to best operate the program GUESS, a generic expert scheduling system. GUESS incorporates several important features for a generic scheduler, including automatic scheduling routines to generate a 'first' schedule for the user, a user interface that includes Gantt charts and enables the human scheduler to manipulate schedules manually, diagnostic report generators, and a variety of scheduling techniques. The current version of GUESS runs on an IBM PC or compatible in the Windows 3.1 or Windows '95 environment.

  14. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte M.G.; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increa

  15. [Early, noninvasive diagnostic of osteoporosis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepiarz-Rusek, Wanda; Kokocińska, Danuta

    2005-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease. Until recently it was believed to mainly affect women in menopause. A review of the literature indicates that a lot of the research to date on women. The patogenesis of bone loss in men has not been explained yet. It has not been determined what is the contribution of androgens as opposed to environmental factors and stimulants. The behaviour of bone turnover markers during ageing and their role in diagnosing the risk of osteoporosis development and fractures in men are not clear. The objective of the paper was to evaluate bone metabolism markers and to determine their relevance in early diagnosis of osteoporosis in men, and to determine any possible impact of testosterone concentration on bone mass. The study covered 100 volunteers-males, aged 40-85. All were subjected to a densitometric examination, using theDEXA method, of three regions of the osseous system: lumbar spine in anterior-posterior height, proximal femur, distal radius. Based on these results, subjects were divided into three groups: without osteoporosis, with osteopenia and with osteoporosis. In all men the serum level of the following was marked: 1) 3 markers of bone formation: osteocalcin (BGP), bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Procollagen I Aminoterminal propeptide (PINP); 2) 2 markers of bone resorption: Collagen Type I Crosslinked C-telopeptide (Ctx) and Tartarate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP); 3) testosterone. The results obtained were subjected to thorough statistical analisis. Mean concentrations of bone metabolism, testosterone and calcium consumption in the groups examined were compared by mean of ANOVA variance analysis and the smallest significant difference test. Relationship between markers of bone resorption and formation, testosterone level and bone mineral density (BMD) were shown by means of Pearson linear correlation. The relevance of markers in the diagnosing of osteoporosis in men was evaluated by means of the

  16. Early diagnostic method for sepsis based on neutrophil MR imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhua Han

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Mouse and human neutrophils could be more effectively labelled by Mannan-coated SPION in vitro than Feridex. Sepsis analog neutrophils labelled by Mannan-coated SPIONs could be efficiently detected on MR images, which may serve as an early diagnostic method for sepsis.

  17. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kambiz (Shoista); J.W. van Neck (Han); S.G. Cosgun (Saniye G.); M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); Avazverdi, N. (Naim); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study w

  18. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Neck, J.W. van; Cosgun, S.G.; Velzen, M.H. van; Janssen, J.A.M.; Avazverdi, N.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to invest

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in early childhood: classification and diagnostic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Simonelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  20. MODERATING ABILITY OF ITEM RESPONSE THEORY THROUGH PRIOR GUESSING PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siow Hoo Leong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A psycho-technology approach to discouraging guessing in multiple-choice formatted item can be done through reducing the a priori guessing probability of an item. This study proposes a psychometrics framework of Item Response Theory (IRT to model the effect of having various priori guessing probabilities across different items. A prior guessing parameter is proposed to serves as a moderator of the ability parameter in the two parameter logistic IRT. The results show that the proposed prior guessing parameter successfully moderates the ability parameters of the subjects with different degrees of guessing. However, the prior guessing parameter is insensitive when the performance pattern is mixed within the testlet but similar across testlet with different priori guessing probabilities.

  1. Early onset neonatal sepsis: diagnostic dilemmas and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford Russell, A R; Kumar, R

    2015-07-01

    Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Meaning Guessing Strategies in English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾兰

    2005-01-01

    In the course of reading we can guess or infer the meaning of some new words, difficult words or keywords through the information, logic, background knowledge and language structure, etc. And it is a very useful reading skill. When obtaining this kind of skill, the readers can quickly infer the meaning of new words from the clue offered by the context or the structure characteristic of new words, therefore, to improve the reading speed and reading ability.

  3. Research on Early Fault Diagnostic Method of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yongjie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Challenging environmental factors combined with high and turbulent winds make serious demands on wind turbines and result in significant component fault rates. In this paper, an early fault diagnostic research is conducted upon wind turbines. Firstly, the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system is used to analyze the units’ long-hour operating data, preparing for the further modeling work. Then the MSET (Multivariate State Estimation Technique is adopted to estimate the temperature of the gear box and to obtain a result of high accuracy; with the Moving Window Calculation (MWC, the residual value between the estimated value and the real value is studied to get the dynamic trend of its average value; according to this trend in training, we define the threshold region of the residual mean value. Considering a man-made deviation in the observation vectors, faults of the gear box are simulated and studied. When the residual mean value curve exceeds the setting thresholds, an alert will be given to remind the operators of hidden problems in the unit. Research shows that this early diagnostic method is quite effective in detecting the abnormal performance of wind turbines in a real-time manner.

  4. Quantum Guessing via Deutsch-Jozsa

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanson, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We examine the "Guessing Secrets" problem arising in internet routing, in which the goal is to discover two or more objects from a known finite set. We propose a quantum algorithm using O(1) calls to an O(logN) oracle. This improves upon the best known classical result, which uses O(logN) questions and requires an additional O(logN^3) steps to produce the answer. In showing the possibilities of this algorithm, we extend the types of questions and function oracles that the Deutsch-Jozsa algori...

  5. Feasibility of an early Alzheimer's disease immunosignature diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Lucas; Stafford, Phillip; Johnston, Stephen Albert

    2013-01-15

    A practical diagnostic test is needed for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) detection. Immunosignaturing, a technology that employs antibody binding to a random-sequence peptide microarray, generates profiles that distinguish transgenic mice engineered with familial AD mutations (APPswe/PSEN1-dE9) from non-transgenic littermates. It can also detect an AD-like signature in humans. Here, we assess the changes in the immunosignature at different time points of the disease in mice and humans. We also evaluate the accuracy of the late-stage signature as a test to discriminate between young mice with familial AD mutations from non-transgenic littermates. Plasma samples from AD patients were assayed 3-12 months apart, while APPswe/PSEN1-dE9 and non-transgenic controls supplied plasma at monthly intervals until they reached 15 months of age. Microarrays with 10,000 random-sequence peptides were used to compare antibody binding patterns. These patterns gradually changed over the life-span of mice. Strong, characteristic signatures were observed in transgenic mice at early, mid and late stages, but these profiles had minimal overlap. The signature of young transgenic mice had an error rate of 18% at classifying plasma samples from late-stage transgenic mice. Conversely, the late-stage transgenic mice signature discriminated between young transgenic mice and littermates with an error rate of 21%. Less distinctive profiles were recognizable throughout the transgenic mice lifespan, being detectable as early as 2 months. The human signature had minimal change on short-term follow-up. Our results call for a reappraisal of the way incipient AD is studied, as biomarkers seen in late-stages of the disease may not be relevant in earlier stages.

  6. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula.

  7. Getting Lucky: How Guessing Threatens the Validity of Performance Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Brett P.

    2016-01-01

    There is always a chance that examinees will answer multiple choice (MC) items correctly by guessing. Design choices in some modern exams have created situations where guessing at random through the full exam--rather than only for a subset of items where the examinee does not know the answer--can be an effective strategy to pass the exam. This…

  8. Guessing the Meaning of Unknown Words While Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhao-rong; LU Lei

    2001-01-01

    The following paper discusses how to guess the meaning of unknown words during your reading. This skill can be developed by practising reading without a dictionary. The context and word analysis will help the reader guess the meaning of unknown words. In this way, you can become a better reader.

  9. Early diagnostic evaluation of mandibular symmetry using orthopantomogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Silvestrini-Biavati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was to complete Habets′s method on orthopantomogram, in order to measure mandibular symmetry horizontally and diagonally in mixed dentition as the first diagnostic evaluation. Settings and Design: Mixed dentition subjects were consecutively selected according to skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria were: Mixed dentition, cervical vertebral stages 1-2, Class II or Class III malocclusions, with or without unilateral posterior cross-bite. Fourteen subjects with cross-bite (mean age 8 y, 9 m cross group (CG and 14 subjects with normal transverse occlusion (mean age 8y, 6m non-cross group (NCG were selected. Nine measurements were determined. An asymmetry index was performed for all linear variables. Statistical Analysis Used: NCG patients′ data were compared with CG data using parametric t-tests. Probabilities of <0.05 were accepted as significant. Results: In CG, comparing right and left side, single values showed no significant differences up to 6% (twice if compared to the 3% threshold value. T-tests showed statistically significant differences between the groups for ramus + condyle height (index 2.5% vs 4.5%, P = 0.04, condylar height (index 3.7% vs 6.6%, P = 0.02 and mandibular length (index 1.4% vs 2.3%, P = 0.04. Overall CG group was more asymmetrical than NCG. Conclusions: In mixed dentition (CS1-2, a first appraisal of mandibular symmetry may be performed on orthopantomogram utilizing this modified Habets′s method. This tracing method provides an early evaluation about mandibular symmetry and is able to show slight asymmetries in mixed dentition thereby reducing the number of cone beam computed tomograms performed.

  10. Getting Lucky: How Guessing Threatens the Validity of Performance Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett P. Foley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is always a chance that examinees will answer multiple choice (MC items correctly by guessing. Design choices in some modern exams have created situations where guessing at random through the full exam-'rather than only for a subset of items where the examinee does not know the answer-'can be an effective strategy to pass the exam. This paper describes two case studies to illustrate this problem, discusses test development decisions that can help address the situation, and provides recommendations to testing professionals to help identify when guessing at random can be an effective strategy to pass the exam.

  11. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  12. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  13. The Shannon Cipher System with a Guessing Wiretapper: General Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The Shannon cipher system is studied in the context of general sources using a notion of computational secrecy introduced by Merhav & Arikan. Bounds are derived on limiting exponents of guessing moments for general sources. The bounds are shown to be tight for iid, Markov, and unifilar sources, thus recovering some known results. A close relationship between error exponents and correct decoding exponents for fixed rate source compression on the one hand and exponents for guessing moments on the other hand is established.

  14. Modern methods of early diagnostics of juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Y.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of inflammatory diseases of joints is one of the most important issues in the pediatrics. Nowadays the significant attention in this sphere is paid to the search of new accurate criteria of diagnostics. It will help estimate the severity of disease, determine the prognosis, choose the method of treatment and monitoring and evaluate the efficacy of the therapy.

  15. A possible new diagnostic biomarker in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kork, Felix; Holthues, Jan; Hellweg, Rainer;

    2009-01-01

    Early diagnosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of great importance since only a sufficient treatment in early stages of this disease helps to keep patients in an autonomous state for as long as possible. Until now, there is no single diagnostic biomarker for AD derived from material...

  16. DIAGNOSTIC GUIDANCE AND EARLY INTERVENTION IN CLASS III MALOCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinandri Charea Runizar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion has always been somewhat controversial. Many orthodontic pioneers like Angle, Tweed, and Graber have advocated early interception of class II malocclusion because this kind of skeletal discrepancy once established, would usually progress rapidly. What kind of early treatment would be appropriate for this malocclusion? Would this approach be effective and promises a stable result? Early orthodontic treatment is defined as a treatment that is initiated during the primary or mixed dentition stage to enhance skeletal and dental development. It is usually done in two phases. The first phase is intended to correct skeletal discrepancy by taking advantage of growth and development period. The second phase followed to improve occlusal relationship. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion is a possible alternative to improve skeletal discrepancy or at the very east may serve to prevent a worsening malocclusion. Principles of Class III early treatment depend on whether it is dental Class III, functional Class III, or skeletal Class III. Practitioners should consider positive and negative factors of a patient before initiating treatment. Likewise, they should understand factors that affect prognosis and stability of the results.

  17. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  18. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  19. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. How

  20. Early diagnostic markers of sepsis after oesophagectomy (including thromboelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durila Miroslav

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of sepsis and its differentiation from the noninfective SIRS is very important in order that treatment can be initiated in a timely and appropriate way. In this study we investigated standard haematological and biochemical parameters and thromboelastography (TEG in patients who had undergone surgical resection of the oesophagus to find out if changes in any of these parameters could help in early differentiation between SIRS and sepsis development. Methods We enrolled 43 patients (aged 41–74 years of whom 38 were evaluable. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and then at 24-hour intervals for the next 6 days. Samples were analysed for procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL- 6, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT , lactate, white blood count (WBC, D-dimers, antithrombin (AT, international normalised ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and parameters of TEG. Results Significant differences between patients who developed sepsis during this period (9 patients and SIRS were found in ALT on Day 1, in AST on Days 1–4, in PCT on Days 2–6; in CRP on Days 3–6; in IL-6 on Days 2–5; in leucocytes on Days 2, 3 and 6; and in D-dimers on Days 2 and 4. Significance values ranged from p  Conclusions Sequential measurements of ALT, AST, PCT and IL-6 during the early postoperative period can be used for early differentiation of sepsis and postoperative SIRS after oesophagectomy. Among the coagulation parameters measured, only D-dimer concentrations appeared to be helpful in this process. TEG does not seem to be a useful early predictor of sepsis development; however it can be used to differentiate sepsis and SIRS from Day 5 after surgery.

  1. Predictive Capabilities of Neurobehavioral Diagnostics in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Oxana

    2016-05-01

    Modern world experiences annual increase in the number of children born with neurological problems, which in the future may stipulate the development of their neurobehavioral and neuropsychological aberrations. Specific functional features of a child's brain development depend on many factors, but there is a strong need for early clinical and psychological identification of a child's development with a view to elaborate preventive measures, which are often more effective than the treatment or correction of dysfunction, already complicated by compensatory bonds. One should note that despite a high interest in the possibility of predicting the future development of the child in the early ontogenesis, few studies have so far been devoted to the search for indicators that could be meaningful for neuropsychology, neurology, and educational, special, and clinical psychology.

  2. Early diagnostics and treatment with acute burn sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmedov A.A.; Shakirov B.M.; Karabaev H.K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of the procalcitonin test used for early diagnosis of sepsis and to study the course and treatment of burn sepsis in patients with severe burns. Methods: Eighty patients in the Burn Department of Republican Scientific Centre of Emergency Medical Care, aged 17-75 years with burn injuries covering 30%-85% of the body surface, were enrolled in the study. Procalcitonin is marker of sepsis, procalcitonin > 2 ng/mL, sensitivity -89%, specific feature -94%. Results: The result showed that among septic patients with severe burns, rational use of intensive therapy for burn sepsis and septic shock in combination with parentrial ozonotherapy resulted in decreases of syndrome of poly organ insufficiency and lethal outcomes from 70%accordingly. The result allows the conclusion that the treatment examined leads to a significant increase in survival coefficient. Conclusions: This in turn confirms the efficacy of early necrectomy and auto dermoplasty of deep burn wounds in victims with sepsis.

  3. Early Diagnostic and Predictive Value of Capillaroscopy in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto; Smith, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nailfold microvascular impairment represents an early feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its progression through different patterns of capillary damage and their validated scoring, is evaluable by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in a safe and reliable manner. The presence of specific morphological microvascular alterations at the NVC (i.e., presence of giant capillaries) is fundamental and mandatory for the early diagnosis of SSc, together with the presence of the Raynaud's phenomenon. Furthermore, a recent longitudinal study showed a dynamic transition of microvascular damage through different NVC patterns of microangiopathy in almost 50% of SSc patients and clinical symptoms progressed in accordance with the NVC morphologic changes in 60% of the SSc patients. A pilot study was the first demonstrating an association between baseline NVC patterns and future severe, peripheral vascular and lung involvement with stronger odds according to worsening scleroderma patterns. Prognostic indexes for digital trophic lesions, especially for daily use in SSc clinics and simply limited to the mean score of capillary loss are now validated. Very recently, it has been described that efficacious potentially disease modifying therapies in SSc may interfere with progression of nailfold microvascular damage, as assessed by NVC, over long term at least in presence of digital ulcers. NVC is a safe and reliable tool for the early diagnosis of SSc and the different NVC scleroderma patterns have a predictive value for the clinical complications of the disease.

  4. Catalogue to select the initial guess spectrum during unfolding

    CERN Document Server

    Vega-Carrillo, H R

    2002-01-01

    A new method to select the initial guess spectrum is presented. Neutron spectra unfolded from Bonner sphere data are dependent on the initial guess spectrum used in the unfolding code. The method is based on a catalogue of detector count rates calculated from a set of reported neutron spectra. The spectra of three isotopic neutron sources sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe and sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf/D sub 2 O, were measured to test the method. The unfolding was carried out using the three initial guess options included in the BUNKIUT code. Neutron spectra were also calculated using MCNP code. Unfolded spectra were compared with those calculated; in all the cases our method gives the best results.

  5. Priming guesses on a forced-recall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Janet M; Meade, Michelle L

    2004-07-01

    The forced-recall paradigm requires participants to fill all spaces on the memory test even if they cannot remember all the list words. In the present study, the authors used that paradigm to examine the influence of implicit memory on guessing--when participants fill remaining spaces after they cannot remember list items. They measured explicit memory as the percentage of targets that participants designated as remembered from the list and implicit memory as the percentage of targets they wrote but did not designate as remembered (beyond chance level). The authors examined implicit memory on guessing with forced recall (Experiment 1), forced cued recall with younger and older adults (Experiment 2), and forced free and cued recall under a depth-of-processing manipulation (Experiment 3). They conclude that implicit memory influences guesses of targets in the forced-recall paradigm.

  6. Ultrasound examination in diagnostic of early congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zavadovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A peculiarity of the congenital syphilis of recent years is an increase of the number of cases of latent forms of the disease, marked with osteopathy. With the help of an examination of 50 children with early congenital syphilis, the following ultrasonic signs of a musculoskeletal system lesion were revealed: osteochondritis 90%, osteosclerosis 80%, and periostitis 30%.The comparison of the nature of a musculoskeletal system lesion with serological data of the specific process activity showed that complex manifestations of lesions with periostitis being a component were of the greatest clinical significance.

  7. Diagnostic Proteomics: Serum Proteomic Patterns for the Detection of Early Stage Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Yu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interrogate thousands of proteins found in complex biological samples using proteomic technologies has brought the hope of discovering novel disease-specific biomarkers. While most proteomic technologies used to discover diagnostic biomarkers are quite sophisticated, "proteomic pattern analysis" has emerged as a simple, yet potentially revolutionary, method for the early diagnosis of diseases. Utilizing this technology, hundreds of clinical samples can be analyzed per day and several preliminary studies suggest proteomic pattern analysis has the potential to be a novel, highly sensitive diagnostic tool for the early detection of cancer.

  8. Convulsions in early post-partum period, a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil H. Inamdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic (tapeworm infection of the brain worldwide. It presents as hydrocephalus and acute onset seizures. A 28-year-old para 3 live 3 [P3L3], post-partum [day 7], resident of Arvi, presented in casualty during emergency hours with headache and fever since 7 days. She presented with h/o convulsions 2 episodes, one on day 5 and one on day 7 of her full term vaginal home delivery. She presented to the Emergency Department on day 7 with generalised tonic-clonic seizures preceded by nausea and headache. All her blood investigations were within normal limits except an extremely surprising finding on CT scan. 40% of patients having postpartum convulsions do not experience preeclampsia, clinical awareness is essential for early treatment and care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 231-233

  9. Diagnostic radiology of early complications after renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looser, C.M.; Terrier, F.; Scheidegger, J.R.; Frey, F.J.; Gertsch, P.; Lerut, J.; Revel, D.

    1988-12-01

    Postoperative complications after renal transplantation, such as hematomas, abscesses, urinomas and lymphoceles and obstruction of the ureter, can be diagnosed by means of ultra sonography. Early vascular complications, such as venous thrombosis and arterial occlusion or stenosis, can be recognized by duplex ultrasonography and accurately depicted by angiography to allow planning of surgical intervention. Stenosis of the renal artery is amenable to treatment by percutaneous angioplasty. Parenchymatous complications (acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, cyclosporin-Atoxicity) can cause changes in the intrarenal flow patterns at duplex ultra sonography, but this examination does not allow accurate diagnosis and differentiation of these changes. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very promising method for the differential diagnosis of parenchymatous complications. (orig.) .

  10. Novel hybrid technology for early diagnostics of sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saknite, Inga; Grabovskis, Andris; Kazune, Sigita; Rubins, Uldis; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Volceka, Karina; Kviesis-Kipge, Edgars; Spigulis, Janis

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is a potentially fatal disease with mortality rate as high as 50% in patients with septic shock; mortality rate can increase by 7.6% per hour if appropriate treatment is not started. Internationally accepted guidelines for diagnosis of sepsis rely on vital sign monitoring and laboratory tests in order to recognize organ failure. This pilot study aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral and thermal imaging techniques to identify and quantify early alterations in skin oxygenation and perfusion induced by sepsis. The study comprises both physiological model experiments on healthy volunteers in a laboratory environment, as well as screening case series of patients with septic shock in the intensive care department. Hyperspectral imaging is used to determine one of the main characteristic visual signs of skin oxygenation abnormalities - skin mottling, whereas changes in peripheral perfusion have been visualized by thermal imaging as heterogeneous skin temperature areas. In order to mimic septic skin mottling in a reproducible way in laboratory environment, arterial occlusion provocation test was utilized on healthy volunteers. Visualization of oxygen saturation by hyperspectral imaging allows diagnosing microcirculatory alterations induced by sepsis earlier than visual assessment of mottling. Thermal images of sepsis patients in the clinic clearly reveal hotspots produced by perforating arteries, as well as cold regions of low blood supply. The results of this pilot study show that thermal imaging in combination with hyperspectral imaging allows the determination of oxygen supply and utilization in critically ill septic patients.

  11. Orbital Battleship: A Guessing Game to Reinforce Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushkin, Mikhail; Mikhaylenko, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A competitive educational guessing game "Orbital Battleship" which reinforces Madelung's and Hund's rules, values of quantum numbers, and understanding of periodicity was designed. The game develops strategic thinking, is not time-consuming, requires minimal preparation and supervision, and is an efficient and fun alternative to more…

  12. Early diagnostics and Alzheimer's disease: Beyond ‘cure’ and ‘care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, Y.M.; van Lente, H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on early diagnostics for Alzheimer's disease is supported by what has been labeled as aging-and-innovation discourse, in which innovation is assumed to (partially) resolve the societal problems related to aging. This discourse draws on a specific way of understanding Alzheimer's disease and

  13. Early diagnostics and Alzheimer's disease: Beyond ‘cure’ and ‘care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, Y.M.; van Lente, H.

    Research on early diagnostics for Alzheimer's disease is supported by what has been labeled as aging-and-innovation discourse, in which innovation is assumed to (partially) resolve the societal problems related to aging. This discourse draws on a specific way of understanding Alzheimer's disease and

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L; Hurtig, H I; Stern, M B; Colcher, A; Ravina, B; Newberg, A; Mozley, P D; Siderowf, A

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT imaging using [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 (TRODAT), a relatively inexpensive technetium-labeled dopamine transporter ligand, in distinguishing 29 patients with early PD from 38 healthy volunteers. Mean TRODAT uptake values were significantly decreased in the caudate (p=0.0097) and anterior and posterior putamen (p accuracy (sensitivity 0.79, specificity 0.92). These findings show that TRODAT imaging can accurately differentiate early PD patients from controls and has the potential to improve the diagnosis of patients with early signs of PD.

  15. Autism in the Faroe Islands: Diagnostic Stability from Childhood to Early Adult Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kočovská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8–17-year-olds was screened and diagnostically assessed for AD in 2002 and 2009. This paper compares both independent clinical diagnosis and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO algorithm diagnosis at two time points, separated by seven years. The stability of clinical ASD diagnosis was perfect for AD, good for “atypical autism”/PDD-NOS, and less than perfect for Asperger syndrome (AS. Stability of the DISCO algorithm subcategory diagnoses was more variable but still good for AD. Both systems showed excellent stability over the seven-year period for “any ASD” diagnosis, although a number of clear cases had been missed at the original screening in 2002. The findings support the notion that subcategories of ASD should be collapsed into one overarching diagnostic entity with subgrouping achieved on other “non-autism” variables, such as IQ and language levels and overall adaptive functioning.

  16. On the Correction for Guessing on a Multiple-Choice Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution theory underlying corrections for guessing is analyzed, and the probability distributions of the random variables are derived. The correction in grade, based on random guessing of unknown answers, is compared with corrections based on educated guessing. (Author/MH)

  17. Guessing the Meanings of Words From Context: Why and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary is an indispensable part of a language. It is vitally needed to express meaning. Teaching English vocabulary, an important field in language teaching, is worthy of effort. In order our students to acquire reading, listening, speaking and writing skills we need to help students with developing their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary learning is essential to the development of language skills. Recently the importance of vocabulary learning and teaching has been considerably emphasized. One of the most effective ways of vocabulary learning is guessing the meanings of words from context. The purpose of this study is to show why guessing the meaning of unknown words from context clues is a very important learning strategy and how it is done efficiently.

  18. MRI-based diagnostic biomarkers for early onset pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weygandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is unclear whether pediatric multiple sclerosis (PMS is a pathoetiologically homogeneous disease phenotype due to clinical and epidemiological differences between early and late onset PMS (EOPMS and LOPMS. Consequently, the question was raised whether diagnostic guidelines need to be complemented by specific EOPMS markers. To search for such markers, we analyzed cerebral MRI images acquired with standard protocols using computer-based classification techniques. Specifically, we applied classification algorithms to gray (GM and white matter (WM tissue probability parameters of small brain regions derived from T2-weighted MRI images of EOPMS patients (onset <12 years, LOPMS patients (onset ≥12 years, and healthy controls (HC. This was done for PMS subgroups matched for disease duration and participant age independently. As expected, maximal diagnostic information for distinguishing PMS patients and HC was found in a periventricular WM area containing lesions (87.1% accuracy, p < 2.2 × 10−5. MRI-based biomarkers specific for EOPMS were identified in prefrontal cortex. Specifically, a coordinate in middle frontal gyrus contained maximal diagnostic information (77.3%, p = 1.8 × 10−4. Taken together, we were able to identify biomarkers reflecting pathognomonic processes specific for MS patients with very early onset. Especially GM involvement in the separation between PMS subgroups suggests that conventional MRI contains a richer set of diagnostically informative features than previously assumed.

  19. Does Diagnostic Classification of Early-Onset Psychosis Change over Follow-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguas, David; de Castro, Maria J.; Medina, Oscar; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diagnostic stability and the functional outcome of patients with early-onset psychosis (EOP) over a 2-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 24 patients (18 males (75%) and 6 females (25%), mean age [plus or minus] SD: 15.7 [plus or minus] 1.6 years) with a first episode of EOP formed the sample. Psychotic symptoms…

  20. Assessment of Urinary-5-Hydroxyindolacetic Acid as A Diagnostic Parameter in Early Detection of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair B Kamal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency especially in children and young adults. The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult because half the cases are incorrectly identified. Serotonin was defined as a good diagnostic marker for many inflammations including appendicitis and it is metabolite into 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA to be excreted in urine. 5-HIAA is suggested to be of diagnostic importance in the detection of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic importance of urinary-5-HIAA as an added parameter to Alvarado score. Methods: Seventy patients (35 females and 35 males with acute appendicitis (35 were mild and 35 severe-perforated and gangrenous were included in this study and 70 healthy individuals were taken as a control group. Urinary-5-HIAA was estimated in all patients and control group using ELISA method. Results: Sensitivity for the mild group is 94.2%, specificity 100% and diagnostic accuracy is 97.4%, while the sensitivity for the severe group is 37%. It was found that there is a highly significant difference between mild and control groups (P<0.05. The diagnostic accuracy for the mild group is 97.4% and for the severe is 68.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that urinary-5-HIAA is a high sensitive test for early detection of acute appendicitis.

  1. Device diagnostics and early identification of acute decompensated heart failure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Tara Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of heart failure (HF) management are based on reactive strategies to treat late indicators of decompensated HF. Advances in monitoring methods have become available with the evolution of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac-resynchronization therapy devices. These devices provide new diagnostic data and remote monitoring capabilities that allow clinicians to proactively monitor patients for earlier signs of worsening HF. The integration of data obtained from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac-resynchronization therapy technology could improve outpatient HF care, potentially leading to decreased readmission rates and improved patient outcomes. This review will synthesize the literature regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic data and the usability of the data in the clinical setting. Articles for review were obtained using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Device diagnostics showed strong correlation with established HF biomarkers and hemodynamic measures. The findings from this review indicate that device diagnostic parameters predict impending HF much earlier than traditional methods of monitoring do. Device diagnostics are also more accurate in the early prediction of HF when compared with noninvasive objective measures, particularly when multiple parameters are combined and monitored for trends. Device diagnostics possess a distinct advantage over traditional methods of monitoring for HF because they allow clinicians to remotely monitor the status of their HF patients without relying on patient compliance for data entry and reporting. Studies regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic parameters suggest that their integration into clinical practice will provide a more accurate and reliable mechanism for assisting clinicians in risk stratifying and predicting potential episodes of decompensated HF.

  2. Early detection of prostate cancer relapse by biochemistry and diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L; Zattoni, F; Rossi, E; Karnes, R J; Lowe, V

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy in men associated with an increase in the incidence rate. Radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) represents the most employed treatments for the local control of disease. However, 10-50% of patients who experienced a recurrence of disease after primary treatments can benefit from salvage or palliative therapies. To date, prostate specific antigen (PSA) is usually used in clinical practice to monitor the status of disease and to early detect the recurrence of PCa. Nevertheless, PSA cannot discriminate the presence of local vs. distant metastatic disease. Circulating tumor cells are considered as a sign of disease widespread, but their correlation with metastatic PCa and local recurrence of disease is still indeterminate. Digital rectal exploration and transrectal ultrasonography are considered the first clinical and diagnostic approach to identify the local recurrence of PCa, but are associated with a low detection rate and low diagnostic accuracies. Conversely, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained a great importance in this setting of disease, being able to determine the presence of local recurrence with high sensitivity, also in the presence of low serum PSA levels. Lastly, the introduction of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline agents let to improve the management of patients with early recurrence of disease, although its accuracy is linked to the PSA and PSA dynamic values. New radiopharmaceutical agents, like 68Ga-PSMA or 18F-FACBC and others could improve the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT, but the data is still preliminary. In the present review we will discuss both clinical and diagnostic instrumentations, actually available in clinical practice, able to early identify the presence of recurrent PCa and to differentiate between local and distant relapse of tumor.

  3. Experimental quantum "Guess my Number" protocol using multiphoton entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Chen, T Y; Yang, T; Cabello, A; Pan, J W; Zhang, Jun; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Teng-Yun; Yang, Tao; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of a modified version of the entanglement-assisted "Guess my Number" protocol for the reduction of communication complexity among three separated parties. The results of experimental measurements imply that the separated parties can compute a function of distributed inputs by exchanging less classical information than by using any classical strategy. And the results also demonstrate the advantages of entanglement-enhanced communication, which is very close to quantum communication. The advantages are based on the properties of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  4. Assessment of structural lesions in sacroiliac joints enhances diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging in early spondylarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Lambert, Robert G W; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2010-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of T1-weighted and STIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in early spondylarthritis (SpA) using a standardized approach to the evaluation of sacroiliac (SI) joints, and to test whether systematic calibration of readers directed at recognition of abnormal...... of abnormalities on T1-weighted MRI would enhance diagnostic utility....

  5. Validation of three early ejaculation diagnostic tools: a composite measure is accurate and more adequate for diagnosis by updated diagnostic criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jern

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (M age = 42.8 and 892 controls (M age = 33.1 years from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation. Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1 responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2 responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. RESULTS: All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98. A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms - CHEES consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R (2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three

  6. State of the art of diagnostic technology for early-stage melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitera, Pascale; Menzies, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    In the past few decades, rapid improvements in noninvasive optical technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis of early-stage melanoma. Current knowledge and limitations of these tools will be reviewed in this article. Dermoscopy has been recognized as the 'gold standard' in the screening phase. Digital dermoscopy monitoring and total-body photography are used to identify so-called 'featureless' melanoma only on the criteria of change over time. Automated instruments, as well as optical and nonmorphological methods, are still under development, and offer many opportunities to improve the speed and accuracy of the diagnosis of melanoma and/or to reduce the need for expertise. Despite a penetration depth limited to the upper dermis, the quasi-histological imaging achieved by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy has been demonstrated to significantly aid diagnostic accuracy for selected melanocytic lesions. Future perspectives on diagnostic instrumentation will also be explored.

  7. Methylene blue as an early diagnostic marker for oral precancer and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Akhtar; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala; Natarajan, S

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common neoplasm's and is ranked eighth in the cancer incidence worldwide. Early detection is of critical importance because survival rates markedly improve. In vivo staining is a simple, inexpensive, and fairly sensitive method. Involved 120 patients (50 with Premalignant Lesion, 50 with OSCC and 20 controls) stained by Methylene Blue (MB). The results of MB uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. Pathologically confirmed precancers and cancers were the positive targets of this screening, while hyperkeratosis without dysplasia and no evidence of malignancy were sorted as negative subjects of screening. The results revealed sensitivity of 91.4%, specificity of 66.6%, positive predictive value 97.7% and negative predictive value 33% leading to diagnostic accuracy of MB stain to 90%. We state that MB staining is useful diagnostic tool in community oral cancer screening programmes for high-risk individuals.

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic value of early synovectomy of the knee joint -(An analysis of 60 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormusjee D

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sixty well selected cases of synovitis of the knee joint, treated by timely adequate synovectomy, followed up over a period of four years is presented. We have stressed the importance of therapeutic and diagnostic value of synovectomy. The results are found encouraging and the procedure useful in preventing damage to the articular structures of the knee joint. The best results are obtained in non-specific, traumatic and very early cases of rheuma-toid arthritis while infective arthritis benefits to fair extent.

  9. GUESS-ing polygenic associations with multiple phenotypes using a GPU-based evolutionary stochastic search algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bottolo

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS yielded significant advances in defining the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease. Still, a major hurdle of GWAS is narrowing down multiple genetic associations to a few causal variants for functional studies. This becomes critical in multi-phenotype GWAS where detection and interpretability of complex SNP(s-trait(s associations are complicated by complex Linkage Disequilibrium patterns between SNPs and correlation between traits. Here we propose a computationally efficient algorithm (GUESS to explore complex genetic-association models and maximize genetic variant detection. We integrated our algorithm with a new Bayesian strategy for multi-phenotype analysis to identify the specific contribution of each SNP to different trait combinations and study genetic regulation of lipid metabolism in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS. Despite the relatively small size of GHS (n  =  3,175, when compared with the largest published meta-GWAS (n > 100,000, GUESS recovered most of the major associations and was better at refining multi-trait associations than alternative methods. Amongst the new findings provided by GUESS, we revealed a strong association of SORT1 with TG-APOB and LIPC with TG-HDL phenotypic groups, which were overlooked in the larger meta-GWAS and not revealed by competing approaches, associations that we replicated in two independent cohorts. Moreover, we demonstrated the increased power of GUESS over alternative multi-phenotype approaches, both Bayesian and non-Bayesian, in a simulation study that mimics real-case scenarios. We showed that our parallel implementation based on Graphics Processing Units outperforms alternative multi-phenotype methods. Beyond multivariate modelling of multi-phenotypes, our Bayesian model employs a flexible hierarchical prior structure for genetic effects that adapts to any correlation structure of the predictors and increases the power to identify

  10. Diagnostic performance of the ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and two diagnostic algorithms in an early arthritis clinic (REACH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Alves (Celina); J.J. Luime (Jolanda); D. van Zeben (Derkjen); M.A.M. Huisman (Margriet); A.E.A.M. Weel (Angelique); P.J. Barendregt (Pieternella); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: An ACR/EULAR task force released new criteria to classify rheumatoid arthritis at an early stage. This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of these criteria and algorithms by van der Helm and Visser in REACH. Methods: Patients with symptoms ≤12 months from REACH were

  11. Early Functional Limitations in Cognitively Normal Older Adults Predict Diagnostic Conversion to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Lau, Karen; Harvey, Danielle; Denny, Katherine G; Barba, Cheyanne; Mefford, Anthony N

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether specific types of early functional limitations in cognitively normal older adults are associated with subsequent development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as the relative predictive value of self versus informant report in predicting diagnostic conversion to MCI. As a part of a longitudinal study design, participants underwent baseline and annual multidisciplinary clinical evaluations, including a physical and neurological examination, imaging, laboratory work, and neuropsychological testing. Data used in this study were collected as part of longitudinal research at the University of California, Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center. Individuals diagnosed as having normal cognition at study baseline who had an informant who could complete informant-based ratings and at least one follow-up visit (N = 324). Participants and informants each completed the Everyday Cognition Scale (ECog), an instrument designed to measure everyday function in six cognitively relevant domains. Self- and informant-reported functional limitations on the ECog were associated with significantly greater risk of diagnostic conversion to MCI (informant: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-3.2, P = .002), with self-report having a slightly higher hazard (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.4-3.6, P cognitive abilities, the effect remained significant for self- and informant-reported functional limitations. Deficits in everyday memory and executive function domains were the strongest predictors of diagnostic conversion to MCI. Detection of early functional limitations may be clinically useful in assessing the future risk of developing cognitive impairment in cognitively normal older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Diagnostic delays in children with early-onset epilepsy: impact, reasons, and opportunities to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Baca, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Delayed diagnosis of early-onset epilepsy is a potentially important and avoidable complication in epilepsy care. We examined the frequency of diagnostic delays in young children with newly presenting epilepsy, their developmental impact, and reasons for delays. Methods Children who developed epilepsy before their third birthday were identified in a prospective community-based cohort. An interval ≥1 month from second seizure to diagnosis was considered a delay. Testing of development at baseline and for up to three years after and of IQ 8–9 years later was performed. Detailed parental baseline interview accounts and medical records were reviewed to identify potential reasons for delays. Factors associated with delays included the parent, child, pediatrician, neurologist, and scheduling. Results Diagnostic delays occurred in 70/172 (41%) children. Delays occurred less often if children had received medical attention for the first seizure (p<0.0001), previously had neonatal or febrile seizures (p=0.02), had only convulsions before diagnosis (p=0.005) or had a college-educated parent (p=0.01). A ≥1 month diagnostic delay was associated with an average 7.4 point drop (p=0.02) in the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Behavior motor score. The effect was present at diagnosis, persisted for at least three years, and was also apparent in IQ scores 8–9 years later which were lower in association with a diagnostic delay by 8.4 points (p=0.06) for processing speed up to 14.5 points (p=0.004) for full scale IQ, after adjustment for parental education and other epilepsy-related clinical factors. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis included parents not recognizing events as seizures (N=47), pediatricians missing or deferring diagnosis (N=15), neurologists deferring diagnosis (N=7), and scheduling problems (N=11). Significance Diagnostic delays occur in many young children with epilepsy. They are associated with substantial decrements in development and IQ later

  13. Comparison of the diagnostic utility of the ultrathin endoscope and the conventional endoscope in early gastric cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Suganuma, Takanori; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nego, Masami; Imada, Shin-Ichi; Imai, Mizuka; Yoshimoto, Kazuhito; Ueki, Nobue; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Uragami, Naoyuki; Tsuchida, Tomohiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Hoshino, Etsuo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2009-04-01

    Currently, transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy using an ultrathin endoscope is being widely carried out as a screening test for early gastric cancer. We compared the diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy with that of conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy in detecting 42 lesions of early gastric cancer that had a diameter of stomach and variegated lesions. In conclusion, the diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy might be lower than that of conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy in terms of screening for early gastric cancer. The disadvantages of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy should be taken carefully into consideration while examining lesions.

  14. MODERN APPROACHES TO CLINICAL AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS EARLY ONSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Rekalov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA leads not only to a rapid development of disability, but can influence the life of these patients. One-third of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have signs of disability during the first 3 years of the onset of the disease, while mortality in patients with RA almost two times higher in comparison with the general population. Analysis of recent prospective studies on the progression of the pathological process and predicting of the long-term outcomes in RA clearly indicate the need for clinical evaluation and a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental diagnosis of the disease in the initial manifestations of the most followed by early adequate pathogenetic therapy. The purpose of this survey was to determine modern clinical aspects of diagnosis, the possibility of standard and specialized instrumental examinations in patients with eRA, followed by predicting long-term results. We studied 52 specialized publications on clinical classification and a modern laboratory and diagnostic tests for eRA. This review presents the data of the importance of differentiation of several stages of RA in relation to the time factor. The data on the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic classification and clinical criteria of eRA and an algorithm for the identification of the disease were presented. It was shown prognostic value of the main serological markers of RA, and the predictive value for early detection of antibodies to the circulating peptide as a marker of the severity of bone-destructive changes in patients with certain clinical manifestations. Antibodies to the circulating peptide (ACPA can be detected many years before the onset of RA. Study of anti-citrulline mutated vimentin (anti-MCV in patients with eRA can be applied as a marker of activity of the process and the subsequent possibility of use for predicting long-term results. This review presents the major diagnostic errors using standard instrumental

  15. ANALYZING ALGEBRAIC THINKING USING “GUESS MY NUMBER” PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella De Los Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess student knowledge of numeric, visual and algebraic representations. A definite gap between arithmetic and algebra has been documented in the research. The researchers’ goal was to identify a link between the two. Using four “Guess My Number problems, seventh and tenth grade students were asked to write numeric, visual, and algebraic representations. Seventh-grade students had significantly higher scores than tenth-grade students on visual representation responses. There were no significant differences between the seventh and tenth grade students’ responses on the numeric and algebraic representation. The researchers believed that the semi-concrete and visual models, such as used in this study, may provide the link between numeric and algebraic concepts for many students.

  16. Proposed experiment for the quantum "Guess my number" protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A; Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental realization of the entanglement-assisted "Guess my number" protocol for the reduction of communication complexity, introduced by Steane and van Dam, would require producing and detecting three-qubit GHZ states with an efficiency eta > 0.70, which would require single photon detectors of efficiency sigma > 0.89. We propose a modification of the protocol which can be translated into a real experiment using present-day technology. In the proposed experiment, the quantum reduction of the multi-party communication complexity would require an efficiency eta > 0.05, achievable with detectors of sigma > 0.47, for four parties, and eta > 0.17 (sigma > 0.55) for three parties.

  17. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  18. Guess the Score, fostering collective intelligence in the class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Monguet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of serious games as a tool to enhance collective intelligence of undergraduate and graduate students. The development of social skills of individuals in a group is related to the performance of the collective intelligence of the group manifested through the shared and collaborative development of intellectual tasks [1]. Guess the Score GS, is a serious game implemented by means of an online tool, created to foster the development, collaboration and engagement of students. It's has been designed with the intention of facilitating the development of individual’s social skills in a group in order to promote education of collective intelligence. This paper concludes that the design of learning activities using serious games as a support tool in education, generate awareness about of utilities of gaming in the collective learning environment and the fostering of collective intelligence education.

  19. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of hand and foot MRI for early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Mangnus, Lukas; Newsum, Elize C; Bloem, Johan L; Huizinga, Tom W J; le Cessie, Saskia; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI for early RA. In some RA patients, a classifiable diagnosis cannot be made at first presentation; these patients present with unclassified arthritis (UA). The use of MRI for early diagnosis of RA is recommended, yet the evidence for its reliability is limited. MRI of hand and foot was performed in 589 early arthritis patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (229 presented with RA, 159 with other arthritides and 201 with UA). Symptom-free controls provided a reference for defining an abnormal MRI. In preliminary investigations, MRI of patients who presented with RA was compared with MRI of symptom-free controls and of patients with other arthritides. Thereafter, the value of MRI in early RA diagnosis was determined in UA patients using the 1-year follow-up on fulfilling the 1987 RA criteria and start of disease-modifying drugs as outcomes. Preliminary investigations were promising. Of the UA patients, 14% developed RA and 37% started disease-modifying treatment. MRI-detected tenosynovitis was associated with RA development independent of other types of MRI-detected inflammation [odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.4, 23] and also independent of age and other inflammatory measures (swollen joints, CRP) (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12.9). Within UA patients, the negative predictive value of abnormal tenosynovitis was 95% (95% CI: 89%, 98%) and the positive predictive value 25% (95% CI: 17%, 35%). The performance was best in the subgroup of UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis (18% developed RA): the positive predictive value was 36% (95% CI: 23%, 52%), the negative predictive value was 98% (95% CI: 88%, 100%), the sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 70%, 99%) and the specificity was 63% (95% CI: 51%, 74%). MRI contributes to the identification of UA patients who will develop RA, mostly in UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis.

  20. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  1. The diagnostic value of sacroiliac CT for detecting early changes of ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Hyun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyunghee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Wook [East-West Neo Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate the diagnostic value of the various findings on sacroiliac CT for detecting the early changes of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Between April 2005 and March 2006, 51 sacroiliac CT images with the clinical suspicion of AS, but no definite evidence of AS on the plain radiograph only, were retrospectively reviewed. Finally, 36 patients (mean age: 28.6 years; 34 males and 2 females), who were clinically diagnosed as AS (AS group, n = 26) or they had no evidence of AS (non-AS group, n = 10), were evaluated. Two musculoskeletal radiologists analyzed the presence of marginal irregularity, bony erosion and subchondral sclerosis. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the incidence, sensitivity and specificity of each finding. Marginal irregularity was seen in 21 of 26 AS subjects, and in 8 of 10 non-AS subjects. Bony erosion was only seen in 13 of 26 AS subjects. Subchondral sclerosis was observed in 19 of 26 AS subjects and in 8 of 10 non-AS subjects. The sensitivity/specificity for each findings were 72.4%/28.6%, 100%/43.5% and 70.4%/22.2%, respectively. Except for bony erosions, these results showed no statistical significance ({rho} = .006). Bony erosion on CT is a very sensitive finding for the early changes of AS, whereas marginal irregularity or subchondral sclerosis is not so helpful in differentiating AS from non-AS. Attention to these results may further enhance the accurate diagnosis of the early changes in AS.

  2. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  3. Diagnostic value of meat juice in early detection of classical swine fever infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic potential of meat juice for early detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), meat juice and serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different strains of CSFV were compared for virus load. From all samples, viral RNA was extracted by automated procedure...... before real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed. Viral RNA was detected in meat juice, but at a lower level than in corresponding serum. Sensitivity was calculated to 91% and specificity to 97%. Disagreements between meat juice and serum results were found when...... samples originated from pigs infected with low virulence CSFV strains and/or when samples were collected within the first days after infection. In conclusion, while not the first choice for sample material for CSFV diagnosis, meat juice may constitute a useful alternative for herd-based studies or when...

  4. Diagnostic performance of the ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and two diagnostic algorithms in an early arthritis clinic (REACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Celina; Luime, Jolanda Jacoba; van Zeben, Derkjen; Huisman, Anne-Margriet; Weel, Angelique Elisabeth Adriana Maria; Barendregt, Pieternella Johanna; Hazes, Johanna Maria Wilhelmina

    2011-09-01

    An ACR/EULAR task force released new criteria to classify rheumatoid arthritis at an early stage. This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of these criteria and algorithms by van der Helm and Visser in REACH. Patients with symptoms ≤12 months from REACH were used. Algorithms were tested on discrimination, calibration and diagnostic accuracy of proposed cut-points. Two patient sets were defined to test robustness; undifferentiated arthritis (UA) (n=231) and all patients including those without synovitis (n=513). The outcomes evaluated were methotrexate use and persistent disease at 12 months. In UA patients all algorithms had good areas under the curve 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.83 for the ACR/EULAR criteria, 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87 for van der Helm and 0.83, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.88 for Visser. All calibrated well. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 and 0.66 for the ACR/EULAR criteria, 0.1 and 1.0 for van der Helm and 0.59 and 0.93 for Visser. Similar results were found in all patients indicating robustness. The ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria showed good diagnostic properties in an early arthritis cohort reflecting daily practice, as did the van der Helm and Visser algorithms. All were robust. To promote uniformity and comparability the ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria should be used in future diagnostic studies.

  5. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Diagnostic significance of TCR gene clonal rearrangement analysis in early mycosis fungoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xu; Chuan Wan; Lin Wang; Han-Jun Yang; Yuan Tang; Wei-Ping Liu

    2011-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, has various unspecific clinical and histological characteristics. Its eariy diagnosis is challenging. The application of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene clonal rearrangement to the diagnosis of MF has been widely studied. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate the diagnostic significance of detecting TCR-γ and -β gene clonal rearrangement in the eady diagnosis of mycosis fungoides. PCR for TCR-γ and TCR-β gene rearrangement was performed on 19 patients with suspected early MF, 6 with typical MF, and 6 with chronic dermatitis. Of the 19 patients with suspected eady MF, 13 had TCR-~ gene clonal rearrangement, whereas none had TCR-β gene clonal rearrangement. All patients with typical MF had TCR gene clonal rearrangement, in which 4 showed TCR-γ clonal rearrangement, 1 showed TCR-β gene clonal rearrangements, and 1 showed both. No patients with chronic dermatitis had TCR gene clonal rearrangement. These results indicate that TCR gene clonal rearrangement analysis is a useful tool in diagnosing early MF. TCR-γ gene is recommended to the routine analysis, whereas TCR-β gene has potential in combination toward intractable cases.

  7. Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Wolz

    Full Text Available The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC, 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI, 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI, 198 AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA and support vector machines (SVM. The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification, 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD, 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI. Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

  8. Immature-to-total neutrophil ratio as an early diagnostic tool of bacterial neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnifayanti Darnifayanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacterial sepsis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for the condition can reduce mortality rates. Blood cultures are the gold standard to diagnose bacterial sepsis, but they require 3-5 days for results, whilst the disease may progress rapidly in neonates. Examination of immature-to-total neutrophil ratio (I/T ratio in peripheral blood smears is a quicker and less expensive method to diagnose bacterial sepsis in neonates. Some studies found the sensitivity of I/T ratio to be 88%-90% in predicting bacterial spesis.Objective To assess the usefulness of the I/T ratio as an early diagnostic tool for neonatal bacterial sepsis.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2011. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Fifty-three neonates suspected to have bacterial sepsis in the Perinatology Unit at H. Adam Malik Hospital were included. Subjects underwent routine blood examinations, C-reactive protein level measurements, blood cultures, and peripheral blood smears. All statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS (version 16.0 for Windows.Results Of the 53 subjects, 26 had bacterial sepsis based on blood cultures. The I/T ratio had a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity 81.84%, positive predictive value 82.14%, and negative predictive value 88%. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed a cut-off point of 83.3 (95%CI 71.3 to 95.3%.Conclusion The I/T ratio may be a good alternative to blood cultures as an early indicator of bacterial neonatal sepsis, as it is faster, less expensive and has good sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Immature-to-total neutrophil ratio as an early diagnostic tool of bacterial neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DarnifayantI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacterial sepsis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for the condition can reduce mortality rates. Blood cultures are the gold standard to diagnose bacterial sepsis, but they require 3-5 days for results, whilst the disease may progress rapidly in neonates. Examination of immature-to-total neutrophil ratio (I/T ratio in peripheral blood smears is a quicker and less expensive method to diagnose bacterial sepsis in neonates. Some studies found the sensitivity of I/T ratio to be 88%-90% in predicting bacterial spesis. Objective To assess the usefulness of the I/T ratio as an early diagnostic tool for neonatal bacterial sepsis. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2011. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Fifty-three neonates suspected to have bacterial sepsis in the Perinatology Unit at H. Adam Malik Hospital were included. Subjects underwent routine blood examinations, C-reactive protein level measurements, blood cultures, and peripheral blood smears. All statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS (version 16.0 for Windows. Results Of the 53 subjects, 26 had bacterial sepsis based on blood cultures. The I/T ratio had a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity 81.84%, positive predictive value 82.14%, and negative predictive value 88%. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed a cut-off point of 83.3 (95%CI 71.3 to 95.3%. Conclusion The I/T ratio may be a good alternative to blood cultures as an early indicator of bacterial neonatal sepsis, as it is faster, less expensive and has good sensitivity and specificity. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:153-7.].

  10. Automated initial guess in digital image correlation aided by Fourier-Mellin transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Yuejiao; Tian, Long

    2017-01-01

    The state-of-the-art digital image correlation (DIC) method using iterative spatial-domain cross correlation, e.g., the inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm, for full-field displacement mapping requires an initial guess of deformation, which should be sufficiently close to the true value to ensure a rapid and accurate convergence. Although various initial guess approaches have been proposed, automated, robust, and fast initial guess remains to be a challenging task, especially when large rotation occurs to the deformed images. An integrated scheme, which combines the Fourier-Mellin transform-based cross correlation (FMT-CC) for seed point initiation with a reliability-guided displacement tracking (RGDT) strategy for the remaining points, is proposed to provide accurate initial guess for DIC calculation, even in the presence of large rotations. By using FMT-CC algorithm, the initial guess of the seed point can be automatically and accurately determined between pairs of interrogation subsets with up to ±180 deg of rotation even in the presence of large translation. Then the initial guess of the rest of the calculation points can be accurately predicted by the robust RGDT scheme. The robustness and effectiveness of the present initial guess approach are verified by numerical simulation tests and real experiment.

  11. What makes recognition without awareness appear to be elusive? Strategic factors that influence the accuracy of guesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

    2010-09-01

    Various factors could conceivably promote the accuracy of guesses during a recognition test. Two that we identified in previous studies are forced-choice testing format and high perceptual similarity between the repeat target and novel foil. In restricted circumstances, the relative perceptual fluency of the target can be compared with that of the foil and used as a reliable cue to guide accurate responses that occur without explicit retrieval--a phenomenon we referred to as "implicit recognition." In this issue, Jeneson and colleagues report a failure to replicate accurate guesses and also a tendency on the part of subjects to hazard guesses infrequently, even though testing circumstances were very similar to those that we used. To resolve this discrepancy, we developed a simple manipulation to encourage either guessing or confident responding. Encouraging guessing increased both the prevalence of guesses and the accuracy of guesses in a recognition test, relative to when confident responding was encouraged. When guessing was encouraged, guesses were highly accurate (as in our previous demonstrations of implicit recognition), whereas when confident responding was encouraged, guesses were at chance levels (as in Jeneson and colleagues' data). In light of a substantial literature showing high accuracy despite low confidence in certain circumstances, we infer that both the prevalence and accuracy of guessing can be influenced by whether subjects adopt guessing-friendly strategies. Our findings thus help to further characterize conditions likely to promote implicit recognition based on perceptual fluency.

  12. Assessment of structural lesions in sacroiliac joints enhances diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging in early spondylarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Lambert, Robert G W; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2010-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of T1-weighted and STIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in early spondylarthritis (SpA) using a standardized approach to the evaluation of sacroiliac (SI) joints, and to test whether systematic calibration of readers directed at recognition...

  13. Development and validation of a novel molecular biomarker diagnostic test for the early detection of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Allison; Thomas, Mervyn; Brandon, Roslyn A; Brandon, Richard B; Lipman, Jeffrey; Tang, Benjamin; McLean, Anthony; Pascoe, Ranald; Price, Gareth; Nguyen, Thu; Stone, Glenn; Venter, Deon

    2011-06-20

    Sepsis is a complex immunological response to infection characterized by early hyper-inflammation followed by severe and protracted immunosuppression, suggesting that a multi-marker approach has the greatest clinical utility for early detection, within a clinical environment focused on Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) differentiation. Pre-clinical research using an equine sepsis model identified a panel of gene expression biomarkers that define the early aberrant immune activation. Thus, the primary objective was to apply these gene expression biomarkers to distinguish patients with sepsis from those who had undergone major open surgery and had clinical outcomes consistent with systemic inflammation due to physical trauma and wound healing. This was a multi-centre, prospective clinical trial conducted across four tertiary critical care settings in Australia. Sepsis patients were recruited if they met the 1992 Consensus Statement criteria and had clinical evidence of systemic infection based on microbiology diagnoses (n = 27). Participants in the post-surgical (PS) group were recruited pre-operatively and blood samples collected within 24 hours following surgery (n = 38). Healthy controls (HC) included hospital staff with no known concurrent illnesses (n = 20). Each participant had minimally 5 ml of PAXgene blood collected for leucocyte RNA isolation and gene expression analyses. Affymetrix array and multiplex tandem (MT)-PCR studies were conducted to evaluate transcriptional profiles in circulating white blood cells applying a set of 42 molecular markers that had been identified a priori. A LogitBoost algorithm was used to create a machine learning diagnostic rule to predict sepsis outcomes. Based on preliminary microarray analyses comparing HC and sepsis groups, a panel of 42-gene expression markers were identified that represented key innate and adaptive immune function, cell cycling, WBC differentiation, extracellular remodelling and immune

  14. MDA-9 and GRP78 as potential diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming; Chen, Xiaofan; Ma, Yingyu; Tang, Lihua; Guan, Lei; Ren, Xuefeng; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Su, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic melanoma, the primary cause of skin cancer-related death, warrants new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that target the regulatory machinery at molecular level. The heterogeneity and complexity of melanoma result in the difficulty to find biomarkers and targets for early detection and treatment. Here, we investigated metastasis-associated proteins by comparing the proteomic profiles of primary cutaneous melanomas to their matched lymph node metastases, which minimizes heterogeneity among samples from different patients. Results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by proteomic analysis revealed eight differentially expressed proteins. Among them, seven proteins (α-enolase, cofilin-1, LDH, m-β-actin, Nm23, GRP78, and MDA-9) showed increased and one (annexin A2) showed decreased expression in metastatic lymph node tissues than in primary melanomas. MDA-9 and GRP78 were the most highly expressed proteins in lymph node metastases, which was validated by immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, exosomes from serum samples of metastatic melanoma patients contained higher levels of MDA-9 and GRP78 than those of patients without metastases, indicating the potential of MDA-9 and GRP78 to be biomarkers for early detection of metastasis. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown confirmed a functional role for MDA-9 and GRP78 to promote cell invasion in the A375 cells. Finally, we showed that GRP78 co-localized with MDA-9 in 293T cells. Taken together, our findings support MDA-9, co-expressed with GRP78, as a melanoma protein associated with lymph node metastasis. Investigating how MDA-9 and GRP78 interact to contribute to melanoma metastasis and disease progression could reveal new potential avenues of targeted therapy and/or useful biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

  15. Optimized spectral analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy for early tumor diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Belkić, Dževad

    2014-12-01

    Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide information about key metabolites. Conventional applications of MRS are hampered by data analysis via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Most MRS studies for cancer detection have relied upon estimations of a mere handful or even a single composite metabolite, e.g. total choline. These have yielded incremental improvements in diagnostic accuracy. In vitro studies reveal richer metabolic information for identifying cancer, particularly in closely-overlapping resonances. Among these are phosphocholine, a marker of malignant transformation. The FFT cannot assess these congested spectral components. This can be done by the fast Pade transform (FPT), an advanced, high-resolution, quantification-equipped method, applied to MRS time signals as encoded from patients with breast cancers and other cancers, with benign pathology and with normal tissue, as illustrated herein for the latter. With realistic noise levels, the FPT accurately computes the metabolite concentrations, including phosphocholine, which completely underlies phosphoethanolamine. In sharp contrast, the FFT produces a rough envelope spectrum with only a few shortened, broadened peaks, and key metabolites altogether absent. The FPT clearly separates true metabolites from spurious resonances. The efficiency and high resolution of the FPT translates into shortened examination time of the patient. These capabilities strongly suggest that by applying the FPT to time signals encoded in vivo from breast cancer and other malignancies, MRS will fulfill its potential to become a clinically- reliable, cost-effective method for early cancer detection.

  16. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  17. [Alarming signs and symptoms in the early diagnostics of late onset Pompe disease: super omnia clinica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S S; Kurbatov, S A; Bredelev, V A; Kovalchuk, M O

    2015-01-01

    Pompe disease (PD) is a rare autosomal recessive muscle lysosomal glycogenosis caused by a deficiency of acid-α-glucosidase. There are two main forms of the disease: aggressive infantile PD started within the first year of life with a severe enzyme deficiency and multiorgan involvement, and late onset PD (LOPD) with progressive signs and symptoms including predominant proximal, axial muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency started at any time from 1 till 75 years and older. Usually due to physician's unawareness, most adults with PD are diagnosed with great delay. The typical features and early nonspecific signs in four patients, aged between 35 and 72 years, with confirmed LOPD are delineated and discussed in correspondence with the age of first signs, age development of muscle weakness, distribution and age of final diagnosis. The disorders for differential diagnosis and spectrum of conditions that expanded the possibility of PB are listed. The fluorometrically analyzed level of acid α-glucosidase from dried blood spots is considered to be the first choice diagnostic method for clinically suspected cases of LOPD.

  18. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  19. "Aha!" effects in a guessing Chinese logogriph task: An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jiang; ZHANG QingLin

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to examine the elec-trophysiologic correlates of "Aha!" effects in a guessing Chinese logogriph task by using a two-stage model for learning-testing. Results showed that: Firstly Successful Guessing elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N350) than Recognition did in the time window from 300-350 ms after onset of the stimuli. A voltage map of the difference wave (Successful Guessing minus Recognition) showed strong activity at the front-central region. Dipole analysis localized the generator of the N350 in the vicinity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the inferior frontal gyrus. Secondly, a greater late positive component (LPC) in Successful Guessing than Recognition was found between 600 and 700 ms post-stimulus. Dipole analysis localized the generator of LPC in the right parahippocampal gyrus.

  20. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H; Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks.

  1. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  2. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Is a new perspective for definition and diagnostic criteria of fibromyalgia in early stage cancer patients necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2014-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a most common pain syndrome characterized by the presence of chronic widespread pain and tenderness with manual palpation. However there is no enough data about frequent of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with cancer. How often FM is being used in oncological practice and how we are managing this case by medical oncologists. Widespread pain index and symptom severity scale are not clear enough in patients with cancer when ACR-2010 diagnostic criteria for FM are considered. In conclusion, there is it may more prevalence of fibromyalgia in patients with cancer. For the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, be new diagnostic criteria for early-stage cancer patients.

  4. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  5. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  6. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  7. Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Scleroderma. Early Systemic Sclerosis: Definitions and diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Galasso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term scleroderma derives from the Greek words skleros, which means hard, and derma, which means skin. It refers to an acquired systemic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue –also known as systemic sclerosis (SSc– characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the skin and the internal organs that results in fibrosis. The typical vascular lesion in SSc leads to narrowing of the vessel lumen, intimal thickening, medial hypotrophy, and adventitial fibrosis of small muscular vessels, collagen deposition in the other matrix components of interstice, and the Raynaud phenomenon secondary to these widespread microvascular abnormalities. All these characteristics lead to a connective tissue re-modeling. Discussion: Several clinical studies utilize the American Rheumatology Association’s 1980 classification. However, these diagnostic criteria are unsatisfactory because they fail to take into consideration part of the disease spectrum. Early-phase SSc is characterized by the Raynaud phenomenon (in 90% of all patients, sclerodactyly, and positivity for SSc-specific autoantibodies (antinuclear antibodies, anti-topoisomerase I antibodies, anti-RNA polymerase I and III antibodies, anti-centromere antibodies, anti-fibrillarin antibodies, anti-PM-SCL antibodies.. It is necessary to reduce delays in the diagnosis of SSc. Conclusions: Patients with red-flag positivity (Raynaud phenomenon and digital edema require Phase I SSc screening, which consists in capillaroscopic assessment of possible microvascular abnormalities. The work-up will then focus on inflammatory indices, renal function tests, and internal organ involvement (echocardiography, high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide.

  8. Conventional 3T brain MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnostic workup of early stage parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, Frederick J.A. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rumund, Anouke van; Tuladhar, Anil M.; Aerts, Marjolein B.; Titulaer, Imke; Esselink, Rianne A.J.; Bloem, Bastiaan R. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verbeek, Marcel M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Goraj, Bozena [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Medical Center of Postgraduate Education, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the diagnostic accuracy of 3 T brain MRI is improved by region of interest (ROI) measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to differentiate between neurodegenerative atypical parkinsonism (AP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage parkinsonism. We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 patients presenting with early stage parkinsonism and initial uncertain diagnosis. At baseline, patients underwent a 3 T brain MRI including DTI. After clinical follow-up (mean 28.3 months), diagnoses could be made in 49 patients (30 PD and 19 AP). Conventional brain MRI was evaluated for regions of atrophy and signal intensity changes. Tract-based spatial statistics and ROI analyses of DTI were performed to analyze group differences in mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), and diagnostic thresholds were determined. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional brain MRI and DTI was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Significantly higher MD of the centrum semiovale, body corpus callosum, putamen, external capsule, midbrain, superior cerebellum, and superior cerebellar peduncles was found in AP. Significantly increased MD of the putamen was found in multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form (MSA-P) and increased MD in the midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncles in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by ROI measures of MD, though the diagnostic accuracy to identify MSA-P was slightly increased (AUC 0.82 to 0.85). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by the current analysis approach to DTI, though DTI measures could be of added value to identify AP subgroups. (orig.)

  9. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  10. An MRI-based diagnostic framework for early diagnosis of dyslexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Baz, A. [University of Louisville, Bioengineering Department, Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.; Mott, M.; Switala, A. [University of Louisville, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Louisville, KY (United States); Gimel' farb, G. [University of Auckland, Computer Science Department, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early diagnosis of dyslexia was developed and tested. Dyslexia can severely impair the learning abilities of children so improved diagnostic methods are needed. Neuropathological studies show abnormal anatomy of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dyslexic brains. We sought to develop an MRI-based macroscopic neuropathological correlate to the minicolumnopathy of dyslexia that relates to cortical connectivity: the gyral window. The brains of dyslexic patients often exhibit decreased gyrifications, so the thickness of gyral CWM for dyslexic subjects is greater than for normal subjects. We developed an MRI-based method for assessment of gyral CWM thickness with automated recognition of abnormal (e.g., dyslexic) brains. In vivo data was collected from 16 right-handed dyslexic men aged 18-40 years, and a group of 14 controls matched for gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic background, handedness and general intelligence. All the subjects were physically healthy and free of history of neurological diseases and head injury. Images were acquired with the same 1.5T MRI scanner (GE, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with voxel resolution 0.9375 x 0.9375 x 1.5 mm using a T1-weighted imaging sequence protocol. The ''ground truth'' diagnosis to evaluate the classification accuracy for each patient was given by the clinicians. The accuracy of diagnosis/classification of both the training and test subjects was evaluated using the Chi-square test at the three confidence levels - 85, 90 and 95% - in order to examine significant differences in the Levy distances. As expected, the 85% confidence level yielded the best results, the system correctly classified 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects (a 100% accuracy) and 14 out of 14 control subjects (a 100% accuracy). At the 90% confidence level, 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects were still classified correctly; however, only 13 out of 14 control subjects were correct, bringing the

  11. On Meaning-guess Pedagogy%“猜义”教学法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐剑锋; 谭月辉

    2011-01-01

    Meaning-guess, a simpler pedagogy is proposed based on researching pedagogy m this paper, m tins way, students guided by teacher guess the meaning of concepts and relationship between them, and build theory architecture in the textbook. Meaning-guess is interesting and can improve the efficiency of lessons. The characteristics, applicability and arrangement method of Meaning-guess are discussed, and psychological factor is studied. An investigation about its effect shows that Meaning-guess is recognized by students.%在“研究式”教学法的基础上,提出一种较为简化的技术性教学法,即“猜义”教学法。这种方法是学生在教师的引导下,猜测概念含义及其关系,逐步建立起理论体系,加强对概念的记忆。本文讨论了该方法的特点、适用情况、组织方法,研究了心理动因,并分析了就此方法所做授课效果调研的结果。

  12. Protein domain boundary prediction by combining support vector machine and domain guess by size algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Qiwen; Wang Xiaolong; Lin Lei

    2007-01-01

    Successful prediction of protein domain boundaries provides valuable information not only for the computational structure prediction of multi-domain proteins but also for the experimental structure determination. A novel method for domain boundary prediction has been presented, which combines the support vector machine with domain guess by size algorithm. Since the evolutional information of multiple domains can be detected by position specific score matrix, the support vector machine method is trained and tested using the values of position specific score matrix generated by PSI-BLAST. The candidate domain boundaries are selected from the output of support vector machine, and are then inputted to domain guess by size algorithm to give the final results of domain boundary prediction. The experimental results show that the combined method outperforms the individual method of both support vector machine and domain guess by size.

  13. THE CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF ANTI-CYCLIC CITRULLINATED PEPTIDE ANTIBODIES IN EARLY JUVENILEARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion. In patients with early JA, the detection rate of CCPA is significantly higher than that in healthy children and comparable with that of RF. CCPAs have a high specificity for the diagnosis of JRA (an independent nosological entity within JA are a risk factor of polyarthritis. The early detection of CCPA alone or in combination with RF in JA patients may serve the basis for the early use of active, frequently aggressive therapy.

  14. [Organisational aspects and existing problems in prevention and early diagnostics of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhorbenadze, R A

    2005-10-01

    Thorough study of advanced stages of lung cancer has been held. Delayed detection of most of the malignant tumours (IV stages) points to a number of problems existing in Georgia in terms of primary prevention and early detection of oncologic diseases. Hence, elaboration of strategy for prevention and early detection of oncologic diseases is of great importance for our country. Activities aimed at early detection of lung cancer under the conditions of low-level resources primarily imply education of population and professionals, as well as implementation of screening procedures. Cheap and effective methods should be applied for early diagnosis of one or two most widespread malignant tumours.

  15. Non-Linear EMG Parameters for Differential and Early Diagnostics of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigal, Alexander Y; Rissanen, Saara M; Tarvainen, Mika P; Airaksinen, Olavi; Kankaanpää, Markku; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2013-01-01

    The pre-clinical diagnostics is essential for management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although PD has been studied intensively in the last decades, the pre-clinical indicators of that motor disorder have yet to be established. Several approaches were proposed but the definitive method is still lacking. Here we report on the non-linear characteristics of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and tremor acceleration as a possible diagnostic tool, and, in prospective, as a predictor for PD. Following this approach we calculated such non-linear parameters of sEMG and accelerometer signal as correlation dimension, entropy, and determinism. We found that the non-linear parameters allowed discriminating some 85% of healthy controls from PD patients. Thus, this approach offers considerable potential for developing sEMG-based method for pre-clinical diagnostics of PD. However, non-linear parameters proved to be more reliable for the shaking form of PD, while diagnostics of the rigid form of PD using EMG remains an open question.

  16. Nonlinear EMG parameters for differential and early diagnostics of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eMeigal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The pre-clinical diagnostics is essential for management of Parkinson’s disease (PD. . Although PD has been studied intensively in the last decades, the pre-clinical indicators of that motor disorder have yet to be established. Several approaches were proposed but the definitive method is still lacking. Here we report on the non-linear characteristics of surface electromyogram (sEMG and tremor acceleration as a possible diagnostic tool, and, in prospective, as a predictor for PD. Following this approach we calculated such nonlinear parameters of sEMG and accelerometer signal as correlation dimension, entropy and determinism. We found that the nonlinear parameters allowed discriminating some 85% of healthy controls from PD patients. Thus, this approach offers considerable potential for developing sEMG-based method for pre-clinical diagnostics of PD. However, non-linear parameters proved to be more reliable for the shaking form of PD, while diagnostics of the rigid form of PD using EMG remains an open question.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-beta Isoforms for Early and Differential Dementia Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyfs, Hanne; Van Broeck, Bianca; Timmers, Maarten; Fransen, Erik; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter P.; Streffer, Johannes R.; Mercken, Marc; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overlapping cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) levels between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD patients decrease differential diagnostic accuracy of the AD core CSF biomarkers. Amyloid-beta (A beta) isoforms might improve the AD versus non-AD differential diagnosis. Objective: To de

  18. Urine steroid metabolomics as a novel diagnostic tool for early detection of recurrence in adrenocortical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chortis, Vasileios; Bancos, Irina; Lang, Katharina; Hughes, Beverly A.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Taylor, Angela E.; Fassnacht, Martin; Bertherat, Jerome; Beuschlein, Felix; Quinkler, Marcus; Vassiliadi, Dimitri; Conall Dennedy, M; Mannelli, Massimo; Biehl, Michael; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with a high rate of recurrence. Regular post-operative follow-up imaging is necessary, but associated with high radiation exposure and frequent diagnostic ambiguity. Urine steroid metabolomics has recently been introduced as a

  19. Early Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Severe Stroke: Clinical Features and the Diagnostic Role of C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka Warusevitane

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of pneumonia complicating severe stroke is challenging due to difficulties in physical examination, altered immune responses and delayed manifestations of radiological changes. The aims of this study were to describe early clinical features and to examine C-reactive protein (CRP as a diagnostic marker of post-stroke pneumonia.Patients who required nasogastric feeding and had no evidence of pneumonia within 7 days of stroke onset were included in the study and followed-up for 21 days with a daily clinical examination. Pneumonia was diagnosed using modified British Thoracic Society criteria.60 patients were recruited (mean age 77 years, mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score 19.47. Forty-four episodes of pneumonia were identified. Common manifestations on the day of the diagnosis were new onset crackles (43/44, 98%, tachypnoea>25/min (42/44, 95%, and oxygen saturation 38°C were observed in 27 (61%, 25 (57% and 15 (34% episodes respectively. Leucocytosis (WBC>11,000/ml and raised CRP (>10 mg/l were observed in 38 (86% and 43 (97% cases of pneumonia respectively. The area under the ROC curve for CRP was 0.827 (95% CI 0.720, 0.933. The diagnostic cut-off for CRP with an acceptable sensitivity (>0.8 was 25.60 mg/L (Youden index (J 0.515; sensitivity 0.848; specificity 0.667. A cut-off of 64.65 mg/L had the highest diagnostic accuracy (J 0.562; sensitivity 0.636; specificity 0.926.Patients with severe stroke frequently do not manifest key diagnostic features of pneumonia such as pyrexia, cough and purulent sputum early in their illness. The most common signs in this group are new-onset crackles, tachypnoea and hypoxia. Our results suggest that a CRP >25 mg/L should prompt investigations for pneumonia while values >65 mg/L have the highest diagnostic accuracy to justify consideration of this threshold as a diagnostic marker of post-stroke pneumonia.

  20. The Clinical Utility and Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Identification of Early and Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current diagnostic strategies for detection of structural articular cartilage abnormalities, the earliest structural signs of osteoarthritis, often do not capture the condition until it is too far advanced for the most potential benefit of non-invasive interventions. Purpose Systematically review the literature relative to the following questions: (1) Is MRI a valid, sensitive, specific, accurate and reliable instrument to identify knee articular cartilage abnormalities compared to arthroscopy? (2) Is MRI a sensitive tool that can be utilized to identify early cartilage degeneration? Study Design Systematic Review Methods A systematic search was performed in November 2010 using PubMed MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), SPORTDiscus (from 1985), and SCOPUS (from 1996) databases. Results Fourteen level I and 13 level II studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and provided information related to diagnostic performance of MRI compared to arthroscopic evaluation. The diagnostic performance of MRI demonstrated a large range of sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies. The sensitivity for identifying articular cartilage abnormalities in the knee joint was reported between 26–96%. Specificity and accuracy was reported between 50–100% and 49–94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying early osteoarthritis were reported between 0–86%, 48–95%, and 5–94%, respectively. As a result of inconsistencies between imaging techniques and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed and it was difficult to fully synthesize the information to state firm conclusions about the diagnostic performance of MRI. Conclusions There is evidence in some MRI protocols that MRI is a relatively valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable clinical tool for identifying articular cartilage degeneration. Due to heterogeneity of MRI sequences it is not possible to make definitive

  1. Early-season predation on aphids by winter-active spiders in apple orchards revealed by diagnostic PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreau de Roincé, C; Lavigne, C; Mandrin, J-F; Rollard, C; Symondson, W O C

    2013-04-01

    Aphids are major pests in apple orchards, debilitating the crop and spreading disease. We investigated whether early-season predation by canopy spiders may be effectively controlling aphid numbers in three organic orchards. For this purpose, we monitored the aphid population dynamics from the winter eggs to colony stages and compared this to spider abundances and rates of predation on aphids detected by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction. For the latter, we applied existing general aphid primers. We found that spiders ate colony fundatrices and that aphid numbers were negatively related to spider abundance. Spiders were the main active predators within the orchards when the first colony fundatrices were present, indicating their importance in the early control of aphid populations.

  2. Star formation history in early-type galaxies. I. The line absorption indices diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiosi, R T C

    2004-01-01

    The bottom line of this study is (i) to check whether normal (quiescent) and interacting EGs have a different behavior in the popular diagnostic planes such as Hb vs. [MgFe] (and others); (ii) to seek whether the signature of mergers and/or interactions may mirror in some specific changes of the indices that could un-equivocally hint for burts of stellar activity; (iii) to evaluate the intensity of those bursts or secondary episodes of star formation; (iv) to explore whether other alternatives can exist, i.e. distinct from obvious ones resting on large age range. The data show that both normal, field and interacting galaxies have the same scattered but smooth distribution in the Hb vs. [MgFe] diagnostic plane. There are two interpretations for this: (1) EGs span larges ranges of ages and metallicities. (2) The bulk population of stars is old but subsequent episodes of star formation scatter the object in the diagnostic planes. Both these interpretation are not able to reproduce the observed distribution. The ...

  3. Correlates of Rapid-Guessing Behavior in Low-Stakes Testing: Implications for Test Development and Measurement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Steven L.; Pastor, Dena A.; Kong, Xiaojing J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that rapid-guessing behavior can degrade the validity of test scores from low-stakes proficiency tests. This study examined, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling, examinee and item characteristics for predicting rapid-guessing behavior. Several item characteristics were found significant; items with more text…

  4. Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Wildschut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A two-dimensional diagnostic model for (complex trauma-related and personality disorders has been proposed to assess the severity and prognosis of the impact of early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. An important question that awaits empirical examination is whether a distinction between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders reflects reality when focusing on survivors of early childhood trauma. And, is a continuum of trauma diagnoses a correct assumption and, if yes, what does it look like? Objective: We describe the design of a cross-sectional cohort study evaluating this two-dimensional model of the impact of trauma and neglect. To provide the rationale of our study objectives, we review the existing literature on the impact of early childhood trauma and neglect on trauma-related disorders and personality disorders. Aims of the study are to: (1 quantify the two-dimensional model and test the relation with trauma and neglect; and (2 compare the two study groups. Method: A total of 200 consecutive patients referred to two specific treatment programs (100 from a personality disorder program and 100 from a trauma-related disorder program in the north of Holland will be included. Data are collected at the start of treatment. The assessments include all DSM-5 trauma-related and personality disorders, and general psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and perceived emotional neglect. Discussion: The results will provide an evaluation of the model and an improvement of the understanding of the relationship between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders and early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. This may improve both diagnostic as well as indication procedures. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations of the design.

  5. On How to Guess Meanings of Unknown Words in Reading Materials the Importance of Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕

    2013-01-01

      While reading plays a very important role in English study, many English language learners find it very difficult to fully comprehend some reading materials on account of many unknown words in them. This essay mainly discusses one technique of guessing meanings of new words according to context clues, thus emphasizing the importance of context.

  6. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-05-01

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  7. Positive expectations feedback experiments and number guessing games as models of financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Tuinstra, J.

    2010-01-01

    In repeated number guessing games choices typically converge quickly to the Nash equilibrium. In positive expectations feedback experiments, however, convergence to the equilibrium price tends to be very slow, if it occurs at all. Both types of experimental designs have been suggested as modeling es

  8. Guess Who's Coming to Dinner: The Importance of Multiculturalism in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alicia L.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of multiculturalism in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina can be illustrated through a comparative view of the 1967 controversial, seminal, and Academy Award winning film, "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner". In the film, a multicultural cast starred in a groundbreaking tale of interracial marriage--then still illegal in some United…

  9. A TWO-PERSON INFINITE GAME SUGGESTED FROM A QUIZ OF GUESSING A NUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Teraoka, Yoshinobu

    1983-01-01

    This paper is purposed to formulate and analyze a two-person infinite game suggested from a quiz of guessing a number which is applicable to a plan of production under an uncertain demand, waiting for a person who arrives at a random time, etc. Shown are the two types of mode, shopping and shooting.

  10. Mathematics in the Making: Mapping Verbal Discourse in Polya's "Let Us Teach Guessing" Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truxaw, Mary P.; DeFranco, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed analysis of verbal discourse within an exemplary mathematics lesson--that is, George Polya teaching in the Mathematics Association of America [MAA] video classic, "Let Us Teach Guessing" (1966). The results of the analysis reveal an inductive model of teaching that represents recursive cycles rather than linear…

  11. Mathematics in the Making: Mapping Verbal Discourse in Polya's "Let Us Teach Guessing" Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truxaw, Mary P.; DeFranco, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed analysis of verbal discourse within an exemplary mathematics lesson--that is, George Polya teaching in the Mathematics Association of America [MAA] video classic, "Let Us Teach Guessing" (1966). The results of the analysis reveal an inductive model of teaching that represents recursive cycles rather than linear…

  12. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  13. The pilot evaluation for the National Evaluation System in South Africa – A diagnostic review of early childhood development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Davids

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policymaking in many instances does not follow proper diagnosis of a problem using evidence to justify why particular decisions have been taken. This article describes findings of a diagnostic review of existing challenges facing early childhood development (ECD in South Africa. The review is part of the government’s attempt to use information to drive policy in strategic areas. It is part of the role that the Presidency is seeking to play in ensuring government programmes are evaluated to ensure that money that is spent is spent on programmes that have an impact and that there is value for money. This article summarises the key findings of the diagnostic review that was conducted of policy, services and coordination.The results reveal that a broader definition of ECD programmes is needed to cover all aspects of children’s development, growth and health, from conception to the foundation phase of schooling. Many elements of comprehensive ECD support and services are already in place and some are performing well. However, there are important gaps. Key ECD strategies for the future are identified. The diagnostic evaluation used a variety of methods, including desktop analysis, interviews and data analysis. Issues emerged around how to link the evaluation with other processes in the involved departments. A particular challenge was how to handle the transition to implementation of the findings, as responsibility shifted from the steering committee to the departments. The process worked well despite past challenges with coordination across government.

  14. A comparison of early diagnostic utility of Alzheimer disease biomarkers in brain magnetic resonance and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge Argilés, J A; Blanco Cantó, M A; Leiva Salinas, C; Flors, L; Muñoz Ruiz, C; Sánchez Payá, J; Gasparini Berenguer, R; Leiva Santana, C

    2014-09-01

    The goals of this study were to compare the early diagnostic utility of Alzheimer disease biomarkers in the CSF with those in brain MRI in conditions found in our clinical practice, and to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of both techniques used together. Between 2008 and 2009, we included 30 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who were examined using 1.5 Tesla brain MRI and AD biomarker analysis in CSF. MRI studies were evaluated by 2 radiologists according to the Korf́s visual scale. CSF biomarkers were analysed using INNOTEST reagents for Aβ1-42, total-tau and phospho-tau181p. We evaluated clinical changes 2 years after inclusion. By 2 years after inclusion, 15 of the original 30 patients (50%) had developed AD (NINCDS-ADRA criteria). The predictive utility of AD biomarkers in CSF (RR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.7; P<.01) was greater than that of MRI (RR 1.5; 95% CI 95%, 0.7-3.4; P<.2); using both techniques together yielded a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 100%. Normal results on both complementary tests ruled out progression to AD (100%) within 2 years of inclusion. Our results show that the diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers in CSF is higher than that of biomarkers in MRI. Combined use of both techniques is highly accurate for either early diagnosis or exclusion of AD in patients with MCI. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Karim; Hong, Young T; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Fryer, Tim D; Menon, David K; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1-6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD.

  16. Aurora A's functions during mitotic exit: the Guess Who game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eReboutier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the knowledge of Aurora A kinase functions during mitosis was limited to pre-metaphase events, particularly centrosome maturation, G2/M transition, and mitotic spindle assembly. However, an involvement of Aurora A in post-metaphase events was also suspected, but not clearly demonstrated due to the technical difficulty to perform the appropriate experiments. Recent developments of both an analog specific version of Aurora A, and of small molecule inhibitors have led to the first demonstration that Aurora A is required for the early steps of cytokinesis. As in pre-metaphase, Aurora A plays diverse functions during anaphase, essentially participating in astral microtubules dynamics and central spindle assembly and functioning. The present review describes the experimental systems used to decipher new functions of Aurora A during late mitosis and situate these functions into the context of cytokinesis mechanisms.

  17. Early diagnosis of Gaucher disease in pediatric patients: proposal for a diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Maja; Andria, Generoso; Deodato, Federica; Giona, Fiorina; Micalizzi, Concetta; Pession, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by an enzyme deficiency that leads to the accumulation of glycolipids in various organs. Although the signs and symptoms of GD emerge in childhood in the majority of patients, the disease often remains unrecognized for many years with delay of benefits of therapy or development of irreversible complications. Based on published data and data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Registry, an algorithm has been drafted for early diagnosis of GD in pediatric patients. It will help hematologists in promoting a timely diagnosis and early access to therapy for pediatric patients with GD.

  18. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomasetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  19. A Diagnostic Significance of Early Renal Impairment with Liver Cirrhosis through the Determination of Urinary Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ It is quite common for liver cirrhosis to be followed subsequently by kidney impairment,which,being recessive in state and showing no clinical symptoms,is trouble some in diagnosis.With the development of disease course,the injury gets worse,so an early diagnosis is necessary.

  20. [Biochemical predictors of anthracyclin and trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity in early diagnostics of cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik, Agnieszka; Lelakowska-Pieła, Maria; Konduracka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The treatment based on athracyclines and trastuzumab may lead to heart failure in oncological setting. Assessment of the heart function is conducted using radiological examinations, especially echocardiography. Biochemical diagnostics enables to depict clinically silent cardiac dysfunction at an earlier stage. Biomarkers that showed to be the most promising in predicting the development of deterioration of systolic and/or diastolic function in course of chemotherapy are troponins and NT-pro-BNP. However, no cut-off point had been yet determined, especially in terms of cardiotoxicity induced by oncological therapy. Biomarkers serum level may be dependent on many conditions, mostly comorbidities, what makes the interpretation of the results difficult. Trials involving mikro RNA particles, which depict the molecular level of the pathological changes, also those involved in the development of cardiomyopathy, are underway. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  1. Limited diagnostic value of procalcitonin in early diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward because of fever lasting for 14 days. On admission to the hospital the patient was in a generally good state, without any abnormalities on physical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnostic imaging comprising chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography showed no abnormalities. During the hospitalization, there occurred episodes of fever with skin rash and musculoskeletal pain of the lower limbs. Procalcitonin concentrations continued to increase. C-reactive protein concentrations decreased during therapy, starting from 191 mg/l. On the 23(rd) day of the disease, edema of the feet, ankles, and knees appeared. On the basis of the clinical picture and after excluding other possible causes of fever, the patient was diagnosed with adult onset Still's disease. The procalcitonin concentration was normalized after 5 days of steroid therapy. The patient was discharged under ambulatory rheumatologic supervision.

  2. Limited diagnostic value of procalcitonin in early diagnosis of adult onset Still’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward because of fever lasting for 14 days. On admission to the hospital the patient was in a generally good state, without any abnormalities on physical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnostic imaging comprising chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography showed no abnormalities. During the hospitalization, there occurred episodes of fever with skin rash and musculoskeletal pain of the lower limbs. Procalcitonin concentrations continued to increase. C-reactive protein concentrations decreased during therapy, starting from 191 mg/l. On the 23rd day of the disease, edema of the feet, ankles, and knees appeared. On the basis of the clinical picture and after excluding other possible causes of fever, the patient was diagnosed with adult onset Still’s disease. The procalcitonin concentration was normalized after 5 days of steroid therapy. The patient was discharged under ambulatory rheumatologic supervision. PMID:27826176

  3. Diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Sun, Xue-Hui; Liu, Feng-Li; Huang, Sheng-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Early diagnosis and management improve the outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study explored the application of high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of early RA. Thirty-nine patients (20 males and 19 females) diagnosed with early RA were enrolled in the study. A total of 1,248 positions, including 858 hand joints and 390 tendons, were examined by high-frequency US and MRI to evaluate the presence of bone erosion, bone marrow edema (BME), synovial proliferation, joint effusion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. The imaging results of the above abnormalities, detected by US, were compared with those identified using MRI. No statistically significant overall changes were observed between high-frequency US and MRI in detecting bone erosion [44 (5.1%) vs. 35 (4.1%), respectively; P>0.05], tendinitis [18 (4.6%) vs. 14 (1.5%), respectively; P>0.05] and tendon sheath edema [37 (9.5%) vs. 30 (7.7%), respectively; P>0.05]. Significant differences were observed between high-frequency US and MRI with regards to the detection of synovial proliferation [132 (15.4%) vs. 66 (7.7%), respectively; Phigh-frequency US (5.5 vs. 0%, respectively; Phigh-frequency US of the dominant hand and wrist joints were comparably sensitive to bone erosion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. However, MRI was more sensitive in detecting bone marrow edema in early RA, while US was more sensitive in the evaluation of joint effusion and synovial proliferation. In conclusion, US and MRI are promising for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory activity in patients with RA.

  4. POSSIBILITIES FOR EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND CORRECTION OF DEFICIENCIES OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko DOBREV

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of the presentation shows essential review of the executed research on 335 children at preschool age from subsidiary kindergartens and homes for children with mental retardation. The purpose is to motivate the application of certain methods and forms in the improvement.In that case, the mutual link among etymology, localization, the level of disability and other factors is clearly shown in correlation with certain parameters of psycho-motor development of children at their early age.

  5. Diagnostic Method of Early Urolithiasis by Observing Urinary Sediments under Polarizing Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You; LI Yonglan; WANG Weimin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives The study has solved the problem of the early diagnosis of patients with the diameter of urolithiasis < 0. 3cm. Method Observed and compared urinary sediments of the 30 cases of recurrent and suspicious urolithiasis with 30 cases of nephritis, nephropyelitis and nephroma by polarizing microscope. Results The urolithiasis is diagnosed by symptoms and image. Under B ultrasound or image the diameter of stones is usually larger than 0.4cm. The disease may be certainly diagnosed but the most patients have not been able to excrete stones spontaneously. The authors observed that RBC ( erythrocytes) and casts have the characteristics of crystallization and sometime crystals formed some smaller stones( called microscope stone) in urinary sediments of the patients with recurrence stones under the polarizing microscope.Meanwhile, the sediments of suspicious patients who have symptoms of hematuria and renal colic pain and did not find stone by B ultrasound, were examined and found RBC and casts. The characteristics of crystallization were similar to those of the recurrence patients. Conclusion This method is a new way of diagnosis of early urolithiasis for preventing stone growth and treating urolithiasis as early as possible. It is very simple, convenient and reliable, and could be applied into clinic.

  6. Spectroscopic techniques as a diagnostic tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kanika; Lee, Kwang Sung; Lee, Dong Geun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Kyung Chun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Osteoporosis (OP) a kind of bone disease, is very serious in particular for old persons, and may lead them to immobility and death. Early detection of the diseases is the first consideration for the patients to have more options to live a healthy life. The biomarkers or bonemarkers provide a promising challenge in clinical proteomics for early disease detection. In this paper, optical techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV/Visible spectroscopy are employed to find the bone markers and emphasis has been given on noninvasive modalities for early detection of osteoporosis. Blood plasma samples procured from two groups, patients and healthy persons were tested. Both of the optical techniques revealed obvious differences in the spectra: between two groups, for example, increase in intensity for OP persons. New peaks were found at 1646, 1540, 1456 and 1077 cm-1 in FTIR spectra. Except 1588 cm-1, we showed decrease in spectral intensity of OP persons. In UV/Visible spectroscopy results, new peaks appeared in the OP patients spectra at the wavelength of 279 nm and 414 nm. These differences in the spectra of the two types samples, allow rapid and cost-effective discrimination of the potential patients with the optical techniques which were verified by the bone densitometer in the hospitals. The new and novel technique is quick, reliable and effective

  7. [Early lung disease in infants with cystic fibrosis. Diagnostic tools and possible therapeutic pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reix, P; Matecki, S; Fayon, M

    2016-02-01

    The lungs of infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) have been considered to be normal at birth. However, recent data indicates that this is unlikely to be true in most cases. Animal CF-models developed in the early 2000s have shown that constitutional airway narrowing may be present at birth, and is associated with both functional and structural abnormalities. Longitudinal birth cohort studies have shown that 25 % of CF infants followed in specialized centers, while being asymptomatic, showed decreased lung function at 3months of age. Air trapping was present in 68 % and bronchiectasis in 28 % of patients at the same age. The presence of neutrophil elastase in the bronchoalveolar lavage at 3months of age tripled the risk of bronchiectasis at the age of 3years. Currently available tools such as infant pulmonary function tests (both the jacket and multiple breath washout) as well as high-resolution volume controlled chest-computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging will facilitate early intervention trials in the very near future. The role of such tools for the routine follow-up of patients, and the ability of early therapeutic interventions to alter the natural history of CF-lung disease should soon be established. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Ability of Optical Enhancement System in Early Gastric Cancer Demarcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Misato; Ogawa, Ryo; Sasaki, Sho; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Goto, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Suenaga, Masato

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the utility of optical enhancement (OE) in early gastric cancer demarcation. Twenty lesions of early gastric cancer were examined by PENTAX endoscopy system with OE-1 and OE-2 functions. The areas of tumor demarcation identified by 12 evaluators (6 novice and 6 experienced) were compared to the corresponding correct areas determined by postoperative histopathology findings. The misdiagnosed scores that were the sums of false-positive and false-negative areas were compared. Color of one hundred pixels from the inside of the cancerous area and the outside of the cancerous area was expressed as three-dimensional RGB component vectors. The mean vectors and covariance matrixes were calculated and the Mahalanobis distance, indicative of color differences between two areas, was tested. Comparisons of the misdiagnosed score revealed that OE-1 was preferred over WL-1 for gastric cancer demarcation for all 12 evaluators (p = 0.008) and in novice evaluators (p = 0.026). OE-2 was not significantly different from WL-2 in all cases. OE-1 images gave significantly larger Mahalanobis distances, indicative of color differences, than WL-1 images (p = 0.002). It was demonstrated that the OE Mode 1 has a significant advantage over the white light mode in demarcation of early gastric cancer.

  9. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  10. Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Tool in the Early Diagnosis of Aggressive Lymphomas Mimicking Life-Threatening Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos J. Tsagarakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive lymphomas can present with symptoms mimicking life-threatening infection. Flow cytometry (FC is usually recommended for the classification and staging of lymphomas in patients with organomegaly and atypical cells in effusions and blood, after the exclusion of other possible diagnoses. FC may also have a place in the initial diagnostic investigation of aggressive lymphoma. Three cases are presented here of highly aggressive lymphomas in young adults, which presented with the clinical picture of fever of unknown origin (FUO in patients severely ill. All followed a life-threatening clinical course, and two developed the hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS, but microbiological, immunological, and morphological evaluation and immunohistochemistry (IHC failed to substantiate an early diagnosis. FC was the technique that provided conclusive diagnostic evidence of lymphoma, subsequently verified by IHC. Our experience with these three cases highlights the potential role of FC as an adjunct methodology in the initial assessment of possible highly aggressive lymphoma presenting with the signs and symptoms of life-threatening infection, although the definitive diagnosis should be established by biopsy. In such cases, FC can contribute to the diagnosis of lymphoma, independently of the presence of HPS.

  11. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  12. Investigation of ability to guess safety signs based on cognitive features in one of the petrochemical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shirali

    2015-07-01

    .Conclusion: According to results of this study, use of principles of ergonomic design of signs and training are necessary to promote the ability to guess the safety signs to the minimum available standards. Therefore, it is possible to balance cognitive features especially “familiarity”, with the lowest score, and “meaningfulness” and “semantic closeness”, with the highest influential relationship with the ability to guess of signs. The developed regression model for this industry can be used to predict the ability to guess of safety signs in future studies

  13. Potential of advanced photoplethysmography sensing for noninvasive vascular diagnostics and early screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Kukulis, Indulis; Fridenberga, Eva; Venckus, Girts

    2002-06-01

    Advanced sensor device for shape analysis of the tissue- reflected mean single period photoplethysmography (SPPPG) signals has been designed and clinically tested. The SPPPG signal shape reveals individual features of the patient's cardio-vascular state. Clinical studies of several patient groups (e.g. diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis obliterans, Raynaud's syndrome) made possible to specify components of the SPPPG signal that are sensitive to the corresponding organic or functional pathologies. Comparison of the right and left arm finger SPPPG signal shapes, for instance, appears to be efficient tool for early screening of unilateral atherosclerosis obliterans.

  14. Cervico-isthmic pregnancy: early diagnostic imaging and successful dual therapy for uterine-sparing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihiro; Koike, Wataru; Hayashi, Shotaro; Imoto, Sanae; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-isthmic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening form of ectopic gestation in which the blastocyst implants in the uterine cervico-isthmus between the histological and anatomical internal os, followed by subsequent extension to the lower uterine segment. Early diagnosis may allow a conservative therapeutic approach that avoids catastrophic hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy. Here we report the case of a 43-year-old primigravida woman whose cervico-isthmic pregnancy complicated by massive hematometra was diagnosed at 6 weeks gestation by multimodal imaging and successfully treated by hysteroscopic resection, securing adequate hemostasis, after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.

  15. Molecular Gas Kinematics and Line Diagnostics in Early-type Galaxies: NGC4710 and NGC5866

    CERN Document Server

    Topal, Selcuk; Davis, Timothy A; Krips, Melanie; Young, Lisa M; Crocker, Alison F

    2016-01-01

    We present interferometric observations of CO lines (12CO(1-0, 2-1) and 13CO(1-0, 2-1)) and dense gas tracers (HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), HNC(1-0) and HNCO(4-3)) in two nearby edge-on barred lenticular galaxies, NGC 4710 and NGC 5866, with most of the gas concentrated in a nuclear disc and an inner ring in each galaxy. We probe the physical conditions of a two-component molecular interstellar medium in each galaxy and each kinematic component by using molecular line ratio diagnostics in three complementary ways. First, we measure the ratios of the position-velocity diagrams of different lines, second we measure the ratios of each kinematic component's integrated line intensities as a function of projected position, and third we model these line ratios using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code. Overall, the nuclear discs appear to have a tenuous molecular gas component that is hotter, optically thinner and with a larger dense gas fraction than that in the inner rings, suggesting more dense ...

  16. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.giubileo@frascati.enea.i [ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 (Italy); Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda [ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 (Italy); Puiu, Adriana [Tor Vergata University of Rome, Faculty of Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2010-11-11

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  17. Summary and early findings from a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Kinney, Kristopher L.; Shockman, Christine

    2003-04-02

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This paper discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The underlying principle of this project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform. Such data are an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. This project has demonstrated that the IMDS is valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. One objective of this project was to evaluate the costs and benefits of the IMDS. The system cost about $0.70 per square foot, which includes the design, hardware, software, and installation, which is about 30% less than the previous IMDS in San Francisco. A number of operational problems have been identified with the IMDS.

  18. Utility of Combination of Diagnostic Tests in Early Detection of Prostate Tumors in West Algerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Berroukche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In West of Algeria, incidence of prostate cancer (PCa is growing and epidemiological data on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH are contradictory. The prostate specific antigen (PSA joins other tests, as digital rectal examination (DRE and ultrasound, for better management of patient. This study aimed to assess the association of previously tests with PSA-assay in diagnosis of PCa and BPH, in West Algeria. A retrospective study was performed on two groups of 234 BPH and 56 PCa diagnosed between 2010–2012 at the urology department of the hospital in Saida. Patients underwent various diagnostic tests; DRE, ultrasound, PSA and pathological examination. BPH is more common than PCa and the most dominant age group was from 70 to 79 years. DRE was positive in 67 % of BPH and 63.3 % PCa. Ultrasound examination revealed that the prostatic structure was heterogeneous in 25.5 % of BPH and 92 % PCa. Total PSA (TPSA was higher than the cut-off value of 4 ng / ml in 37% of BPH and 75 % PCa. Histological forms of Prostatic adenomyofibroma and prostatic adenocarcinoma were the most represented. This study shows that the combination of different tests is more efficient than using a test alone for a definitive diagnosis of PCa or BPH.

  19. Optical combo sensor for early diagnostics within the built and natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James

    2008-04-01

    Within the Built and Natural Environment early analysis of structural conditions, air quality monitoring, pollutant and irritant detection by optical sensor technology is advancing. Combining the two technologies, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Surface Enhance Raman Scattering (SERS) into a single instrument is the aim of the research, with a resulting fingerprint library of measurands being produced. The combo sensor will provide unique fingerprints of the measurands, monitoring conditions, such as the carbonation of concrete, microbial and chemical loading and ageing effects of structures, along with their severity. Analysed conditions will be crossed referenced with the library allowing smart feedback for timely maintenance. SPR and SERS work on the principle that specific surfaces, when excited by a light source passing through a glass prism, will change their rate and scale of vibration when their surface holds or is contaminated by particular a component, in this case the monitoring condition analyte. A ligand, which binds specifically to the monitoring analyte, is held in specialised surface coatings which are applied to the surface of the sensor glass or prism itself. The sensing takes place through detection of differences in the original laser light source and reflections/refractions of that light source from the glass prisms. The advances and obstacles of early research are discussed along with initial results and findings being examined in the development a new optical combo sensor.

  20. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  1. [Diagnostics and early rehabilitation of biomechanical gait abnormalities in the patients with cerebral hemiparesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrushina, O R; Snopkov, P S; Sidiakina, I V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various systems for the analysis of gait biomechanics during the early period of rehabilitation in the patients presenting with central hemiparesis. 30 patients with central hemiparesis were examined with the use of the "Raptor-12", motion capture system, "TRUST-M" gyroscopic system, "Balance Master platform, and "Diasled" tension registration system. The severity of paresis estimated based on the 6-score scale varied from 2 to 4.5 (mean 3.7 +/- 0.9), the Ashworth spasticity index was 1.1 +/- 1.2. The clinically significant phenomena (low goniogram amplitude, gate asymmetry etc.) responsible for the poor mobility (the Rivermead index below 13) were revealed during the analysis using "Raptor-12" and "TRUST-M". These abnormalities served as the targets for the rehabilitative treatment. The analysis of walking parameters on the "Balance Master" platform provided no clinically significant results. The "Diasled" data made it possible to evaluate the treatment-induced improvement in the patients' conditions but had no influence on decision-making as regards the choice of the rehabilitation strategy. The analysis of gait biomechanics with goniometry provides a basis for differential early rehabilitation of walking disorders in the patients suffering central hemoparesis.

  2. Procalcitonin as an early diagnostic and monitoring tool in urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ji; Li, Qianwei; Fu, Weihua; Ren, Jing; Song, Siji; Deng, Guoxian; Yao, Jiwei; Wang, Yongquan; Li, Weibing; Yan, Junan

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker for diagnosis and differentiation of without urosepsis, urosepsis, severe urosepsis, and uroseptic shock following PCNL and the ability of PCT to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in patients with urosepsis. From June 2012 to August 2013, 267 patients undergoing PCNL for renal calculi, and who fulfilled selection criteria, were recruited into our study. The patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. One of selection criteria was the scores of PCT and WBC were collected at operative day, postoperative day one, day two, day three, day five and day seven. The area under the ROC curve for the prediction of urosepsis was 0.960 for PCT and 0.634 for WBC. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with uroseptic shock versus severe urosepsis versus urosepsis versus without urosepsis following PCNL. WBC values showed no significant difference between patients with urosepsis, severe urosepsis and uroseptic shock following PCNL. With time, in patients with successfully treated urosepsis following PCNL, the PCT concentrations significantly declined and kept decreasing from postoperative day two to postoperative day seven and the WBC scores showed no significant change over the first postoperative 2 days and were decreased only after postoperative day three. PCT appears to be a useful early marker to diagnosis and discriminate urosepsis, severe urosepsis and uroseptic shock following PCNL. Daily PCT measurements may be a valuable tool in monitoring the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in urosepsis following PCNL.

  3. The Development and Validation of the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mikki H; Keebler, Joseph R; Chaparro, Barbara S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool. There is a need for a psychometrically validated and comprehensive gaming scale that is appropriate for playtesting and game evaluation purposes. The process of developing and validating this new scale followed current best practices of scale development and validation. As a result, a mixed-method design that consisted of item pool generation, expert review, questionnaire pilot study, exploratory factor analysis (N = 629), and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 729) was implemented. A new instrument measuring video game satisfaction, called the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS), with nine subscales emerged. The GUESS was demonstrated to have content validity, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity. The GUESS was developed and validated based on the assessments of over 450 unique video game titles across many popular genres. Thus, it can be applied across many types of video games in the industry both as a way to assess what aspects of a game contribute to user satisfaction and as a tool to aid in debriefing users on their gaming experience. The GUESS can be administered to evaluate user satisfaction of different types of video games by a variety of users. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. An Early Diagnostics of the Geoeffectiveness of Solar Eruptions from Photospheric Magnetic Flux Observations: The Transition from SOHO to SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, I. M.; Grechnev, V. V.; Abunin, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In our previous articles (Chertok et al. in Solar Phys. 282, 175, 2013; Chertok et al. in Solar Phys. 290, 627, 2015), we presented a preliminary tool for the early diagnostics of the geoeffectiveness of solar eruptions based on the estimate of the total unsigned line-of-sight photospheric magnetic flux in accompanying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) arcades and dimmings. This tool was based on the analysis of eruptions observed during 1996 - 2005 with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Empirical relationships were obtained to estimate the probable importance of upcoming space weather disturbances caused by an eruption, which just occurred, without data on the associated coronal mass ejections. In particular, it was possible to estimate the intensity of a non-recurrent geomagnetic storm (GMS) and Forbush decrease (FD), as well as their onset and peak times. After 2010 - 2011, data on solar eruptions are obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We use relatively short intervals of overlapping EIT-AIA and MDI-HMI detailed observations, and additionally, a number of large eruptions over the next five years with the 12-hour cadence EIT images to adapt the SOHO diagnostic tool to SDO data. We show that the adopted brightness thresholds select practically the same areas of arcades and dimmings from the EIT 195 Å and AIA 193 Å image, with a cross-calibration factor of 3.6 - 5.8 (5.0 - 8.2) for the AIA exposure time of 2.0 s (2.9 s). We also find that for the same photospheric areas, the MDI line-of-sight magnetic flux systematically exceeds the HMI flux by a factor of 1.4. Based on these results, the empirical diagnostic relationships obtained from SOHO data are adjusted to SDO instruments. Examples of a post-diagnostics based on SDO data are presented. As before, the

  5. Early diagnostic of concurrent gear degradation processes progressing under time-varying loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Raynald; Lalonde, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    This study develops a gear diagnostic procedure for the detection of multi- and concurrent degradation processes evolving under time-varying loads. Instead of a conventional comparison between a descriptor and an alarm level, this procedure bases its detection strategy on a descriptor evolution tracking; a lasting descriptor increase denotes the presence of ongoing degradation mechanisms. The procedure works from time domain residual signals prepared in the frequency domain, and accepts any gear conditions as reference signature. To extract the load fluctuation repercussions, the procedure integrates a scaling factor. The investigation first examines a simplification assuming a linear connection between the load and the dynamic response amplitudes. However, while generally valuable, the precision losses associated with large load variations may mask the contribution of tiny flaws. To better reflect the real non-linear relation, the paper reformulates the scaling factor; a power law with an exponent value of 0.85 produces noticeable improvements of the load effect extraction. To reduce the consequences of remaining oscillations, the procedure also includes a filtering phase. During the validation program, a synthetic wear progression assuming a commensurate relation between the wear depth and friction assured controlled evolutions of the surface degradation influence, whereas the fillet crack growth remained entirely determined by the operation conditions. Globally, the tested conditions attest that the final strategy provides accurate monitoring of coexisting isolated damages and general surface deterioration, and that its tracking-detection capacities are unaffected by severe time variations of external loads. The procedure promptly detects the presence of evolving abnormal phenomena. The tests show that the descriptor curve shapes virtually describe the constant wear progression superimposed on the crack length evolution. At the tooth fracture, the mean values of

  6. Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumours: diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for early detection of residual tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffel, Christine [Service de Radiologie, CHU de Reims, Hopital Robert Debre, Pole d' imagerie, Reims Cedex (France); Pousset, Maud; Elie, Caroline [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Departement de Biostatistiques, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service d' urologie, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Merran, Samuel [Federation mutualiste parisienne, Service d' imagerie medicale, Paris (France); Tranquart, Francois [Bracco Research, Plan les Ouates (Switzerland); Khairoune, Ahmed; Helenon, Olivier; Correas, Jean-Michel [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Joly, Dominique [Universite Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, Service de Nephrologie, Hopital Necker, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Richard, Stephane [Service d' urologie, Hopital de Bicetre, Centre Pilote Tumeurs rares INCa, AP-HP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Hopital Necker, Service de Nephrologie, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Le Kremlin-Bicetre et Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Genetique oncologique, CNRS FRE 2939, Faculte de medecine Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early detection of residual tumour after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumours. Patients referred to our institution for RFA of renal tumours prospectively underwent CEUS and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before, within 1 day and 6 weeks after treatment. Identification of residual tumour was assessed by three blinded radiologists. Reference standard was CT/MRI performed at least 1 year after RFA. A total of 66 renal tumours in 43 patients (median age 62 years; range 44-71.5) were studied. Inter-reader agreement ({kappa} value) was 0.84 for CEUS. Prevalence of residual disease was 19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: 64% [confidence interval (CI) 39-84], 98% [CI 91-100], 82% [CI 52-95] and 92% [CI 83-97] on 24-h CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 100% [CI 94-100], 100% [CI 74-100] and 95% [CI 87-100] on 6-week CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 95% [CI 86-98], 79% [CI 52-92] and 95% [CI 86-98] on 24-h CT/MRI; and 100% [CI 72-100], 98% [CI 90-100], 91% [CI 62-98] and 100% [CI 93-100] on 6-week CT/MRI. CEUS has high specificity for the early diagnosis of residual tumour after renal RFA. (orig.)

  7. Clinical utility of microRNA-378 as early diagnostic biomarker of human cancers: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Zhan; Shen, Liang-Fang; Li, Yan-Yan; Chen, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of miR-378 for detecting human cancers. Systematic electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang from the inception to January 15, 2016. We used the bivariate mixed effects models to estimate the combined sensitivity, specificity, PLRs (positive likelihood ratios), NLR (negative likelihood ratios), DORs (diagnostic odds ratios) and their 95% CI (confidence intervals) for assessing the diagnostic performance of miR-378 for cancers. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total number of 1172 cancer patients and 809 health controls. The overall estimated sensitivity and specificity were 0.75 and 0.74. The pooled PLR was 2.91, NLR was 0.34, DOR was 8.50, and AUC (Area Under the Curve) was 0.81. The subgroup analyses suggested that AUC for plasma-based is higher than serum-based. The overall diagnostic values of miR-378 in the present meta-analyses are moderate accurate for human cancers; The source of specimen has an effect on the diagnostic accuracy. The diagnostic value of serum-based was higher than that of plasma-based. PMID:27448977

  8. Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic marker of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. ElGhandour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cardiotoxicity following treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL may lead to late onset cardiomyopathy. So, early prediction of toxicity can lead to prevention of heart failure in these patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of H-FABP as an early diagnostic marker of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity together with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP as an indication of ventricular dysfunction in such patients. Our study was conducted on 40 NHL patients who received 6 cycles of a doxorubicin containing chemotherapy protocol (CHOP, not exceeding the total allowed dose of doxorubicin (500 mg/m2. Ten healthy controls were included in our study. Human heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was assessed 24 hours after the first cycle of CHOP. Plasma levels of BNP were estimated both before starting chemotherapy and after the last cycle of CHOP. Resting echocardiography was also performed before and at the end of chemotherapy cycles. The ejection fraction (EF of 8 of our patients decreased below 50% at the end of the sixth cycle. Elevated levels of both H-FABP and BNP were found in all patients wth EF below 50% and both markers showed a positive correlation with each other. We concluded that H-FABP may serve as a reliable early marker for prediction of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. Thus, in patients with elevated H-FABP, alternative treatment modalities with no cardiac toxicity may be considered in order to prevent subsequent heart failure in these patients.

  9. Patent ductus arteriosus: peculiarities of early neonatal, postnatal diagnostics, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Kalashnikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the published data on the prevalence, the main clinical manifestations, and modern methods of early neonatal and postnatal diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus — the congenital malformation of cardiovascular system. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases version10 defines it Q25.0 Patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus Botalli. Botallo’s duct patency. The pre-valence of the patent ductus arteriosus is from 0.006 to 0.02 % in mature newborns, in premature newborns — from 15 to 80 %. Clinical manifestation of the malformation depends on its size, pulmonary pressure, and proportion of pulmonary and syste-mic circulation. One of the basic clinical signs of patent ductus arteriosus  is permanent eddy murmur  in II–III space along left sternal border. In newborns and infants and if severe pulmonary hypertension diastolic murmur can be absent while systolic and forced second sound on pulmonary artery, collapsing magnus pulse, increased pulse pressure are determined. Open ductus arteriosus is not determined auscultatory in low-weight premature children. The electrocardiograph reveals downloaded left ventricular. Echo-cardiograph images ductus arteriosis, increased left ventriclular, volume overload of left ventricular. Chest roentgenograms may reveal prominent pulmonary arterial markings, increased heart breadth due to hypertrophic left ventricular. Drug obliteration with indometacin is effective in newborns aged 2 weeks. The surgical indication is verified heart disease aged 6–12 months old. The appropriate age for surgical intervention is 2–5 years old.

  10. A panel of autoantibodies as potential early diagnostic serum biomarkers in patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Mingmei; Xu, Shuang; Li, Siyao; Sun, Baosheng; Lee, Kuang-Hui; Liu, Linlin; Sun, Shilong

    2016-07-01

    The study was designed to test whether circulating autoantibodies against associated antigens (TAAs) were altered in early cervical cancer and benign cervical tumors. A total of 111 cervical cancer patients, 137 cervical benign tumor patients, and 160 healthy volunteers matched in age were recruited in this study. The expression of autoantibodies was tested using in-house developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with linear peptide envelope antigens derived from TAAs. One-way ANOVA test showed that there was no difference in the CD25 autoantibody expression among the cervical cancer group, benign tumor group, and healthy control group (P = 0.063; P = 0.191). The expression of autoantibodies against survivin and TP53 in the cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in the benign tumor group (P cervical cancer group than in the healthy control group (P = 0.010; P = 0.001), while autoantibodies in the cervical cancer group showed no difference in expression compared with that in the benign tumor group. The panel of five TAAs showed a sensitivity of 37.8 % and a specificity of 90 %, which was much higher than the sensitivity of the single-TAA testing group. The data from this study further support our previous hypothesis that the detection of autoantibodies for the diagnosis of a specific cancer type can be enhanced using a panel of several selected TAAs as target antigens.

  11. Development of Diagnostic Biomarkers for Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy at Early Stages Using Quantitative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwa Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a common microvascular complication caused by diabetes mellitus (DM and is a leading cause of vision impairment and loss among adults. Here, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis to discover biomarkers for DR. First, to identify biomarker candidates that are specifically expressed in human vitreous, we performed data-mining on both previously published DR-related studies and our experimental data; 96 proteins were then selected. To confirm and validate the selected biomarker candidates, candidates were selected, confirmed, and validated using plasma from diabetic patients without DR (No DR and diabetics with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Mi or Mo NPDR using semiquantitative multiple reaction monitoring (SQ-MRM and stable-isotope dilution multiple reaction monitoring (SID-MRM. Additionally, we performed a multiplex assay using 15 biomarker candidates identified in the SID-MRM analysis, which resulted in merged AUC values of 0.99 (No DR versus Mo NPDR and 0.93 (No DR versus Mi and Mo NPDR. Although further validation with a larger sample size is needed, the 4-protein marker panel (APO4, C7, CLU, and ITIH2 could represent a useful multibiomarker model for detecting the early stages of DR.

  12. Early diagnostics and incidence of diabetic nephropathy depending on type 1 diabetes mellitus duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Maslianko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective — to establish the incidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN depending on duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM, and also the content of cystatin С as a marker of early kidney damage. Materials and methods. Twenty eight patients with type 1 DM were enrolled in prospective study (11 men and 17 women aged 34.8 ± 7.2 years. Clinical and functional examination included the standard evaluation of renal function, and also the study of serum level of cystatin С. Results. In 17 out of 28 patients, the indexes of glomerular filtration rate calculated using the formulas of CKD-ЕРIcreat and CKD-ЕРIcys, indicated the different stages of chronic kidneys disease. Conclusions. Determination of cystatin C level and calculation of glomerular filtration rate using this index allows diagnosing the preclinical stages of kidney dysfunction in patients with type 1 DM in the normal creatinine level in the blood and without decline in glomerular filtration rate calculated using creatinine value. According to a retrospective study, the incidence and severity of DN in patients with type 1 DM increases with disease duration of more than 10 years.

  13. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: early diagnostics and effects of medication and brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabenec, L; Mekyska, J; Galaz, Z; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation. A systematic literature search of articles written in English before March 2016 was conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, and IEEE Xplore databases using and combining specific relevant keywords. Articles were categorized into three groups: (1) articles focused on neural correlates of HD in PD using functional imaging (n = 13); (2) articles dealing with the acoustic analysis of HD in PD (n = 52); and (3) articles concerning specifically dopaminergic and brain stimulation-related effects as assessed by acoustic analysis (n = 31); the groups were then reviewed. We identified 14 combinations of speech tasks and acoustic features that can be recommended for use in describing the main features of HD in PD. While only a few acoustic parameters correlate with limb motor symptoms and can be partially relieved by dopaminergic medication, HD in PD seems to be mainly related to non-dopaminergic deficits and associated particularly with non-motor symptoms. Future studies should combine non-invasive brain stimulation with voice behavior approaches to achieve the best treatment effects by enhancing auditory-motor integration.

  14. Diagnostic utility of oxidative damage markers for early rheumatoid arthritis in non-smokers and negative anti-CCP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Melguizo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Besides the development of new markers and diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA, many patients are still diagnosed after several years of symptoms. Oxidative stress markers are already increased at an early stage of RA. Our aim was to evaluate the additional diagnostic value of these markers. Methods. A case-control study was performed. Patients met the 1987 RA ACR criteria, less than 2 years of symptoms and no previous treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD, steroids or vitamin E. Controls were selected from patient's relatives and matched (1:1 by gender, age, and current smoking habit. Oxidative damage markers were malonyldialdehyde (MDA, Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and Carbonyl proteins (CP. Statistical analysis was performed in agreement with the STARD initiative. Results. Sixty-five RA patients without treatment and 65 healthy controls were included. LOOH, CP, antibodies against citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor (RF were significantly higher in patients, and MDA higher in controls. The same results were obtained in the subgroups of patients who smoke or not, and in anti-CCP positive or negative. The diagnosis performance of traditional markers showed good specificity but low sensitivity. The addition of LOOH and CP increased the sensitivity and the area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve especially in non-smoking (66% and negative anti-CCP (51% patients. Conclusions. The separate or combined addition of LOOH or CP to the traditional disease markers improved the diagnosis of RA, especially in non-smoking or negative anti-CCP patients.

  15. Implicit learning of sequential bias in a guessing task: failure to demonstrate effects of dopamine administration and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John; Mohr, Christine; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Previous research suggests that implicit sequence learning (ISL) is superior for believers in the paranormal and individuals with increased cerebral dopamine. Thirty-five healthy participants performed feedback-guided anticipations of four arrow directions. A 100-trial random sequence preceded two 100-trial biased sequences in which visual targets (arrows) on trial t tended to be displaced 90 degrees clockwise (CW) or counter-clockwise (CCW) from those on t - 1. ISL was defined as a positive change during the course of the biased run in the difference between pro-bias and counter-bias responses. It was hypothesized that this difference would be greater for believers in the paranormal than for skeptics, for those who received dopamine than for those who received placebo, and for believers who received dopamine than for the other groups. None of the hypotheses were supported by the data. It is suggested that a simple binary guessing task with a focus on prediction accuracy during early trials should be considered for future explorations.

  16. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Koval, S.; Wijk, R. van; He, M.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on

  17. Impact of new society of radiologists in ultrasound early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maowen; Poder, Liina; Filly, Roy A

    2014-09-01

    New early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy recommended by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound via a multispecialty consensus panel extended the diagnostic size criteria of crown-rump length from 5 to 7 mm for embryos without a heartbeat and mean sac diameter from 16 to 25 mm for "empty" sacs. Our study assessed the potential impact of the new criteria on the number of additional follow-up sonograms these changes would engender. A retrospective study of all first-trimester sonograms in women with first trimester bleeding from 1999 to 2008 was conducted. Everyone included in the study had a visible gestational sac in the uterus. There were no pregnancies of unknown location or ectopic pregnancies included in this study cohort. Pregnancy of unknown location was used to describe cases in which there were no signs of pregnancy inside or outside the uterus on transvaginal sonography despite a positive pregnancy test result. A total of 1013 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seven hundred fifty-two patients (74%) had identifiable embryos, and 261 (26%) did not. Of those with an identifiable embryo, 286 (38%) had no detectable embryonic cardiac activity. The breakdown of crown-rump lengths in this group was as follows: 100 measuring less than 5 mm, 36 measuring 5 to 7 mm, and 150 measuring 7 mm or greater. The breakdown of mean sac diameters in those without a visible embryo was as follows: 120 measuring less than 16 mm, 90 measuring 16 to 25 mm, and 51 measuring 25 mm or greater. When diagnosing a failed pregnancy, there can be no room for error. Only 126 of 1013 early pregnancies threatening to abort (12%) fell into the more conservative zones defined by the new compared to the former size criteria (crown-rump length, 5-7 mm; mean sac diameter, 16-25 mm). Therefore, the potential impact of the new guidelines on follow-up sonograms does not appear inordinate. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Indocyanine green (ICG lymphography is superior to lymphoscintigraphy for diagnostic imaging of early lymphedema of the upper limbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary lymphedema causes swelling in limbs due to lymph retention following lymph node dissection in cancer therapy. Initiation of treatment soon after appearance of edema is very important, but there is no method for early diagnosis of lymphedema. In this study, we compared the utility of four diagnostic imaging methods: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT, lymphoscintigraphy, and Indocyanine Green (ICG lymphography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between April 2010 and November 2011, we examined 21 female patients (42 arms with unilateral mild upper limb lymphedema using the four methods. The mean age of the patients was 60.4 years old (35-81 years old. Biopsies of skin and collecting lymphatic vessels were performed in 7 patients who underwent lymphaticovenous anastomosis. RESULTS: The specificity was 1 for all four methods. The sensitivity was 1 in ICG lymphography and MRI, 0.62 in lymphoscintigraphy, and 0.33 in CT. These results show that MRI and ICG lymphography are superior to lymphoscintigraphy or CT for diagnosis of lymphedema. In some cases, biopsy findings suggested abnormalities in skin and lymphatic vessels for which lymphoscintigraphy showed no abnormal findings. ICG lymphography showed a dermal backflow pattern in these cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of dual diagnosis by examination of the lymphatic system using ICG lymphography and evaluation of edema in subcutaneous fat tissue using MRI.

  19. Evaluating assumptions and parameterization underlying process-based ecosystem models: the case of LPJ-GUESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.; Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models have been widely used for analyzing ecosystem dynamics and climate feedbacks. Their performance has been tested extensively against observations and by model intercomparison studies. In the present study, the LPJ-GUESS state-of-the-art ecosystem model was evaluated with respect to its structure, hypothesis, and parameterization by performing a global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The study aims at examining potential model limitations, particularly with regards to regional and watershed scale applications. A detailed GSA based on variance decomposition is presented to investigate the structural assumptions of the model and to highlight processes and parameters that cause the highest variability in the outputs. First order and total sensitivity indexes were calculated for each of the parameters using Sobol's methodology. In order to elucidate the role of climate on model sensitivity synthetic climate scenarios were generated based on climatic data from Switzerland. The results clearly indicate a very high sensitivity of LPJ-GUESS to photosynthetic parameters. Intrinsic quantum efficiency alone is able to explain about 60% of the variability in vegetation carbon fluxes and pools for most of the investigated climate conditions. Processes related to light were also found important together with parameters affecting plant structure (growth, establishment and mortality). The model shows minor sensitivity to hydrological and soil texture parameters, questioning its skills in representing spatial vegetation heterogeneity at regional or watershed scales. We conclude that LPJ-GUESS' structure and possibly the one of other, structurally similar, dynamic vegetation models may need to be reconsidered. Specifically, the oversensitivity of the photosynthetic component deserves a particular attention, as this seems to contradict an increasing number of observations suggesting that photosynthesis may be a consequence rather than the driver of plant growth.

  20. Learning Part-of-Speech Guessing Rules from Lexicon Extension to Non-Concatenative Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikheev, A

    1996-01-01

    One of the problems in part-of-speech tagging of real-word texts is that of unknown to the lexicon words. In Mikheev (ACL-96 cmp-lg/9604022), a technique for fully unsupervised statistical acquisition of rules which guess possible parts-of-speech for unknown words was proposed. One of the over-simplification assumed by this learning technique was the acquisition of morphological rules which obey only simple concatenative regularities of the main word with an affix. In this paper we extend this technique to the non-concatenative cases of suffixation and assess the gain in the performance.

  1. The Comparison between Contextual Guessing Strategies vs. Memorizing a List of Isolated Words in Vocabulary Learning Regarding Long Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Vakili S AMIYAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guessing the meaning of unknown vocabularies within a text is a way of learning new words which is named textual vocabulary acquisition. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a textual guessing strategy on vocabulary learning at the intermediate le vel. Textual guessing strategy is to guess the meaning of vocabularies with the help of surrounding words or sentences in the co - text without any translation. This paper reports the findings of two quantitative studies conducted on English language learner s with the Intermediate 2 level of proficiency in Kavosh foreign language institute, Mashhad, Iran. Twenty male and female attendants were selected and assigned to ’context’ and ‘non - context’ groups. The context group received an instruction to infer the m eaning of new words while the non - context participants were treated as learning new vocabularies individually (autonomously. The result of the independent sample t - test at the post - test stage revealed that the probability value of t - test with an equality of variances assumption is lower than 0.05 (0.04700. So this result represented that there is a meaningful difference between the experimental group and the control group considering their amount of learning. The results indicated that textual guessing s trategy had more effect on their long term memory. It was also revealed that the words learned through context are used more frequently than those learned in isolation in the speaking repertoire of the participants.

  2. Modelling Holocene peatland and permafrost dynamics with the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitin; Miller, Paul A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are an important platform to study past, present and future vegetation patterns together with associated biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks (e.g. Sitch et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2001). However, very few attempts have been made to simulate peatlands using DGVMs (Kleinen et al. 2012, Tang et al. 2015, Wania et al. 2009a). In the present study, we have improved the peatland dynamics in the state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) in order to understand the long-term evolution of northern peatland ecosystems and to assess the effect of changing climate on peatland carbon balance. We combined a dynamic multi-layer approach (Frolking et al. 2010, Hilbert et al. 2000) with soil freezing-thawing functionality (Ekici et al. 2015, Wania et al. 2009a) in LPJ-GUESS. The new model is named LPJ-GUESS Peatland (LPJ-GUESS-P) (Chaudhary et al. in prep). The model was calibrated and tested at the sub-arctic mire in Stordalen, Sweden, and the model was able to capture the reported long-term vegetation dynamics and peat accumulation patterns in the mire (Kokfelt et al. 2010). For evaluation, the model was run at 13 grid points across a north to south transect in Europe. The modelled peat accumulation values were found to be consistent with the published data for each grid point (Loisel et al. 2014). Finally, a series of additional experiments were carried out to investigate the vulnerability of high-latitude peatlands to climate change. We find that the Stordalen mire will sequester more carbon in the future due to milder and wetter climate conditions, longer growing seasons, and the carbon fertilization effect. References: - Chaudhary et al. (in prep.). Modelling Holocene peatland and permafrost dynamics with the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model - Ekici A, et al. 2015. Site-level model intercomparison of high latitude and high altitude soil thermal dynamics in tundra and barren landscapes. The Cryosphere 9: 1343

  3. The role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Debata, Pradeep Kumar; Ranjan, Amitabh; Gaind, Rajani

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in children using reagent strips. This prospective, single blinded study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, over a period of 15 mo (August 2009 to Nov 2010). Seventy-five children aged 3 mo to 12 y admitted in the pediatric ward with suspected diagnosis of acute meningitis were included. All enroled patients underwent lumbar puncture. CSF samples were taken and divided in 2 parts for laboratory evaluation and rapid strip analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive values of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were calculated. Accuracy of the reagent strips was established using kappa statistics. Latex agglutination for antigen detection and microbiological culture were also done. Highly significant association was observed between CSF examination in routine laboratory method and dipstick method. The number of laboratory values that correlated were- for cells 71(94.63%), for protein 68 (90.67%), for glucose 68(90.67%) out of total 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism isolated (50%). Thus reagent strip analysis is a very rapid, reliable and effective method for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated.

  4. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of blunt abdominal trauma and comparison of early and late ultrasonography 24 hours after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzi, Ali; Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Ahanchi, Navid; Firoozabadi, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite the advantages of ultrasound scan, its use as a screening tool in blunt abdominal trauma is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of early and late ultrasound in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Methods: In this study which was performed in a level I trauma center, firstly, 2418 patients with BAT had ultrasound (US) examination by two trauma expert radiologists. Results were compared with the best available gold standards such ...

  6. A Systematic Review of Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Focused on Diagnostic Confirmation, Early Detection, and Prediction of Unfavorable Outcomes in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Timsit, Edouard; White, Brad J; Orsel, Karin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of newly arrived feedlot cattle are affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Economic losses could be reduced by accurate, early detection. This review evaluates the available literature regarding BRD confirmatory diagnostic tests, early detection methods, and modalities to estimate post-therapeutic prognosis or predict unfavorable or fatal outcomes. Scientific evidence promotes the use of haptoglobin to confirm BRD status. Feeding behavior, infrared thermography, and reticulorumen boluses are promising methods. Retrospective analyses of routinely collected treatment and cohort data can be used to identify cattle at risk of unfavorable outcome. Other methods have been reviewed but require further study.

  7. Influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained inside a bunker of a PET cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente C, J. A.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Da Silva, T. A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In a cyclotron facility is strongly advised the use of spectrometry techniques to support workplace neutron dosimetry. Bonner sphere spectrometer (Bss) is the most used for radiation protection applications. Bss data must be unfolded to determine the spectral particle fluence. Some computer codes have been utilized for this purpose. These codes allow unfolding the spectrum from the Bss count rates through different algorithms. Some iterative routines need an initial guess spectrum to start the unfolding. The adequate choice of this initial spectrum is a critical part of the process and can affect the final solution. In this work, we evaluate the influence of the initial guess spectrum in the unfolding of Bss data obtained in four points inside the bunker of a PET cyclotron. The measurements were done utilizing a modified Bss system with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Codes BUNKIUT and NSDUAZ were utilized to unfold the Bss data. For the NSDUAZ the starting spectrum is automatically obtained from a library initial guess spectra. For the BUNKIUT code were utilized two different initial guess spectra: (a) a Maxwellian spectrum with temperature of 1.4 MeV and shape factor of 0.1, created with the MAXIET algorithm and; (b) the spectra obtained through simulation with the MCNPX code version 2.7. Spectra obtained with both unfold codes and with the different initial guess spectra presented epithermal and thermal neutrons due to room-return effects. However, the contribution of the fast neutron to the total fluence were quite different for the different cases studied. These differences highlight the importance of an appropriate choice of an initial guess spectra for the quality of the results. (Author)

  8. A quantum algorithm for obtaining the energy spectrum of a physical system without guessing its eigenstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hefeng

    2014-08-14

    We present a quantum algorithm that provides a general approach for obtaining the energy spectrum of a physical system without making a guess on its eigenstates. In this algorithm, a probe qubit is coupled to a quantum register R which consists of one ancilla qubit and an n-qubit register that represents the system. R is prepared in a general reference state, and a general excitation operator that acts on R is constructed. The probe exhibits a dynamical response only when it is resonant with a transition from the reference state to an excited state of R which contains the eigenstates of the system. By varying the probe's frequency, the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of the system can be obtained.

  9. Collective intelligence: aggregation of information from neighbors in a guessing game

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Toni; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Ba...

  10. Controlling Guessing Bias in the Dichotomous Rasch Model Applied to a Large-Scale, Vertically Scaled Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown how the statistical bias in Rasch model difficulty estimates induced by guessing in multiple-choice items can be eliminated. Using vertical scaling of a high-profile national reading test, it is shown that the dominant effect of removing such bias is a nonlinear change in the unit of scale across the continuum. The…

  11. Interpolated task effects on direct and mediated false recognition: effects of initial recall, recognition, and the ironic effect of guessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Coane, Jennifer H; Hutchison, Keith A; Grasser, Elisabeth B; Blais, Jessica E

    2012-11-01

    In two experiments, participants studied two types of word lists. Direct lists were taken from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (e.g., water, bridge, run) and contained words directly related to a nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., river, Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Mediated lists (e.g., faucet, London, jog) contained words related to the CI through a nonpresented mediator. After each study list, participants completed either a recall test, a recall test with a warning about the CI, arithmetic problems, or a recognition test, or they guessed the CI. On a final recognition test, both warning and guessing decreased direct false recognition but increased mediated false recognition, an ironic effect of guessing. An initial recognition test also increased final mediated false recognition. We argue that warning and guessing tasks strengthened associative pathways to the CI, increased the accessibility of associated mediators, and increased monitoring for the CI at test. Increased monitoring was able to reduce CIs from direct, but not mediated, lists.

  12. Frequency and diagnostic significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCP and anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies (AMCV in children with early juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCP and anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies (AMCV elevation and their diagnostic significance in children with early juvenile arthritis (JA. Material and methods. ACCP were evaluated in serum of 80 pts with early JA (36 girls, 44 boys, mean age 8,5±5,03 years, AMCV — in 85 pts with early JA (49 girls and 36 boys aged from 1,5 to 16 years (mean age 8,7±4,9 years. Disease duration in all children was less than 6 months. Control group included 54 grown up pts with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 27 - with undifferentiated arthritis (UDA and 37 conditionally healthy children. АССР was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay (IEA with commercial kits “Axis Shield Diagnostics" (Great Britain, upper normal limit 5,0 U/ml. AMCV was examined by IEA with commercial kits “Orgentec Diagnostics” (Germany, upper normal limit — 25 U/ml. Results. ACCP was elevated in 7 children with early JA (8,8%. Frequency was higher than in healthy children but lower than in grown up pts with early RA and comparable with UDA. In juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA ACCP were more frequent than in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA. Concentration was higher in rheumatoid factor (RF positive pts with polyarticular JA. AMCV level was elevated in in 23 (27,1% pts with early JA (more frequent than in healthy donors but less frequent than in grown up pts with early RA and UDA. AMCV was significantly more frequent in JRA than in JCA and in RF positive than in RF negative pts. AMCV concentration in JA was higher than in healthy children but lower than in grown up pts with RA. It was also higher in RF+ than RF- JA. ACCP and AMCV correlated with swollen joint count, tender joint count and RF. AMCV also correlated with ESR and CRP. Conclusion. In pts with early JA ACCP and AMCV are equally or more frequent than RF. In spite of low sensitivity they have high specificity for JRA in contrast

  13. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of an IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and comparison with 2 polymerase chain reactions for early diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasco, N B; Jacob, P; Landolt, N; Chiani, Y; Schmeling, M F; Cudos, C; Tarabla, H; Lottersberger, J

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may play a key role for early detection and treatment of human leptospirosis in developing countries. The aims of this study were to develop and validate an IgM ELISA under field conditions and to compare the diagnostic accuracy among IgG, IgM ELISAs, conventional PCR (cPCR), and real-time PCR (rtPCR) for early detection of human leptospirosis. Overall accuracy of IgM ELISA was sensitivity of 87.9%, specificity of 97.0%, and area under the curve of 0.940. When the 4 methods were compared, IgM ELISA showed the greatest diagnostic accuracy (J=0.6) followed by rtPCR (J=0.4), cPCR (J=0.2) and IgG ELISA (J=0.1). Our results support the use of IgM ELISA and rtPCR for early diagnosis of the disease. Moreover, due to their high specificity, they could be also useful to replace or supplement microscopic agglutination test as a confirmatory test, allowing more confirmations.

  15. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. The Early Diagnosis of Boys and Girls in Academic Risk Using the Perceptual-Motor Diagnostic System: A Longitudinal Retrospective Study of Evidences of its Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Herrera-González; Gerardo Alonso Araya-Vargas; Harry Fernández-Sagot; María Morera-Castro; Héctor Fonseca-Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    The main objective in this study is to evidence the efficiency of the Peques System as a useful tool to diagnose, at an early stage, possible difficulties which will affect the academic performance. In a 3-year longitudinal study, the Perceptual-Motor Diagnostic System (Peques) was applied to a sample of 149 participants (77 boys and 72 girls), who were beginning preschool education. Peques classified 38 children with a high risk to lose a year at primary school level. After a three-year foll...

  17. Double-balloon enteroscopy: Indications, approaches, diagnostic and therapeutic yield, and safety. Early experience at a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Correa, J J E; Ramírez-García, J J; García-Contreras, L F; Fuentes-Orozco, C; Irusteta-Jiménez, L; Michel-Espinoza, L R; Carballo Uribe, A S; Torres Chávez, J A; González-Ojeda, A

    2017-05-12

    Double-balloon enteroscopy has been improving the visualization of the entire intestine for more than a decade. It is a complementary method in the study of intestinal diseases that enables biopsies to be taken and treatments to be administered. Our aim was to describe its main indications, insertion routes, diagnostic/therapeutic yield, and complications. All patients referred to our unit with suspected small bowel pathology were included. The insertion route (oral/anal) was determined through diagnostic suspicion. The variables measured were: insertion route, small bowel examination extent, endoscopic diagnosis/treatment, biopsy/histopathology report, complications, and surgical findings. The study included 28 double-balloon enteroscopies performed on 23 patients, of which 10 were women and 13 were men (mean age of 52.95 years). The oral approach was the most widely used (n=21), the main indication was overt small bowel bleeding (n=16), and the general diagnostic yield was 65.21%. The therapeutic intervention rate was 39.1% and the procedure was effective in all the cases. The most widely used treatment was argon plasma therapy (n=7). The complication rate was 8.6%; one patient presented with low blood pressure due to active bleeding and another had deep mucosal laceration caused by the argon plasma. Double-balloon enteroscopy is a safe and efficacious method for the study and management of small bowel diseases, with an elevated diagnostic and therapeutic yield. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Islamic Students’ Ability on Mastering Names and Responsibilities of Angels through Word Guessing Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmiza Yusra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From the researcher's experience in the field, many students were reluctant to ask for any clarification, unwilling to express their opinion, less able to give feedback, and did disruptive behaviors during the learning process. Ideally, students are expected to be active and involved in the learning process and to get good learning outcomes. This study is a Class Action Research (CAR, which attempts to improve students' activity and learning outcomes. The research was conducted through four main stages: planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and reflection. The research findings from teaching the names and responsibilities of angels through the classical method do not obtain maximum result. On the other hand, word guessing learning model shows better results than that of the classical one. In this model, students are motivated to compete with one another in making and answering the questions. The normally passive students are encouraged to participate actively in learning. Thus, it can be concluded that the learning process with of the game will improve students' learning outcomes.

  19. Collective Intelligence: Aggregation of Information from Neighbors in a Guessing Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Pérez

    Full Text Available Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Bayesian description captures the behavior pattern the individuals follow in aggregating information from neighbors to make decisions. In comparison with other simple decision models, the strategy followed by the players reveals a suboptimal performance of the collective. Our contribution provides the basis for the micro-macro connection between individual based descriptions and collective phenomena.

  20. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-02-01

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.

  1. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  2. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  3. Circulating MicroRNAs as Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers for Very Early-onset (≤40 years) Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ying; SUN Jing; DONG Qian; LIU Geng; LI JianJun; YANG Sheng Hua; LI Sha; CUI ChuanJue; ZHANG Yan; ZHUChengGang; GUO YuanLin; WU NaQiong; GAO Ying

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveVery early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD) is a great challengein cardiovascular medicine throughout the world, especially regarding its early diagnosis. This study explored whether circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) could be used as potential biomarkers for patients with very early-onset CAD. MethodsWe performed an initial screening of miRNA expression using RNA isolated from 20 patients with angiographically documented very early-onset CAD and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls. For further confirmation, we prospectively examined the miRNAs selected from 40 patientswithvery early-onset CAD and 40 angiography-normal controls. ResultsA total of 22 overexpressed miRNAs and 22 underexpressed miRNAs were detected in the initial screening. RT-qPCR analysisof the miRNAs obtained from the initial screening revealed that four miRNAs including miR-196-5p, miR-3163-3p, miR-145-3p, and miR-190a-5p exhibited significantly decreased expression in patients compared with that in controls (P<0.05).The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for these miRNAs were 0.824 (95% CI, 0.731-0.917;P<0.001), 0.758 (95%CI, 0.651-0.864;P<0.001), 0.753 (95% CI, 0.643-0.863;P<0.001), and 0.782 (95% CI, 0.680-0.884;P<0.001), respectively, in the validation set. ConclusionTo our knowledge, this isan advanced study to report about four serum miRNAs (miR-196-5p, miR-3163-3p, miR-145-3p, and miR-190a-5p) that could be used as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of very early-onset CAD.

  4. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  5. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF PROCALCITONIN, INTERLEUKIN-6 AND HS CRP IN PREDICTION OF EARLY-ONSET NEONATAL SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidities and mortalities mostly remarkable in the third world nations .We aimed to assess the value of simultaneous measurement of procalcitonin (PCT and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in association with high sensitive- C reactive protein in prediction of early neonatal sepsis. We performed a follow- up study on 95 neonates who were below 12 hours (h of age, had clinical signs of sepsis or maternal risk factors for sepsis. Neonates were assigned to 4 groups including “proven early-onset sepsis”, “clinical early-onset sepsis”, “negative infectious status”, and “uncertain infectious status”. Blood samples were obtained within the first 12 h of birth repeated between 24 hours and 36 hours of age for determination of serum levels of PCT, IL-6, high sensitivie- C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, and white blood cell (WBC count. On admission, neonates with sepsis had a higher WBC count, IL-6, PCT, and hs-CRP levels compared with those neonates without sepsis. This remained significant even after 12-24 hours of admission. Also, patients with clinical evidences of sepsis had a higher serum level of PCT and IL-6 within 12-24 hours after admission compared to the patients with uncertain sepsis. In final The combination of IL-6, hs-CRP, and PCT seems to be predictive in diagnosis of early onset neonatal sepsis.

  6. Diagnostic yield of primary circulating tumor cells in women suspected of breast cancer: the BEST (Breast Early Screening Test) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P; Miranda, Roxana; Ruiz, Amparo; Droguett, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of primary circulating tumor cells in women with suspicion of breast cancer, detected as a result of an abnormal mammography. Consecutive women presenting for breast biopsy as a result of a mammogram BiRADs of 3 or more, had an 8 ml blood sample taken for primary circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection. Mononuclear cells were obtained using differential gel centrifugation and CTCs identified using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-mammoglobin. A test was determined to be positive if 1 CTC was detected. A total of 144 women with a mean age of 54.7 ± 15.6 years participated, 78/144 (53.0%) had breast cancer on biopsy, 65/140 (46.3%) benign pathologies and 1(0.7%) non-Hogkins lymphoma. Increasing BiRADs scores were associated with increased cancer detection (p=0.004, RR 1.00, 4.24, 8.50). CTC mammoglobin positive had a sensitivity of 81.1% and specificity of 90.9%, with positive and negative predictive values of 90.9% and 81.1% respectively. Mammoglobin positive CTCs detected 87% of invasive cancers, while poorly differentiated cancers were negative for mammoglobin. Only 50% of in situ cancers and none of the intraductal cancers had CTCs detected. Menopausal status did not affect the diagnostic yield of the CTC test, which was higher in women with BiRADS 4 mammograms. There was a significant trend (pBIRADs 4a mammagrams and in the detection of interval invasive breast cancer, larger studies are needed.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs’ first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. Aim To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Design and setting Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Method Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. Results There was an 8–9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, PGPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. Conclusion The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. PMID:28137782

  8. Episodic and semantic memory impairments in (very early Alzheimer’s disease: The diagnostic accuracy of paired-associate learning formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E.J. Spaan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paired-associate learning (PAL paradigms measure memory processes sensitive to the medial temporal lobe, which shows atrophy in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD. PAL tests have not yet been standard clinical procedure, neither are semantic memory tests. In early AD, impairments are more subtle. A literature review indicates that standard neuropsychological tests may not measure these impairments accurately. Therefore, I constructed new episodic and semantic memory tests. I investigated the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in 37 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; of whom 21 had converted to AD at 1.3-year-follow-up, 43 early AD patients, and 80 non-demented controls. Main questions: (1 which tests best differentiate aMCI and AD from normal aging: most sensitively, most specifically?; (2 do PAL paradigms and/or semantic memory tests (fluency; naming contribute to this differentiation? A free recall (non-PAL test of unrelated words was most sensitive to aMCI and AD (91%, whereas a PAL-recognition-test (of semantically related word pairs of moderate association strength, including strongly related foils was most specific (96%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that differentiation was improved by a subordinate semantic fluency test. I conclude that a combination of episodic and semantic memory components best predicts AD. Future research should focus on comparing semantic and visuospatial PAL tests.

  9. Role of alpha-crystallin, early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein and culture filtrate protein 10 as novel diagnostic markers in osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Rizvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarticular tuberculosis constitutes about 3% of all tuberculosis cases. Early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is a challenging problem especially in the case of osteoarticular tuberculosis owing to the lower number of bacilli. However, an accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease results in an improved efficacy of the given treatment. Besides the limitations of conventional methods, nowadays molecular diagnostic techniques have emerged as a major breakthrough for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Alpha-crystallin is a dominantly expressed protein responsible for the long viability of the pathogen during the latent phase under certain stress conditions such as hypoxia and nitric oxide stress. Two other proteins—early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10—show high expression in the active infective phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this article, we focus on the different proteins expressed dominantly in latent/active tuberculosis, and which may be further used as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculosis, both in latent and active phases.

  10. Analysis of possibilities of early diagnostics criteria for Parkinson's disease based on analysis of the input-output curve

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    Janković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at an early stage, based on characteristics of the input-output curve. The input-output (IO curve was analyzed in two ways: we analyzed the gain of the curve for low-level transcranial stimulation and we analyzed the overall 'quality' of the IO curve. The 'quality' of the curve calculation is based on basic concepts from quantum mechanics and calculation of Tsallis entropy.

  11. [Guillain-Barré syndrome in a course of early cutaneous type of Lyme borreliosis: diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewska, Małgorzata; Szmaglińska, Hanna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    A case is reported of a 33-year-old man in whom Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBs) developed three weeks after a tick's sting. At the sting site typical for an early cutaneous type of Lyme borreliosis -- erythema migrans -- appeared. The demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy of GBs occurred after disappearance of erythema migrans, and was manifested by progressive neuropathic symmetrical limb weakness with distal numbness and pain, and bilateral facial paralysis. The GBs was confirmed by electrophysiological examination and elevated protein concentration with a normal range of cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies IgM and IgG against Borrelia burgdorferi in the blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid assessed using immunoenzymatic assay, MEIA, were negative on account of their early search. The above findings suggested that the GBs appearance after the probable Borrelia burgdorferi infection was in fact due to that infection. The patient recovered after treatment with plasma-phoresis and corticosteroid therapy followed by intravenous immunoglobulin, and physiotherapy. This is the first case in the Polish neurological literature of GBs with an early skin form of borreliosis which developed after the tick's sting.

  12. Diagnostic value of ECG-gated multidetector computed tomography in the early phase of suspected acute myocarditis. A preliminary comparative study with cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dambrin, Gregoire; Caussin, Christophe; Lancelin, Bernard; Paul, Jean F. [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Laissy, Jean P.; Serfaty, Jean M. [AP-HP, Hospital Bichat, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced echocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the setting of suspected acute myocarditis compared with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study group consisted of 12 consecutive patients admitted for suspected acute myocarditis less than 10 days after onset of symptoms. All patients had clinical, electrocardiographic signs, and laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis. All patients but one (severe claustrophobia) underwent cardiac MRI using T1-weighted delayed-enhancement images after injection of gadolinium. ECG-gated MDCT was performed in all patients and included a first-pass contrast-enhanced acquisition and a delayed acquisition. MRI revealed abnormal focal or multifocal myocardial enhancement and confirmed the diagnosis in 11 patients. The first-pass MDCT acquisition showed homogenous left-ventricle contrast enhancement and absence of coronary stenosis in all patients. Delayed MDCT acquisition, performed 5 min later without reinjection of contrast medium revealed multiple areas of myocardial hyperenhancement in a focal or a multifocal pattern (six and six patients, respectively). Extent and location of hyperenhancement at MDCT correlated well with that observed at MR examination for all 11 patients evaluated by both techniques (r=0.9167, p=0.0004). These preliminary results show that ECG-gated MDCT could be a useful alternative noninvasive diagnostic test in the early phase of acute myocarditis. (orig.)

  13. Early detection of severe sepsis in the emergency room: diagnostic value of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Koskinen, Pertti; Leino, Aila; Peuravuori, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Rintala, Esa M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic values of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) to identify severe sepsis in an emergency room (ER) setting. This was a single-centre prospective follow-up study of 539 consecutive adult patients admitted to the ER with suspected infection. Blood samples were taken concurrently with blood cultures at admission. Patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, documentation of bacterial infection, and organ dysfunction. Fifty-nine patients with no SIRS or bacterial infection, 68 patients with bacterial infection but no SIRS, 54 patients with SIRS but no bacterial infection, 309 patients with sepsis (SIRS and bacterial infection), and 49 patients with severe sepsis (sepsis and organ failure) were evaluated. In a logistic regression model, the odds ratio (OR) for PCT was 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-1.82, p sepsis, but the difference in AUC was not significant between PCT and IL-6. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounders, PCT and IL-6 remained significant independent predictors of severe sepsis. PCT and IL-6 proved superior to CRP in detecting patients with severe sepsis. The findings thus support the use of either PCT or IL-6 as an early tool to diagnose severe sepsis. The automatic ECLIA method allows even night-shift measurements.

  14. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Stratton; D. Johnson; R. Feder; E. Fredrickson; H. Neilson; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorf; M. Cole; P. Goranson; E. Lazarus; B. Nelson

    2003-09-16

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation.

  15. Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 as the early diagnostic biomarker for sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, Tanaporn; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Issara-Amphorn, Jiraphorn; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-07

    An early sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (sepsis-AKI) biomarker is currently in needed. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is a candidate of sepsis-AKI biomarker but with different cut-point values. Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 (uATF3) has been mentioned as an interesting biomarker. We conducted experiments in mice and a prospective, multicenter study in patients as a proof of concept that urine exosome is an interesting biomarker. An early expression of ATF3 in kidney of CD-1 mice at 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture implied the possibility of uATF3 as an early sepsis-AKI biomarker. Increase serum creatinine (Scr) ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline was used as an AKI diagnosis and urine was analyzed for uATF3 and uNGAL. Patients with baseline Scr at admission ≥1.5 mg/dL were excluded. The analysis showed higher Scr, uNGAL and uATF3 in patients with sepsis-AKI in comparison with patients with sepsis-non-AKI and healthy volunteers. A fair correlation, r(2) = 0.47, between uATF3 and uNGAL was showed in sepsis-AKI group with Scr ≥2 mg/dL. To see if uATF3 could be an early sepsis-AKI biomarker, urine sample was collected daily during the first week of the admission. In sepsis-AKI and sepsis-non-AKI groups, uNGAL were 367 ± 43 ng/mL and 183 ± 23 ng/mL, respectively; and uATF3 were 19 ± 4 ng/mL and 1.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. With the mean value of uNGAL and uATF3 in sepsis AKI as a cut-off level, AUROC of uNGAL and uATF3 were 64% (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) and 84% (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91), respectively. Urine exosome is an interesting source of urine biomarker and uATF3 is an interesting sepsis-AKI biomarker.

  16. Comparison of Five Diagnostic Modalities for Direct Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in Patients with Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liveris, Dionysios; Schwartz, Ira; McKenna, Donna; Nowakowski, John; Nadelman, Robert; DeMarco, Joseph; Iyer, Radha; Bittker, Susan; Cooper, Denise; Holmgren, Diane; Wormser, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most commonly reported tick-borne infection in North America, is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Although an accurate clinical diagnosis can often be made based on the presence of erythema migrans, in research studies microbiologic or molecular microbiologic confirmation of the diagnosis may be required. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of five direct diagnostic methods (culture and nested PCR of a 2 mm skin biopsy specimen, nested PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) performed on the same 1 mL aliquot of plasma and a novel qPCR-blood culture method) in 66 untreated adult patients with erythema migrans. One or more these tests were positive in 93.9% of the patients. Culture was more sensitive than PCR for both skin and blood, but the difference was only statistically significant for blood samples (p< 0.005). Blood culture was significantly more likely to be positive in patients with multiple erythema migrans skin lesions compared to those with a single lesion (p=0.001). Positive test results among the 48 patients for whom all five assays were performed invariably included either a positive blood or skin culture. The results of this study demonstrate that direct detection methods such as PCR and culture are highly sensitive in untreated adult patients with erythema migrans. This enabled microbiologic or molecular microbiologic confirmation of the diagnosis of B. burgdorferi infection in all but four (6.1%) of the 66 patients evaluated. PMID:22571973

  17. Early dental caries detection by method of PNC-diagnostics: comparison with visual and x-ray methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC- method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: backscattering and probing radiation, stimulated (endogenous) autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC- method with visual and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage 'white lesion.'

  18. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy and Confidence in the Clinical Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman-Chick, Kathryn A; Martin, Phillip K; Barrett, Matthew J; Manning, Carol A; Sperling, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in up to 34% of patients with early-stage Parkinson disease (PD); however, it is difficult to detect subtle impairment without objective cognitive testing. Data were obtained from the Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative. All 341 participants were administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a brief neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified as PD-MCI if MoCA was <26 or if they scored ≥1 standard deviation below the normative mean in 2 or more domains, based upon established criteria. The sensitivity/specificity for the clinical detection of PD-MCI was determined. Overall accuracy for clinical detection of PD-MCI was 67.4%. Although clinical determination was highly specific (96.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.98), sensitivity was poor (32.0%; 95% CI: 0.25-0.40). Identifying MCI in early-stage PD based on clinical interview alone appears to be insufficient. The inclusion of objective cognitive tests allowing for normative sample comparisons is needed to increase the detection of cognitive impairment in this population.

  20. Early sponges and toxic protists: possible sources of cryostane, an age diagnostic biomarker antedating Sturtian Snowball Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, J J; Jarrett, A J M; Sirantoine, E; Kenig, F; Moczydłowska, M; Porter, S; Hope, J

    2016-03-01

    The period 800-717 million years (Ma) ago, in the lead-up to the Sturtian Snowball glaciation, saw an increase in the diversity of eukaryotic microfossils. To afford an independent and complementary view of this evolutionary period, this study presents the distribution of eukaryotic biomarkers from three pre-Sturtian successions across the supercontinent Rodinia: the ca. 780 Ma Kanpa Formation of the Western Australian Officer Basin, the ca. 800-740 Ma Visingsö Group of Sweden, and the 740 Ma Chuar Group in Arizona, USA. The distribution of eukaryotic steranes is remarkably similar in the three successions but distinct from all other known younger and older sterane assemblages. Cholestane was the only conventional structure, while indigenous steranes alkylated in position C-24, such as ergostane, stigmastane, dinosterane and isopropylcholestane, and n-propylcholestane, were not observed. This sterane distribution appears to be age diagnostic for the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. It attests to the distinct evolutionary state of pre-Snowball eukaryotes, pointing to a taxonomic disparity that was still lower than in the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma). All three basins also show the presence of a new C28 sterane that was tentatively identified as 26-methylcholestane, here named cryostane. The only known extant organisms that can methylate sterols in the 26-position are demosponges. This assignment is plausible as molecular clocks place the appearance of the earliest animals into the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. The unusual 26-methylsterol may have protected sponges, but also other eukaryotes, against their own membranolytic toxins. Some protists release lytic toxins to deter predators and kill eukaryotic prey. As conventional membrane sterols can be the site of attack for these toxins, sterols with unusual side-chain modification protect the cell. This interpretation of cryostane supports fossil evidence of predation in the Chuar Group and promotes hypotheses about the

  1. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PIB PET on early stage posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a kind of progressive neurodegenerative disease with cortical visual impairment as the first symptom. Because of rare clinical incidence, early onset age, special clinical symptoms and unobvious MRI abnormality, the definitive diagnosis of PCA is difficult. This study used 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG PET and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB PET for PCA patients with unobvious MRI abnormality, so as to discuss the value of PET in the early diagnosis of PCA.  Methods  Five patients diagnosed as PCA in our hospital between April 2012 and March 2015 were enrolled in this study. Cognitive function was measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Clock Drawing Test (CDT. Brain MRI, 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PIB PET were performed to analyze glucose metabolism and perfusion of posterior cortex.  Results Neuropsychological tests revealed that the ability of writing, calculating, visuospatial and executive function of all these patients were impaired. Color vision tests showed abnormal results. MRI showed that the posterior atrophy (PA scores were 0-2 (average 1 on the left side and 0-1 (average 0.80 on the right side. The medial temporal atrophy (MTA scores were 1-3 (average 1.80 on the left side and 1-4 (average 2 on the right side. The ventricular enlargement (VE scores were 1-2 (average 1.80 on the left side and 1-2 (average 1.60 on the right side. 18F-FDG PET showed glucose metabolism decreased obviously on bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortex, precuneus and cingulate gyrus, and slightly on frontal lobes and subcortical structure. 11C-PIB PET showed radioactive 11C-PIB deposition on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, and the outline of cerebellar cortex was clear.  Conclusions  For PCA patients whose parietal and occipital cortical atrophy is not obvious on MRI, 18F-FDG PET

  2. [Antinuclear antibodies as early diagnostic criteria of developing collagen disease in quartz dust exposure--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, J; Conrad, K; Frank, K H; Ziegler, H; Harzbecker, K; Ullmann, L; Lüthke, K

    1990-03-01

    One and a half years antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) against Scl-70 and U1-RNP were found in the serum of a quartz dust exposed worker before the clinical manifestation of the progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Only a discrete lung fibrosis and an enlargement of the heart was seen at the time of the first autoantibody detection. Because workers with an intensive and long-lasting quartz dust exposition take a high risk to develop PSS a sensitive ANA-screening is indicated at minimum suspicion of chronic collagen disease. The detection of a high ANA-titer in a clinical healthy person may give a hint for the possible future development of such a disease and requires the observation of the clinical course and the paraclinical and immunological parameters. A lung fibrosis and/or an enlargement of the heart in X-ray photographs would indicate visceral early manifestations of the PSS before skin symptoms appear.

  3. Early diagnosis of neuropathy in leprosy--comparing diagnostic tests in a large prospective study (the INFIR cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim H van Brakel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is the most frequent treatable neuromuscular disease. Yet, every year, thousands of patients develop permanent peripheral nerve damage as a result of leprosy. Since early detection and treatment of neuropathy in leprosy has strong preventive potential, we conducted a cohort study to determine which test detects this neuropathy earliest. METHODS AND FINDINGS: One hundred and eighty-eight multibacillary (MB leprosy patients were selected from a cohort of 303 and followed for 2 years after diagnosis. Nerve function was evaluated at each visit using nerve conduction (NC, quantitative thermal sensory testing and vibrometry, dynamometry, monofilament testing (MFT, and voluntary muscle testing (VMT. Study outcomes were sensory and motor impairment detected by MFT or VMT. Seventy-four of 188 patients (39% had a reaction, neuritis, or new nerve function impairment (NFI event during a 2-year follow-up. Sub-clinical neuropathy was extensive (20%-50%, even in patients who did not develop an outcome event. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitudes, compound motor action potential (CMAP velocities, and warm detection thresholds (WDT were most frequently affected, with SNAP impairment frequencies ranging from 30% (median to 69% (sural. Velocity was impaired in up to 43% of motor nerves. WDTs were more frequently affected than cold detection thresholds (29% versus 13%, ulnar nerve. Impairment of SNC and warm perception often preceded deterioration in MF or VMT scores by 12 weeks or more. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of leprosy patients have subclinical neuropathy that was not evident when only MFT and VMT were used. SNC was the most frequently and earliest affected test, closely followed by WDT. They are promising tests for improving early detection of neuropathy, as they often became abnormal 12 weeks or more before an abnormal monofilament test. Changes in MFT and VMT score mirrored changes in neurophysiology, confirming their

  4. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM-1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro- and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM-1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM-1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time-dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM-1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α-SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM-1 could be completed within 5–10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM-1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM-1. PMID:28075469

  5. Detecting of p16 Autoantibody as a Potential Early Diagnostic Serum Biomarker in Patients with Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Mingmei; Liu, Linlin; Xu, Shuang; Li, Siyao; Jiang, Kuo; Sun, Baosheng; Lee, Kuang-Hui; Sun, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Over-expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) may trigger secretion of their auto-antibodies. The present work was designed to test whether circulating antibody to P16 protein-derived antigens was altered in cervical cancer. 141 cases of cervical cancer patients, 133 cases of cervical benign tumor patients, and 153 healthy volunteers matched in age were recruited. The level of circulating P16 auto-antibody was tested using an ELISA developed in-house with linear peptide antigens derived from the P16 protein. The P16 auto-antibody in the malignant tumor group had a significantly higher level than the healthy control group and the benign tumor group (t = 4.016, p cervical cancer have the highest level of P16 autoantibody and the sensitivity against > 90% specificity was 20.3%. The circulating auto-antibody to P16 may be one of a series of potential biomarkers with early prognostic values for cervical cancer.

  6. Early warning smartphone diagnostics for water security and analysis using real-time pH mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Early detection of environmental disruption, unintentional or otherwise, is increasingly desired to ensure hazard minimization in many settings. Here, using a field-portable, smartphone fluorimeter to assess water quality based on the pH response of a designer probe, a map of pH of public tap water sites has been obtained. A custom designed Android application digitally processed and mapped the results utilizing the global positioning system (GPS) service of the smartphone. The map generated indicates no disruption in pH for all sites measured, and all the data are assessed to fall inside the upper limit of local government regulations, consistent with authority reported measurements. This implementation demonstrates a new security concept: network environmental forensics utilizing the potential of novel smartgrid analysis with wireless sensors for the detection of potential disruption to water quality at any point in the city. This concept is applicable across all smartgrid strategies within the next generation of the Internet of Things and can be extended on national and global scales to address a range of target analytes, both chemical and biological.

  7. Examination of the Early Diagnostic Applicability of Active Dynamic Thermography for Burn Wound Depth Assessment and Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prindeze, Nicholas J; Fathi, Payam; Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Travis, Taryn E; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in perfusion imaging, burn wound imaging technology continues to lag behind that of other fields. Quantification of blood flow is able to predict time for healing, but clear assessment of burn depth is still questionable. Active dynamic thermography (ADT) is a noncontact imaging modality capable of distinguishing tissue of different thermal conductivities. Utilizing the abnormal heat transfer properties of the burn zones, we examined whether ADT was useful in the determination of burn depth in a model of early burn wound evaluation. Duroc pigs (castrated male; n = 3) were anesthetized, and two burns were created with an aluminum billet at 3 and 12 seconds. These contact times resulted in superficial partial and deep partial thickness burn wounds, respectively. ADT and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) imaging were performed every 30 minutes postburn for a total of five imaging sessions ending 150 minutes postburn. For ADT, imaging excitation was performed for 42-120 seconds with dual quartz-infrared lamps, and subsequent infrared image capture was performed for 300 seconds. MATLAB-assisted image analysis was performed to determine burn zone region of interest thermal relaxation and characteristic patterns. LDI was performed with a moorLDI system, and biopsies were captured for histology following the 150-minute imaging session. Both ADT and LDI imaging modalities are able to detect different physical properties at 30, 60, 90 120, and 150 minutes postburn with statistical significance (P burn depth. This preliminary work confirms that ADT can measure burn depth and is deserving of further research either as a stand-alone imaging technology or in combination with a device to assess perfusion.

  8. Detection antigen virus den on monocyts by streptavidin biotin test as early diagnostic for dengue fever hemorrhagic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y NINING SRI WURYANINGSIH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Clinically it may manifest as asymtomastic,undifferentiated fever,dengue ever,dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases. The mechanism underlying the disease with severe complication is not clear yet,however it has been previosus reported that primary and secondary infections of dengue virus play an important role in the patogenesis of this diseases. Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection has a great contribution for appropriate management of the disease, especialy for the prognosis of the patient. Laboratory investigations for such cases will be methods on serological investigation as well as virus isolation and identification.of dengue virus infection could be made by detection of specific virus ,viral antigen,genomic sequence and or detection of antibodies. These methods are sensitive and precise for detecting dengue virus infection,but there need special equipment,costly and detection of IgM and IgG often positive or negative false the dengue virus in the blood stream There for, this study was performed in order to develop a method to detect dengue virus antigen on the monocytes using Streptavidin biotin technique. The result of Streptavidin biotin study demonstrated that 32 sera from patient suspected with DHF 78,1% were positive DHF,and 21,9% were negative DHF. These results are consistent with the result from WHO criteria as standard .The Chi Square analysis showed that the presentage of sensitivity and specificity of Streptavidin biotin methode were 88% and 87,7% respectively. In conclusions, immunocytochemistry method using streptavidin biotin technique could be used as a method to detect antigen dengue virus on monocytes in the serum patient suspected with DHF. This technique has high sensitivity and specivicity and consistent with the clinical WHO criteria for DHF.

  9. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: diagnostic accuracy of a non-invasive screening technique for early detection of malignant changes in the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, J L; Nisha, G U; Manju, S; Philip, E K; Jeemon, P; Baiju, K V; Beena, V T

    2011-01-01

    Background Strong proof-of-principle for utilisation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive tool for early detection of malignant changes, has emerged recently. The potential of this technique in distinguishing normal tissue from hyperplastic and dysplastic tissues was explored. Methods Diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in the 400–700 nm region were obtained from the buccal mucosa of 96 patients and 34 healthy volunteers. The DR spectral data were compared against the gold standard biopsy and histopathology results. A principal-component analysis was performed for dimensional reduction in the normalised spectral data with linear discriminant analysis as the classifying technique. The receiver operator characteristic curve technique was employed for evaluating the performance of the diagnostic test. Results DR spectral features for different lesions, such as normal/healthy, hyperplastic, dysplastic and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), varied significantly according to the intensity of oxygenated haemoglobin absorption. While the classification based on discriminant scores provided an overall sensitivity of 98.5% and specificity of 96.0% for distinguishing SCC from dysplasia, they were 100.0% and 95.0%, respectively, for distinguishing dysplasia from hyperplasia. Similarly, the analysis yielded a sensitivity of 95.0% and specificity of 100.0% for distinguishing hyperplasia from healthy tissue. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves were 0.98 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.00) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.00) for distinguishing dysplasia from SCC and hyperplasia from dysplasia, respectively. Conclusion DR spectral data efficiently discriminate healthy tissue from oral malignant lesions. Diagnostic accuracies obtained in this study highlight the potential use of this method for routine clinical practice. PMID:22021749

  10. Analysis of Guess and Determined Attack on Non Linear Modified SNOW 2.0 Using One LFSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Waris

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream ciphers encrypt the data bit by bit. In this research a new model of stream cipher SNOW 2.0 has been proposed i.e. Non linear modified SNOW 2.0 using one Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR with the embedding of non linear function in the model. The analysis of Guess and Determined (GD attack has been done to check its security with respect to previous versions. The proposed model contains one Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR along with the non linear function which increases the strength of the stream cipher, to make the static nature of modified SNOW 2.0 dynamic. The Experimental analysis show that such a mechanism has been built which provides more security than the previous version of modified SNOW 2.0 in which non linearity was either not introduced or it was introduced using two Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs. It is concluded that this version is more powerful with respect to the security of plain text against Guess and Determined attack (GD as compared to the previous versions.

  11. Glyph guessing for 'oo' and 'ee': spatial frequency information in sound symbolic matching for ancient and unfamiliar scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoman, Nora; Styles, Suzy J

    2017-09-01

    In three experiments, we asked whether diverse scripts contain interpretable information about the speech sounds they represent. When presented with a pair of unfamiliar letters, adult readers correctly guess which is /i/ (the 'ee' sound in 'feet'), and which is /u/ (the 'oo' sound in 'shoe') at rates higher than expected by chance, as shown in a large sample of Singaporean university students (Experiment 1) and replicated in a larger sample of international Internet users (Experiment 2). To uncover what properties of the letters contribute to different scripts' 'guessability,' we analysed the visual spatial frequencies in each letter (Experiment 3). We predicted that the lower spectral frequencies in the formants of the vowel /u/ would pattern with lower spatial frequencies in the corresponding letters. Instead, we found that across all spatial frequencies, the letter with more black/white cycles (i.e. more ink) was more likely to be guessed as /u/, and the larger the difference between the glyphs in a pair, the higher the script's guessability. We propose that diverse groups of humans across historical time and geographical space tend to employ similar iconic strategies for representing speech in visual form, and provide norms for letter pairs from 56 diverse scripts.

  12. Magnetic Flux of EUV Arcade and Dimming Regions as a Relevant Parameter for Early Diagnostics of Solar Eruptions - Sources of Non-Recurrent Geomagnetic Storms and Forbush Decreases

    CERN Document Server

    Chertok, I M; Belov, A V; Abunin, A A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at the early diagnostics of geoeffectiveness of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from quantitative parameters of the accompanying EUV dimming and arcade events. We study events of the 23th solar cycle, in which major non-recurrent geomagnetic storms (GMS) with Dst <-100 nT are sufficiently reliably identified with their solar sources in the central part of the disk. Using the SOHO/EIT 195 A images and MDI magnetograms, we select significant dimming and arcade areas and calculate summarized unsigned magnetic fluxes in these regions at the photospheric level. The high relevance of this eruption parameter is displayed by its pronounced correlation with the Forbush decrease (FD) magnitude, which, unlike GMSs, does not depend on the sign of the Bz component but is determined by global characteristics of ICMEs. Correlations with the same magnetic flux in the solar source region are found for the GMS intensity (at the first step, without taking into account factors determining the Bz component near t...

  13. The Early Diagnosis of Boys and Girls in Academic Risk Using the Perceptual-Motor Diagnostic System: A Longitudinal Retrospective Study of Evidences of its Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Herrera-González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in this study is to evidence the efficiency of the Peques System as a useful tool to diagnose, at an early stage, possible difficulties which will affect the academic performance. In a 3-year longitudinal study, the Perceptual-Motor Diagnostic System (Peques was applied to a sample of 149 participants (77 boys and 72 girls, who were beginning preschool education. Peques classified 38 children with a high risk to lose a year at primary school level. After a three-year follow-up (first primary school level, it was determined that 23 of the 127 who remained in the study (18%, had failed the first, second or third school year. From the high-risk group diagnosed by the Peques System, an 83% indeed lost a school year. These boys and girls had difficulties in different aspects, such as their information processing capacity, motor development, corporal image, Gestalt development and corporal coordination. We concluded that Peques System was able to predict the academic failure in the primary school level, based on the perceptual-motor development reached at preschool level. Further, based on this experience it is recommended to pay special attention to perceptual-motor development, since it plays a basic role in the academic success of boys and girls.

  14. On Common Techniques for the Guess of Word Meanings in English Reading%英语阅读中常用的猜测词义的技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云霞

    2014-01-01

    To guess the meanings of new words is an important skill in English reading. This paper focused on common tech-niques for the guess of word meanings in English reading, and enumerated some examples to explain the issue.%猜测生词词义是英语阅读的一项重要技巧。本文着重介绍英语阅读中常用的猜测词义的技巧,并列举了一些实例加以说明。

  15. Genetic sensitivity to bitter taste of 6-n Propylthiouracil: A useful diagnostic aid to detect early childhood caries in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Pidamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Genetic factor to bitter taste perception appears to be largely mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. The insensitivity to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is mediated by this gene. PROP, a pharmacological drug used in treatment of Graves′ disease, proved to be useful tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels to bitter and sweet taste. The purpose of this study is to show much simpler PROP sensitivity technique for the clinical examiner and its application as a diagnostic aid in Early Childhood Caries (ECC detection among preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 children belonging to the age group of 36 to 71 months of both sexes, were recruited from A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore (Karnataka. PROP sensitivity test was carried out to determine the inherent genetic ability to taste a bitter or sweet substance. This study used simpler scaling method to find out genetic sensitivity to bitter taste; one who tasted bitter as taster and one who was not able to differentiate/tasted like paper as non-taster. A questionnaire was provided to evaluate their dietary habits and caries experience was recorded. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In the total of 119 children the mean dmfs was definitely higher in non-taster children compared to tasters. The tasters had a mean dmfs value of 9.5120 (S.D. 7.0543 and non-tasters had a value of 7.7250 (S.D. 8.33147, which was statistically significant. The results suggested that there was increase in caries experience among the group of non-tasters as compared to tasters. Tasters tended to be sweet dislikers and non-tasters tended to be sweet likers. On the whole, tasters had a bad dentition as compared to non tasters. Conclusion: The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. The knowledge of a child′s taste

  16. 浅议英语猜词策略及策略培养%Strategy Cultivation of Guessing English Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董芳菊

    2013-01-01

      从语境法和结构法简述英语阅读教学中猜测生词词义的几种策略,以语境法中的根据定义,逻辑关系和根据上下文和生活常识和结构法中的派生法,合成法和转化法猜测词义为例,进行猜词策略的培养。%  This thesis studies several strategies of guessing the meaning of new words from the contextual and structural method in English read⁃ing. These strategies are cultivated by the context, definition, logic and common sense.

  17. Review of Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving by Sanjoy Mahajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010. 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples that will require knowledge of Physics. At the same time, there are parts of the book that don't require this much background. While the title of the book may be misleading, as it is really street-fighting mathematics for people with a fair amount of training in the subject, there is a lot to be gained from reading this book, and calculus teachers may find it to be a useful resource.

  18. Diagnostic value of cystatin C for diagnosis of early renal damages in type 2 diabetic mellitus patients: The first experience in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Javanmardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. Now-a-days, cystatin C (CysC is introduced as a new marker for diagnosis of renal damages; however, use of this marker in clinical laboratories is still controversial. The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum CysC for early detection or monitoring treatment of kidney damages in the Kurdish people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Serum CysC and urine microalbumin were also measured in 126 diabetic and healthy subjects. Blood glycated hemoglobin (Hb also measured in all healthy and diabetic patients. Two independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test, as well as Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficient statistical tests were used as appropriate. Results: Serum CysC was higher (1312.41 ng/ml in diabetic patients with GFR <60 ml/min than other subjects (993.25 ng/ml (patients with normal kidney function and healthy subjects. A borderline significant correlation between CysC and estimating GFR (rs = −0.16, P = 0.05 but highly significant with microalbumin (rs = 0.22, P = 0.014 was observed. Serum CysC sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values were 100 and 4%. Conclusion: CysC cover variation of GFR and urine microalbumin, but it cannot be used as a surrogating marker of glycated Hb. According to our results, it seems that serum CysC is a useful marker for screening of DN; but it cannot be used for monitoring of treatment in diabetic patients.

  19. The Clinical Value of Early Diagnostic Methods of Bladder Cancer%膀胱癌早期诊断方法的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平秦榕; 颜汝平; 王剑松

    2015-01-01

    膀胱癌是泌尿生殖系统中最为常见的恶性肿瘤。目前,尿脱落细胞学检查和膀胱镜检查是临床上诊断膀胱癌最可靠的方法。但膀胱镜检查为有创检查,且对于肉眼见不到的微小肿瘤容易造成漏诊,而传统的尿脱落细胞学检查虽为无创检查,但敏感性低,易出现假阳性结果。近年文献报道了许多新的膀胱癌早期诊断方法,本文从尿液肿瘤标记物检测、DNA 检测分析、尿液脱落细胞染色体异常的检测、荧光膀胱镜检查等四个方面对各种膀胱癌早期诊断方法的临床价值作一综述。%Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor in urogenital system .At present ,the urinary cytology and cystoscopy are the most reliable methods for clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer . However ,cystoscopy belongs to an invasive procedure and could easily misdiagnose the tiny tumor which is invisible to the naked eye ,while urinary cytology has lower sensibility and easily produces false positive results even though it is a non‐invasive method .In recent years , many new methods of early diagnosis of bladder cancer have been reported in the literature .In this paper ,we reviewed the recent progress about the clinical value of early diagnostic methods of bladder cancer from the following aspects such as urine tumor markers detection ,DNA analysis ,detection of chromosome aberration of urine exfoliated cells ,fluorescence cystoscopy and so on .

  20. Biomarkers for Early Diagnostic of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type-2 Diabetes Patients: A Multicentre, Retrospective, Nested Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Peng Xu

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation: Aging, activation of peripheral circulating GSK-3β, expression of ApoE ε4 and increase of olfactory score are diagnostic for the mild cognitive impairment in T2DM patients, and combination of these biomarkers can improve the diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Reappraisal of the diagnostic and prognostic value of morning stiffness in arthralgia and early arthritis: Results from the Groningen EARC, Leiden EARC, ESPOIR, Leiden EAC and REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.B. van Nies (Jessica A.B.); C. Alves (Celina); A.L.S. Radix-Bloemen (Audrey L.S.); C. Gaujoux-Viala (Cécile); T.W.J. Huizinga (Tom); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); E. Brouwer (Eric); B. Fautrel (Bruno); Mil, A.H.M.H.-V. (Annette H.M. van der Helm-van)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Morning stiffness is assessed daily in the diagnostic process of arthralgia and arthritis, but large-scale studies on the discriminative ability are absent. This study explored the diagnostic value of morning stiffness in 5,202 arthralgia and arthritis patients and the prog

  2. Reappraisal of the diagnostic and prognostic value of morning stiffness in arthralgia and early arthritis : results from the Groningen EARC, Leiden EARC, ESPOIR, Leiden EAC and REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nies, Jessica A. B.; Alves, Celina; Radix-Bloemen, Audrey L. S.; Gaujoux-Viala, Cecile; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Hazes, Johanna M. W.; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Fautrel, Bruno; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Morning stiffness is assessed daily in the diagnostic process of arthralgia and arthritis, but large-scale studies on the discriminative ability are absent. This study explored the diagnostic value of morning stiffness in 5,202 arthralgia and arthritis patients and the prognostic value

  3. A Study on the Relationship between English Vocabulary Threshold and Word Guessing Strategy for Pre-University Chinese Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Wu Xiao; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol; Eng, Lin Siew

    2013-01-01

    This survey aims at studying the relationship between English vocabulary threshold and word guessing strategy that is used in reading comprehension learning among 80 pre-university Chinese students in Malaysia. T-test is the main statistical test for this research, and the collected data is analysed using SPSS. From the standard deviation test…

  4. Educated Guess van gevolgen voor verkeersslachtoffers door maatregel Snorfiets op de rijbaan (SOR) in Amsterdam : een eerste inschatting van effecten gerelateerd aan verkeersveiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Dijkstra, A. Bos, N.M. Goldenbeld, C. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Educated Guess about the consequences for casualties as a result of introduction of the measure Light moped in the carriageway (SOR) in Amsterdam : a first estimate of the effects related to road safety. The Board of Mayor and Eldermen of the City of Amsterdam considers moving light mopeds in 50km/h

  5. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  6. CLINICAL HETEROGENEITY OF EARLY PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the characteristic symptoms and syndromes of early-stage psoriatic arthritis (ePsA, which are pivotal to its early diagnosis.Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients with a PsA duration of less than 2 years (mean 12 months were examined. The diagnosis of PsA was established on the basis of the conventional CASPAR criteria and the Russian criteria developed by the expert method. The conventional current criteria, including the number of tender and swollen joints, DAS28, values of acute-phase indicators, were used to detect inflammatory activity. Skin syndrome was evaluated using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. X-ray study of the hands, distal and proximal feet, pelvis, and other involved joints and MRI of the distal hands/feet were performed. The Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES and reduced GUESS were used to assess enthesopathy.Results. The types of articular syndrome in ePsA were identified in accordance of the duration of the disease. The authors determined the characteristic features of arthritis, spondylitis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, their diagnostic value and associations with other manifestations in the first 2 years of PsA. There was a relationship of dermatitis and psoriatic onychopathy to the clinical picture of articular syndrome.Conclusion. ePsA is characterized by marked heterogeneity of articular syndrome with predominantly mono/oligoarthritic and polyarthritic articular syndrome. The significant signs are enthesitis and dactylitis, which serve as risk factors for the unfavorable course of the disease. 

  7. 暗意识猜想%The Guesses of Dark Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高也陶

    2012-01-01

    21世纪初,暗物质与暗能量被观测证实.人类可见的物质只占宇宙的4.6%,其它95.4%的部分人类还不甚了解.在人类还未认知的世界中,是否存在不同于人类的生命结构和暗意识吗,对此,通过简述暗物质与暗能量的发现过程,以及意识的最新观点,提出暗意识可能存在的九种猜想.%The greatest discovery is the dark matter and dark energy in the early 21st Century. Human Being is able to see only 4. 6 percent composition of the Universe. Human know rarely the dark matter and dark energy. Are there other live structure and dark consciousness which different from Human Being in the Universe? This paper conjectures the nine possibilities of the dark consciousnesses through sketching the process of the dark matter and dark energy fund and the newest concept of consciousness.

  8. Comparative analysis of early diagnostic tools for breast cancer%乳腺癌常用早期诊断方法的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈松杰; 孙强; 徐雅莉; 周易冬; 关竞红; 茅枫; 林燕; 王学晶; 韩少梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较分析乳腺癌高危因素(病史采集)、乳腺查体、乳腺彩色多普勒超声(即彩超)和乳腺钼靶X线摄影术(即乳腺钼靶)等常用的早期乳腺癌诊断方法对乳腺癌早期诊断的准确性.方法 采用前瞻性方法,对2010年4月至2011年9月进行手术活检的初治患者,通过病史采集以及前期“十一五”课题建立的中国乳腺癌发病风险预测模型确定乳腺癌的发病风险,并独立进行乳腺查体、乳腺彩超和钼靶评估,并与最终病理结果进行比较,分析其灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值和准确性.结果 共入组患者1468例,年龄13 ~92岁,中位年龄44岁.其中乳腺癌患者551例,发病高峰年龄为40 ~ 60岁.乳腺癌发病风险预测模型、乳腺查体、乳腺彩超和乳腺钼靶的灵敏度分别为47.5%、86.2%、89.8%和79.3%,特异度分别为68.8%、83.3%、81.0%和88.7%,阳性预测值分别为47.6%、75.5%、73.8%和80.8%,阴性预测值分别为68.8%、91.0%、93.0%和87.8%,准确性分别为60.9%、84.4%、84.3%和85.2%.年龄是影响乳腺查体、乳腺彩超和乳腺钼靶灵敏度和特异度的重要因素.结论 在乳腺癌早期诊断中,乳腺彩超对中国女性灵敏度优于钼靶,应该作为初诊患者首选的常规检查;任何单一的检查方法还不能获得很高的准确性,对于高危的乳腺癌人群需要采用多种检查方法联合进行诊断.%Objective Mammography is the principle imaging modality used for early diagnosis of breast cancer in Western countries.It has not been well-established whether this Western diagnostic modality is adoptable for Chinese women.The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective accuracy of the common diagnostic tools for breast cancer including history-taking,physical examination,ultrasound and mammography.Methods Clinical presentation and investigations for consecutive patients undergoing history

  9. Implementation of a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial to evaluate impact of Botswana's Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic algorithm on TB diagnostic sensitivity and early antiretroviral therapy mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Andrew F; Agizew, Tefera; Pals, Sherri; Finlay, Alyssa; Ndwapi, Ndwapi; Boyd, Rosanna; Alexander, Heather; Mathoma, Anikie; Basotli, Joyce; Gwebe-Nyirenda, Sambayawo; Shepherd, James; Ellerbrock, Tedd V; Date, Anand

    2016-10-26

    In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". The evaluation, called the Xpert Package Rollout Evaluation using a Stepped-wedge design (XPRES), has two key objectives: (1) to compare sensitivity of microscopy-based and Xpert-based pulmonary TB diagnostic algorithms in diagnosing sputum culture-positive TB; and (2) to evaluate impact of the "Xpert package" on all-cause, 6-month, adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality. A pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial design was chosen. The design involves enrollment of three cohorts: (1) cohort R, a retrospective cohort of all study clinic ART enrollees in the 24 months before study initiation (July 31, 2012); (2) cohort A, a prospective cohort of all consenting patients presenting to study clinics after study initiation, who received the ICF intervention and the microscopy-based TB diagnostic algorithm; and (3) cohort B, a prospective cohort of all consenting patients presenting to study clinics after Xpert activation, who received the ICF intervention and the Xpert-based TB diagnostic algorithm. TB diagnostic sensitivity will be compared between TB culture-positive enrollees in cohorts A and B. All-cause, 6-month ART-mortality will be compared between cohorts R and B. With anticipated cohort R, A, and B sample sizes of about 10,131, 1,878, and 4,258, respectively, the study is estimated to have >80 % power to detect differences in pre-versus post-Xpert TB diagnostic sensitivity if pre-Xpert sensitivity is ≤52.5 % and post-Xpert sensitivity ≥82.5 %, and >80 % power to detect a 40 % reduction in all-cause, 6-month, ART mortality between cohorts R and B if cohort R mortality is ≥13/100 person-years. Only

  10. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Barthel Index for Measuring Activities of Daily Living Outcome After Ischemic Hemispheric Stroke Does Early Poststroke Timing of Assessment Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, Gert; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Harmeling-van der Wel, Barbara C.; van Wegen, Erwin; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Harmeling-van der Wel, BC

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the Barthel Index (BI) in 206 stroke patients, measured within 72 hours, for activities of daily living at 6 months and determined whether the timing of BI assessment during the first days affects the accuracy of predicting ac

  12. The Impact of 3-Option Responses to Multiple-Choice Questions on Guessing Strategies and Cut Score Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROYAL, KENNETH D.; STOCKDALE, MYRAH R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research has asserted MCQ items using three response options (one correct answer with two distractors) is comparable to, and possibly preferable over, traditional MCQ item formats consisting of four response options (e.g., one correct answer with three distractors), or five response options (e.g., one correct answer with four distractors). Some medical educators have also adopted the practice of using 3-option responses on MCQ exams as a response to the difficulty experienced in generating additional plausible distractors. To date, however, little work has explored how 3-option responses might impact validity threats stemming from random guessing strategies, and what impact 3-option responses might have on cut-score determinations, particularly in the context of medical education classroom assessments. The purpose of this work is to further explore these critically important considerations that largely have gone ignored in the medical education literature to this point. Methods: A cumulative binomial distribution formula was used to calculate the probability that an examinee will answer at random a given number of items correctly on any exam (of any length). By way of a demonstration, a variety of scenarios were presented to illustrate how examination length and the number of response options impact examinees’ chances of passing a given examination, and how subsequent cut-score decisions may be impacted by these factors. Results: As a general rule, classroom assessments containing fewer items should utilize traditional 4-option or 5-option responses, whereas assessments of greater length are afforded greater flexibility in potentially utilizing 3-option responses. Conclusions: More research on items with 3-option responses is needed to better understand what value, if any, 3-option responses truly add to classroom assessments, and in what contexts potential benefits might be discernible. PMID:28367465

  13. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go “up” or “down” in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops. PMID:27532219

  14. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops.

  15. Early recognition of heart failure in patients with diabetes type 2 in primary care. A prospective diagnostic efficiency study. (UHFO-DM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wit G Ardine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesize that the prevalence of unknown heart failure in diabetic patients aged 60 years and over is relatively high (15% or more and that a cost-effective strategy can be developed to detect heart failure in these patients. The strategy is expected to include some signs and symptoms (such as dyspnoea, orthopnoea, pulmonary crepitations and laterally displaced apical beat, natriuretic peptide measurements (Amino-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide and possibly electrocardiography. In a subset of patients straightforward echocardiography may show to be cost-effective. With information from our study the detection of previously unknown heart failure in diabetic patients could be improved and enable the physician to initiate beneficial morbidity and mortality reducing heart failure treatment more timely. Primary objectives - To assess the prevalence of (previously unrecognised heart failure in primary care patients with diabetes type 2. - To establish the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy to detect unrecognised heart failure in these patients. Secondary objectives - To assess the impact of heart failure, and the combination of a new diagnosis with accordingly treatment in patients with diabetes type 2 on health status. Methods/Design Design: A prospective diagnostic efficiency study. Patient population: Patients aged 60 years and older with diabetes type 2 from primary care, enlisted with the diabetes service of the Diagnostic Center in Etten-Leur (SHL All participants will be investigated at the cardiology out-patient department of the regional hospital (Oosterschelde Hospital in Goes, Zeeland, the Netherlands during a single 1.5 hour standardised diagnostic assessment, including history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography, blood tests, and Health status questionnaires. Patients will be asked if we can contact them afterwards for follow-up and for repeating the questionnaires after

  16. A Comparative Study on Word Guessing Strategies by English Learners with Different Vocabulary Size%不同词汇量学习者猜词策略使用情况之对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦辉

    2012-01-01

      Through a word guessing test and a word guessing strategy questionnaire,this paper makes a comparative analysis of the word guessing ability and the word guessing strategies between 60 college English learners with larger vocabulary size and smaller vocabulary size. The results indicate that the effects of vocabulary size on words guessing ability are significant,and there are differences in words guessing strategies by English learners with different vocabulary size. Based on the results,some suggestions are put forward to improve the college English teaching.%  本研究通过猜词测试及猜词策略问卷调查,对60名不同词汇量的大学英语学习者在猜词能力及猜词策略使用方面进行对比分析,发现猜词能力和词汇量存在显著的正相关关系,并且不同词汇量学习者在猜词策略使用方面具有一定差异性;最后基于结论提出相关教学建议

  17. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING ~(32)P-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Genetic effects of ultrasound on fetus havebeen extensively studied since ultrasonograph waswidely appliedin obstetric practice.In recent years,there have been reports onin vivomolecular geneticeffects of diagnostic ultrasound[1-4].In vitroexperi-ments have found that single-stranded breaks(ssbs)and double-stranded breaks(dsbs)in DNA are themain indices for DNA lesions induced by ultra-sound[5].But,no reports on whether ultrasound cancausein vivossbs and dsbs in DNAare available.Tofurther explore the potent...

  18. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  19. Early secretory antigenic target protein-6/culture filtrate protein-10 fusion protein-specific Th1 and Th2 response and its diagnostic value in tuberculous pleural effusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈启萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the Th1 and Th2 cell percentage in pleural effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs) stimulated by early secretory antigenic target protein-6 (ESAT-6) /culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) fusion protein (E/C) with flow cytometry (FCM) ,and to explore the local antigen specific Th1 and Th2 response and

  20. Early experiences on the feasibility, acceptability, and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests at peripheral health centres in Uganda-insights into some barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiimwe Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While feasibility of new health technologies in well-resourced healthcare settings is extensively documented, it is largely unknown in low-resourced settings. Uganda's decision to deploy and scale up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs in public health facilities and at the community level provides a useful entry point for documenting field experience, acceptance, and predictive variables for technology acceptance and use. These findings are important in informing implementation of new health technologies, plans, and budgets in low-resourced national disease control programmes. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study at 21 health centres in Uganda was undertaken in 2007 to elucidate the barriers and facilitators in the introduction of mRDTs as a new diagnostic technology at lower-level health facilities. Pre-tested interview questionnaires were administered through pre-structured patient exit interviews and semi-structured health worker interviews to gain an understanding of the response to this implementation. A conceptual framework on technology acceptance and use was adapted for this study and used to prepare the questionnaires. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the data. Results A total of 52 of 57 health workers (92% reported a belief that a positive mRDT result was true, although only 41 of 57 (64% believed that treatment with anti-malarials was justified for every positive mRDT case. Of the same health workers, only 49% believed that a negative mRDT result was truly negative. Factors linked to these findings were related to mRDT acceptance and use, including the design and characteristics of the device, availability and quality of mRDT ancillary supplies, health worker capacity to investigate febrile cases testing negative with the device and provide appropriate treatment, availability of effective malaria treatments, reliability of the health commodity supply chain, existing national

  1. The Diagnostic Value of Endoscopic Balloon Catheter Usage for Detecting Early-Stage Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ozdil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain, jaundice and pruritus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed for cholestasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was judged as normal, after a standard ERCP cannula was used for the cholangiogram. However, marked canalicular irregularities were identified in cholangiography when pressurized contrast agent was administrated via balloon catheter. This cholangiographic view was thought to reveal an early-stage alteration of sclerosing cholangitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by destruction and fibrosis of the bile ducts. The diagnosis of PSC is based on typical cholangiographic findings, supported by nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, cholestatic liver biochemical tests, and liver biopsy. Cholangiography is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of PSC. The diagnosis is easy when diffuse multifocal biliary strictures, the hallmarks of the disease, resulting in a ‘beaded’ appearance on ERCP is detected. However, it may reveal a normal image in an early stage of the disease when bile duct changings are not prominent. We think that balloon catheter ERCP appears to facilitate the diagnosis of early-stage primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  2. Research development of early diagnostic methods of diabetic nephropathy%糖尿病肾病的早期诊断方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧博; 高伟; 刘继军

    2011-01-01

    糖尿病肾病是糖尿病常见的微血管并发症之一.常规尿检查不易早期发现,一旦发生临床糖尿病肾病,尚缺乏有效方法控制其发展,大多数患者数年后转为慢性肾功能衰竭,威胁着糖尿病患者的生命.因此早期诊断可以早期干预、延缓糖尿病肾病的发展.目前认为,在早期糖尿病肾病诊断中临床指标有尿微量白蛋白、尿N-乙酰-β-D氨基葡萄糖苷酶、β2-微球蛋白等.%Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes. Early detection with the conventional urine test is unlikely. In the event of clinical diabetic nephropathy, there is still a lack of effective methods to control its development. Most patients are developped into chronic renal failure a few years later, threatening lives of patients with diabetes. Therefore, early diagnosis can intervene and delay the development of diabetic nephropathy. Currently considered clinical indicators in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy include urinary microalbumin, urinary N-acetyl-P-fl-glucosaminidase, P2-microglobulin and so on.

  3. Brief Report: Power Doppler Ultrasonography for Detection of Increased Vascularity in the Fascia: A Potential Early Diagnostic Tool in Fasciitis of Dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken; Nishioka, Makiko; Matsushima, Satoshi; Joh, Kensuke; Oto, Yosuke; Yoshiga, Masayuki; Otani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Haruyasu; Hirai, Kenichiro; Furuya, Kazuhiro; Ukichi, Taro; Noda, Kentaro; Kingetsu, Isamu; Kurosaka, Daitaro

    2016-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that fasciitis is a common lesion of dermatomyositis (DM) that is detectable early after disease onset by en bloc muscle biopsy combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) is a useful method for detection of inflammation and vascularity in rheumatic diseases. We undertook this study to determine whether fasciitis was detectable by PDUS in patients with DM. We prospectively evaluated 7 patients with DM and 7 patients with polymyositis (PM) for the detection of fasciitis with PDUS. MRI and PDUS were both performed in all patients. Fasciitis was histologically confirmed by en bloc biopsy. Among all patients with DM, 4 showed signs of fasciitis on MRI, while increased blood flow signals were observed along the fascia by PDUS in 6 DM patients, including 4 patients with early disease (fascia. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 indicated abnormal neovascular proliferation in the fascia in patients with DM. None of the PM patients showed signs of fasciitis or increased vascularity by MRI, PDUS, or en bloc biopsy. In our limited population, PDUS was useful for the detection of fasciitis associated with DM, especially in the early stage of disease. The increased blood flow signal as detected by PDUS is involved in angiogenesis accompanying fasciitis in patients with DM. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. TPX diagnostics for tokamak operation, plasma control and machine protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, P.H. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Fusion Research Center; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The diagnostics for TPX are at an early design phase, with emphasis on the diagnostic access interface with the major tokamak components. Account has to be taken of the very severe environment for diagnostic components located inside the vacuum vessel. The placement of subcontracts for the design and fabrication of the diagnostic systems is in process.

  5. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals: an assessment of the early diagnostic value of serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in equine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, F; Vardi, D M; Stefanetti, V; Marenzoni, M L; Prato, S; Cévese, P; Coletti, M; Pepe, M; Casagrande Proietti, P; Olea-Popelka, F

    2015-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals represent important goals for equine clinicians. Recent protocols for diagnosis and treatment of Rhodococcosis in foals typically rely on a multimodal approach based on sonographic evidence suggestive of pyogranulomas, sonographic abscess scores and laboratory findings including plasma fibrinogen concentrations, blood biochemistry testing and platelet and leukocyte counts. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of weekly testing of serum amyloid A (SAA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals to achieve early diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia prior to the onset of clinical signs. This testing was used to simulate a clinically practical screening procedure and compared with thoracic ultrasonography performed in parallel. The present study suggests that SAA does not represent a reliable early marker of Rhodococcosis when plasma concentrations are tested weekly. However, when clinical signs of R. equi pneumonia are present, SAA concentrations may allow clinicians to obtain 'real-time' indications concerning both the progress of infection and the effectiveness of therapy. This study raises the possibility that plasma fibrinogen monitoring starting at 1 week of age and repeated on a weekly basis, could serve as a screening test allowing clinicians to identify foals as suspected of R. equi infection. Future investigations regarding both physiological plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals as well as fibrinogen kinetics in foals affected with R. equi pneumonia, including the establishment of appropriate reference intervals for the test method employed in this study, will be necessary in order to clarify this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 猜想在初中化学教学中的作用%The Role of Guess in Junior High School Chemistry Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平

    2015-01-01

    作为启蒙教学的初中化学,不仅是简单地让学生生搬硬套化学知识,而是要培养学生像科学家那样敢猜、会猜,带着猜想去探究这些化学现象,体验科学家的探究过程。这样不仅理解掌握了化学知识,更重要的是掌握了必要的学习化学的方法,培养出应有的学习化学的能力,只有这样才能为学生科学地终身发展安上一台永动机。%Junior high school chemistry as enlightenment teaching, not only for students to simply rote chemical knowledge, but to students as scientist dares to guess, would guess, with the suspect to explore these chemical phenomena, scientists ex-perience the inquiry process. This will not only understand and grasp the chemical knowledge, more importantly, learning to master the necessary chemical methods, to cultivate the ability to study chemistry due, the only way for students to develop lifelong scientific placement of a perpetual motion machine.

  7. Glyph guessing for ‘oo’ and ‘ee’: spatial frequency information in sound symbolic matching for ancient and unfamiliar scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In three experiments, we asked whether diverse scripts contain interpretable information about the speech sounds they represent. When presented with a pair of unfamiliar letters, adult readers correctly guess which is /i/ (the ‘ee’ sound in ‘feet’), and which is /u/ (the ‘oo’ sound in ‘shoe’) at rates higher than expected by chance, as shown in a large sample of Singaporean university students (Experiment 1) and replicated in a larger sample of international Internet users (Experiment 2). To uncover what properties of the letters contribute to different scripts' ‘guessability,’ we analysed the visual spatial frequencies in each letter (Experiment 3). We predicted that the lower spectral frequencies in the formants of the vowel /u/ would pattern with lower spatial frequencies in the corresponding letters. Instead, we found that across all spatial frequencies, the letter with more black/white cycles (i.e. more ink) was more likely to be guessed as /u/, and the larger the difference between the glyphs in a pair, the higher the script's guessability. We propose that diverse groups of humans across historical time and geographical space tend to employ similar iconic strategies for representing speech in visual form, and provide norms for letter pairs from 56 diverse scripts.

  8. Detection of early stages of dental caries by optical PNC diagnostics: comparison with visual inspection, dental probe, and x-ray methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby

    2000-11-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC-method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: probing radiation, stimulated backscattering and autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC-methods with visual inspection, dental probe and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage of the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage white lesion.

  9. Gingival enlargement as an early diagnostic indicator in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia: A rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triveni M Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for Hodgkin′s lymphoma (HL has resulted in excellent survival rates but is associated with increased risks of secondary therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML. Gingival enlargement associated with bleeding and ulceration is the most common rapidly appearing oral manifestations of leukemic involvement. An 8 months pregnant patient reported with generalized gingival enlargement, with localized cyanotic and necrotic papillary areas. Co-relating the hematological report with the oral lesions and her past medical history of HL, a diagnosis of t-AML secondary to treatment for HL was made by the oncologist. As oral lesions are one of the initial manifestations of acute leukemia, they may serve as a significant diagnostic indicator for the dental surgeons and their important role in diagnosing and treating such cases. Furthermore, this case report highlights the serious complication of t-AML subsequent to HL treatment and the important role that a general and oral health care professional may play in diagnosing and treating such cases.

  10. Early diagnostic value of CT detection in patients with craniocerebral trauma%CT探查在颅脑外伤患者中的早期诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生疆

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the early diagnostic value of CT detection in patients with craniocerebral trauma.Methods:69 patients with craniocerebral trauma were selected.All patients were given spiral CT detection.The CT test results and its clinical value were analyzed.Results:22 cases(31.88% ) were subarachnoid hemorrhage.14 cases(20.29% ) were cerebral contusion and laceration.12 cases(17.39%) were subdural hematoma.8 cases(11.59%) were subdural effusion.6 cases(8.69%) were extradural hematoma.5 cases(7.25%) were skull fracture.2 cases(2.89%) were intracranial hematoma.The diagnostic accordance rate of CT detection results and operation pathological examination results was 100% .Conclusion:CT examination has a high diagnostic accordance rate in the patients with craniocerebral trauma.Early accurate diagnosis is helpful to choose the treatment options of patients,which can significantly improve the prognosis of patients.%目的:探讨CT探查在颅脑外伤患者中的早期诊断价值。方法:收治颅脑外伤患者69例,对所有患者给予螺旋CT探查,分析CT检测结果及其临床价值。结果:蛛网膜下腔出血22例(31.88%),脑挫裂伤14例(20.29%),硬膜下血肿12例(17.39%),硬膜下积液8例(11.59%),硬膜外血肿6例(8.69%),颅骨骨折5例(7.25%),颅内血肿2例(2.89%)。CT探查结果与手术病理检测结果的诊断符合率100%。结论:CT检查对颅脑外伤患者具较高诊断符合率,早期的准确诊断有助于患者的治疗方案选择,可显著改善患者预后。

  11. Sensitivity of Symptomatology Versus Diagnostic Procedures and Concentration of CEA and CA19–9 in the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Mujkic, Admir; Sofic, Amela; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Glavas, Sanjin; Djuran, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The number of patients in the world has increased recently. In our country it is detected late and patients visit doctor in the advanced stage of the disease with already developed metastases. Material and methods: A clinical study was conducted at the Clinic of gastroenterohepatologists, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University on 164 patients. Special attention was given to the symptoms, which are considered to be a macroscopically visible as bleeding, anemia pain, weight loss and disturbance of defecation. Smoking had no effect because a small number of observed patients smoked. Endoscopic examination revealed localization of the tumor in the colon and then underwent targeted biopsy, histological analysis by pathologist, and we determined the concentration of CEA and CA19-9 in the serum. Results: In order to get the most relevant results we used larger data set. The program used to prepare the data was Microsoft Excel 2013, and for the creation of decision trees is a used software RapidMiner version 5. Our research has shown that patients older than 55 years with significant stenosis, metastasis and diarrhea that lasted longer than 3.5 months and bleeding that lasted up to 10 months had cancer of the rectum. Bleeding that lasts longer than 10 months indicated that it was the case of cancer that was localized in the rectum in men and sigma in women. Patients older than 82.5 years and had diarrhea up to 3.5 months developed cancer in the sigma part of the colon. Analyzing pain as a symptom of an alarm, the study found that pain that lasts longer than a few days, is caused by rectal cancer, and occurs after the age of 70.5 years, and in patients younger than 63 years anemia as a alarm symptom, which lasted more than two months in men was caused by cancer of the rectum and in women cancer in other localizations within colon. In patients without stenosis developed bleeding as the most

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging versus positron emission tomography/computed tomography for early response assessment of liver metastases to Y90-radioembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasch, Alexandra; Kraemer, Nils A; Ciritsis, Alexander; Hansen, Nienke L; Lierfeld, Marco; Heinzel, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Neumann, Ulf; Kuhl, Christiane K

    2015-06-01

    Patients with hepatic metastases who are candidates for Y90-radioembolization (Y90-RE) usually have advanced tumor stages with involvement of both liver lobes. Per current guidelines, these patients have usually undergone several cycles of potentially hepatotoxic systemic chemotherapy before Y90-RE is at all considered, requiring split (lobar) treatment sessions to reduce hepatic toxicity. Assessing response to Y90-RE early, that is, already after the first lobar session, would be helpful to avoid an ineffective and potentially hepatotoxic second lobar treatment. We investigated the accuracy with which diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can provide this information. An institutional review board-approved prospective intraindividual comparison trial on 35 patients who underwent fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and DWI-MRI within 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after Y90-RE to treat secondary-progressive liver metastases from solid cancers (20 colorectal, 13 breast, 2 other) was performed. An increase of minimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) or decrease of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) by at least 30% was regarded as positive response. Long-term clinical and imaging follow-up was used to distinguish true- from false-response classifications. On the basis of long-term follow-up, 23 (66%) of 35 patients responded to the Y90 treatment. No significant changes of metastases size or contrast enhancement were observable on pretreatment versus posttreatment CT or magnetic resonance images.However, overall SUVmax decreased from 8.0 ± 3.9 to 5.5 ± 2.2 (P magnetic resonance imaging appears superior to PET/CT for early response assessment in patients with hepatic metastases of common solid tumors. It may be used in between lobar treatment sessions to guide further management of patients who undergo Y90-RE for hepatic metastases.

  13. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  14. ITER diagnostics ex-vessel engineering services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, A.P., E-mail: arun.prakash@iter.org; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Beltran, D.; Bertalot, L.; Dammann, A.; Direz, M.F.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Giacomin, T.; Hourtoule, J.; Kuehn, I.; Lanza, R.; Levesy, B.; Maquet, P.; Patel, K.M.; Patisson, L.; Pitcher, C.S.; Portales, M.; and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes about the ITER diagnostics ex-vessel engineering services. • It describes various diagnostics systems, its location and its environment. • Diagnostics interfaces with other services such as the buildings, HVAC, electrical services, cooling water, vacuum, liquid and gas distribution. • All the interfaces with these services are identified and defined. • Buildings services for diagnostics, such as penetrations, local shielding, embedment and temperature control are discussed. -- Abstract: Extensive diagnostics systems will be installed on the ITER machine to provide the measurements necessary to control, evaluate and optimize plasma performance in ITER and to further the understanding of plasma physics. These include measurements of temperature, density, impurity concentration, and particle and energy confinement times. ITER diagnostic systems extend from the center of the Tokamak to the various diagnostic areas, where they are controlled and acquired data is processed. This mainly includes the areas such as ports, port cells, gallery, diagnostics enclosures and cubicle areas. The diagnostics port plugs encloses the front end of the diagnostic systems and the diagnostics building houses the diagnostics equipment, instrumentation and control cubicles. There are several systems providing services to diagnostics. These mainly include ITER buildings, electrical power services, cooling water services, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), vacuum services, liquid and gas distribution services, cable engineering, de-tritiation systems, control cubicles, etc. Requirements of these service systems have to be defined, even though many of the diagnostics are at an early stage of development. It is a real challenge to define and to design diagnostics systems considering the constraints imposed by these service systems. This paper summarizes the provision of these services to the individual diagnostics and diagnostics areas

  15. A mathematical theory of shape and neuro-fuzzy methodology-based diagnostic analysis: a comparative study on early detection and treatment planning of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subrata; Majumder, D Dutta

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of brain cancer can detect the abnormal growth of tissue in the brain using computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients. The proposed method classifies brain cancer on shape-based feature extraction as either benign or malignant. The authors used input variables such as shape distance (SD) and shape similarity measure (SSM) in fuzzy tools, and used fuzzy rules to evaluate the risk status as an output variable. We presented a classifier neural network system (NNS), namely Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), which is a feed-forward back-propagation learning algorithm used to train the NN for the status of brain cancer, if any, and which achieved satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases. First, we find the region of interest (ROI) in the brain to detect the tumors using CT and MR images. Second, we extract the shape-based features, like SD and SSM, and grade the brain tumors as benign or malignant with the concept of SD function and SSM as shape-based parameters. Third, we classify the brain cancers using neuro-fuzzy tools. In this experiment, we used a 16-sample database with SSM (μ) values and classified the benignancy or malignancy of the brain tumor lesions using the neuro-fuzzy system (NFS). We have developed a fuzzy expert system (FES) and NFS for early detection of brain cancer from CT and MR images. In this experiment, shape-based features, such as SD and SSM, were extracted from the ROI of brain tumor lesions. These shape-based features were considered as input variables and, using fuzzy rules, we were able to evaluate brain cancer risk values for each case. We used an NNS with LM, a feed-forward back-propagation learning algorithm, as a classifier for the diagnosis of brain cancer and achieved satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy. The proposed network was trained with MR image datasets of 16 cases. The 16 cases were fed to the ANN with 2 input neurons, one

  16. Diagnostic of Horndeski theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Piazza, Federico

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into Late dark energy, Early dark energy and Early modified gravity scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant μ, the gravitational slip parameter η, the light deflection parameter Σ and the growth function fσ8 and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the μ(z) ‑ Σ(z) and the fσ8(z) ‑ Σ(z) planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either Σ ‑ 1 zero or μ ‑ 1 0 at high redshifts or μ ‑ 1 > 0 with Σ ‑ 1 1.5 then Early dark energy models are definitely ruled out. On the opposite case, Late dark energy models are rejected by data if Σ 1, only Early modifications of gravity provide a viable framework to interpret data.

  17. 尿微量白蛋白对早期糖尿病视网膜病变的临床意义%Diagnostic significance of urine microalbumin test for early diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宇; 王平

    2016-01-01

    ? Diabetic retinopathy is one of those significant complications of diabetes.With the increasing number of diabetic patients, blind caused by diabetic retinopathy is a serious threat to human health which cannot be neglected, but there is no highly effective treatment for it. Consequently, early detection and preventive treatment for it are important.Currently, studies have found that urine microalbumin had a close relation with diabetic retinopathy and that urine microalbumin might play an important role in early predicting of diabetic retinopathy. The review is about the diagnostic significance of urine microalbumin test for early diabetic retinopathy.%糖尿病视网膜病变是糖尿病非常重要的并发症之一。目前对于糖尿病视网膜病变的治疗并没有非常有效的治疗手段,所以在糖尿病视网膜病变的前期,早期发现与预防治疗显得格外的重要,近年研究发现尿微量蛋白与糖尿病视网膜病变密切相关,对于早期防治糖尿病视网膜病变具有重要意义,本文就尿微量白蛋白在早期的糖尿病视网膜病变中的临床意义作一综述。

  18. What is happening? The evolving role of the blood bank in the management of the bleeding patient: The impact of TEG as an early diagnostic predictor for bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Aurora; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of coagulopathy, the management of the bleeding patient remains as a major challenge. Traditionally, the main task of the blood bank has been to guarantee the supply of high quality blood and blood components/products to the hospital. Decisions regarding the use of blood components have always been the clinicians' responsibility, with little active involvement of the transfusion service. In the last years, many hospitals have implemented the use of "acute transfusion packages" for massively bleeding patients and point-of-care (POC) instruments such as TEG and RoTEM for monitoring coagulation status in this patient group. This, in addition to the implementation of patient blood management programs in the hospitals, has led to an increasing involvement of transfusion medicine specialists in transfusion decision making, especially regarding strategies for monitoring and treatment of the massively bleeding patient. This new trend may contribute to a more optimal management and monitoring of the bleeding patient, as POC testing may be used as an early predictor for blood usage. The blood bank should optimise the use of POC testing to provide accurate information in a cost-effective way.

  19. The knee joint in early juvenile idiopathic arthritis: An ROC study for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, M.; Krauss, M.; Kern, S.; Herget, G.; Hauer, M.P.; Altehoefer, C.; Langer, M. [Univ. Hospital, Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Darge, K. [Heidelberg Univ. Hospital (Germany). Radiological Clinic; Berner, R. [Children' s Hospital, Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of General Pediatrics

    2000-01-01

    Diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remains difficult due to unspecific clinical and laboratory findings, especially in early stages of the disease. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging in diagnosing JIA of the knee joints. Forty children (3 - 17 years old) clinically diagnosed with JIA (follow-up >1 year) of a knee joint and a control group of 40 children with painful knee joints (MR diagnosis: bone bruise of the knee (n=7), normal knee joint (n=12), osteomyelitis (n=6), septic arthritis (n=2), bone tumor (n=7) and miscellaneous bone lesions (n=6)) were examined using a 1.5 T MR unit. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), T2-weighted fast SE, contrast-enhanced Tz1-weighted SE and 2D gradient echo sequences were performed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves evaluation was conducted by 5 independent radiologists. The positive criteria for diagnosing JIA were joint effusions (n=40), contrast-enhancing synovitis (n=39), cartilage lesions (n=15), subchondral erosions and bony destruction (n=1). Sensitivity and specificity were 93.5% and 92.5%, respectively. Both cases of septic arthritis were misdiagnosed as JIA by all radiologists. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging seems to be a highly sensitive tool in establishing the diagnosis of JIA.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Multi-slice Spiral CT Multi-phase Scanning in Early Sage Renal Pelvis Cancer%多层螺旋CT多期扫描对早期肾盂癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛芳清; 韩希年

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨多层螺旋CT多期扫描对早期肾盂癌的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析5 8例肾盂癌的CT表现并进行CT分期,与组织病理学结果对照.结果 CT图像分期A期(早期)1 8例、B期3 2例、C期8例;病理分期早期(A期)24例、B期26例、C期8例.24例A期肾盂癌中,CT分期正确的1 7例,7例A期误判为B期,1例B期误判为A期.CT评判早期肾盂癌的敏感性70.8%(17/24),特异性97%(32/33),阳性预测值94.4% (17/18)%.结论 多层螺旋CT多期扫描对早期肾盂癌的判断有很高的特异性,对临床手术方案的选择起到很好的指导作用.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of enhanced multi-phase spiral CT in the early renal pelvis cancer.Methods CT manifestations of 58 cases with renal pelvis cancer were retrospectively analyzed and CT staged,and compared to its pathological results.Results CT image stage showed A stage (early stage) in 18 cases,B stage in 32 cases,C stage in 8 cases; pathological stage showed A stage (early stage) in 24 cases,B stage in 26 cases,C stage in 8 cases.Of all 24 cases with A stage renal pelvis cancer,17 cases were diagnosed correctly,and 7 cases with A stage cancer were misdiagnosed as B stage,and 1 case with B stage cancer misdiagnosed as A stage.The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value of CT stage in evaluation of early renal pelvis cancer were 70.8%(17/24),97% (32/33),and 94.4% (17/18) %.Conclusion Enhanced multi-phase spiral CT has high specificity in diagnosis of early stage renal pelvis cancer.It plays an important role in clinical operation scheme selection.

  1. Electronic DNA detection and diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    The Nanopill project is an ambitious undertaking with the objective to develop an early-warning cancer diagnostic pill that is ingested by the patient. The Nanopill collects intestinal fluid as the pill travels down the intestinal tract, and tests for the presence of a free floating hyper-methylated

  2. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Gynecologic Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is helpful in the assessment of many common gynecological conditions from early teens to the late postmenopause. Female pelvic anatomy and pathology are readily imaged through a distended urinary bladder. In gynecologic cancer, examination of peritoneal cavity, kidneys and liver can suggest metastatic spread, which aids tumor staging.

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic value of delayed Gadolinium Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) in early osteoarthritis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, A; Fernquest, S; Rombach, I; Park, D; Pollard, T; Broomfield, J; Bangerter, N; Carr, A; Glyn-Jones, S

    2017-09-01

    Delayed Gadolinium Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) can detect glycosaminoglycan loss in the acetabular cartilage of asymptomatic individuals with cam morphology. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between cam morphology and dGEMRIC values, and to explore whether baseline dGEMRIC can predict the development of radiographic hip osteoarthritis. Prospective cohort (SibKids) study with clinical, radiographic, and MRI assessment at baseline and five-year follow-up (n = 34). The dGEMRIC values of cartilage regions were correlated with measures of cam morphology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to baseline variables to predict radiographic loss of joint space width. Superolateral acetabular cartilage dGEMRIC values were significantly lower in participants with cam morphology (P < 0.001), defined as an alpha angle greater than 60°. There was a negative correlation between alpha angle and the dGEMRIC value of adjacent acetabular cartilage. This relationship was strongest superoanteriorly (r = -0.697 P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between baseline dGEMRIC and the magnitude of joint space width narrowing (r = 0.398 P = 0.030). ROC analysis of combined baseline variables (positive impingement test, alpha angle, dGEMRIC ratio) gave an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.75 for predicting joint space width narrowing greater than 0.5 mm within 5 years. The size and position of cam morphology determines the severity and location of progressive cartilage damage, supporting the biomechanical aetiology of femoroacetabular impingement. Baseline dGEMRIC is able to predict the development of radiographic osteoarthritis. Compositional MRI offers the potential to identify patients who may benefit from early intervention to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for early detection of Schistosoma mansoni in stool samples: a diagnostic approach in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries.A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection.We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  5. Nitrogen Fertilization for Optimizing the Quality and Yield of Shade Grown Cuban Cigar Tobacco: Required Nitrogen Amounts, Application Schedules, Adequate Leaf Nitrogen Levels, and Early Season Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers have a decisive influence on the yield and quality of tobacco. Yield, percentage of plant N, wrapper leaf quality, and nicotine content are all important quality characteristics in tobacco growing. This work is an attempt to provide a tool for optimizing mineral N nutrition for Cuban cigar tobacco, using a strategy that links N supply with leaf N concentration and wrapper yield. Similar approaches developed worldwide have mainly involved Virginia and Burley tobacco types but not Cuban cigar tobacco. The objective of the current work is to identify the effects of fertilizer N levels and timing of application on each of the mentioned quality factors for shade grown Cuban cigar tobacco. Another purpose is to explore the usefulness of a quick method of assessing the N status of plants based on measuring leaf transmission at two different wavelengths (650 and 940 nm. The experiments were done in the main tobacco growing area of Cuba (Vueltabajo. In each experiment, nine separate treatments were used covering different levels and times of fertilizer N application. The same experiment was carried out in three different years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 but as the results were similar only one set of data is described (2006-2007. The patterns of response to N fertilizer of all four quality measurements, including yield and wrapper leaf quality, were similar in the different replications of the experiments. The optimal fertilizer level was 140-190 kg N/ha (40% applied on days 8-10 after transplanting and 60% on days 18-20 after transplanting. The optimal N concentration of leaves taken at the central foliar level of the middle stalk position was 4.3-4.7% at harvest time. Leaf transmission measurements by means of the SPAD-502 Chlorophyll Meter in the early stages of growth were correlated with leaf chlorophyll and N concentration and provide an excellent guide for predicting Cuban cigar tobacco wrapper leaf yield.

  6. [Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltfang, J

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies.

  7. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  8. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  9. 色素内镜在上消化道早期癌及癌前病变的诊断价值%Diagnostic value for early cancer and precancerous lesions in the digestive tract under pigment endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈函清; 潘文胜; 金冠福; 潘邦兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究色素内镜对上消化道早期癌及癌前病变的诊断价值.方法 将内镜下216例食管黏膜病变患者分为两组,染色组108例用Lugol氏液对食管黏膜染色,并对不染色和浅染色区进行病理活检;对照组108例食管黏膜患者进行单纯病理活检.将内镜下220例胃黏膜病变患者分为两组,染色组110例用靛胭脂一美兰染色后进行病理活检,对照组110例胃黏膜病变患者进行单纯病理活检.结果 食管染色组不染色或浅染色病例60例(55.6%),病理活检发现早期食管癌12例(11.1%),癌前病变6例(5.6%);胃染色组有69例(62.7%)不同程度染色,病理活检发现早期胃癌14例(12.7%),其中原位癌4例(3.6%),癌前病变9例(8.1%).发现早期癌及癌前病变与对照组的诊断率比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 色素内镜有助于提高上消化道早期癌及癌前病变的诊断率及病理活检准确率,方法简便安全,值得基层医院推广.%[Objective] To study diagnostic value of early cancer and precancerous lesions in upper gastrointestinal under pigment endoscopy. [Methods] 216 cases of endoscopic esophageal mucosal lesions, staining group of 108 cases were treated with Lugol's solution staining of the esophageal mucosa, and non-staining and light staining zone biopsy; Control group, 108 cases of esophageal mucosa in patients with a simple biopsy. 220 cases of endo- scopic gastric mucosal lesions, indigo dyeing group of 110 cases with rouge - methylene blue staining and biopsy in the control group of 110 cases gastric mucosal lesions in patients with a simple biopsy. [Results] Esophagus didn't stain or stained pale group of 60 cases (55.6%), biopsy of 12 early esophageal cancer (11.1%), precancerous lesions in 6 patients (5.6%); Stomach stained group of 69 patients (62.7%) varying degrees of staining, biopsy detection of 14 early gastric cancer (12.7%), which carcinoma in situ in 4 cases, 9 cases of precancerous

  10. On acceleration of Krylov-subspace-based Newton and Arnoldi iterations for incompressible CFD: replacing time steppers and generation of initial guess

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfgat, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We propose two techniques aimed at improving the convergence rate of steady state and eigenvalue solvers preconditioned by the inverse Stokes operator and realized via time-stepping. First, we suggest a generalization of the Stokes operator so that the resulting preconditioner operator depends on several parameters and whose action preserves zero divergence and boundary conditions. The parameters can be tuned for each problem to speed up the convergence of a Krylov-subspace-based linear algebra solver. This operator can be inverted by the Uzawa-like algorithm, and does not need a time-stepping. Second, we propose to generate an initial guess of steady flow, leading eigenvalue and eigenvector using orthogonal projection on divergence-free basis satisfying all boundary conditions. The approach, including the two proposed techniques, is illustrated on the solution of the linear stability problem for laterally heated square and cubic cavities.

  11. Improved guess-and-determine attack on sosemanuk%对Sosemanuk算法改进的猜测决定攻击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢端强; 李恒; 李瑞林; 戴清平

    2012-01-01

    Sosemanuk is one of the stream ciphers that have been selected into the final portfolio for the eSTREAM project. Sosemanuk from the view point of bit-level was described. By studying the S-box of Serpentl, the modular addition, and the linear feedback shift register, a kind of equation between the bits of the internal states was obtained, based on which an improved word-oriented guess-and-determine attack on Sosemanuk is proposed. This improved attack utilizes the Groebner basis method to solve the equation system and can determine the other 5 words of the internal state by guessing just 7 words, and thus the complexity is pvoved to be O(2192).%Sosemanuk算法是欧洲eSTREAM计划最终获选的七个算法之一.从比特层面对该算法进行剖析,通过对Serpent1组件S盒、模232加法和线性反馈移位寄存器的研究,找到了关于内部状态的一个方程组,并利用Groebner基方法改进了对Sosemanuk算法基于字的猜测决定攻击.结果表明只需要猜测7个32比特的字就可以完全确定出其余5个32比特的内部状态,其攻击的复杂度为O(2192).

  12. Early detection of myocardial ischaemia in the emergency department by rest or exercise {sup 99m}Tc tracer myocardial SPET in patients with chest pain and non-diagnostic ECG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, A.; Paladini, B.; Francois, C.; Grifoni, S.; Berni, G. [Emergency Dept., Careggi General Hospital, Florence (Italy); Gallini, C.; Costanzo, E.; Ferri, P.; Matteini, M.; Pieroni, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Careggi General Hospital, Florence (Italy); Migliorini, A.; Antoniucci, D. [Dept. of Cardiology, Careggi General Hospital, Florence (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Chest pain (CP) represents a frequent reason for presentation at the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of patients have non-diagnostic ECG on presentation, and in many cases several hours have elapsed since onset of symptoms. Acute rest myocardial scintigraphy (rest SPET) has been shown to have a relevant role in the detection of patients at risk for coronary events, but its sensitivity and negative predictive value are optimal only within the first 3 h following onset of symptoms. In those with delayed presentation, exercise SPET alone, as a screening approach, appears more promising, but its feasibility and diagnostic role in the ED are still unresolved. A total of 231 consecutive patients with a recent-onset (<24 h) first episode of CP had a negative first-line work-up including ECG, troponins, creatine kinase-MB and echocardiography. These patients were considered at low risk for short-term coronary events. Patients were studied with rest SPET if they presented <3 h after onset of CP and exercise SPET if they presented after {>=}3 h. The end-points of the study were detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) by angiography and major coronary events or cardiac death at 6 months. Eighty patients (35%) underwent rest SPET, while 151 (65%) underwent exercise SPET. Two of the 159 patients with negative SPET had evidence of critical CAD at 6-month follow-up (one patient in the rest SPET group and one in the exercise SPET group; P=NS). Of the 72 patients (31%) with a positive scan, 34 (15%) had documented CAD (16 patients in the rest SPET group and 18 in the exercise SPET group; P=NS). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and predictive value were not statistically different between the two groups. In conclusion, the accuracy of exercise SPET in patients with CP and delayed presentation to the ED is comparable to that of validated rest SPET in patients with early presentation. Owing to the high negative predictive value (99%), exercise SPET is

  13. 早孕期剖宫产瘢痕妊娠的MRI诊断价值%Diagnostic Value of Early Uterine Cesarean Scar Pregnancy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石慧; 孙庚喜; 李胜华; 马海锋; 冯咏辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨早孕期剖宫产术后子宫瘢痕妊娠MRI表现及诊断价值。方法回顾性分析总结10例经临床、病理证实剖宫产术后子宫瘢痕妊娠患者的MRI表现。结果10例病灶均行手术治疗,9例诊断正确,1例误诊为滋养细胞肿瘤。病灶均位于子宫前下壁,呈圆形或椭圆形,8例病灶可见完整的妊娠囊,2例呈混杂包块状,表现为混杂长T1混杂长T2信号影。6例妊娠囊主要向宫腔内生长,植入子宫壁较浅,与局部子宫肌层分界清晰;4例妊娠囊种植于瘢痕深部,主要向肌层深部生长并向外膨隆,妊娠处子宫壁明显较薄;10例均行 DWI,表现为环状或混杂高信号。结论剖宫产子宫瘢痕妊娠的 MRI 影像表现有一定的特异性,有助于临床分型及术式选择。%Objective To evaluate MRI findings and diagnosis value in the early diagnosis of cesarean scar pregnancy(CSPs). Methods The MRI manifestations of 10 cases which were diagnosed as CSPs on the basis of surgery and pathology were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among 10 patients all had been underwent surgery. 9 cases were deifnitely diagnosed by MRI and misdiagnosed in 1 cases as trophoblastic disease. All the lesions were located in the anterior inferior wall of uterus, and showed rounded or round-like shapes, 8 cases belonged to Gestational sac type and 2 seemed like mixed masses with long T1 and long T2 heterogeneous signal. 6 cases of gestation sac grew into the uterine cavity mainly, and embedded in the uterine wall superifcially and had clear margin with the local uterine muscular layer. 4 cases of gestation sac embedded in the deep area of scar, grew mainly toward the uterine muscular layer and protruded out of the uterine outline, the muscular layer at the lesion became thin. All 10 patients received DWI and showed ring-like or heterogeneous hyperintensity.Conclusion The MRI features of uterine cesarean scar were speciifc, which was useful

  14. Diagnostic of Horndeski Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Perenon, Louis; Piazza, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into {\\it Late dark energy}, {\\it Early dark energy} and {\\it Early modified gravity} scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant $\\mu$, the gravitational slip parameter $\\eta$, the light deflection parameter $\\Sigma$ and the growth function $f\\sigma_8$ and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the $\\mu(z)-\\Sigma(z)$ and the $f\\sigma_8(z)-\\Sigma(z)$ planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either $\\Sigma-10$ at high redshifts or $\\mu-1>0$ with $\\Sigma-11.5$ then Early dark energy models are definitel...

  15. Diagnostic value of multimodel brain evoked potentials to untreated Parkinson's disease in the early stage%多模式脑诱发电位对早期帕金森病的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建军; 李学; 杨红旗; 李六一; 祁亚伟; 冯艳; 徐军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨多模式脑诱发电位对早期未治疗帕金森病(Parkinson's disease,PD)的诊断价值.方法 未经治疗的早期PD患者33例(PD组)和同期体检健康者31例(对照组),2组分别进行视觉诱发电位、脑干听觉诱发电位、短潜伏期躯体感觉诱发电位和瞬目反射的综合测试,并进行2组间比较.结果 PD组视觉诱发电位的P100潜伏期、脑干听觉诱发电位的V波潜伏期及Ⅲ-Ⅴ波峰间潜伏期、Ⅰ-Ⅴ波峰间潜伏期和瞬目反射的R2波及R2’波潜伏期均较对照组明显延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);2组短潜伏期躯体感觉诱发电位各波潜伏期差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 PD早期存在视觉传导通路和脑于传导通路损害,对PD患者进行多模式脑诱发电位检测有助于疾病早期诊断.%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of multimodel brain evoked potentials to untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) in the early stage. Methods Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials and blink reflex were tested in 33 untreated PD patients in the early stage and 31 healthy controls matched with age and sex. Results The latency of P100 in visual evoked potentials, the latency of V wave and the interpeak latency of I to V wave and I to V wave in brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and the latencies of R2 and R2' in blink reflex were all significantly prolonged in PD patients as compared with those in healthy controls (P0. 05). Conclusion The dysfunction of visual conduction pathway and brainstem conduction pathway exist in the early stage of PD. To detection of multimodel brain evoked potentials may help the early diagnosis of PD.

  16. 彩超在新生儿早期小病灶颅内出血的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of ultrasonography on the early neonatal intracranial hemorrhage of small lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智勇; 魏达友; 巫朝君

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨彩超在新生儿早期小病灶颅内出血诊断中的应用价值.方法 选取茂名市人民医院收治的80例早期小病灶颅内出血新生儿作为研究对象,所有患儿均接受颅脑CT和彩色多普勒超声检查,对比两种检查方式的诊断结果.结果 彩超检查检出率为82.3%,漏诊率为17.7%,CT扫描颅脑出血诊断率为92.5%,漏诊率为7.5%,CT检查的诊断符合率略高于彩超检查,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在新生儿颅内出血的早期诊断中,彩色多普勒超声检查为重要的辅助手段,其能有效满足新生儿颅内出血定位诊断需求,为早期诊断和治疗提供依据.%Objective To investigate the application value of color Doppler ultrasound on the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in early newborns small lesion.Methods Eighty cases of early small foci of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage in our hospital were selected as the objects of the study.All of the children underwent brain CT and color Doppler ultrasound,and the diagnosis results of two kinds of examination method were compared.Results The detection rate by ultrasound was 82.3%,the rate of missed diagnosis was 17.7%.The brain hemorrhage diagnosis rate by CT scan was 92.5%,the rate of missed diagnosis was 7.5%.The diagnostic accordance rate of CT examination was slightly higher than that of color Doppler ultrasound,but the difference was not significant(P > 0.05).Conclusions Color Doppler ultrasound is an important auxiliary means in the early diagnosis of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage,which can effectively meet the needs of localization diagnosis of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage,and provide evidence for early diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.

    2014-06-01

    One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

  18. 乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化microRNA表达谱及其诊断价值%MicroRNA expression profiles and its diagnostic value in hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美殷; 魏蓉蓉; 彭亮; 高志良; 黄国良; 王辉云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare miRNA expressions between hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis tissues to identify miRNA markers for diagnosis of hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis .Methods miRNA expression profiling of seven patients with hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis and eleven patients with only hepatitis B was performed using miRNA microarray ,and diagnostic value of miRNAs was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method .Results Fifteen miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed be-tween hepatitis B related early liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis tissues ,five (miR-625-3p ,miR-325 ,miR-596 ,miR-141 ,miR-339-3p) of which were up-regulated and ten (miR-365 ,miR-362-5p ,miR-193b-5p ,miR-139-5p and others) of which were down-regulated .ROC curve analysis showed that AUC value of miR-139-5p was 0 .994 ,which could be the best miRNA for distinguishing hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis from patients with only hepatitis B .Conclu-sion Our results demonstrate that there might be a specific miRNA expression profile in hepatitis B-related early liv-er cirrhosis and miR-139-5p could be a novel and potential biomarker for hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis .%  目的探讨乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化和乙型肝炎microRNA(miRNA)差异表达谱,寻找具有诊断价值的miRNA标志物。方法利用miRNA芯片技术检测7例乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化患者和11例乙型肝炎患者肝组织中miRNA的表达水平。应用 ROC曲线评价各miRNA的诊断价值。结果与单纯肝炎组织相比,伴早期肝硬化的肝炎组织中表达上调超过1.5倍的miRNA有miR-625-3p、miR-325、miR-596等5种,表达下调超过1.5倍的miRNA有miR-365、miR-362-5p、miR-139-5p等10种。 ROC曲线分析结果表明,miR-139-5p诊断乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化的特异性和敏感性最高。结论乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化组织和乙型肝炎组织相比有其

  19. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  20. Effect of Mobile Phone-Induced Electromagnetic Field on Brain Hemodynamics and Human Stem Cell Functioning: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk and Early Diagnostic Value of Electronphotonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Srinivasan, T M; Varambally, S; Gangadhar, B N; Koka, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The mobile phones (MP) are low power radio devices which work on electromagnetic fields (EMFs), in the frequency range of 900-1800 MHz. Exposure to MPEMFs may affect brain physiology and lead to various health hazards including brain tumors. Earlier studies with positron emission tomography (PET) have found alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute exposure to MPEMFs. It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemia and tumors, including brain tumors such as gliomas. Both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response have been triggered by MPEMFs and EMFs from cell towers. It has been shown that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells. This may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicates that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals. Recently developed technology for recording the human bio-electromagnetic (BEM) field using Electron photonic Imaging (EPI) or Gas Discharge Visualisation (GDV) technique provides useful information about the human BEM. Studies have recorded acute effects of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Fields (MPEMFs) using EPI and found quantifiable effects on human BEM field. Present manuscript reviews evidences of altered brain physiology and stem cell functioning due to mobile phone/cell tower radiations, its association with increased cancer risk and explores early diagnostic value of EPI imaging in detecting EMF induced changes on human BEM.

  1. 数字化的低张双对比造影对早期食道癌的诊断价值%Diagnostic Value of Hypotonic Double Contrast Digital Radiography Examination in Early Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林少波; 吴维颖; 李淳南; 林集荣; 陈滨柱; 温奇敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the diagnostic value of hypotonic double contrast digital radiography ex-amination to early esophageal cancer. Method: The digital radiography examination image and pathological data of 72 cases with early esophageal cancer diagnosed in our hospital were reviewed .Then compare it with the traditional single contrast esophageal radiography examination .Result:Esophageal wall relaxation degree slightly worse , 34 cases;the local mucosal disruption and destruction , 64 cases;small filling defect , 22 ca-ses;small niche, 21 cases.The traditional single contrast esophageal radiography examination in 18.6 cases, accounting for 18.1%;the hypotonic double contrast esophageal digital radiography examination in 68 cases, accounting for 94.4%.Conclusion:Hypotonic double contrast digital radiography examination has important value in the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer , reflected in the discovery , locating , qualitative aspects .It is obviously superior to the traditional single contrast radiography examination .%目的:探讨数字化的低张双对比造影对早期食道癌的诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析我院确诊72例早期食道癌的数字化低张双对比造影的影像资料,并与传统单对比食道造影进行比较。结果:数字化低张双对比造影对72例早期食道癌的X线表现分析:食道管壁舒张度稍差,34例;局部粘膜中断破坏,64例;小充盈缺损,22例;小龛影,21例。结论:数字化的低张双对比造影对早期食道癌的发现、定位、定性具有重要诊断价值,明显优于传统单对比造影。

  2. Diagnostic study of endoscopic iodine staining and P63 protein on early esophageal cancer%内镜下碘染色与P63蛋白对早期食管癌的诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉东; 胡晓明; 卢志平; 何轩; 梁结容

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore diagnostic study of endoscopic iodine staining and P63 protein on early esophageal cancer.Methods 180 patients with suspected esophageal lesions in our hospital were randomly allocated to into the experimental group and the control group,with 90 in each. Esophageal mucosa was dyed by iodine solution in the experimental group.In addition,unstained areas,lightly stained areas and deeply stained areas were received pathologic biopsy.In the control group,suspected lesions were received pathologic biopsy according to Endoscope and doctor's experience.Expression of biopsy tissues P63 proteins was detected in immunohistochemical detection. Results10 patients with early esophageal cancer and 16 with severe atypical hyperplasia are in the experimental group according to pathological diagnosis which accounting for 11.1% and 17.7% respectively.4 patients with early esophageal cancer and 5 with severe atypical hyperplasia are in the the control group according to pathological diagnosis which accounting for 4.4% and 5.6% respectively.Differences of diagnostic rates of early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions in two groups have statistically significance (P<0.05).Of all 125 biopsy tissues,36 are positive expression of P63 accounting for 28.8% and P63 proteins of 11 with squamous cell carcinoma all have expression accounting for 100%. 18 are positive expression of P63 in 21 with severe atypical hyperplasia which accounts for 85.7%.Only 2 are positive expression of P63 in 85 with normal,light-moderate atypical hyperplasia accounting for 2.4%.Significantly high expression of P63 was in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and severe atypical hyperplasia.Conclusion Preliminary screening through endoscopic iodine staining and detection of biopsy tissues P63 proteins can improve the diagnostic rate of early esophageal cancer.%目的:探讨内镜碘染色与P63蛋白对早期食管癌的诊断研究。方法对我院可疑食管病变的180

  3. [Diagnostic criteria. Benefits of early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Gregorio, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Almost 36 million persons live with dementia worldwide. This figure is set to double by 2030, with 66 million patients, and by 2050 there will be 116 million affected persons. Dementia has an economic impact on individuals and health services and affects the global economy. It is important to evaluate costs to plan social services and healthcare and to provide information on the cost-effectiveness of treatments. The economic cost of dementia was around 604 billion dollars in 2010 and estimates are obviously set to rise. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha eAgrawal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington’s disease, and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. A Diagnostic Approach to Hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S Tavill

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical review, a diagnostic approach to hemochromatosis is discussed from the perspective of two clinicians with extensive experience in this area. The introduction of genetic testing and large-scale population screening studies have broadened our understanding of the clinical expression of disease and the utility of biochemical iron tests for the detection of disease and for the assessment of disease severity. Liver biopsy has become more of a prognostic test than a diagnostic test. The authors offer a stepwise, diagnostic algorithm based on current evidence-based data, that they regard as most cost-effective. An early diagnosis can lead to phlebotomy therapy to prevent the development of cirrhosis.

  6. Audiologic diagnostics of vestibular schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komazec Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma is a rare, but important cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with asymmetric hearing loss, or unilateral tinnitus should be evaluated expeditiously, to prevent further neurological damage. Audiologic diagnostics Audiologic diagnostics represents the basic diagnosis for early detection of vestibular schwannoma. Patients with vestibular schwannomas may present with a variety of clinical features, including retrocochlear pattern of sensorineural hearing loss. Supraliminary audiometry, tympano- metry, stapedius reflex and otoacoustic emissions as well as vestibular response to caloric testing are methods for selection of patients with suspicion of this tumor. Conclusion The golden standard for audiologic diagnostics of vestibular schwannoma is BAEP (Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials. Patients with pathological findings of BAEP should undergo MRI of the posterior fossa. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is the best and final tool for making a diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma.

  7. How nova endoscopic procedures altered the diagnostic and therapeutic modality of early gastrointestinal cancer%消化内镜技术用于消化道早癌诊断治疗价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙曦; 王向东; 卢忠生; 令狐恩强; 王淑芳; 杨竞; 杜红; 孟江云; 王红斌

    2013-01-01

    gastric cancer and 40. 2% (235/584)for early colon cancer. The diagnostic accuracy of new endoscopic means was 97. 5% (849/871). And the average size of endoscopically removed lesions were as follow: early e-sophageal cancer 2. 59 cm× 1. 91 cm, early gastric cancer; 2. 98 cm×2. 18 cm and early colon cancer; 3. 37 cm×2. 21 cm. Conclusion The emergence and application of new endoscopic techniques in the past decade, had improved the detection rate of early gastrointestinal cancer and profoundly changed its therapeutic modality.

  8. Early diagnostic and prognostic value of microalbuminuria in patients with sepsis%微量白蛋白尿对脓毒症早期诊断及预后价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华敏

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究危重症患者微量白蛋白尿(MA)能否早期诊断脓毒症及评估其预后.方法 2013年1月至2014年12月入住本院ICU 206例危重症患者入选本研究,分别检测入ICU时尿白蛋白肌酐比值(ACR1)、乳酸(LAC1)及入ICU 6 h时ACR(ACR2)、乳酸(LAC2)等,追踪28 d病死率.比较脓毒症与非脓毒症ACR1,应用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线测定ACR1对脓毒症诊断界值,应用Logistic回归分析脓毒症28 d病死的独立危险因素.结果 脓毒症组ACR1显著高于非脓毒症组(P<0.01),ROC曲线分析提示ACR1诊断脓毒症界值为105 mg/g.脓毒症组28 d死亡患者ACR2显著高于生存者(P<0.01).ACR2与LAC2是脓毒症患者28 d病死的独立危险因素(P<0.01),两者死亡预测价值无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 入ICU时MA升高可能提示脓毒症.入ICU 6 h时MA与乳酸升高可能是脓毒症28 d病死的独立危险因素.%Objective To study the early diagnostic and prognostic value of microalbuminuria (MA) in patients with sepsis.Methods A total of 206 critically ill patients from January 2013 to December 2014 in ICU of our hospital were enrolled in the study.Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR1) and lactic acid (LAC1) were detected on admission of ICU.ACR2 and LAC2 were detected after 6 hours.28 days mortality rate was tracked.ACR1 was compared between patients with sepsis and without sepsis.The diagnostic value of ACR1 on sepsis was measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.The independent risk factors of death within 28 days of sepsis were analyzed by Logistic regression analysis.Results ACR1 in sepsis group was significantly higher than that in non sepsis group (P<0.01).ROC curve showed that the diagnostic value of ACR1 on sepsis was 105 mg/g.ACR2 in dead patients was significantly higher than that in survivors in sepsis group after 28 d (P<0.01).ACR2 and LAC2 were independent risk factors of death within 28 days in patients with sepsis (P<0

  9. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  10. The early diagnostic value of CT detection in patients with traumatic brain injury%CT探查在颅脑外伤患者中的早期诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨CT探查在颅脑外伤患者中的早期诊断价值。方法选取2012年6月~2014年6月收治于我院的42例颅脑外伤患者为研究对象,回顾性分析患者CT探查与临床资料。结果经CT探查,颅内血肿患者构成比最高,为29例,占69.05%,其他患者依次为颅脑骨折18例(42.86%),脑挫裂伤16例(38.10%),蛛网膜下腔出血12(28.57%),外伤性脑栓塞6例(14.29%)。结论早期对颅脑外伤患者进行CT探查,其对临床诊断有积极意义,且为临床针对治疗方案制定提供依据,为改善患者预后有积极意义。%Objective To investigate the early diagnostic value of CT detection in patients with traumatic brain injury.Methods 42 cases of patients with traumatic brain injury from 2012 June ~2014 year in June admitted to our hospital as the object of study,retrospec-tive analysis of clinical data of patients with CT probe.Results the CT probe,the highest proportion of patients with intracranial hematoma, 29 cases,accounted for 69.05%,other patients were skull fractures in 18 cases (42.86%),cerebral contusion and laceration in 16 cases (38.10%),subarachnoid hemorrhage in 12 (28.57%),6 cases of traumatic cerebral embolism (14.29%).Conclusion early CT ex-ploration of traumatic brain injury,which is of positive significance for clinical diagnosis,and for the clinical treatment program,to improve the prognosis of the patients with positive significance.

  11. Parameterized first-guess spectrum method for retrieving directional spectrum of swell-dominated waves and huge waves from SAR images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A method to retrieve ocean wave spectra from SAR images, named Parameterized First-guess Spectrum Method (PFSM), was proposed after interpretation of the theory to ocean wave imaging and analysis of the drawbacks of the retrieving model generally used. In this method, with additional information and satellite parameters, the separating wave-number is first calculated to determine the maximum wave-number beyond which the linear relation can be used. The separating wave-number can be calculated using the additional information on wind velocity and parameters of SAR satellite. And then the SAR spectrum can be divided into SAR spectrum of wind wave and of swell according to the result of separating wave-number. The portion of SAR spectrum generated by wind wave, is used to search for the most suitable parameters of ocean wind wave spectrum, including propagation direction of ocean wave, phase speed of dominating wave and the angle spreading coefficient. The swell spectrum is acquired by directly inversing the linear relation of ocean wave spectrum to SAR spectrum given the portion of SAR spectrum generated by swell. We used the proposed method to retrieve the ocean wave spectrum from ERS-SAR data from the South China Sea and compared the result with altimeter data. The agreement indicates that the PFSM is reliable.

  12. Paediatric diagnostic audiology testing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani

    2016-03-01

    With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of X-ray contrast on diagnostic analysis of early esophageal cancer%X线造影在早期食管癌诊断分析中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙连明

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨X线在早期食管癌诊断分析中的作用.方法 选取2013年6月~2014年6月期间在我院接受治疗的早期食道癌患者50例,所使用诊断仪器:上海XG-300D型医用X线诊断机,Toshiba影像增强电视系统对患者进行钡餐造影检查,回顾患者的基本临床资料及X线片诊断结果,对X线在早期食管癌诊断分析中的作用进行合理评价.结果 根据X线片诊断特征对患者进行划分,其中表现为黏膜皱襞改变患者共15例,其主要表现特征为局限性黏膜走行不稳,多变,黏膜皱褶增粗,迂回,中断,边缘毛糙,呈网状或颗粒状;表现出充盈缺损症状患者20例,其主要表现特征为肿物表现光滑、息肉样肿物突向管腔内,充盈缺损大小在0.5cm×0.5cm~1.0cm×1.0cm之间,基底部较为狭窄;表现出龛影患者13例,其主要表现特征为癌组织向腔内生长,边缘较不规则,底部可见溃疡,且溃疡大小凹凸不平、大小不等,约在0.2cm×0.2cm~0.5cm×0.5cm之间,形态不规则;表现出管壁改变患者共12例,其主要特征为管壁毛糙、不规则轮廓、且扩张程度较差;表现出管腔狭窄患者5例,其主要特征为病变呈局限性,且向心性,部分患者有时可见轻度痉挛.结论 对早期食管癌患者实施X线片诊断具有较好的临床效果,且该种诊断法操作简单,诊断准确有效,但在诊断过程中,对于检查医师及责任医师的要求较高,相关医师需对食管黏膜特征等进行充分掌握,以预防漏诊或误诊事件的发生.%Objective To study the effect of X-ray contrast on diagnostic analysis of early esophageal cancer.Methods50 patients with early esophageal cancer,who were treated in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2014,were selected and made barium meal examination with Toshiba radiography enhancing TV system,with the diagnosis instrument of type Shanghai XG-300D X-ray diagnosis machine.To retrospectively analyze the clinical data and the X

  14. Diagnostic value of cystine protease inhibitor C in early diabetic nephropathy%胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂C对早期糖尿病肾病的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何健; 严海燕; 庄豪; 罗晓红

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨血清胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂C(CysC)对糖尿病肾病的诊断价值。方法用IMMU-LITE2000分析仪(化学发光酶免疫法)检测糖尿病肾病患者(251例,病例筛选自中山大学孙逸仙纪念医院病案库,2006年1月至2012年12月)的尿清蛋白,并依尿清蛋白排泄率(UAER)检测结果分为正常蛋白尿组(UAER<20μg/min,96例)、微量蛋白尿组(20μg/min≤UAER<200μg/min,82例)、临床蛋白尿组(UAER≥200μg/min,73例),以健康体检者为健康对照组(100例)。用日立7170型全自动生化分析仪检测各组受试对象血清CysC、尿素(BUN)、肌酐(Crea)水平,比较各组间上述血清学检测指标(多因素方差分析),进而评估各参数对早期糖尿病肾病的诊断价值。结果正常蛋白尿组的CysC值与健康对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),微量蛋白尿组和临床蛋白尿组的CysC值与健康对照组相比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);临床蛋白尿组与健康对照组的BUN和Crea值相比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),但其他组与健康对照组相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论与BUN及Crea相比,CysC有助于早期糖尿病肾病的诊断。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of serous cystine protease inhibitor C (CysC) in early diabetic nephropathy .Methods Total of 251 cases of early diabetic kidney disease were screened from medical data base of the Second Affiliated Hospital of SUMS (from Jan .2006 to Dec .2012) ,according to value of urinous albumin , were divided into group of normal-albumin(UAER0 .05) . However ,the value of CysC in micro-albumin group and clinical-albumin group was significantly higher than that in normal-albumin and control group(P0 .05) ,and the value of serous BUN and Crea in clinical-albumin group was the highest compared with that in other groups (P<0 .01

  15. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  16. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  17. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis involving shoulder joints:Early diagnostic value of ultrasonography%超声对类风湿性肩关节炎的早期诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛剑莹; 赵小虎; 张兰; 高晓珺; 陆玲玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the early diagnostic value of ultrasonography for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involving shoulder joints. Methods Forty RA patients (RA group) and 20 health subjects (control group) were enrolled. All subjects underwent examination of high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) , and the following indicators were observed: The syno-vial thickness and effusion in shoulder joint cavity (axillary fossa and posterior recess), subacromial-deltoid bursa, and the sheath of long biceps tendon; bone surface erosion in greater tubercle, anteromedial and posterolateral head of humerus; and the injure of rotator cuff. In addition, blood flow signal in the synovial membrane and the lesions were also observed with power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS). Results In RA group, five types of lesions were found. The specific lesion type and detection rate were as following: Articuli hydrops (42.50%, 102/240), synovial proliferation (39.58%, 95/240), vascular hyperplasia (20. 83%, 50/240), rotator cuff tear (31. 67% , 19/60) and bone erosion (36. 11% , 65/180). In control group, neither effusion in shoulder cavity nor blood flow signal in synovial membrane was found. The thickness of synovial membrane in RA group significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion HFUS and PDUS can contribute to early diagnosis of many kinds of lesions in rheumatoid arthritis involving shoulder joints.%目的 探讨超声在类风湿性关节炎(RA)肩关节病变中的早期诊断价值.方法 应用高频超声(HFUS)对40例RA患者(RA组)的60侧病变肩关节进行扫查,观察肩关节腔腋囊侧及后隐窝侧、肩峰下滑囊、肱二头肌长头肌腱鞘4个区域内滑膜厚度、积液深度;观察肱骨头(大结节、前内侧及后外侧)骨表面侵蚀及肩袖损伤;利用能量多普勒超声(PDUS)观察病变区域滑膜血流情况,并与20名健康志愿者(对照组)40侧肩关节扫查结果进行对比.结果 超声检出RA组5种病变类型:关

  19. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  20. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  1. Diagnostic Value of Brain Perfusion Imaging with 64 Multi-Detector Spiral CT in Early Cerebral Infarction%64排螺旋 CT 脑灌注成像对早期脑梗死的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚彬; 盛伟华; 唐建伟; 黄松; 宋黎涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨64排螺旋 CT 脑灌注成像(CT perfusion imaging,CTP)对早期脑梗死的诊断价值。方法:临床拟诊早期脑梗死患者38例,均在症状出现24 h 内行头颅 CT 平扫及 CTP 检查。将脑梗死核心区、缺血半暗带(ischemic penumbra,IP)区与健侧对应区的情况做对比分析。结果:38例患者中,15例头颅 CT 平扫发现可疑脑梗死区,主要位于大脑半球,表现为密度轻度减低、局部脑沟稍变浅等;其余23例患者 CT 平扫未发现异常。38例患者的 CTP 检查均发现灌注异常区,表现为脑梗死区脑血流量(cerebral blood flow,CBF)与脑血容量(cerebral blood volume,CBV)均较健侧对应区明显下降,对比剂平均通过时间(mean transit time,MTT)较健侧对应区缩短,对比剂达峰时间(time to peak,TTP)较健侧对应区明显延长,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01)。早期脑梗死患者 IP 区与梗死核心区比较,CBF、CBV、MTT 及 TTP 差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01);IP区与健侧对应区比较,CBF、MTT、TTP 差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05、0.01),CBV 差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。获得随访的18例患者中,经积极溶栓等治疗后梗死区缩小6例,梗死区消失5例,仅表现为梗死区 TTP 和 MTT 延长、CBF 和 CBV 变化不大3例,梗死区无明显变化4例。结论:64排螺旋 CTP 检查可以准确地提示早期脑梗死。%Objective:To explore the diagnostic value of CT perfusion imaging(CTP)with 64 multi-detector spiral CT in early cerebral infarction.Methods:A total of 38 patients with suspected early cerebral infarction underwent plain CT and CTP within 24 h after the onset of related symptoms.The imaging results in infarction core area,ischemic penumbra (IP) and the contralateral normal region were comparatively analyzed.Results:Early cerebral infarction,mainly in cerebral hemispheres, were suspected

  2. MSCT 检测尘肺患者主肺动脉直径改变的早期诊断意义%The early diagnostic value of multislice spiral computed tomograghy in patients with pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兵; 王世光; 曹国玺; 闫莉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨多层螺旋CT( MSCT)检测主肺动脉直径改变用于尘肺患者早期的临床诊断意义。方法选取2013年1月至2015年6月就诊的120例患者纳入研究,分为对照组( A组)、尘肺Ⅰ期组( B组)、尘肺Ⅱ期组( C组)和尘肺Ⅲ期组( D组),每组30例。对4组患者采用高千伏片和MSCT两种方法进行检测,高千伏片进行胸前后位检测,MSCT测定B、C、D组肺动脉直径、右肺动脉直径、左肺动脉直径、主动脉/升主动脉值、主动脉/降主动脉值。并且利用肺功能机测定患者第1秒最大呼气量占预计值的百分比。对两种检测方式的阳性结果进行比较,MSCT测定患者直径指标间进行比较,并且分析直径指标和第1秒最大呼气量占预计值百分比的相关性。结果 MSCT在早期图像诊断方面较高千伏片方法清晰可靠,对尘肺患者阳性检出率在早期诊断率高于高千伏胸片,且各个分期均有所提高,差异有统计学意义( P <0剟.05)。 MSCT所测定的患者的肺动脉直径、左肺动脉直径、右肺动脉直径、主动脉/升主动脉值、主动脉/降主动脉值,且五项指标与EFV1%间呈现负相关关系( r =-0.31,-0.22,-0.27,-0.33,-0.37, P <0.05)。结论以检测肺动脉直径变化为指标,MSCT对于尘肺患者早期诊断具有一定的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the early diagnostic value of multislice spiral computed tomograghy ( MSCT) in patients with pneumoconiosis in different stages.Methods A total of 120 patients with pneumoconiosis who were treated in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2015 were enrolled in the study,these patients were divided into four groups: control group ( group A ) ,group B ( pneumoconiosis in stageⅠ) ,groups C ( pneumoconiosis in stageⅡ) ,group D ( pneumoconiosis in stage Ⅲ,with 30 patients in each group.All the patients underwent

  3. A Woven Web of Guesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    to answer arbitrary questions given perfect information can exist. No logical principle of induction can exist. Alan Turing Kurt Gödel Albert...almost always beyond full comprehension. Kolmogorov, Chaitin, Solomonoff Alan Turing Kurt Gödel Sir Karl Popper Canto Three Albert Einstein Sir

  4. National NIF Diagnostic Program Fiscal Year 2002 Second Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGowan, B

    2002-04-01

    Since October 2001 the development of the facility diagnostics for NIF has been funded by the NIF Director through the National NIF Diagnostic Program (NNDP). The current emphasis of the NNDP is on diagnostics for the early NIF quad scheduled to be available for experiment commissioning in FY03. During the past six months the NNDP has set in place processes for funding diagnostics, developing requirements for diagnostics, design reviews and monthly status reporting. Those processes are described in an interim management plan for diagnostics (''National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Plan'', NIF-0081315, April 2002) and a draft Program Execution Plan (''Program Execution Plan for the National NlF Diagnostic Program'', NIF-0072083, October 2001) and documents cited therein. Work has been funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bechtel Nevada at Los Alamos and Santa Barbara. There are no major technical risks with the early diagnostics. The main concerns relate to integration of the diagnostics into the facility, all such issues are being worked. This report is organized to show the schedule and budget status and a summary of Change Control Board actions for the past six months. The following sections then provide short descriptions of the status of each diagnostic. Where design reviews or requirements documents are cited, the documents are available on the Diagnostics file server or on request.

  5. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Study Design: retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Results: the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion’s site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. Conclusions: diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease. Key words:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, criteria, diagnose, early. PMID:24608210

  6. Diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasound combined with Lugol's staining in patients with early esophageal cancer%超声内镜联合染色内镜在早期食管癌诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪泳; 张方信; 常宗宏; 魏红梅; 赵海霞; 杨永林

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) combined with Lugol's staining in the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer (EEC). METHODS: White light endoscopy (WLE) was used to identify focal lesions, which were defined as any small local mucosal lesions with abnormal shape or color. Biopsy with pathological examination was performed to test the diagnostic accuracy of EUS combined with Lugol's staining for EEC. RESULTS: A total of 72 focal lesions from 67 patients were identified by WLE from August 2009 to September 2011. Of 72 focal lesions, 16 were pathologically diagnosed as EEC, including 9 treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR), and 7 resected surgically. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of conventional WLE for diagnosing EEC are 81.3%, 66% and 62.5%, respectively. The corresponding percentages for EUS combined with Lugol's staining are 87.5%, 98.2% and 95.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: EUS combined with Lugol's staining is an effective method for the diagnosis of EEC.%目的:分析超声内镜联合染色内镜技术诊断早期食管癌的准确性,评价其临床应用价值.方法:2009-08/2011-09行普通白光内镜(WLE)检查发现食管黏膜可疑病变67例,患者72处病灶纳入研究,可疑病变包括食管黏膜粗糙、糜烂、颜色异常、微隆起等.所有病变行活组织病理检查,分析超声内镜联合染色内镜诊断早期食管癌的准确性.结果:72处局灶性病变中,病理组织学证实癌性病变16处(9处病变行内镜下黏膜切除术或内镜黏膜下剥离术治疗,7处病变行手术治疗).非癌性病变56处,为慢性炎症、轻-中度不典型增生.WLE诊断早期食管癌的敏感度、特异度和准确性分别为:81.3%、66%、62.5%;超声内镜联合染色内镜对应值分别为:87.5%、98.2%、95.8%.结论:超声内镜联合染色内镜对食管病变有较高的诊断价值,尤其是对诊断早期食管癌及癌前病变有重要意义.

  7. 听性脑干反应与听觉稳态反应对233例听力复筛未通过婴幼儿早期听力测试结果分析%Analysis of ABR and ASSR test in early hearing diagnostic of 233 infants failed in second hearing screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东红; 王玉璟; 马秀岚

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To discuss the effect of ABR and ASSR test in early hearing diagnostic of infants failed in second hearing screening. Methods: ABR and ASSR were tested in 233 (466 ears) in first and second hearing diagnostic, the results were analyzed. Results;Of 233 infants, 64 infants were normal in first diagnostic tested in 1 to 3 months, 169 infants were with one or two cars hearing loss, among them 88 with milder hearing loss, 60 with moderate hearing loss 12 of the 60 infants with severe hearing loss, 9 with very severe hearing loss. 106 infants accepted second diagnostic test, among them 60 infants with normal hearing, 46 infants with hearing loss 12 of the 46 infants with milder hearing loss, 15 with moderate hearing loss, 10 with severe hearing loss, 9 with very severe hearing loss. Conclusion; Hearing loss infants can de early founded by ABR and ASSR test. ABR and ASSR also provide accurate diagnostic test for early hearing intervention.%目的:探讨听性脑干反应(ABR)与听觉稳态反应(ASSR)在听力复筛未通过婴幼儿早期听力评估中的作用.方法:对233例(466耳)听力复筛未通过的婴幼儿使用ABR、ASSR测试,进行听力学初诊及复诊.分析ABR与ASSR的临床应用情况.结果:233例婴幼儿,在1~3个月时初诊听力正常64例,单耳或双耳听力损失169例,其中轻度88例,中度60例,重度12例,极重度9例.6个月时复诊106例,听力正常60例,听力损失46例,其中轻度12例,中度15例,重度10例,极重度9例.失访63例.结论:ABR与ASSR联合应用可早期发现听力损失,为听力障碍的早期干预提供可靠的依据.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of early visual cortex suppresses conscious representations in a dichotomous manner without gradually decreasing their precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Mika; Harjuniemi, Inari; Railo, Henry; Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Revonsuo, Antti

    2017-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of early visual cortex can suppresses visual perception at early stages of processing. The suppression can be measured both with objective forced-choice tasks and with subjective ratings of visual awareness, but there is lack of objective evidence on how and whether the TMS influences the quality of representations. Does TMS decrease the precision of representations in graded manner, or does it lead to dichotomous, "all-or-nothing" suppression. We resolved this question by using a continuous measure of the perceptual error: the observers had to perceive the orientation of a target (Landort-C) and to adjust the orientation of a probe to match that of the target. Mixture modeling was applied to estimate the probability of guess trials and the standard deviation of the non-guess trials. TMS delivered 60-150 ms after stimulus-onset influenced only the guessing rate, whereas the standard deviation (i.e., precision) was not affected. This suggests that TMS suppressed representations dichotomously without affecting their precision. The guessing probability correlated with subjective visibility ratings, suggesting that it measured visual awareness. In a control experiment, manipulation of the stimulus contrast affected the standard deviation of the errors, indicating that contrast has a gradual influence on the precision of representations. The findings suggest that TMS of early visual cortex suppresses perception in dichotomous manner by decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the noise level, whereas reduction of the signal level (i.e., contrast) decreases the precision of representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  10. Evaluation of early diagnostic value of 6 antigens from Schistosoma japonicum in mice%血吸虫感染小鼠早期诊断抗原的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玠; 余传信; 殷旭仁; 钱春艳; 宋丽君; 许永良; 何伟; 曹国群

    2011-01-01

    值,免疫印迹试验的敏感性比酶联免疫吸附试验高.%Objective To find out the candidate antigen for immunoreagent, which could be used to diagnose Schistosoma ja-ponicum infection early in mice. Methods The mice were infected with cereariae of S. japonicum Chinese mainland strain. The sera of mice before and after infection at different time were collected. The recombinant fusion protein (GST-HD) of the large hydro-philic domain (HD) of 23 kDa membrane protein of 5. japonicum with the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) of S. japonicum, soluble eggs antigen (SEA), TSP2 hydrophilic domain of S. japonkum (TSP2HD), IL4-inducing principle of S. mansoni eggs (IPSE), fusion protein GST-SjMPIO (SjMP-10), and recombinant S. japonicum (Chinese strain) signaling protein 14-3-3 (Sj 14-3-3) were used as diagnostic antigens, the specific IgG and IgM antibodies were measured respectively by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELI-SA). The antigens with the value of diagnosing schistosomiasis early were screened by analyzing the changes of the levels of specific IgG (or IgM) antibodies and the positive rates of specific antibodies in the sera of mice before and post infection at different time. Moreover, the antigen' s value of early diagnosis was further validated by Immunoblot. Results On the 18th, 21st and 28th day post infection, the positive rates of specific antibody IgM against GST-HD were 60%, 70% and 100%, respectively; the positive rates of specific antibody IgG against GST-HD were 40%, 60% and 90%, respectively. The positive rates of antibody IgM againstSEA were 50%, 60% and 90%, respectively; the positive rates of antibody IgG against SEA were 20%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The positive rates of IgM against TSP2HD were 30%, 40% and 50%, respectively; the rates of IgG against TSP2HD were 20%, 30% and 70%, respectively. The positive rates of IgM against IPSE were 20%, 30% and 50%, respectively; the positive rates of IgG against IPSE were 20%, 30% and 60

  11. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  12. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications.

  13. Diagnostic Measurements for Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenbohlen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing age of the primary equipment of the electrical grids there exists also an increasing need to know its internal condition. For this purpose, off- and online diagnostic methods and systems for power transformers have been developed in recent years. Online monitoring is used continuously during operation and offers possibilities to record the relevant stresses which can affect the lifetime. The evaluation of these data offers the possibility of detecting oncoming faults early. In comparison to this, offline methods require disconnecting the transformer from the electrical grid and are used during planned inspections or when the transformer is already failure suspicious. This contribution presents the status and current trends of different diagnostic techniques of power transformers. It provides significant tutorial elements, backed up by case studies, results and some analysis. The broadness and improvements of the presented diagnostic techniques show that the power transformer is not anymore a black box that does not allow a view into its internal condition. Reliable and accurate condition assessment is possible leading to more efficient maintenance strategies.

  14. New tuberculosis diagnostics and rollout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and effective treatment are crucial for tuberculosis control, but global case detection rates remain low. The diagnosis of paediatric and extrapulmonary disease is problematic and there are, as yet, no rapid screening tests to assist active case finding in the community. Progress has been made in clinic-based detection tools with the introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF, a nucleic acid amplification test that combines sample processing and analysis in a single instrument to provide a diagnostic result and detection of resistance to rifampicin in under 2 h. Enthusiasm for Xpert MTB/RIF has been high and global rollout has been facilitated by donor agencies. However, concerns remain about access and sustainability due to the high cost and infrastructure requirements. Although more sensitive than smear microscopy, early studies suggest the impact of the new test on case detection rates and patient survival has been limited. Alternative technologies are being developed, including non-sputum-based tests to assist the detection of extrapulmonary disease. Evaluation studies are needed to provide evidence of the impact of the new technologies on patient outcomes. This will enable appropriate placement of new diagnostic products in the healthcare system to support the control and eventual eradication of tuberculosis disease.

  15. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán-Carlos; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío

    2014-07-01

    to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion's site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease.

  16. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  17. Diagnostics in critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadchikovD.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores

  18. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  19. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  20. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  1. Rotorcraft Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is...

  2. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  3. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are offered to all pregnant women. What is amniocentesis? Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test. It usually is done ... a very small chance of pregnancy loss with amniocentesis. Leakage of amniotic fluid and slight bleeding can ...

  4. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution.

  5. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  6. DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICATION OF EXANTHEMA IN THE PREHOSPITAL CARE IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease, with exanthema, pose a significant differential diagnostic difficulty for physicians multidisciplinary hospitals and require the consultation of an infectious disease physician. The article highlights the problem of early diagnostics of acute infectious diseases proceeding with exanthema. The analysis of quality of diagnostics of infectious disease on the outcomes of the consultative infectious ambulance team for 2013-2014.

  7. [Vasculitis - diagnostic and therapeutic advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Albuquerque, R; Machado, Filipa

    2014-01-01

    Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels walls. It represents a heterogeneous group of conditions, whose etiopathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Although uncommon, with an annual incidence of 40-54 cases per 1.000.000 persons, this is an important cause of multiorganic dysfunction and premature mortality. Depending on the affected vessels, it can cause diverse clinical presentations, which makes difficult its recognition. It is therefore a challenge for any clinician. This paper reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the most common forms of vasculitis, in order to optimize the approach and management of this clinical entity. We have conducted a search in Medline database on articles written in English, published for the last 10 years using the keywords: vasculitis, epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment. To minimize the impact of vasculitis it is essential an early diagnosis, allowing a timely institution of the appropriate treatment. The diagnosis depends on the integration of clinical, laboratory, imaging and histopathologic data. According to the clinical condition, it may be indicated the removal of the offending antigen, the treatment of the underlying disease or specific treatment of the primary vasculitis. The introduction of immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide has revolutionized the prognosis of these patients but, despite its efficacy, it is associated with frequent relapses and significant toxicity. The study of the pathogenesis has been providing more effective and safer diagnostic and therapeutic options, for example B-cell depleting agents, but additional studies are needed to confirm the potential of these alternatives.

  8. [Advances in the diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, U; Wiltfang, J; Peters, N; Benninghoff, J

    2012-05-01

    Due to the demographic developments, diagnosis and treatment, dementia constitutes an increasing medical challenge and is likely to have an increasing socioeconomic impact. Dementia does not reflect a single disease but encompasses a variety of underlying conditions, heterogeneous clinical courses and therapeutic approaches, among which Alzheimer's disease represents the most common cause. Therefore, a thorough differential diagnosis of dementia is of major importance. To date the current diagnosis of dementia according to ICD-10/DMS-IV is based on clinical criteria. In addition, the concept of mild cognitive impairment comprises early cognitive dysfunction without clinically apparent dementia. Alzheimer's disease is more and more conceptualized as a disease continuum with mild cognitive impairment as an early and manifest dementia as the later stage of the disease. This review gives an overview on the current diagnostic approaches and the proposed revisions of diagnostic and research criteria for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC OPPORTUNITIES OF NEUROOPHTHALMOLOGIC INSPECTION AT RS: ROLE OF AN OPTICAL COHERENT TOMOGRAPHY AND THE VISUAL CAUSED POTENTIALS IN EARLY DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND MONITORING OF A CONDITION OF THE VISUAL ANALYZER AT PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS OPTIONS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Andreyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of 70 patients with different options of a course of multiple sclerosis is conducted. Reliable decrease in thickness of a layer of a neuroepithelium and macular volume of a retina at patients with various options of a course of the multiple sclerosis, more expressed is noted at primary progressing and secondary progressing current options, and the patients who have transferred an optical neuritis. The functional violations at the level of an optic nerve according to the visual caused potentials – increase in a latence and decrease in amplitude of the P100 component are revealed. Possibility of application of methods of an optical coherent tomography and the visual caused potentials for diagnostics and monitoring of pathological process is shown at multiple sclerosis.

  10. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  11. Congenital Diarrheal Disorders: An Updated Diagnostic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Castaldo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diarrheal disorders (CDDs are a group of inherited enteropathies with a typical onset early in the life. Infants with these disorders have frequently chronic diarrhea of sufficient severity to require parenteral nutrition. For most CDDs the disease-gene is known and molecular analysis may contribute to an unequivocal diagnosis. We review CDDs on the basis of the genetic defect, focusing on the significant contribution of molecular analysis in the complex, multistep diagnostic work-up.

  12. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  13. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  14. Ataxia telangiectasia: presentation and diagnostic delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Rebecca; Pasalodos, Sara; Suri, Mohnish; Bush, Andy; Bhatt, Jayesh M

    2017-04-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare progressive, multisystem genetic disease. Families of children with ultra-rare diseases often experience significant diagnostic delays. We reviewed the diagnostic process for A-T in order to identify causes of delay in an attempt to facilitate earlier identification of A-T in the future. A retrospective case note review of 79 children at the National Paediatric A-T clinic seen since May 2009. Data were collected on the nature and age of initial symptoms, the age at first presentation, measurement of alpha feto-protein (AFP) and age of genetic diagnostic confirmation. At presentation, 71 children (90%) had ataxia. The median presentation delay (from first parental concern to presentation) was 8 months (range 0-118 months), and the median diagnostic delay (genetic confirmation of diagnosis) was 12 months (range 1-109 months). There are significant delays in presentation and diagnostic confirmation of A-T. A greater awareness of A-T and early measurement of AFP may help to improve this. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sally A; Beed, Fen D; Harmon, Carrie Lapaire

    2009-01-01

    Emerging, re-emerging and endemic plant pathogens continue to challege our ability to safeguard plant health worldwide. Further, globalization, climate change, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution have combined to increase the spread of invasive plant pathogens. Early and accurate diagnoses and pathogen surveillance on local, regional, and global scales are necessary to predict outbreaks and allow time for development and application of mitigation strategies. Plant disease diagnostic networks have developed worldwide to address the problems of efficient and effective disease diagnosis and pathogen detection, engendering cooperation of institutions and experts within countries and across national borders. Networking maximizes impact in the face of shrinking government investments in agriculture and diminishing human resource capacity in diagnostics and applied pathology. New technologies promise to improve the speed and accuracy of disease diagnostics and pathogen detection. Widespread adoption of standard operating procedures and diagnostic laboratory accreditation serve to build trust and confidence among institutions. Case studies of national, regional, and international diagnostic networks are presented.

  16. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss.

  17. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju.

  18. 强直性脊柱炎早期骶髂关节炎的磁共振诊断价值%Diagnostic Value of MRI in the Diagnosis of Sacroilitis for Early Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海燕; 詹浩辉; 李卫新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of MRI in the diagnosis of sacroilitis for early ankylosing spondylitis. Method 75 questionable ankylosing spondylitis patients were scanned by CT and MRI of the sacroiliac joints within a week. According to the New York criteria for patients Classification, it can be divided into two groups , which are early stage ( 0- Ⅱ grade ) and late stage ( Ⅲ - Ⅳ). Data from both groups were performed with chi-square test. Results There is no significant different between MRI and CT in the diagnosis of late stage SIJ whereas significant different has displayed in the diagnosis of sacroilitis for early ankylosing spondylitis has obvious superiority,which has statistical significanceetween MRI and CT. Conclusion MRI is more advanced in the diagnosis of SIJ.%目的 探讨磁共振成像(MRI)对强直性脊柱炎(AS)早期骶髂关节炎诊断的临床应用价值.方法 对75例到本院进行特殊疾病鉴定的可疑AS患者,在1周内分别行双侧骶髂关节MRI和CT检查,依据纽约标准进行分级,分为早期(0~Ⅰ级)和晚期(Ⅲ~ Ⅳ级)两组,分别进行x 2检验.结果 CT和MRI对晚期(Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)骶髂关节炎炎的判断无明显统计学差异,对(0~Ⅱ级)的判断二者相差较大,对于AS的早期骶髂关节炎炎诊断MRI明显优于CT,具有统学计意义.结论 MRI对AS早期骶髂关节炎的诊断具有明显优越性.

  19. Renal scintigraphy by DMSA: early or tardy imaging? Comparison of performances in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in infants; Scintigraphie renal au DMSA: imagerie precoce ou tardive? Comparaison des performances dans le diagnostic des pyelonephrites aigues de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouhayoun, E. [Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Purpan, 31059 Toulouse (France); Bouissou, F.; Decramer, S. [Pediatrie, Hopital Purpan, 31059 Toulouse (France); Tafani, J.A.M.; Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P. [Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Purpan, 31059 Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    Several authors suggest early imaging (around 4 h after injection) invoking feasibility and counting statistics. On the other side, the tardy images (> 12 h ) constitutes another approach based on two arguments: the fixation curve of DMSA is a plateau, on one hand, and one avoids the presence of circulating or still present DMSA in the interstitial spaces and pyelo-calyceal cavities, on the other hand. The aim of this work is to compare the performances of these two approaches in detecting focuses of acute pyelonephritis. One hundred infants (average age, 3.3 {+-} 3.6 years), with a suspicion of APN clinic and biologic affliction, benefited by a DMSA scintigraphy. In 89 cases, there was a first episode, while in 7 and 4, of the second and third episode, respectively. The scintigraphy was performed 2 days after the debut of urinary infection. The images were achieved 3 h {+-} 30 min and 18 h {+-} 1 h for every infant. The incidences were frontal-posterior in 2 cases, supplemented by right and left oblique-posterior, on the early films. The images were qualitatively analyzed by 2 observers recording the number, intensity and the defect size. The following results were obtained. The detection rate is of 66% for the 3 h images and 70% for the 18 h images. The images were considered as equivalent in 57% of cases. Particularly, the oblique-posterior incidences have not increased the rate of detection. In 30% cases the tardy images allowed a better detection of lesions, particularly, in 17% of cases where a higher number of lesions was detected (in 4 cases the focuses were evidenced solely on the tardy films). The early films were more contributive only in 11% of cases. For 3% of cases the detection of focus was due uniquely to the early oblique-posteriors. In conclusion, these results show the superiority of tardy films in detecting the lesions of pyelonephritis. They urge to realize images in these clinic indication not before at least 6 hours after injection

  20. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  1. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  2. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  3. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  4. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  5. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  6. [Molecular diagnostics and imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Huss, Ralf; Nestle, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic methods and biological imaging techniques can make a major contribution to tailoring patients' treatment needs with regard to medical, ethical and pharmaco-economic aspects. Modern diagnostic methods are already being used to help identify different sub-groups of patients with thoracic tumours who are most likely to benefit significantly from a particular type of treatment. This contribution looks at the most recent developments that have been made in the field of thoracic tumour diagnosis and analyses the pros and cons of new molecular and other imaging techniques in day-to-day clinical practice.

  7. DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES IN BACTERIAL SPONDYLODISCITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Orso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze aspects related to the diagnostic difficulty in patients with bacterial spondylodiscitis. Methods : Cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collected in the period from March 2004 to January 2014.Twenty-one patients diagnosed with bacterial spondylodiscitis were analyzed. Results : Women were the most affected, as well as older individuals. Pain in the affected region was the initial symptom in 52% of patients, and 45.5% of the patients had low back pain, and those with dorsal discitis had back pain as the main complaint; the patients with thoracolumbar discitis had pain in that region, and only one patient had sacroiliac discitis. The average time between onset of symptoms and treatment was five months. The lumbar segment was the most affected with 11 cases (52%, followed by thoracolumbar in 24%, dorsal in 19% of cases and a case in the sacroiliac segment. Only seven patients had fever. Pain in the affected level was coincidentally the most common symptom. Conclusions : Early diagnosis of bacterial spondylodiscitis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms reported by the patient and the wide variability of laboratory results and imaging. The basis for early diagnosis remains the clinical suspicion at the time of initial treatment.

  8. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  9. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  10. Requirements for ITER diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized.

  11. The diagnostic value of combined detection of four indexes in early diagnosis of nephropathy%4项指标联合检测在肾脏疾病早期诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娟娟; 周铁成; 童开; 李小燕; 程晓东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of joint detection of serum cystatin C (Cys C) ,retinol‐binding protein(RBP) ,urea ni‐trogen(BUN) and creatinine(Cr) in early diagnosis of nephropathy .Methods A total of 230 cases of inpatients with nephropathy form April 2013 to June 2014 were collected and divided into diabetic nephropathy group (130 cases)and hypertensive nephropathy group(100 cases) .Other 200 healthy individuals were collected as healthy control group .The serum levels of Cys C ,RBP ,BUN and Cr were detected by using the Hitachi 7180 automatic biochemistry analyzer .Results Compared with the healthy control group ,the sertum levels of Cys C ,RBP ,BUN and Cr were significantly increased in the diabetic nephropathy group ,and the serum levels of Cys C and RBP were significantly increased in hypertensive nephropathy group ,there were statistically significant differences (P0 .05) .Positive rates(81 .9% ) of the four indicators in the two nephropathy groups were high‐er than those in the healthy control group ,and the positive rate of joint detection of the four indicators was higher than single detec‐tion in patients with nephropathy .Conclusion Serum RBP and Cys C are sensitive indicators for early renal damage ,and combined with BUN and Cr could increase sensitivity of early diagnosis of nephropathy ,which has significant clinical value .%目的:探讨血清胱抑素C(Cys C)、视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)、尿素氮(BUN)和肌酐(Cr)联合检测对肾脏疾病的早期诊断价值。方法选取2013年4月至2014年6月各类肾脏疾病住院患者230例,其中糖尿病肾病组130例,高血压肾病组100例;另选取200例体检健康者作为健康对照组;应用日立7180全自动生化分析仪检测血清Cys C、RBP、BUN及Cr水平。结果与健康对照组比较,糖尿病肾病组患者血清Cys C、RBP、BUN、Cr水平均升高,高血压肾病组患者血清Cys C、RBP水平升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0

  12. Current advances in diagnostic methods of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuehua; Feng Xianmin; Jiang Linzhe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article was to review the current advances in diagnostic methods for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).Data sources Data used in this review were retrieved from PubMed (1970-2013).The terms "Acanthamoeba keratitis" and "diagnosis" were used for the literature search.Study selection Data from published articles regarding AK and diagnosis in clinical trials were identified and reviewed.Results The diagnostic methods for the eight species implicated in AK were reviewed.Among all diagnostic procedures,corneal scraping and smear examination was an essential diagnostic method.Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive and accurate detection method.Culturing of Acanthamoeba was a reliable method for final diagnosis of AK.Confocal microscopy to detect Acanthamoeba was also effective,without any invasive procedure,and was helpful in the early diagnosis of AK.Conclusion Clinically,conjunction of various diagnostic methods to diagnose AK was necessary.

  13. Screening and Early Detection - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer screening and early detection. Includes posts on diagnostic biomarkers and advances or trends in screening practices.

  14. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  15. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  16. Welcome to Diagnostics: a New Open Access Journal for the Fast-Growing Field of Medical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kjaer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic methods in medicine are currently rapidly evolving and constantly improving. This is true for areas such as molecular diagnostics, biomarkers, as well as medical imaging. As one example, positron emission tomography (PET has been called the fastest growing medical technology ever. Also, molecular diagnostics, at both the gene and protein levels, are developing rapidly due to advances in technology and, thereby, creating new possibilities. Early and valid diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment of patients. Moreover, advanced diagnostic methods are crucial for the upcoming era of tailored therapy. From an economic viewpoint, the cost of advanced treatments are increasingly indicating the need for better stratification and therapy monitoring of treatment, in order that these advanced treatments are limited to patients able to respond favorably. Collectively, the exciting area of medical diagnostics seems never to have been more important for patients and society. [...

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian J

    2008-07-01

    Taking a careful history is vital for the evaluation of dysphagia. The history will yield the likely underlying pathophysiologic process and anatomic site of the problem in most patients, and is crucial for determining whether subsequently detected radiographic or endoscopic 'anomalies' are relevant or incidental. Although the symptoms of pharyngeal dysphagia can be multiple and varied, the typical features of neurogenic pharyngeal dysphagia are highly specific, and can accurately distinguish pharyngeal from esophageal disorders. The history will also dictate whether the next diagnostic procedure should be endoscopy, a barium swallow or esophageal manometry. In some difficult cases, all three diagnostic techniques may need to be performed to establish an accurate diagnosis. Stroke is the most common cause of pharyngeal dysphagia. A videoradiographic swallow study is vital in such cases to determine the extent and timing of aspiration and the severity and mechanics of dysfunction as a prelude to therapy.

  18. Nanobiosensors in diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnosis has been greatly improved thanks to the development of new techniques capable of performing very sensitive detection and quantifying certain parameters. These parameters can be correlated with the presence of specific molecules and their quantity. Unfortunately, these techniques are demanding, expensive, and often complicated. On the other side, progress in other fields of science and technology has contributed to the rapid growth of nanotechnology. Although being an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has raised huge interest and expectations. Most of the enthusiasm comes from new possibilities and properties of nanomaterials. Biosensors (simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective combined with nanomaterials, also called nanobiosensors, are serving as bridge between advanced detection/diagnostics and daily/routine tests. Here we review some of the latest applications of nanobiosensors in diagnostics field.

  19. Gene Disease Diagnostic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国亮; 张腾飞; 程京; 周玉祥; 刘诚迅; 金国藩; 邬敏贤; 严瑛白; 杨蓉

    2002-01-01

    Binary optics, where the optical element can be fabricated on a thin glass plate with micro-ion-etching film layer, has been widely applied in recent years. A novel optical scanning system for gene disease diagnostics described in this paper has four kinds of optical devices, including beam splitters, an array lens, an array filter and detection arrays. A software was developed to design the binary optics system using an iterative method. Two beam splitters were designed and fabricated, which can divide a beam into a 9×9 array or into a 13×13 array. The beam splitters have good diffraction efficiencies (>70%) and an even energy distribution. The gene disease diagnostic system is a portable biochip and binary optics technology. The binary optical devices in the non-confocal scanning system can raise the fluorescence detection sensitivity of the micro-array hybrid biochip.

  20. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  1. 缺血修饰白蛋白对胸痛的早期诊断价值研究%Study of early diagnostic value of ischemia modified albumin for chest pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵华; 任文林; 李莉; 詹小娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价缺血修饰白蛋白(ischemia modified albumin,IMA)对以胸痛为主诉到急诊室的患者的早期诊断价值.方法 入选188例研究对象,包括142例有胸痛症状,怀疑急性冠脉综合征(ACS)的患者及46例健康志愿者.依据肌钙蛋白检测结果,患者组肌钙蛋白阳性的69例为胸痛1组,肌钙蛋白阴性的73例为胸痛2组,其中10例患者依据临床特点及心电图等检查确诊为不稳定型心绞痛.组间比较采用方差分析,并绘制ROC曲线,根据ROC曲线选定IMA的理想截断点.结果 肌钙蛋白阳性组IMA平均值明显高于肌钙蛋白阴性组[(126.44±9.73)U/mL vs(101.93±8.67)U/mL,P<0.01],以IMA的检测值99.5 U/mL为截断点,IMA诊断ACS的敏感度为96.3%,特异度为57.1%.结论 IMA可能是急诊室早期排除胸痛患者为ACS的有用指标.%Objective To evaluate whether ischemia modified albumin ( IMA) is a useful biomarker for the identification of acute coronary syndrome ( ACS) in patients presenting with acute chest pain at early stage in emergency department. Methods We selected 188 subjects: 142 consecutive patients with chest pain were suspected of ACS and 46 heathy volunteers. According to the result of troponin Ⅰ( TnI) , all the patients were classified to either the TnI positive group ( n = 69) or Tropin Ⅰnegative group ( n = 73 ) , among TnI negative group there were 10 patients whose final diagnosis were unstable angina pectoris. SNOVA was used to compare IMA between different groups, and receiver operating characteristicl( ROC) was obtained. The ideal cutoff value of IMA was calculated by the ROC curve analysis. Results Mean IMA levels were higher in the patients with positive TnI ( 126.44±9.73) U/mL than in the patients with negative TnI ( 101.93±8.67) U/mL ( P < 0.01). Based on IMA levels (99.5 U/mL) , IMA had a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 57.1% for the diagnosis of ACS. Conclusion IMA may be a useful biomarker to rule out ACS in patients

  2. 围生期窒息新生儿脑损伤早期超声的临床诊断价值%Diagnostic value of cerebral ultrasound in early brain damage of asphyxia children in perinatal period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静波; 王建荣; 张海峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:对围生期窒息病史的新生儿,72h内行床旁颅脑超声检查,观察脑组织结构及血流动力学改变,探讨此类患儿早期常见脑损伤类型及超声表现。方法方患儿出生后72h内行首次颅脑超声检查,多普勒技术经颞囟检测大脑前动脉、中动脉血流动力学变化,主要参数:收缩期峰值血流速度(Vs)、舒张末期血流速度(Vd)、阻力指数(RI)。结果生后72h内超声检查,60例患儿中47例表现不同程度的脑损伤,阳性率78.3%。结论围生期窒息患儿易造成缺氧缺血性脑损伤,颅脑超声可早期发现脑组织结构改变及血流动力学变化,72h内检查阳性率高,对NICU中的重症患儿,超声具有床旁检查的优势。%Objective In this work ,the newborn babies with the history of asphyxia in the perinatal period were subjec‐ted to the bedside cerebral ultrasound examination within 72 h .The brain structure and hemodynamic changes were ob‐served so as to early explore the the common type of brain injury and sonographic findings in these children .Methods Children born within 72 h underwent the bedeside cerebral ultrasound examination for the first time .The main parame‐ters ,which reflected the blood flow dynamic changes in anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery ,in terms of the peak systolic blood flow velocity (Vs) ,end‐diastolic velocity (Vd) ,and resistance index (RI) ,were detected with doppler technique via temporal fontanelle .Results By the Ultrasound test within 72 h after birth ,47 out of 60 cases were shown brain injury at different extent .The positive rate was 78 .3% .Conclusion Children with asphyxia in the perinatal period are prone to hypoxic ischemic brain damage .Cerebral ultrasound can early detect the changes of brain tissue structure and hemodynamics .Checking within 72 h ,the positive rate is high .For the severe patients in NICU ,ultrasound has the ad‐vantages for

  3. Performance of an Early Infant Diagnostic Test, AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT, Using Dried Blood Spots Collected from Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mothers in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Azarskova, Marianna; Nguyen, Shon; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zhang, Guoqing; Osmanov, Saladin; Ellenberger, Dennis; Yang, Chunfu; Vitek, Charles; Liulchuk, Maria; Nizova, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    An accurate accessible test for early infant diagnosis (EID) is crucial for identifying HIV-infected infants and linking them to treatment. To improve EID services in Ukraine, dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from 237 HIV-exposed children (≤18 months of age) in six regions in Ukraine in 2012 to 2013 were tested with the AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT assay, the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test, and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative assay. In comparison with the paired whole-blood results generated from AmpliSens testing at the oblast HIV reference laboratories in Ukraine, the sensitivity was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Roche CAP/CTM Qual assays and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98) for the Abbott Qualitative assay. The specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Abbott Qualitative assays and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.00) for the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay. McNemar analysis indicated that the proportions of positive results for the tests were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cohen's kappa (0.97 to 0.99) indicated almost perfect agreement among the three tests. These results indicated that the AmpliSens DBS and whole-blood tests performed equally well and were comparable to the two commercially available EID tests. More importantly, the performance characteristics of the AmpliSens DBS test meets the World Health Organization EID test requirements; implementing AmpliSens DBS testing might improve EID services in resource-limited settings. PMID:26447114

  4. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  5. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women.

  6. STELLA Experiment - Microbunch Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P.; Liu, Y.; Cline, D. B.; Babzien, M.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.; Kimura, W. D.

    1998-07-01

    A microbunch diagnostic system is built at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory for monitoring microbunches (10-fs bunch length) produced by the Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator in Staged Electron Laser Acceleration experiment. It is similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. With greatly improved beam optics conditions higher order harmonic coherent transition radiation will be measurable to determine the microbunch length and shape.

  7. Diagnostic complexities of eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Nathan D; Dunphy, Cherie H; Mooberry, Micah; Laramore, Andrew; Foster, Matthew C; Park, Steven I; Fedoriw, Yuri D

    2013-02-01

    The advent of molecular tools capable of subclassifying eosinophilia has changed the diagnostic and clinical approach to what was classically called hypereosinophilic syndrome. To review the etiologies of eosinophilia and to describe the current diagnostic approach to this abnormality. Literature review. Eosinophilia is a common, hematologic abnormality with diverse etiologies. The underlying causes can be broadly divided into reactive, clonal, and idiopathic. Classically, many cases of eosinophilia were grouped together into the umbrella category of hypereosinophilic syndrome, a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. In recent years, an improved mechanistic understanding of many eosinophilias has revolutionized the way these disorders are understood, diagnosed, and treated. As a result, specific diagnoses can now be assigned in many cases that were previously defined as hypereosinophilic syndrome. Most notably, chromosomal rearrangements, such as FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusions caused by internal deletions in chromosome 4, are now known to be associated with many chronic eosinophilic leukemias. When present, these specific molecular abnormalities predict response to directed therapies. Although an improved molecular understanding is revolutionizing the treatment of patients with rare causes of eosinophilia, it has also complicated the approach to evaluating and treating eosinophilia. Here, we review causes of eosinophilia and present a framework by which the practicing pathologist may approach this diagnostic dilemma. Finally, we consider recent cases as clinical examples of eosinophilia from a single institution, demonstrating the diversity of etiologies that must be considered.

  8. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  9. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  10. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  11. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Głowniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host’s health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridization come increasingly into use. On the basis of a literature review, the following methods are presented: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing, checkerboard and reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization, microarrays, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE, as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP and next generation sequencing (NGS. The advantages and drawbacks of each method in the examination of periopathogens are indicated. The techniques listed above allow fast detection of even small quantities of pathogen present in diagnostic material and prove particularly useful to detect microorganisms that are difficult or impossible to grow in a laboratory.

  12. Diagnostic Value of Heart Fatty Acid-Binding Protein among Early Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients%心肌脂肪酸结合蛋白对急性冠脉综合征患者的早期诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可; 王春明; 刘海波; 刘艳红; 鲍迎春; 方裕; 张丽梅; 赵乾磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of heart fatty acid - binding protein ( H - FABP ) in early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome ( ACS ). Methods Serum concentrations of H - FABP were measured in 172 consecutive patients hospitalized for ACS within 6 h of the onset of chest pain. Of these patients, 96 were with established AMI and 76 were with unstable angina pectoris. Still, 74 normal healthy subjects matched for age and sex were enrolled as controls. Results Levels of HFABP in the AMI group and the UA group were ( 82.2±96.6 ) μg/L and ( 7.9±5.1 ) μg/L, significantly higher than those in controls [ ( 4.2 ± 1.8 ) μg/L ] ( P < 0.01 ). Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curve ( ROC ) of HFABP - diagnosed AMI was 0.952 [ 95% CI ( 0.919, 0.984 ) ], and the correspondence value for UA was 0.787 [ 95% CI ( 0.714,0.859 ) ]. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of H - FABP were 81.5% and 97.3% for AMI when cut - off value was defined as 7.47μg/L; diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for UA were 71.1% and 71.6% when cut - off value was defined as 5.20 μg/L. Conclusion Serum levels of H - FABP can serve as an early diagnostic index for myocardial necrosis or damage ,and could be applied to the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.%目的 探讨血浆心肌脂肪酸结合蛋白(H-FABP)对急性冠脉综合征(ACS)的诊断价值.方法 对172例连续入选的ACS住院患者出现胸痛6 h内测定血浆H-FABP水平,其中急性心肌梗死(AMI)组96 例,不稳定性心绞痛(UA)组76例;并选择74例健康体检正常者为对照组.结果 AMI组、UA组的H-FABP水平分别为(82.2±96.6)μg/L、(7.9±5.1)μg/L,与对照组(4.2±1.8)μg/L比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).H-FABP诊断AMI的受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积为0.952[95%CI(0.919,0.984)];而诊断UA的ROC曲线下面积为0.787[95%CI(0.714,0.859)];以7.47 μg/L作为H-FABP早期诊断AMI的最佳临界值,其敏感性为81.5%,

  13. The early diagnostic value of des-carboxy prothrombin in primary hepatocellular carcinoma%异常凝血酶原(DCP)对早期原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婷婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore diagnostic value of des‐carboxy prothrombin in primary hepatocellular carcino‐ma .Methods Alpha fetoprotein(AFP)and des‐carboxy prothrombin(DCP)levels in serum were detected by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay(ELLSA)and electro‐chemiluminescence .Among these samples 48 were with PHC ,35 were cirrhosis and 35 were healthy control group .The differences between the levels were compared and the value of DCP in diagnosis of PHC was assessed by ROC analysis .Results The value of DCP were(598 .3 ± 476 .2)ng/mL、(19 .2 ± 9 .8)ng/mL and(4 .8 ± 2 .5)ng/mL in the group of PHC ,cirrhosis and control group respectively ,and the AFP value were(710 .5 ± 409 .8)mAU/mL ,(34 .9 ± 8 .9)mAU/mL and(7 .9 ± 3 .1)ng/mL respectively .Both AFP and DCP levels in the group of PHC were higher than the other two group ,the difference between the two groups have statistical significance(P0 .05) ,while the specificity of DCP and AFP was 62 .2% and 71 .4% re‐spectively ,the difference has statistical significance(χ2 =4 .629 ,P<0 .05) .ROC curves indicated a better accuracy for DCP(AUC=0 .896)than AFP(AUC=0 .752)in diagnosis of PHC .Conclusion DCP is one of the good serologic in‐dicator in diagnose PHC and it could use in the clinical diagnosis .%目的:探讨异常凝血酶原(DCP)在早期原发性肝癌(PHC)中的诊断价值。方法分别采用酶联免疫法(ELISA)和电化学发光法对50例PHC患者、35例肝硬化患者、35例体检健康者进行治疗前血清 AFP和DCP测定,并比较各组水平差异,用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)比较评价DCP在 PHC早期诊断中的临床价值。结果 PHC组、肝硬化组和对照组AFP值分别为(598.3±476.2)ng/mL、(19.2±9.8)ng/mL和(4.8±2.5)ng/mL ;DCP的值分别为(710.5±409.8)mAU/mL、(34.9±8.9)mAU/mL和(7.9±3.1)ng/mL ;PHC组的 AFP和DCP均高于其他两组,差异有统计学意义(P<0

  14. Saliva diagnostics - Current views and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Martin Carreras-Presas, Carmen; Aro, Katri; Tu, Michael; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Wong, David Tw

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome. In the last few years, researchers have developed new technologies and validated a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva a clinical reality. However, a great need still exists for convenient and accurate point-of-care devices that can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. In addition, there is an urgent need to decipher the scientific rationale and mechanisms that convey systemic diseases to saliva. Another promising technology called liquid biopsy enables detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and fragments of tumor DNA in saliva, thus enabling non-invasive early detection of various cancers. The newly developed technology-electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) provides near perfect detection of actionable mutations in lung cancer patients. These recent advances widened the salivary diagnostic approach from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system, and thus point towards a promising future of salivary diagnostics for personalized individual medicine applications including clinical decisions and post-treatment outcome predictions. Impact statement The purpose of this mini-review is to make an update about the present and future applications of saliva as a diagnostic biofluid in many fields of science such as dentistry

  15. Microfluidic Sensing Platforms for Medicine and Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine

    for decentralized clinical applications in medicine and diagnostics. In this PhD project, low cost electrochemical plastic sensors for basic research, diagnosis of viral infections or drug discovery were developed and evaluated. In the developed biosensor chip, early signs of virus infection in cell culture could...... was adapted to selectively fish out virions from body fluid by aptamer functionalization. The intact virus particles were captured by immobilized aptamer probes on conductive polymer electrodes, allowing fast and easy electrical detection. The sensor responded rapidly, and showed high sensitivity...... and specificity. Influenza virus in saliva specimen was detectable within fifteen minutes at a clinically relevant concentration. The device has potential for miniaturization into a cost effective field ready point of care diagnostic system, where the majority of established techniques fail to function outside...

  16. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  17. Radial pseudoaneurysm following diagnostic coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial artery access has gained popularity as a method of diagnostic coronary catheterization compared to femoral artery puncture in terms of vascular complications and early ambulation. However, very rare complication like radial artery pseudoaneurysm may occur following cardiac catheterization which may give rise to serious consequences. Here, we report a patient with radial pseudoaneurysm following diagnostic coronary angiography. Adequate and correct methodology of compression of radial artery following puncture for maintaining hemostasis is the key to prevention.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12776 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 48-50

  18. Universal microbial diagnostics using random DNA probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Amirali; Lin, Adam Y.; Sheikh, Mona A.; Chen, Allen L.; Atkins, Lisa M.; Johnson, Coreen L.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of pathogens is essential for limiting development of therapy-resistant pathogens and mitigating infectious disease outbreaks. Most bacterial detection schemes use target-specific probes to differentiate pathogen species, creating time and cost inefficiencies in identifying newly discovered organisms. We present a novel universal microbial diagnostics (UMD) platform to screen for microbial organisms in an infectious sample, using a small number of random DNA probes that are agnostic to the target DNA sequences. Our platform leverages the theory of sparse signal recovery (compressive sensing) to identify the composition of a microbial sample that potentially contains novel or mutant species. We validated the UMD platform in vitro using five random probes to recover 11 pathogenic bacteria. We further demonstrated in silico that UMD can be generalized to screen for common human pathogens in different taxonomy levels. UMD’s unorthodox sensing approach opens the door to more efficient and universal molecular diagnostics. PMID:27704040

  19. Diagnostic analysis of endoscopic Lugol liquid staining for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions%内镜下卢戈氏液染色对早期食管癌及癌前病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琪毅; 姜仕柱; 李素玉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨卢戈氏液染色对早期食管癌及癌前病变的诊断价值.方法 对本院内镜室2011年11月-2013年4月的187例患者的食管表浅病灶进行卢戈氏液染色,并行病理学检查,将病理结果与染色结果进行对比.结果 187例患者中经病理确诊为食管鳞癌41例,食管重度不典型增生9例,食管中度不典型增生33例,食管轻度不典型增生15例,慢性食管炎58例,鳞状上皮增生31例.卢戈氏液染色后食管癌及癌前病变主要表现为卢戈氏液不染和淡染,卢戈氏液淡染和不染诊断食管癌与癌前病变的准确性为62.82%(98/156);食管癌和食管重度不典型增生主要表现为卢戈氏液不染,其准确性高达95.6%(45/48).结论 内镜下卢戈氏液染色对鉴别食管癌、癌前病灶与炎性病灶等具有十分重要的临床价值.%Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological diagnosis of Lugol solution to early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.Methods One hundred and eighty-seven patients with suspicious lesions of esophageal endoscopy in our hospital from Nov.2011 to Apr.2013 were chosen as study objects and were dyed with Lugol of the liquid and were given pathological examination.Pathology results and the results of dye were compared.Results Forty-one out of the 187 cases were found with esophageal squalors carcinoma,9 with severe esophageal dysplasia,33 with moderate esophageal dysplasia,15 with esophageal mild dysplasia,58 with chronic esophagi,31 with squalors cell hyperplasia.After Lugol solution dyeing,the signifying of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions was not pollution or light pollution,and the accuracy was 62.82%.Lugol non-staining liquid esophagus and esophageal cancer diagnosis of severe dysplasia was as high as 93.75% in accuracy.Conclusion Endoscopic Lugol solution staining confined with superficial esophageal biopsy of the lesion have important value in diagnosing superficial esophageal lesion.

  20. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  1. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  2. Clinical characteristics and real-life diagnostic approaches in all Danish children with hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabom, Anne; Andersen, Klaus E; Fagerberg, Christina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With a potentially early onset, hereditary angioedema (HAE) requires special knowledge also in infancy and early childhood. In children from families with HAE, the diagnosis should be confirmed or refuted early, which can be difficult. Studies of childhood HAE and the diagnostic...

  3. Achieving molecular diagnostics for Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoo, Mark W; Schutzer, Steven E; Crowder, Christopher D; Carolan, Heather E; Ecker, David J

    2013-11-01

    Early Lyme disease is often difficult to diagnose. Left untreated, symptoms can last for many years leading to chronic health problems. Serological tests for the presence of antibodies that react to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens are generally used to support a clinical diagnosis. Due to the biologically delayed antibody response, serology is negative in many patients in the initial 3 weeks after infection and a single test cannot be used to demonstrate active disease, although certain specialized tests provide strong correlation. Because of these limitations there exists a need for better diagnostics for Lyme disease that can detect Borrelia genomic material at the onset of symptoms.

  4. EATING AND FEEDING DISORDERS IN THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF LIFE: REVISING THE DC:0-3R DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RATIONALE FOR THE NEW DC:0-5 PROPOSED CRITERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Miri

    2016-09-01

    Problems of eating and feeding are one of the most common reasons of referral to pediatric and infant mental health clinics. This article is drawn from work done by the ZERO TO THREE Task Force developing the DC:0-5 Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, specifically dealing with eating disorders in the first 5 years of life. The proposed changes come from both reviewing major studies and reviews published in the last 10 years and reports from clinicians collected through surveys commissioned by the Task Force. The main changes that are proposed include changes in terminology, such as Eating Disorders instead of Feeding Behavior Disorders, as well as focusing on the child's observed eating symptoms rather than on classifying the eating problems by inferred etiologies. Another major change relates to the differentiation between eating disorders that are observed beyond any specific caregiver-child relationship context and those that are confined to one specific relationship. A new category, Overeating Disorder, has been added, as it has been increasingly recognized as a significant and not rare clinical condition. Two illustrative cases are described. The proposed changes in the classification of eating disorders in the first 5 years of life are intended to encourage both clinicians and researchers to study these important disorders in young children.

  5. Current possibilities of chorioretinites diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chudinova

    2014-07-01

    observation using OCt and monitoring of regional hemodynamics using USDG in patients with chorioreti- nites of different etiology are visualized the complications of the posterior part of the eye at early stages, to determine inflammatory process reactivation in time, as well as the dynamics of inflammation curing processes through the treatment performed. the prelimi- nary results obtained, as well as further studying this problem will allow to develop more constructive approaches to chorioretinites diagnostics.

  6. Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: Diagnostics and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This overview study provides information on important phoniatric and audiological aspects of early childhood hearing and language development with the aim of presenting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The article first addresses the universal newborn hearing screening that has been implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The process of newborn hearing screening from the maternity ward to confirmation diagnostics is presented in accordance with a decision by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). The second topic is pediatric audiology diagnostics. Following confirmation of a permanent early childhood hearing disorder, the search for the cause plays an important role. Hereditary hearing disorders and intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, probably the most common cause of an acquired hearing disorder, are discussed and compared with the most common temporary hearing disorder, otitis media with effusion, which in some cases is severe enough to be relevant for hearing and language development and therefore requires treatment. The third topic covered in this article is speech and language development in the first 3 years of life, which is known today to be crucial for later language development and learning to read and write. There is a short overview and introduction to modern terminology, followed by the abnormalities and diagnostics of early speech and language development. Only some aspects of early hearing and language development are addressed here. Important areas such as the indication for a cochlear implant in the first year of life or because of unilateral deafness are not included due to their complexity. PMID:25587365

  7. Delay in diagnostic workup and treatment of esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Grotenhuis (Brechtje); P. van Hagen (Pieter); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); V.M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); J.J-B. van Lanschot (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Esophageal cancer should preferably be detected and treated at an early stage, but this may be prohibited by late onset of symptoms and delays in referral, diagnostic workup, and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these delays on outcome in pa

  8. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatoscopy. The method may be applied to radiometry screening study. Fluorescence diagnostics is effective for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi. In conclusion it has been proved the need for an integrated approach to the diagnostics of melanoma of skin, depending on the different clinical situations.

  9. Diagnostics procedures in rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malovrh Tadej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques can only be performed in the laboratory. Laboratory techniques are preferably oriented on tissue removed from the cranium: hippocampus (Ammon's horn, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata or tissue liquids. Clinical observation may only lead to a suspicion of rabies. The only way to perform a reliable diagnosis of the disease is to identify the virus or some of its specific components using laboratory tests such as histological identification of characteristic cell lesions, immunochemical identification of rabies virus antigen and virus isolation. Serological tests are rarely used in epidemiological surveys but much more frequently in control of the vaccination programs (e.g. oral vaccination. Most commonly used serological tests are the virus neutralization test on cell culture (FAVN, virus neutralization in mice and ELISA.

  10. Diagnostic Challenges at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source now being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, accelerates an H- ion beam to 1000 MeV with an average power of 1.4 MW. The H- beam is then stripped to H+, compressed in a storage ring to a pulse length of 695 ns, and then directed onto a mercury neutron spallation target. Most of the acceleration is accomplished with superconducting rf cavities. The presence of these cavities, the high average beam power, and the large range of beam intensity in the storage ring, provide unique challenges to the beam diagnostics systems. In this talk we will discuss these challenges and some of our solutions, including the laser profile monitor system, the residual gas ionization profile monitors, and network attached devices. Measurements performed using prototype instrumentation will also be presented.

  11. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  12. Diagnostic and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F D

    1995-12-01

    In most competent veterinary diagnostic laboratories, analytical findings are interpreted by the veterinary toxicologist to determine the significance of the finding in view of historic, clinical, and pathologic findings. A veterinary toxicologist also will provide consultation about possible toxic rule-outs for a case, treatment of affected animals, and prevention of additional cases. Once all of the information is available, a complete summary of the findings can be provided to the client. When the procedures outlined are followed, including a systematic approach to collecting all the evidence (historic, clinical, pathologic, and analytic), proper sampling techniques, and good communication between the clinician and the client and laboratory, the usefulness of the toxicology investigation will be maximized.

  13. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  14. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  15. Diagnostics for Hypersonic Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2015-0037 DIAGNOSTICS FOR HYPERSONIC ENGINE CONTROL Michael S. Brown and Jeffrey M. Donbar Hypersonic Sciences Branch...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2015 Interim 01 March 2013 – 24 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DIAGNOSTICS FOR...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES PA Case Number: 88ABW-2015-0636; Clearance Date: 23 Feb 2015. 14. ABSTRACT The overall goal of the research is to find diagnostic

  16. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostic for ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, W; Austin, M; Beno, J; Ellis, R; Feder, R; Ouroua, A; Patel, A; Phillips, P

    2010-10-01

    Electron temperature measurements and electron thermal transport inferences will be critical to the nonactive and deuterium phases of ITER operation and will take on added importance during the alpha heating phase. The diagnostic must meet stringent criteria on spatial coverage and spatial resolution during full field operation. During the early phases of operation, it must operate equally well at half field. The key to the diagnostic is the front end design. It consists of a quasioptical antenna and a pair of calibration sources. The radial resolution of the diagnostic is less than 0.06 m. The spatial coverage extends at least from the core to the separatrix with first harmonic O-mode being used for the core and second harmonic X-mode being used for the pedestal. The instrumentation used for the core measurement at full field can be used for detection at half field by changing the detected polarization. Intermediate fields are accessible. The electron cyclotron emission systems require in situ calibration, which is provided by a novel hot calibration source. The critical component for the hot calibration source, the emissive surface, has been successfully tested. A prototype hot calibration source has been designed, making use of extensive thermal and mechanical modeling.

  17. Evolving diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy historically defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically, hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the neoplastic process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add specific biomarkers that can be used to make the diagnosis of the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features. In addition, the update allows modern imaging methods including computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis, and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage in patients who are at the highest risk. This article reviews these and several other clarifications and revisions that were made to the diagnostic criteria for MM and related disorders. The updated disease definition for MM also automatically resulted in a revision to the diagnostic criteria for the asymptomatic phase of the disease termed smoldering MM (SMM). Thus the current diagnosis and risk-stratification of SMM is also reviewed in this article. Using specific prognostic factors, it is possible to identify a subset of patients with SMM who have a risk of progression to MM of 25% per year (high-risk SMM). An approach to the management of patients with low- and high-risk SMM is discussed.

  18. Diagnostic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, B D L; Sachs, A P E; Hoes, A W; Verheij, T J M; Moons, K G M

    2012-01-01

    Detection of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is recommended; however, diagnosing COPD is difficult because a single gold standard is not available. The aim of this article is to review and interpret the existing evidence, theories and consensus on the individual parts of the diagnostic work-up for COPD. Relevant articles are discussed under the subheadings: history taking, physical examination, spirometry and additional lung function assessment. Wheezing, cough, phlegm and breathlessness on exertion are suggestive signs for COPD. The diagnostic value of the physical examination is limited, except for auscultated pulmonary wheezing or reduced breath sounds, increasing the probability of COPD. Spirometric airflow obstruction after bronchodilation, defined as a lowered ratio of the forced volume in one second to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC ratio), is a prerequisite, but can only confirm COPD in combination with suggestive symptoms. Different thresholds are being recommended to define low FEV1/FVC, including a fixed threshold, and one varying with gender and age; however, the way physicians interpret these thresholds in their assessment is not well known. Body plethysmography allows a more complete assessment of pulmonary function, providing results on the total lung capacity and the residual volume and is indicated when conventional spirometry results are inconclusive. Chest radiography has no diagnostic value for COPD but is useful to exclude alternative diagnoses such as heart failure or lung cancer. Extensive history taking is of key importance in diagnosing COPD.

  19. The architecture of diagnostic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colli, Agostino; Fraquelli, Mirella; Casazza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    of different index tests; phase 2B studies aim to evaluate the possible harms of incorporating the index test in a diagnostic-therapeutic strategy. In phase 3, diagnostic test-therapeutic randomized clinical trials aim to assess the benefits and harms of the new diagnostic-therapeutic strategy versus...... the present strategy. Phase 4 comprises large surveillance cohort studies that aim to assess the effectiveness of the new diagnostic-therapeutic strategy in clinical practice. As common in clinical research, putting excessive weight on the results of single studies and trials is likely to divert from...

  20. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  1. The diagnostic value of combined detection of alpha-fetoprotein, AFP, lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein(AFP-L3) and alpha L fucosidase (AFU) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage%联合检测血清AFP、AFP异质体和AFU对早期肝癌诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 赵业民; 陈增银; 史光军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein( AFP-L3 ) and alpha L fucosidase ( AFU ) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage. Methods The serum level of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU were detected in 56 patients with primary liver cancer (PLC), 158 patients with benign liver disease, 40 patients with other malignant tumor without PLC and 40 healthy persons.Results The positive rate of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU in the group of PLC were signiifcantly higher than that of in the group of benign liver diseases and in the group of other malignant tumor without PLC ( P<0.01 ). Combined detection have a complementary function for the diagnosis of patients PLC in early stage and the sensitivity rate was 94.60%. The sensitivity in the group of combined detection is higher than that of in the group of single detection ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion The sensitivity rate of single detection for AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage is similar and combined detection could signiifcantly improve the sensitivity rate for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage and decrease the misdiagnosis rate. The combined detection of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU can be used as a newly routine detection method for the high population of the patients with PLC in the early stage especially.%目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein ,AFP)、扁豆凝集素亲和型甲胎蛋白异质体(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alpha L fucosidase, AFU)水平联合检测对原发性肝癌(primary liver cancer, PLC)的诊断价值。方法对56例PLC、158例良性肝病患者、40例非PLC恶性肿瘤患者以及40例健康查体者进行AFP、AFP-L3和AFU进行联合检测。结果 PLC组的AFP、AFP-L3、AFU的阳性率明显高于良性肝病和非PLC恶性肿瘤组( P<0.01),PLC患者血清AFP、AFP-L3、AFU三者之间无相关性,联

  2. Early systemic sclerosis: diagnostic criteria and work-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valentini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La Sclerosi Sistemica (SSc è una malattia generalizzata del tessuto connettivo caratterizzata da vasculopatia obliterante dei vasi del microcircolo, iperplasia dell’intima, ipotrofia della media e fibrosi dell’avventizia delle arterie muscolari di piccolo calibro e da deposizione di collageno e di altri componenti della matrice nell’interstizio. Questi tre ordini di alterazioni colpiscono, sia pure con una espressività variabile, la cute e gli organi interni bersaglio: apparato digerente, polmoni, cuore, reni (1...

  3. EULAR points to consider in the development of classification and diagnostic criteria in systemic vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Neil; Watts, Richard; Bajema, Ingeborg;

    2010-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are multiorgan diseases where early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Robust nomenclature reduces diagnostic delay. However, key aspects of current nomenclature are widely perceived to be out of date, these include disease definitions, classific...

  4. Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment via Bayesian Evaluation of Informative Diagnostic Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, Herbert; Beland, Sebastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A.

    2014-01-01

    There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric perspec

  5. Cognitive diagnostic assessment via Bayesian evaluation of informative diagnostic hypotheses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, Herbert; Béland, Sébastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A.

    2014-01-01

    There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric perspec

  6. Diagnostic values for skin temperature assessment to detect diabetes-related foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, van Jaap J.; Prijs, Miranda; Baal, van Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; Heijden, van der Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin temperature assessment is a promising modality for early detection of diabetic foot problems, but its diagnostic value has not been studied. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic value of different cutoff skin temperature values for detecting diabetes-related foot complications such as ul

  7. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Josselin de Jong, E.; Higham, S.M.; Smith, P.W.; van Daelen, C.J.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental

  8. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-10-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases.

  9. Molecular diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Stephen; Skubisz, Monika M; Horne, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies are a serious gynaecological emergency that can be fatal. As such, prompt diagnosis and safe timely treatment is essential. Here, we review the literature on the development of molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy. A blood-based biomarker that accurately identifies an ectopic pregnancy could be used to offer early diagnostic certainty in cases where ultrasound cannot determine the location of the embryo ('a pregnancy of unknown location'). Molecules examined so far can be broadly grouped into biological themes of relevance to reproduction: (i) Fallopian tube (dys)function, (ii) embryo/trophoblast growth, (iii) corpus luteum function, (iv) inflammation, (v) uterine function and (vi) angiogenesis. While a sensitive and specific biomarker for ectopic pregnancy has yet to be identified, it is possible that improvements in platform technologies or a multi-modal biomarker approach may yield an accurate diagnostic biomarker test. Furthermore, with the advent of better imaging technology, the need for a blood-based biomarker test may be superseded by improvements in ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging technology. There have been some recent preclinical studies describing molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for ectopic pregnancy. Notably, bench-to-bedside studies have examined the use of combination gefitinib (orally available epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) and methotrexate. Preclinical studies suggest that combination gefitinib and methotrexate is highly effective in inducing placental cell death, and is significantly more effective than methotrexate alone. In early human trials, encouraging preliminary efficacy data have shown that combination gefitinib and methotrexate can rapidly resolve tubal ectopic pregnancies, and large extra-tubal ectopic pregnancies. If a large clinical randomized controlled trial confirms these findings, combination gefitinib and methotrexate could become a new

  10. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  11. Status of US ITER Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Pablant, N.; Barnsley, R.; Bertschinger, G.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Reichle, R.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Austin, M.; Phillips, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Biewer, T. M.; Hanson, G.; Klepper, C. C.; Carlstrom, T.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Brower, D.; Doyle, E.; Peebles, A.; Ellis, R.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.

    2013-10-01

    The US is providing 7 diagnostics to ITER: the Upper Visible/IR cameras, the Low Field Side Reflectometer, the Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic, the Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, the Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer, and the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer. The front-end components of these systems must operate with high reliability in conditions of long pulse operation, high neutron and gamma fluxes, very high neutron fluence, significant neutron heating (up to 7 MW/m3) , large radiant and charge exchange heat flux (0.35 MW/m2) , and high electromagnetic loads. Opportunities for repair and maintenance of these components will be limited. These conditions lead to significant challenges for the design of the diagnostics. Space constraints, provision of adequate radiation shielding, and development of repair and maintenance strategies are challenges for diagnostic integration into the port plugs that also affect diagnostic design. The current status of design of the US ITER diagnostics is presented and R&D needs are identified. Supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC05-00OR22725 (UT-Battelle, LLC).

  12. Motor neurone disease: diagnostic pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy L

    2013-02-01

    The misdiagnosis of MND (particularly of the ALS phenotype), is uncommon. Atypical presentations, particularly of focal onset and with pure LMN or UMN signs, present a more difficult diagnostic challenge, although perhaps reassuringly, treatable mimics are rare. A working knowledge of potential alternative conditions and MND diagnostic pitfalls should help to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, particularly if the key points are considered.

  13. Pyomyositis tropicans: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitow, J; Martin, H C; Knight, P; Buchanan, N

    1980-11-01

    Pyomyositis tropicans is a rare disease in non-tropical climates and thus presents diagnostic difficulties. Two children with single staphylococcal psoas muscle abscesses were recently successfully treated. Computerized axial tomography was found to be a useful diagnostic aid, allowing exact localization of the lesion. The diagnosis and therapy of these abscesses are discussed.

  14. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  15. The diagnostic value of electronic staining endoscopy combined with endoscopic ultrasound in the preopera-tive early gastric cancer%电子染色内镜联合超声内镜在早期胃癌术前诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利兵; 张春雨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of electronic staining endoscopy combined with endo -scopic ultrasound(EUS) in the preoperative early gastric cancer .Methods A total of 17 patients diagnosed with intramucosal carcinoma by ordinary gastric endoscopy combined with pathological findings were selected ,who under-went the T staging by EUS and electronic staining endoscopic examination before ESD .The findings were compared with pathological findings.Results 17 cases were diagnosed with gastric cancer in T1 stage by EUS(12 cases limited mucous layer or mucosal muscular layer ,5 cases involving the submucossa ) .14 cases were diagnosed with gastric cancer in T1 stage by pathological examination (11 cases limited mucous layer or mucosal muscular layer ,3 cases involving the submucossa ) ,3 cases in T2 stage had received surgery .The accuracy of EUS in determining the depth of intramucosal carcinoma invasion was 88.2%;The total accuracy of T staging was 82.4%.The lesions border was more clear in electronic staining mode ,and easier marked.Conclusion The diagnostic value of electronic staining endoscopy combined with endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative early gastric cancer is high .%目的:探讨电子染色内镜联合超声内镜( EUS)在早期胃癌术前诊断中的应用价值。方法选取经普通胃镜检查结合镜下病理考虑为黏膜内癌的患者17例,在行内镜下黏膜剥离术( ESD )前行EUS检查并进行T分期,并在电子染色内镜模式下标记病灶切除范围后行ESD治疗,将EUS诊断结果与术后病理检查结果进行比较。结果 EUS诊断T1期17例(累及黏膜及黏膜肌层12例,黏膜下层5例);术后病理T1期14例(累及黏膜层及黏膜肌层11例,黏膜下层3例),T2期3例(已追加手术治疗);EUS对黏膜内癌浸润深度判断准确率为88.2%(15/17),T分期准确率为82.4%(14/17);电子染色模式下病变范围更加清晰,易于

  16. 血浆胱抑素C与同型半胱氨酸联合检测在妊娠期糖尿病早期肾损害诊断中价值的观察%Diagnostic values of combination assay of serum cystatin C and homocysteine for early renal injury in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景; 袁素华; 李小梅; 洪苑

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore diagnostic values of combination assay of serum cystatin C(Cyc‐C) and homocysteine for early renal injury in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods 73 cases with GDM ,89 cases with gestational impaired glucose tolerance(GIGT group) ,80 cases of normal pregnant women and 80 healthy child bearing women (NGT group) were recruited. The clinical data were compared‐among groups. The correlations of serum Hcy and Cys‐C with Scr ,BUN and MAU were respectively analyzed. Results The patients with GDM versus normal pregnant women and NGT women had higher levels of Cys‐C[(2.94 ± 0.51) vs (1.72 ± 0.37) ,(1.14 ± 0.46)mg/L] ,of Hcy[(22.33 ± 5.32) vs(18.19±4.25),(13.24±3.16)μmol/L]andofMAU[(24.37±5.67)vs(21.72±3.42),(21.55± 4.28)mg/24 h] (P< 0.05).The levels of Hcy ,Cys‐C and MAU were positively correlated in GIGT group. Conclusion Co‐detection of serum Cys‐C and Hcy may be used as diagnostic indicators for early renal injury in GDM patients.%目的:探讨血浆胱抑素C (Cys‐C)、同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)与GDM早期肾损害的关系。方法选取GDM 患者(GDM )73例、妊娠期 IGT 者(GIGT )89例、正常妊娠者80名及健康育龄妇女(NGT)80名,比较各组 Hcy、Cys‐C、Scr、BUN、尿微量白蛋白(MAU)水平。结果 GDM 组 Cys‐C [(2.94±0.51) vs (1.72±0.37)、(1.14±0.46) mg/L]、Hcy[(22.33±5.32) vs (18.19±4.25)、(13.24±3.16)μmol/L]和 MAU [(24.37±5.67) vs (21.72±3.42)、(21.55±4.28) mg/24 h]水平均高于GIGT、正常妊娠组(P<0.05);相关分析显示,Hcy、Cys‐C与MAU呈正相关。结论 Cys‐C和 Hcy联合检测对GDM早期慢性肾脏疾病诊断可能具有临床意义。

  17. Nanomedicine in diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Biased Diffusion and Rectified Brownian Motion at the Nanoscale Driving Mobile Sensing Automata for the Early Diagnosis of Endogenous DiseasesDario Narducci and Gianfranco CerofoliniBiotechnology-Utilized Nanopore for Single-Molecule InvestigationJi Wook Shim and Li-Qun GuSelf-assembled Peptide and Protein Nanostructures in DiagnosisJaime Castillo-León, Yuri Belotti, and Winnie E. SvendsenElectrochemical Sensor Systems for MedicineV. V. Shumyantseva, E. V. Suprun, T. V. Bulko, Ya. M. Chalenko, and A. I. ArchakovCon

  18. Verification of Loop Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

  19. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  20. Diagnostic neuroimaging across diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Stefan; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Jack, Clifford R.; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Vemuri, Prashanthi

    2012-01-01

    Fully automated classification algorithms have been successfully applied to diagnose a wide range of neurological and psychiatric diseases. They are sufficiently robust to handle data from different scanners for many applications and in specific cases outperform radiologists. This article provides an overview of current applications taking structural imaging in Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia as well as functional imaging to diagnose depression as examples. In this context, we also report studies aiming to predict the future course of the disease and the response to treatment for the individual. This has obvious clinical relevance but is also important for the design of treatment studies that may aim to include a cohort with a predicted fast disease progression to be more sensitive to detect treatment effects. In the second part, we present our own opinions on i) the role these classification methods can play in the clinical setting; ii) where their limitations are at the moment and iii) how those can be overcome. Specifically, we discuss strategies to deal with disease heterogeneity, diagnostic uncertainties, a probabilistic framework for classification and multi-class classification approaches. PMID:22094642

  1. Gonorrhoea diagnostics: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results. Further, these cannot be used for generation of data on antibiotic susceptibility because genetic markers of antibiotic resistance to recommended therapies have not been fully characterised. They are unaffordable in a setting like ours where reliance is placed on syndromic approach for sexually transmitted infection (STI management. The use of syndromic approach has resulted in a considerable decline in the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that have been cultured for diagnostic purposes. Many laboratories formerly doing so are no longer performing culture for gonococci, and the basic skills have been lost. There is a need to not only revive this skill but also adopt newer technologies that can aid in accurate diagnosis in a cost-effective manner. There is room for innovation that can facilitate the development of a point-of-care test for this bacterial STI.

  2. Diagnostic value of IL-6 and CysC detection for diabetic kidney disease nephropathy in the early stage%血清白介素6与胱抑素C联合检测对糖尿病肾脏疾病早期的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳; 王厚照; 马芳芳; 程玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum cystatin-C ( CysC) detection for diabetic nephropathy in the early stage. Methods According to urinary albumin excretion rate ( UAER) , 164 diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 120 diabetic patients without early renal damage (UAER <20fj,g/min) in DM group; 44 patients with diabetic nephropathy (UAER20 - 200}ig/min) in DN group; while 50 healthy persons without diabetes served as the control group. IL-6 and CysC were measured in each group and analyzed statistically. Results Compared with control group, IL-6, CysC and hs-CRP levels were higher in DM and DN groups (P<0.01); compared with DM group, the above three indexes were higher in DN group (P < 0.05). The positive rate of combined detection for early renal damage was significantly higher than that of the individual testing ( P < 0. 05 ) ; hs-CRP level in positive IL-6 and CysC group was higher than that in negative group ( P < 0.01) . Conclusion IL-6 and CysC detection are helpful to increase the positive rate of detection of diabetic nephropathy, has the important significance for early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. CysC and IL-6 detection has important value in judgment of disease activity.%目的 探讨血清白介素6(IL-6)和胱抑素C(CysC)联合检测对糖尿病肾脏疾病(DKD)早期诊断的价值.方法 在164例糖尿病(DM)患者中,120例尿白蛋白排泄率(UAER) <20 μg/min无早期肾损伤者为DM组,44例UAER 20~200 μg/min的DKD患者为DKD组;同时选取50例健康体检者作为对照组.分别测定三组人选者的IL-6和CysC水平,并进行统计学分析.结果 与健康对照组相比,DM组和DKD组的IL-6、CysC和hs-CRP水平均高于对照组(P<0.01);与DM组相比,DKD组以上三项检测指标水平均高于DM组(P<0.01);IL-6和CysC联合检测阳性率明显高于单项检测(P<0.05);IL-6和CysC阳性组hs-CRP水平明显高于阴性组(P<0.01).结论

  3. The Diagnostic Value of Observation of Early Lung Cancer Bone Metastasis by Tumor Markers and Radionuclide Bone Imaging%肿瘤标志物检测和核素骨显像对肺癌早期骨转移的诊断价值观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To approach diagnostic result of early lung cancer bone metastasis by tumor markers and radionuclide bone imaging. Method Analyzed 50 cases clinical data of lung cancer patients from May 2010 to May 2013 in our hospital department of radiology, selected 50 cases in our hospital during the same period in healthy volunteers was control group. Result The CEA, CYFR21-1, NSE detection result of radionuclide bone imaging positive group of lung cancer patients were higher than control group and radionuclide bone imaging, CEA, CYFR21-1, NSE positive incidence of of lung cancer patients were higher than control group and radionuclide bone imaging,P<0.05, the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The staging and treatment methods to determine clinical judgment detection of serum tumor markers and radionuclide bone imaging for early lung cancer bone metastasis were significance.%目的:探讨肿瘤标志物检测和核素骨显像对肺癌早期骨转移的诊断效果。方法分析2010年5月至2013年5月影像科诊断的肺癌患者50例临床资料,选取同期我院健康体检者50例作为对照组。结果核素骨显像阳性组肺癌患者CEA、CYFR21-1、NSE检测结果均高于对照组和核素骨显像阳性组,核素骨显像阳性组肺癌患者CEA、CYFR21-1、NSE阳性率均高于对照组和核素骨显像阳性组, P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义。结论肿瘤标志物检测和核素骨显像对于肺癌早期骨转移的临床判断、分期和确定治疗方法具有重要意义。

  4. miR-27a和miR-181b表达水平在胃癌早期诊断的价值%Diagnostic value of expressions of miR-27a and miR-181b for early detection of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峄清; 黄普文; 朱程君; 陈财平; 承婷; 李婧滢

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of expressions of miR-27a and miR-181b in the peripheral blood for early detection of gastric cancer. Methods The expressions of miR-27a and miR-181b were detected by RT-PCR in 46 cases of gastric cancer(group A), 27 cases of gastric precancerous lesion( group B) and 21 cases of healthy people (group C). Results Compared with group C, the expressions of miR-27a and miR-181b in plasma were obviously increased in groups of A and B(P0. 05). Conclusion miR-27a and miR-181b may be taken as the potential biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer.%目的 研究外周血中miR-27a、miR-181b的表达水平在胃癌早期的诊断价值.方法 采用RT-PCR法检测46例胃癌患者(A组)、27例胃癌前病变患者(B组)及21例健康人(C组)外周血浆中miR-27a、miR-181b的表达水平.结果 与C组相比,A组和B组血浆中miR-27a、miR-181b的表达明显增加(P<0.01或P<0.05),ROC曲线下面积分别为0.876、0.770和0.769、0.749;而A组和B组miR-27a、miR-181b表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 外周血浆中miR-27a、miR-181b有作为胃癌早期诊断标志物的潜力.

  5. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.M., E-mail: Kaushal.Patel@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Drevon, J.M. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Encheva, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kashchuk, Y. [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow (Russian Federation); Maquet, Ph. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10{sup −7} Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10{sup −10} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}. In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions

  6. SymmeGuess: Fun beyond Symmetry Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Loon Ong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer application can be used for artistic design and as a means to facilitate the understanding of mathematical concepts. This paper presents a game-based application as a visual learning tool for mathematics and art subjects. The objectives of this application are to enable learners to build their knowledge on symmetry and to explore the beauty of symmetrical patterns with confidence and enjoyment.

  7. China's Guess of Ship Financinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2012-01-01

    As the financial crisis intensifies, many western ship owners and monetary sectors focus their attention on China's capital. , There are not only good expectations but also fierce criticisms.Thus, how on earth will China's shipping capital meet the challenges of the world? Like pulling the chestnut out of fire, how to seize the business opportunity concealed in the crisis in order to draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages?

  8. Sleep at high altitude: guesses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Buenzli, Jana C; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-12-15

    Lowlanders commonly report a poor sleep quality during the first few nights after arriving at high altitude. Polysomnographic studies reveal that reductions in slow wave sleep are the most consistent altitude-induced changes in sleep structure identified by visual scoring. Quantitative spectral analyses of the sleep electroencephalogram have confirmed an altitude-related reduction in the low-frequency power (0.8-4.6 Hz). Although some studies suggest an increase in arousals from sleep at high altitude, this is not a consistent finding. Whether sleep instability at high altitude is triggered by periodic breathing or vice versa is still uncertain. Overnight changes in slow wave-derived encephalographic measures of neuronal synchronization in healthy subjects were less pronounced at moderately high (2,590 m) compared with low altitude (490 m), and this was associated with a decline in sleep-related memory consolidation. Correspondingly, exacerbation of breathing and sleep disturbances experienced by lowlanders with obstructive sleep apnea during a stay at 2,590 m was associated with poor performance in driving simulator tests. These findings suggest that altitude-related alterations in sleep may adversely affect daytime performance. Despite recent advances in our understanding of sleep at altitude, further research is required to better establish the role of gender and age in alterations of sleep at different altitudes, to determine the influence of acclimatization and of altitude-related illness, and to uncover the characteristics of sleep in highlanders that may serve as a study paradigm of sleep in patients exposed to chronic hypoxia due to cardiorespiratory disease.

  9. CompChall: Addressing Password Guessing Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Vipul; Singh, Mayank; Abraham, Ajith; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Even though passwords are the most convenient means of authentication, they bring along themselves the threat of dictionary attacks. Dictionary attacks may be of two kinds: online and offline. While offline dictionary attacks are possible only if the adversary is able to collect data for a successful protocol execution by eavesdropping on the communication channel and can be successfully countered using public key cryptography, online dictionary attacks can be performed by anyone and there is no satisfactory solution to counter them. This paper presents a new authentication protocol which is called CompChall (computational challenge). The proposed protocol uses only one way hash functions as the building blocks and attempts to eliminate online dictionary attacks by implementing a challenge-response system. This challenge-response system is designed in a fashion that it does not pose any difficulty to a genuine user but is time consuming and computationally intensive for an adversary trying to launch a large n...

  10. A Guess about light quantum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-03-01

    Photon is a ring, the diameter of the ring is the quantum fluctuated wave length. The linear movement of the ring, namely, the transmission of light, is reflected in the particle of light. A plurality of light quantum interactions or through a very narrow gap, the shape of quantum would temporarily be changed. The motion of photons to interference and diffraction phenomena occurs is determined by the structure of light quantum, the quantum ring radius and light quantum mass squared product is a constant. The smaller the light quantum ring radius is, the bigger the quality is, just consistent as the modern scientific experimental results, the energy of the purple is bigger than the red. This conclusion can be extrapolated to all of the electromagnetic wave. The shorter the photon wavelength is, the bigger the quality and density is , when the wavelength is less than 10-15 meters, it will convergence to atomic or subatomic composition material entity due to the gravity. In fact, the divergence and convergence of quantum is reversible, that is, the phenomenon of radiate ``light'' quantum occurs due to the energy exchange or other external energy. Author: hanyongquan TEL: 15611860790.

  11. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, P. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-07-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs.

  12. Diagnostic Challenges in AIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Taghavi Ardakani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatitis that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic serologic and histologic findings and the exclusion of other forms of chronic liver disease. Guidelines issued by the AASLD suggest the following diagnostic considerations: The diagnosis should be made in patients with compatible clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities. Other conditions that can cause chronic hepatitis should be excluded. In unclear cases a standardized scoring system should be used in the assessment. In those who are negative for conventional autoantibodies, additional autoantibodies should be sought. All patients with autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease should undergo cholangiographic studies to exclude primary sclerosing cholangitis.   Scoring systems- A scoring system developed and subsequently revised by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group to standardize the diagnosis with using simplified criteria based upon titers of autoantibodies, IgG levels, liver histology, and the exclusion of viral hepatitis. Autoantibodies: assign one point if the ANA or SMA are 1:40 OR assign two points if the ANA or SMA are ≥1:80 (OR if the LKM ≥1:40 OR if the SLA is positive. IgG: assign one point if the IgG is > the upper limit of normal OR assign two points if the IgG is >1.10 times the upper limit of normal. Liver histology: assign one point if the histological features are compatible with autoimmune hepatitis OR two points if the histological features are typical of autoimmune hepatitis. Absence of viral hepatitis A probable diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is made if the total points are six, while a definite diagnosis is made if the total points are ≥seven.  

  13. New Developments in Smart Bandage Technologies for Wound Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLister, Anna; McHugh, Jolene; Cundell, Jill; Davis, James

    2016-07-01

    The pH of wound fluid has long been recognized as an important diagnostic for assessing wound condition, but as yet there are few technological options available to the clinician. The availability of sensors that can measure wound pH, either in the clinic or at home could significantly improve clinical outcome - particularly in the early identification of complications such as infection. New material designs and electrochemical research strategies that are being targeted at wound diagnostics are identified and a critical overview of emerging research that could be pivotal in setting the direction for future devices is provided.

  14. Molecular diagnostics in medical microbiology: yesterday, today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Clinical microbiology is clearly on the move, and various new diagnostic technologies have been introduced into laboratory practice over the past few decades. However, Henri D Isenberg recently stated that molecular biology techniques promised to revolutionise the diagnosis of infectious disease, but that, to date, this promise is still in its infancy. Molecular diagnostics have now surpassed these early stages and have definitely reached puberty. Currently, a second generation of automated molecular approaches is already within the microbiologists' reach. Quantitative amplification tests in combination with genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related methodologies will pave the way to further enhancement of innovative microbial detection and identification.

  15. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...... of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  16. Current trends in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhas, Raquel; Cordeiro, Milton; Pedrosa, Pedro; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving the fusion of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene. Early onset diagnosis coupled to current therapeutics allow for a treatment success rate of 90, which has focused research on the development of novel diagnostics approaches. In this review, we present a critical perspective on current strategies for CML diagnostics, comparing to gold standard methodologies and with an eye on the future trends on nanotheranostics.

  17. [BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Kei

    2006-08-01

    Rome I diagnostic criteria for IBS was published in 1992 and it became a global diagnostic criteria. However, the criteria was not practical and somewhat complicated. Moreover, its symptomatic duration was too long (defined as more than 3 months) to be introduced in clinical practice. Therefore, Japanese member of BMW(Bowel Motility Workshop) tried to develop a new diagnostic criteria for IBS and it was established in 1995 by way of the Delphi method. The criteria was named as BMW diagnostic criteria and it was shown below: BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS (1995) At least one month or more of repetitive symptoms of the following 1) and 2) and no evidence of organic disease that likely to explain the symptoms. 1) Existence of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort or abdominal distension 2) Existence of abnormal bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation) Abnormal bowel movement includes at least one of the below; (1) Abnormal stool frequency (2) Abnormal stool form (lumpy/hard or loose/wartery stool) Moreover, the following test should be performed as a rule to exclude organic diseases. (1) Urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, CBC, chemistry (2) Barium enema or colonofiberscopic examination The other diagnostic criteria for IBS was also reviewed and their characteristics were compared with BMW diagnostic criteria.

  18. Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Johanna M; Korevaar, Daniël A; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Mens, Pètra F

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for identification and subsequent treatment of the disease. Currently, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the most commonly used diagnostics, next to treatment based on clinical signs only. These tests are easy to deploy, but have a relatively high detection limit. With declining prevalence in many areas, there is an increasing need for more sensitive diagnostics. Molecular tools may be a suitable alternative, although costs and technical requirements currently hamper their implementation in resource limited settings. A range of (near) point-of-care diagnostics is therefore under development, including simplifications in sample preparation, amplification and/or read-out of the test. Accuracy data, in combination with technical characteristics, are essential in determining which molecular test, if any, would be the most promising to be deployed. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation, and systematically evaluates their published accuracy. No important difference in accuracy was found between the most commonly used PCR-based assays (conventional, nested and real-time PCR), with most of them having high sensitivity and specificity, implying that there are no reasons other than practical ones to choose one technique over the other. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification and other (novel) diagnostics appear to be highly accurate as well, with some offering potential to be used in resource-limited settings.

  19. Botulism and Diagnostic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Baysallar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Clostridium botulinum which causes botulism, a neuroparalytic disease, attracts attention recently because of having an important role on classification of biological warfare agents. The diagnosis of botulism is not possible with routine laboratory tests. Culture from stool and food samples or toxin detection from the same samples and sera are preferable procedures. Early diagnosis and supportive treatment are important. Botulism is a notice required disease and its neurological signs are regressive after recovery.This agent which has a much lethal toxin must be considered important and the employee must comply with the biosafety measures during laboratory testing. Key words: Clostridium botulinum; Botulism; Bacteria, anaerobic; Diagnosis [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 343-350

  20. Exosomes in Cancer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hwa Soung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are endosome derived extracellular vesicles of 30–120 nm size ranges. Exosomes have been identified as mediators of cell-to-cell communication by transferring bioactive molecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids into recipient cells. While exosomes are secreted by multiple cell types, cancer derived exosomes not only influence the invasive potentials of proximally located cells, but also affect distantly located tissues. Based on their ability to alter tumor microenvironment by regulating immunity, angiogenesis and metastasis, there has been growing interest in defining the clinical relevance of exosomes in cancers. In particular, exosomes are valuable sources for biomarkers due to selective cargo loading and resemblance to their parental cells. In this review, we summarize the recent findings to utilize exosomes as cancer biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis and therapy selection.

  1. Industrial applications of laser diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Deguchi, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Tighter regulations of harmful substances such as NOx, CO, heavy metals, particles, emissions from commercial plants and automobiles reflect a growing demand for lowering the anthropogenic burdens on the environment. It is equally important to monitor controlling factors to improve the operation of industrial machinery and plants. Among the many methods for doing this, laser diagnostics stands out. Taking a practical approach, Industrial Applications of Laser Diagnostics discusses how to apply laser diagnostics to engines, gas turbines, thermal and chemical plant systems, and disposal faciliti

  2. Diagnostic Process of Company Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Tokarˇcíková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an actual topic of how key factors of enterprise diagnostics can help to increase company productivity. Recognition and use of relevant internal and external information in this field determines the success of the enterprise. Application of the general diagnostic model of company productivity to the net income has been a frequent problem of company practice. This problem is of profit showing, which is an inevitable precondition for long-term company development and growth. Diagnostic access of company productivity allows recognition of specific problems in greater detail, which results from the activity of each company. This article also presents an introduction to the researched area of enterprise diagnostics, which opens opportunities for other publishing activities and can lead to information exchange.

  3. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  4. Diagnostics and Instrumentation for FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, M E

    2001-01-01

    Free Electron Laser are coherent sources of radiation based on the interaction of a relativistic electron beam in an undulator field. According to the energy of the accelerator, they presently cover a wide spectral range, from the infra-red to the VUV. FELs combine the diagnostics of typical laser systems (for the measurement of spectral and temporal characteristics, the transverse mode pattern, the polarisation) and the diagnostics of relativistic electron beams. The electron beam is characterised in order to evaluate and control the FEL performances, but also in order to measure the effect of the FEL on the electron beam. The FEL characteristics are monitored with various types of detectors, depending mainly on the spectral range. Diagnostics for Linac based Infra Red FELs and storage ring FELs in the UV-VUV will be described. Particular instrumentation, required for FEL operation, such as the optical resonator, possible diagnostics inside the undulator will also be analysed.

  5. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  6. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.;

    2015-01-01

    identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation...... of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic...

  7. The Early Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Changes for High-sensitive Troponin I in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome%高敏心肌肌钙蛋白I动态变化在急性冠状动脉综合征早期诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张能; 张丹; 张煜; 羊镇宇

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the early diagnostic value of dynamic changes for high-sensitive troponin I (hs-cTnI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: A total of 186 ACS patients treated in our hospital from 2014-02 to 2015-04 were studied. The patients were divided into 2 groups:AMI group, n=169 and UA group, n=17, in addition, there was a Control group, n=13 healthy subjects. Blood levels of hs-cTnI were measured at admission and 2h, 4h after admission. Dynamic changes of hs-cTnI was calculated by slop coefifcient of hs-cTnI (Δhs-cTnI) at 3 time points and relative changes of hs-cTnI values. ROC curve was made by SPSS 16.0 statistical software and the best diagnostic cutoff point was determined by Youden index. Results: In clinical practice, hs-cTnI=1 ng/ml was critical condition, hs-cTnI=0.15 ng/ml was recommended for AMI diagnosis. When hs-cTnI Conclusion: AMI could not be effectively diagnosed by hs-cTnI alone at admission, using combined relative changes of hs-cTnI andΔhs-cTnI was superior to 0 h hs-cTnI for AMI diagnosis.%目的:探讨高敏心肌肌钙蛋白I(hs-cTnI)动态变化在急性冠状动脉综合征(ACS)早期诊断中的应用价值。  方法:选取2014-02至2015-04期间在本院就诊的ACS患者186例,其中急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者169例(AMI组),不稳定性心绞痛(UA)患者17例(UA组),另外选择13例健康体检者为健康对照组。分别采集ACS患者入院时、入院后2 h、入院后4 h静脉血,免疫荧光法测定hs-cTnI,计算hs-cTnI的动态变化:(1)0~4 h hs-cTnI的变化斜率(Δhs-cTnI);(2)hs-cTnI的相对变化值。通过SPSS 16.0统计软件分析,作出受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线,根据Youden指数判断最佳诊断分界点。  结果:以hs-cTnI=1 ng/ml为临床使用的危急值,hs-cTnI 0.15 ng/ml为确诊AMI的推荐值。当入院时(0 h) hs-cTnI  结论:单独使用入院0 h hs-cTnI并不能有

  8. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  9. Early clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamalski, Digna M. A.; Ter Braak, Edith W. M. T.; Ten Cate, Olle Th. J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early clinical experience is being introduced in innovative, vertically integrated undergraduate medical curricula. While in many cases, this early clinical experience is limited to the presence of patients during lectures, in Utrecht students gain 'hands on' experience of daily clinical

  10. Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R

    2001-12-11

    ;'burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.

  11. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G S; Yang, Y; Wang, Y M; Ming, T F; Han, X; Liu, S C; Wang, E H; Liu, Y K; Yang, W J; Li, G Q; Hu, Q S; Gao, X

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  12. Fetal thermal effects of diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Jacques S; Barnett, Stanley B; Duck, Francis A; Edmonds, Peter D; Hynynen, Kullervo H; Ziskin, Marvin C

    2008-04-01

    Processes that can produce a biological effect with some degree of heating (ie, about 1 degrees C above the physiologic temperature) act via a thermal mechanism. Investigations with laboratory animals have documented that pulsed ultrasound can produce elevations of temperature and damage in biological tissues in vivo, particularly in the presence of bone (intracranial temperature elevation). Acoustic outputs used to induce these adverse bioeffects are within the diagnostic range, although exposure times are usually considerably longer than in clinical practice. Conditions present in early pregnancy, such as lack of perfusion, may favor bioeffects. Thermally induced teratogenesis has been shown in many animal studies, as well as several controlled human studies; however, human studies have not shown a causal relationship between diagnostic ultrasound exposure during pregnancy and adverse biological effects to the fetus. All human epidemiologic studies, however, were conducted with commercially available devices predating 1992, that is, with acoustic outputs not exceeding a spatial-peak temporal-average intensity of 94 mW/cm2. Current limits in the United States allow a spatial-peak temporal-average intensity of 720 mW/cm2 for fetal applications. The synergistic effect of a raised body temperature (febrile status) and ultrasound insonation has not been examined in depth. Available evidence, experimental or epidemiologic, is insufficient to conclude that there is a causal relationship between obstetric diagnostic ultrasound exposure and obvious adverse thermal effects to the fetus. However, very subtle effects cannot be ruled out and indicate a need for further research, although research in humans may be extremely difficult to realize.

  13. Diagnostics and Resistance Profiling of Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornischer, Klaus; Häußler, Susanne

    Worldwide infectious disease is one of the leading causes of death. Despite improvements in technology and healthcare services, morbidity and mortality due to infections have remained unchanged over the past few decades. The high and increasing rate of antibiotic resistance is further aggravating the situation. Growing resistance hampers the use of conventional antibiotics, and substantial higher mortality rates are reported in patients given ineffective empiric therapy mainly due to resistance to the agents used. These infections cause suffering, incapacity, and death and impose an enormous financial burden on both healthcare systems and on society in general. The accelerating development of multidrug resistance is one of the greatest diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to modern medicine. The lack of new antibiotic options underscores the need for optimization of current diagnostics, therapies, and prevention of the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. The so-called -omics technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have yielded large-scale datasets that advanced the search for biomarkers of infectious diseases in the last decade. One can imagine that in the future the implementation of biomarker-driven molecular test systems will transform diagnostics of infectious diseases and will significantly accelerate the identification of the bacterial pathogens at the infected host site. Furthermore, molecular tests based on the identification of markers of antibiotic resistance will dramatically change resistance profiling. The replacement of culturing methods by molecular test systems for early diagnosis will provide the basis not only for a prompt and targeted therapy, but also for a much more effective stewardship of antibiotic agents and a reduction of the spread of multidrug resistance as well as the appearance of new antibiotic resistances.

  14. The diagnostic utility of MRI in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne J; Weber, Ulrich; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The recently developed Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) are the first criteria ever to include findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints. Features indicating sacroiliac...... joint inflammation on MRI are weighted equally to structural changes on conventional radiography, and thus MRI has become an important tool for use in daily practice to evaluate patients with clinically suspected early spondyloarthritis. However, MRI can also detect structural changes such as erosions...... and fat infiltrations, and recent studies suggest that assessment of both inflammatory and structural changes of the sacroiliac joints may improve the diagnostic utility of MRI. The present article reviews the evidence for the use of sacroiliac joint and spinal MRI to assess patients with axial...

  15. Plasma Diagnostics by Antenna Impedance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, C. M.; Baker, K. D.; Pound, E.; Jensen, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The impedance of an electrically short antenna immersed in a plasma provides an excellent in situ diagnostic tool for electron density and other plasma parameters. By electrically short we mean that the wavelength of the free-space electromagnetic wave that would be excited at the driving frequency is much longer than the physical size of the antenna. Probes using this impedance technique have had a long history with sounding rockets and satellites, stretching back to the early 1960s. This active technique could provide information on composition and temperature of plasmas for comet or planetary missions. Advantages of the impedance probe technique are discussed and two classes of instruments built and flown by SDL-USU for determining electron density (the capacitance and plasma frequency probes) are described.

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in pancreaticobiliarymalignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) are two malignancies that carry significantmorbidity and mortality. The poor prognoses ofthese cancers are strongly related to lack of effectivescreening modalities as well as few therapeutic options.In this review, we highlight novel biomarkers that havethe potential to be used as diagnostic, prognostic andpredictive markers. The focus of this review is biomarkersthat can be evaluated on endoscopically-obtained biopsiesor brush specimens in the pre-operative setting.We also provide an overview of novel serum basedmarkers in the early diagnosis of both PDAC and CCA. Inpancreatic cancer, the emphasis is placed on prognosticand theranostic markers, whereas in CCA the utilityof molecular markers in diagnosis and prognosis arehighlighted.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  18. Diagnostic Modalities in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskicioğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor is known as Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM. Early and correct diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent fetal and maternal risks that can be life threatening. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic ability of the tests in PROM. Materials and Methods: Nitrazine test, fern test, amnio-dye test, biochemical tests (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and placental alpha microglobulin-1 were evaluated in terms of effectiveness in diagnosis of PROM. Results: A gold standard method has not yet been defined in PROM. Diagnostic tests (nitrazine test, fern test, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 “IGFBP-1” and Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 “PAMG-1” should be used when the diagnosis is not certain following history, examination with sterile speculum and ultrasonography evaluation. Conclusion: IGFBP-1 and PAMG-1 are tests based on bedside immunochromatographic method. Especially, PAMG-1 comes into prominence with its high sensitivity and specificity.

  19. [Klatskin tumors--diagnostic and interventional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, M A

    2006-10-18

    Klatskin tumors are defined as malignant tumors of the bile duct involving the bifurcation and intrahepatic bile ducts. The most common presenting clinical feature, obstructive jaundice, usually occurs with advanced disease. Diagnostic tools currently available are therefore either performed too late or are not able to detect early disease stage. Imaging procedures for diagnosis and staging are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging with cholangiopancreaticography, intravenous bolus-enhanced spiral computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography. Before initiating any palliative measure, a proper staging and a surgical consultation at a hepatobiliary center is necessary. To assess resectability, additional diagnostic methods like angiography, positron emission tomography, cholangioscopy, endoscopic or intraluminal ultrasonography and finally even explorative laparoscopy may be required. At time of diagnosis only a small percentage of Klatskin tumors is curative resectable. Therefore, palliative treatment options play an important role. Endoprostheses insertion is the method of choice to relieve jaundice. Although it improves quality of life, it does not seem to improve survival time. Definitive evidence for a benefit of additional radio and/or chemotherapy is still missing. Photodynamic therapy, a light therapy, is the first approach leading to an improvement of cholestasis and quality of life as well as to a prolongation of survival time. PDT should therefore be offered to all patients with nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma.

  20. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  1. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  2. The diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake PET/CT score of Lesions for early esophageal lesions%病灶18F-FDG摄取PET/CT记分对早期良恶性食管病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙筱倩

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨病灶18-氟-脱氧葡萄糖(18F-FDG)摄取PET/CT记分对早期良恶性食管病变的诊断价值,为临床诊治提供依据.方法 对本院36例癌前或早期恶性食管病变患者与66例食管良性病变患者行18F-FDG摄取PET/CT记分,病变评价记分标准:FDG摄取强度低=0、中=1、高=2;FDP摄取表现同心圆=0、偏心圆形=1;FDG摄取能力弥散=0、弧形=1、局灶型=2;CT检查显示食管正常=0、增厚=1、团块=2;部位位于食管近端1/3 =0,中1/3=1、远端1/3 =2.结果 早期恶性病变组FDG摄取强度记分≥2分者15例(41.8%)、FDG摄取偏心率≥1分者20例(55.6%),良性病变组≥2分者12例(18.2%)、≥1分者7例(10.6%),两组间比较差异均有统计学意义(x2=16.22,24.18,P<0.01).早期恶性病变组CT检查食管厚度记分≥2分者占22.2%(8/36),良性病变组为12.1% (8/66),两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).早期恶性病变组SUV最大值高于良性病变组(3.3 ±0.9 vs 5.3±4.1,t=11.04,P<0.01).应用局灶-偏心性记分阈≥2分,区别良或恶性病变的敏感度为83.3%、特异度为68.3%.结论 FDG摄取能力和偏心率对区别食管良恶性病变有一定价值.%Objective To study of the diagnostic value of 18 F-FDG(Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose) uptake PET/CT score of lesions for early esophageal lesions.Methods The study included 36 patients with early malignant esophageal lesions,and the 66 cases with 18 F-FDG uptake increased as benign esophageal lesions.The evaluation score standard for lesion were (1) FDG uptake strength:0 =low,1 =moderate,and 2 =high; (2) FDP intake performance:0 =concentric circles,and 1 =eccentric circular;(3) FDG uptake ability:dispersion =0,and arc =1,focal type =2 ; (3) CT examination showed esophageal normal =0,thickening =1,and mass =2; (5) Site was located in the proximal esophageal 1/3 =0,the intermediate 1/3 =1,and distal 1/3 =2.Results The FDG uptake strength score was 2 points or more

  3. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  4. Tuberculosis diagnostics and biomarkers: needs, challenges, recent advances, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Ruth; Maeurer, Markus; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Marais, Ben; McHugh, Timothy D; Ford, Nathan; Weyer, Karin; Lawn, Steve; Grobusch, Martin P; Memish, Ziad; Squire, S Bertel; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Casenghi, Martina; Migliori, Giovanni-Batista; Mwaba, Peter; Zijenah, Lynn; Hoelscher, Michael; Cox, Helen; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kim, Peter S; Schito, Marco; Harari, Alexandre; Bates, Matthew; Schwank, Samana; O'Grady, Justin; Pletschette, Michel; Ditui, Lucica; Atun, Rifat; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-05-15

    Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within communities. Currently recommended gold-standard diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are laboratory based, and multiple investigations may be necessary over a period of weeks or months before a diagnosis is made. Several new diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active tuberculosis disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. In the absence of effective prevention strategies, high rates of early case detection and subsequent cure are required for global tuberculosis control. Early case detection is dependent on test accuracy, accessibility, cost, and complexity, but also depends on the political will and funder investment to deliver optimal, sustainable care to those worst affected by the tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics. This review highlights unanswered questions, challenges, recent advances, unresolved operational and technical issues, needs, and opportunities related to tuberculosis diagnostics.

  5. 可溶性髓样细胞触发受体-1对脓毒血症早期诊断价值的研究%The early diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 in patients with sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭少卿; 邹原方

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血清可溶性髓样细胞触发受体‐1(sTREM‐1)对脓毒血症的早期诊断价值。方法选择2010年7月至2013年6月该院急诊重症病房重症监护病房收治的81例患者,其中61例全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS )患者,根据脓毒血症诊断标准分为脓毒血症组39例与SIRS组22例,非SIRS患者20例作为对照组,检测3组血清sTREM‐1和降钙素原(PCT)水平。结果脓毒血症组与SIRS组血清sTREM‐1及PCT水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.01);脓毒血症组血清sTREM‐1及PCT水平均明显高于SIRS组(P<0.01);sTREM‐1和PCT在SIRS患者中早期诊断脓毒血症的受试者工作特征曲线下面积分别为0.932和0.670,sTREM‐1的灵敏度和特异度分别为92.3%和86.4%,PCT 的灵敏度和特异度分别为61.5%和81.8%。结论血清sTREM‐1是脓毒血症早期诊断的较好指标,同时具有较高的灵敏度和特异度,优于PCT。%Objective To investigate the early diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells‐1 (sTREM‐1) in patients with sepsis .Methods Eighty‐one patients between July 2010 and June 2013 were collected .Sixty one pa‐tients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were divided into sepsis group (n=39) and SIRS group (n=22) ,and the other 20 patients without SIRS were as control group .Levels of sTREM‐1 and procalcitonin (PCT ) were measured .Results The levels of sTREM‐1 and PCT were significant higher in sepsis group and SIRS group than those in control group (P<0 .01) , and the levels of sTREM‐1 and PCT in sepsis group were significant higher than those in SIRS group (P<0 .01) .The area under the curve (AUC) of sTREM‐1 and PCT were 0 .932 and 0 .670 ,respectively .The sensibility and specificity of sTREM‐1 were 92 .3% and 86 .4% ,while the sensibility and specificity of PCT were 61 .5% and 81 .8% .Conclusion Serum sTREM‐1 might be a

  6. Evaluation on the diagnostic value of serum Cys-C, hs-CRP and urine mALB for early kidney functional injury in newly diagnosed SLE patients%血清胱抑素C、超敏CRP和尿微量白蛋白对初诊SLE患者早期肾功能损伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任传路; 沈红石; 蒋天如; 高纯

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the diagnostic value of serum Cys C, hs-CRP and urine mALB for early kidney functional injury in newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS Sixty newly diagnosed SLE patinets and 30 healthy volunteers (HV) were divided into group SLE and group HV respectively. Serum Cys C, hs-CRP urine creatinine were detected by automatic chemistry analyzer and urine mALB by Imraunofluorometer equipment, then comparative analysis of test results were made. RESULTS The results of mALB/Cr, hs-CRP (mg/L) and Cys-Cin were (13.25 ± 4.26), (2.55 ± 0.85) mg/(g-Cr) , and (13.05 ± 4.85) in SLE group, respectively, and were (1.95 ± 0.88) mg/L; (4.15 ± 0.95) and (0.85 ± 0.20) mg/L in HV, respectively. The results above three in SLE group were significantly higher than those in HV (P < 0.001). The abnormal rate of hs-CRP+ Cys-C +mALB was 90% in all LN patients. CONCLUSION Combined detection of mAlb, hs-CRP and Cys-C may have guided significance of early diagnosis and predictions for kidney functional injury in SLE patients.%目的 探讨血清胱抑素C、超敏CRP和尿微量白蛋白对初诊系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者早期肾功能损伤的诊断价值.方法 分别将60例初诊SLE患者和30例健康志愿者分成SLE、HV两组;采用全自动生化仪检测各组研究对象血清超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、胱抑素C(Cys-C)和尿肌酐(Cr)水平,用免疫荧光分析仪测定尿微量白蛋白(mALB),分析各组检测结果.结果 SLE、HV两组的mALB/Cr、hs-CRP和Cys-C分别为:(13.25+4.26)、(2.55±0.85) /mg/(g·Cr); (13.05±4.85)、(1.95±0.88) mg/L; (4.15±0.95)、(0.85±0.20) mg/L. SLE组mALB/Cr、hs-CRP和Cys-C均高于HV组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);90%的SLE初诊患者hs-CRP+Cys-C+mALB联合检测异常.结论 联合测定mALB、hs-CRP、Cys-C可能有助于评判SLE患者早期肾功能损伤.

  7. Diagnostic value of joint detection of biomarkers for the early renal impairment in multiple myeloma patients%生化指标联合检测对多发性骨髓瘤早期肾损伤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小青; 李蕾; 杨燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the diagnostic value of serum cystatin-C(Cys-C) and urinary retinol binding protein(RBP) for the early renal impairment in multiple myeloma(MM) patients .Methods According to estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) , the MM patients were divided into two groups :the normal renal function group(eGFR≥90 mL/min ,n=78)marked group A ,the renal impairment group(eGFR<90 mL/min ,n=40)marked group B .130 healthy subjects were selected as control group .The con-centrations of serum Cys-C ,urinary RBP ,serum creatinine(Cr) and serum urea nitrogen(UN) were measured and compared .Results The levels of Cys-C and RBP in group A were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0 .01) .There were signifi-cant difference of the levels of Cys-C ,Cr ,UN and RBP levels between group B and control group(P<0 .01) .The sensitivity of the combined detection of Cys-C and RBP was 57 .69% ,significantly higher than single index test(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Compared with traditional biomarkers ,Cys-C and RBP are more sensitive and effective indexes for the diagnosis of early renal impairment in the patients with MM ,and jointed detection of the two biomarkers has important value .%目的:探讨血清胱抑素C(Cys-C)、尿视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)对多发性骨髓瘤(MM)患者早期肾损伤的诊断价值。方法根据肾小球滤过率估计值(eGFR)将MM患者分为两组:A组为肾功能正常组(eGFR≥90 mL/min)78例;B组为肾功能损伤组(eGFR<90 mL/min)40例。130例健康体检者作为对照组。检测并比较各组血清Cys-C、尿RBP、血清尿素氮(UN)、血清肌酐(Cr)水平。结果 A组MM患者Cys-C和RBP水平与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),B组Cys-C、Cr、UN、尿RBP水平均显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。Cys-C和尿RBP联合检测的阳性率为57.69%,明显高于单项检测(P<0.05)。结论 Cys-C和RB P比传统

  8. Diagnostic value of the impairment of olfaction in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is increasingly recognized as an early symptom in the development of Parkinson's disease. Testing olfactory function is a non-invasive method but can be time-consuming which restricts its application in clinical settings and epidemiological studies. Here, we investigate odor identification as a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease and estimate the performance of odor subsets to allow a more rapid testing of olfactory impairment. METHODOLOGY/PRINC...

  9. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  10. Microarray Technologies in Fungal Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Microarray technologies have been a major research tool in the last decades. In addition they have been introduced into several fields of diagnostics including diagnostics of infectious diseases. Microarrays are highly parallelized assay systems that initially were developed for multiparametric nucleic acid detection. From there on they rapidly developed towards a tool for the detection of all kind of biological compounds (DNA, RNA, proteins, cells, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, etc.) or their modifications (methylation, phosphorylation, etc.). The combination of closed-tube systems and lab on chip devices with microarrays further enabled a higher automation degree with a reduced contamination risk. Microarray-based diagnostic applications currently complement and may in the future replace classical methods in clinical microbiology like blood cultures, resistance determination, microscopic and metabolic analyses as well as biochemical or immunohistochemical assays. In addition, novel diagnostic markers appear, like noncoding RNAs and miRNAs providing additional room for novel nucleic acid based biomarkers. Here I focus an microarray technologies in diagnostics and as research tools, based on nucleic acid-based arrays.

  11. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  12. The Diagnostic Value of Gastrin-17 Detection in Atrophic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ling, Li; Li, Shanshan; Qin, Guiping; Cui, Wei; Li, Xiang; Ni, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of gastrin-17 (G-17) for the early detection of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). An extensive literature search was performed, with the aim of selecting publications that reported the accuracy of G-17 in predicting CAG, in the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP. To assess the diagnostic value of G-17, the following statistics were estimated and described: sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 894 patients and 1950 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of these studies were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45–0.51) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77–0.81), respectively. The DOR was 5.93 (95% CI: 2.93–11.99), and the AUC was 0.82. G-17 may have potential diagnostic value because it has good specificity and a moderate DOR and AUC for CAG. However, more studies are needed to improve the sensitivity of this diagnostic tool in the future. PMID:27149493

  13. Comparison of diagnostic value in early diabetic nephropathy among three kinds of glomerular nitration rate estimation equations%三种肾小球滤过率评估方程对早期糖尿病肾病的诊断价值比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红霞; 原杰; 柳洁; 贾伟平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of CysC-based CFR in comparison with creatinine-based GFR (CG-GFR and MDRD-GFR) as an accurate serum marker in the prediction of early diabetic nephropathy. Methods A tatal of 133 type 2 diabetic patients (74 males and 59 females, aged 58.1 ±12.3) were enrolled. The level of diabetic nephropathy (normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric) was staged and estimated GFR based on serum creatinine and cystatin C(CysC) was calculated. The plasma clearance of Tc-DTPA, serum CysC, creatinine, BMI, HbA1c, serum lipid and blood pressure were measured. Results 99mTc-DTPA-GFR was used as golden standard. At 90 and 75 ml· min-1· (1.73 m2)-1 cut-points, diagnostic efficiencies of CysC-GFR (89% and 92%) were better than those of CG-GFR (79%=86%, P=0.004, 0.04) and MDRD-GFR (80%-86%, P=0.02, 0.04). At 60 ml · min-1 · (1.73 m2)-1 cut-point, diagnostic efficiencies of CysC-GFR,CG-GFR and MDRD-GFR were 92%, 90% and 92% respectively (P= 0.49, P=0.71). The Logistic regression analyses showed that retinopathy, HbA1c, CysC, diabetic duration, and CysC-GFR were indicators to predict the development of microalbuminuria. Conclusion CysC-GFR is more valuable than CG-GFR and MDRD-GFR in the prediction of early diabetic nephropathy and should be applied clinically.%目的 比较由血清胱抑素C(CysC)计算所得的肾小球滤过率(CysC-GFR)、Cockcroft-Gault公式(CG)-GFR和简化MDRD-GFR对早期糖尿病肾病的诊断价值.方法 选取2008年1月至2009年4月我院内分泌科的2型糖尿病(DM)患者为对象.所有患者均进行99mTc-DTPA清除率检查,并完成血CysC、Scr、血糖、血脂、肝功能、肾功能、糖化血红蛋白、血细胞分析、尿微量白蛋白排泄率、眼底检查及身高、体质量、血压等相关检查.排除以下患者:年龄>75岁,肝肾功异常,持续血尿,肝硬化,充血性心力衰竭,前列腺疾病,营养不良及感染.按照尿微量白蛋白排泄率(UAER)将患者分

  14. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  15. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

  16. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...... image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach...... is for the first time applied for diagnostics of the flow pattern in a closed cylinder with a rotating end face with the aim of studying the changeover from the steady axisymmetric to unsteady asymmetric flow over a wide range of flow parameters. It is found that such a transition is notable for azimuthal...

  17. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...... represented a useful tool for learning; 90% felt that virtual dermatopathology is useful tool for teaching dermatopathology. Conclusion No significant difference was observed in diagnostic accuracy using virtual dermatopathology compared to photomicrographs. Most participants felt virtual dermatopathology...

  19. Diagnostic testing and educational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Mike; Wilkinson, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Clinicians are familiar with making diagnostic decisions based on information gathered from history, clinical examination and diagnostic tests. Although many clinicians assess students, they may be less familiar with ways to assimilate assessment information to inform educational decisions. We draw parallels between the processes used to make a clinical diagnosis and the similar processes needed to make an educational decision. There are several indices that describe the performance and utility of diagnostic tests, which we have extrapolated to educational assessment. We provide a clinical diagnostic question and an education assessment question, and use examples of indices of performance and utility for both of these situations to explore: reliability, indeterminate results, certainty in decisions, acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity, pre-test probability and dealing with limitations. Test reliability requires adequate sampling and consistency between observers. Seeking more information should be targeted to situations where decisions are not certain. Altering score cut-points alters test sensitivity and specificity, which in assessment will alter the numbers of falsely passing or falsely failing candidates. Just as the pre-test probability of a diagnosis influences how to interpret diagnostic tests, so too does the pre-test probability of failure alter the performance characteristics of assessments. In clinical situations, a 'wait and see' approach may be limited by clinical urgency. Likewise, in assessment the 'wait and see' approach may be limited by a duty to society. Clinicians familiar with the performance and utility of diagnostic tests can extrapolate that knowledge to make better interpretations of educational assessments. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  20. Imaging Techniques for Microwave Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, T. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Luhmann Jr, N.C. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Park, H.K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Tobias, B.

    2011-07-01

    Advances in microwave technology have made it possible to develop a new generation of microwave imaging diagnostics for measuring the parameters of magnetic fusion devices. The most prominent of these diagnostics is electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE-I). After the first generation of ECE-I diagnostics utilized at the TEXT-U, RTP and TEXTOR tokamaks and the LHD stellarator, new systems have recently come into operation on ASDEX-UG and DIII-D, soon to be followed by a system on KSTAR. The DIII-D and KSTAR systems feature dual imaging arrays that observe different parts of the plasma. The ECE-I diagnostic yields two-dimensional movies of the electron temperature in the plasma and has given already new insights into the physics of sawtooth oscillations, tearing modes and edge localized modes. Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) is used on LHD to measure electron density fluctuations. A pilot MIR system has been tested at TEXTOR and, based on the promising results, a new system is now under design for KSTAR. The system at TEXTOR was used to measure the plasma rotation velocity. The system at KSTAR and also the one on LHD will be/are used for measuring the profile of the electron density fluctuations in the plasma. Other microwave imaging diagnostics are phase imaging interferometry, and imaging microwave scattering. The emphasis in this paper will be largely focused on ECE-I. First an overview of the advances in microwave technology are discussed, followed by a description of a typical ECE-I system along with some typical experimental results. Also the utilization of imaging techniques in other types of microwave diagnostics will be briefly reviewed. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (authors)