WorldWideScience

Sample records for early diagnosis

  1. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  2. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  3. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  4. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs, as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.

  5. Thrombocytopenic purpura: Importance of early diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Linklater, David M.; Voth, Arnold

    1996-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome are important diagnostic considerations for family physicians because therapy can be lifesaving. Treatment with plasmapheresis is usually successful. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential. A patient with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is described. Diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease was confirmed after the initial episode. The case highlights the important role of family physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of uncommon he...

  6. New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The NSFC funded Key Program project"A real-time analysis of the early diagnosis of cancer mark-ers",undertaken by Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),re-cently received recognition from an expert team for assessment.Experts pointed out that the research was of great value for the fast ascertain of cancer markers and the early warning and diagnosis.The research team was headed by Academician Wang Erkang,CAS and Prof.Kong Jilie,Fudan University.

  7. Early x-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femur head and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially, there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign is shown to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis.

  8. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  9. PROBLEM OF DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY CONGENITAL SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of delayed diagnosis of early congenital syphilis in a child whose mother was observed in prenatal clinic starting from the 14th week of pregnancy. The child had specific skin rash already in maternity. The child was discharged home without examination in the hospital. Only manifestations of nephritis lead to admission of the child into an inpatient hospital. Only at the age of 1 month and 23 days the child was suspected of early congenital syphilis with severe polisimptomnym, and the patient was transferred to specialized hospital. 

  10. Early diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Hague, R A; Rassam, S; Morgan, G; Cant, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Infants with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS) have a greatly improved prognosis if diagnosed and treated before they develop overwhelming infection. Clinical and laboratory data on 45 patients with SCIDS were retrospectively reviewed to assess the value of absolute lymphocyte counts in making an early diagnosis. Ninety infants matched for age, sex, and presenting symptoms were used as controls. Thirteen (29%) infants with SCIDS were diagnosed at birth as previous siblings had...

  11. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  12. Early diagnosis crucial in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Anshuman P; Ostor, Andrew J K

    2011-12-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder that predominantly affects the spine. If untreated it may cause significant morbidity. Early diagnosis is particularly important as newer therapies are able to contain this condition and even induce remission. AS affects about 0.2-0.5% of the population. It is at least twice as common in men and most often manifests in the third to fifth decades. It is estimated that up to 5% of patients with chronic lower back pain in primary care have inflammatory disease. Although only 1% of patients with HLA-B27 develop AS, 90-95% of patients with AS are positive for HLA-B27. Immune dysfunction is the hallmark of this condition and it may be triggered by infection. The primary site of inflammation in AS is the entheses, the sites of insertion of tendons and ligaments into bone. If the inflammation remains untreated, there is resultant fibrosis and ultimately ossification at the entheseal sites. AS should be suspected in patients who report back pain and stiffness with rest, especially in the morning, which improves with exercise. Although the condition affects both the sacroiliac joints, a proportion of patients report pain radiating into the buttocks which may be unilateral or alternate, particularly in the early stages. In addition to the spine, large joint synovitis may develop as well as features of entheseal involvement. New classification criteria take into account early sacroiliitis evident on MRI scan and allow a diagnosis to be made far earlier than was previously possible. A proportion of patients respond well to NSAIDs coupled with a structured physiotherapy and exercise programme. However, about half these patients need escalation to biologic therapy. Patients with a suspected diagnosis should be referred to secondary care in order to confirm the diagnosis and commence treatment.

  13. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  14. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in three fields:· well-timed application of adequate treatment may influence the essential characteristics of a disorder in the direction of adaptation to requirements of social environment, improvement of communication and enrichment of poor activity repertoire;· slowing down and delaying of unfavorable disorder evolution and· helping in understanding, accepting and adapting of child’s family to a pervasive developmental disorder.Value of early established diagnosis is not reflected only in foundation of organized adequate treatment. Early established diagnosis enables a well-timed giving of genetic advice to the family which is, as a rule, young, and without genetic load. On the other hand, well-timed diagnosis enables planning of life-long complete care for the patient with the disorder.

  15. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Third International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer afforded a further opportunity for scientists from all over the world to come together and present important papers concerning breast cancer and early diagnosis procedures. The symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultra-sonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and significant contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist.

  16. [The importance of early diagnosis in acromegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Tóth, Miklós; Boda, Judit; Nagy, Endre; Julesz, János

    2011-05-01

    The authors review the historical and epidemiological aspects, clinical features and complications of acromegaly while emphasizing the importance of the early diagnosis and treatment. Acromegaly is a rare and mostly sporadic disorder due to excessive production of growth hormone. It is characterized by progressive somatic disfigurement (mainly involving the face and extremities) and systemic manifestations. The prevalence is estimated between 40 and 125 cases/million. Generally, it is diagnosed in middle-aged adults (mean age 40 years, men and women equally affected). Due to its insidious onset and slow progression, acromegaly is often diagnosed 7 to more than 10 years after its onset. The disease has cardiovascular, rheumatological, respiratory and metabolic consequences which highly determine its prognosis. Acromegaly is associated with a number of complications resulting in a two- or four-fold increase of mortality and a decrease of life expectancy by about 10 years. The major causes of death include cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, respiratory diseases and malignancies. The duration of the disease before the introduction of effective therapy may be a major predictor of increased mortality mainly due to complications . The early diagnosis is important for timely commencement of treatment and for prevention of serious complications of the disease.

  17. Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86

  18. Pompe disease: early diagnosis and early treatment make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lee, Ni-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency) is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD), symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  19. Pompe Disease: Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  20. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: Need for early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by widespread tissue deposition of two neutral sterols, cholestanol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects and premature death from arteriosclerosis. The primary biochemical defect is deficiency of hepatic mitochondrial enzyme sterol-27-hydroxylase which catalyses the hydroxylation of cholestanol (5-alpha dehydro derivative of cholesterol and this deficiency decreases bile acid synthesis. Substantial elevation of serum cholestanol and urinary bile alcohols with low to normal plasma cholesterol concentration establishes the diagnosis. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is exceptionally rare in the Indian population. We are reporting a woman with this rare disorder, who was on antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs for a prolonged period and whose original condition went undiagnosed. She presented with xanthomas on the Achilles tendons and the upper end of tibia. She was mentally subnormal and her serum cholestanol level was raised. Her younger sister too was severely affected by this disorder. Early treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid is known to prevent disease progression.

  1. Preliminary criteria for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avouac, J; Fransen, Julie Munk; Walker, U A

    2011-01-01

    To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc).......To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)....

  2. Early diagnosis of masked hypertension in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaev M.Ya.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve diagnosis of latent arterial hypertension by studying the characteristics of hemodynamics and the rigidity of the vascular walls of the arteries in adolescents with this phenomenon. Material and Methods. The study involved 147 children aged 11 to 18 years who did not have heart rhythm disorders, congenital heart defects, endocrine diseases and diseases of the kidneys. They were divided into three groups on the basis of blood pressure values (BP obtained during three measurements of blood pressure according to the method of N. S. Korotkov and when conducting 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Group 1 included children with blood pressure values in the range from 5 to 95 percentile. Group 2 was composed children with masked hypertension (values of office blood pressure in the range from 5 to 95 percentile but indicators of ABPM of blood pressure is greater than 95 percentile. Group 3 included children with stable arterial hypertension (blood pressure values exceeded the 95 percentile. The study was a comparative analysis of the hemodynamic and rigidity (stiffness of the arteries. Results: Most hemodynamic parameters in children with masked hypertension were higher than in children of group 1. However, these figures were lower than in children with stable arterial hypertension. Among the indicators of the rigidity of the arteries, the most sensitive indicator (dP/dt max was maximum rate of pressure rise. Children with masked hypertension had increased arterial stiffness, however it was lower than in children with stable arterial hypertension. Conclusion: The use of BPLab monitor with technology Vasotens allows physicians to evaluate the daily profile of arterial pressure, the hemodynamics and stiffness of blood vessels, which is an important step for early diagnostics of latent arterial hypertension in children

  3. The early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, T L

    2001-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women, both in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Today, lung cancer is most often diagnosed on the basis of symptoms of advanced disease or when chest x-rays are taken for a variety of purposes unrelated to lung cancer detection. Unfortunately, in the United States no society or governmental agency recommends screening, even for patients with high risks, such as smokers with airflow obstruction or people with occupational exposures, including asbestos. The origins of this negative attitude toward lung cancer screening are found in 3 studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in the mid-1970s and conducted at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the Mayo Clinic, and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center. These studies concluded that early identification of lung cancer through chest x-rays and cytologic diagnosis of sputum did not alter disease-specific mortality. However, patients with earlier stage disease were found through screening, which resulted in a higher resectability rate and improved survival in the screening group compared with a control group of patients receiving ordinary care. Patients in the control group often received annual chest x-rays during the course of this study, which was the standard of care at the time. Thus no true nonscreening control group resulted. The patients at highest risk were not enrolled in this study. No specific amount of pack-years of smoking intensity was required. Only men were screened. The studies were inadequately powered to show an improvement in mortality rate of less than 50%. Ninety percent of lung cancer occurs in smokers. The prevalence of lung cancer is 4 to 6 times greater when smokers have airflow obstruction than with normal airflow, when all other background factors, including smoking history, occupational risk, and family history, are the same. Screening heavy smokers (ie, > or = 30 pack-years) with airflow obstruction

  4. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  5. Myocardial infarction : early diagnosis and cardioprotective strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, M.I.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have investigated novel diagnostic and cardioprotective strategies to limit myocardial cell death and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. We demonstrated a new way to speed up the diagnosis of acute MI by using very small pieces of RNA (microRNAs). Using these mi

  6. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  7. [Diagnosis and early treatment of juvenile delinquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, A; Bellia, A; Benvenuto, G; Cosentino, F; Riggio, T M

    1975-09-12

    Longitudinal research has shown that social failure to adjust can be prevented by early removal of ambiental factors encouraging pathological development of the Ego, and the detection and treatment of psychological tendencies towards the acquisition of deviant stimuli.

  8. Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stability and Change in Clinical Diagnosis and Symptom Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B.; Nottke, Charly; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be stable in children as young as age three, few studies have explored stability of a diagnosis in younger children. Predictive value of diagnostic tools for toddlers and patterns of symptom change are important considerations for clinicians making early diagnoses. Most…

  9. Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stability and Change in Clinical Diagnosis and Symptom Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B.; Nottke, Charly; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be stable in children as young as age three, few studies have explored stability of a diagnosis in younger children. Predictive value of diagnostic tools for toddlers and patterns of symptom change are important considerations for clinicians making early diagnoses. Most…

  10. Diagnosis of Late Stage, Early Onset, Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    additionally discovered SFPN that affects adolescents and adults [2]. This early-onset SFPN usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood but can...promote early diagnosis. What was the impact on other disciplines? Nothing to report. What was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to report...What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ? As described above, Veterans’ health and, by extension, public health will be

  11. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  12. Early diagnosis of tendon pathologies with sonoelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep ilerisoy Yakut

    2015-04-01

    RESULTS: Achilles tendon thicknesses measured at three segments (proximal, middle ,distal. did not show any statistically significant difference in both painless and symptomatic side. Proximal part of achilles tendon's elasticity did not show any difference in both side (p=0.31. In middle and distal segment , the elasticity was statistically different in symptomatic side than normal side p=0.005 and p=0.001 respectively. CONCLUSION: Sonoelastographic examination of Achilles tendons in patients with FMF suffering from talalgia may be useful for determining early dejenerative changes in tendons either in the absence of B-mode ultrasound findings. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 75-80

  13. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  14. [Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andreia Gomes; Gago, Miguel Fernandes; Garrett, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    In current medical practice, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease remains essentially clinical. This practice determines that the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is done in an already advanced neuropathological stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to review the validity of cerebrospinal fluid protein biological markers in the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The a-synuclein and DJ-1 proteins, due to their role in the hereditary Parkinson's disease, have been the most widely studied cerebrospinal biomarkers. Nevertheless, they have had divergent results mostly owing to different processing, identification and control of laboratory techniques. The new proteomic techniques, directed to the detection of multiple undifferentiated proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (eg. ceruloplasmin, chromogranin B, apoH), are promising. The early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is imperious as it is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes extensive morbidity. Most of current scientific research in Parkinson's disease is focused on the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. Thus, the definition of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is highly relevant.

  15. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  16. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. T

  17. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  18. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. T

  19. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3...... years before a hospital contact leading to a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Retrospective morbidity data from Danish National Patient Registry records (1997-2007) of 10,490 adult patients with a secondary care diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were compared with 42,505 control cases. RESULTS......: Parkinson's disease was associated with significantly higher morbidity rates associated with conditions in the following categories: mental and psychiatric, nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, genitourinary, abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, injury...

  20. Early Stage Disease Diagnosis System Using Human Nail Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S. Indi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human’s hand nail is analyzed to identify many diseases at early stage of diagnosis. Study of person hand nail color helps in identification of particular disease in healthcare domain. The proposed system guides in such scenario to take decision in disease diagnosis. The input to the proposed system is person nail image. The system will process an image of nail and extract features of nail which is used for disease diagnosis. Human nail consist of various features, out of which proposed system uses nail color changes for disease diagnosis. Here, first training set data is prepared using Weka tool from nail images of patients of specific diseases. A feature extracted from input nail image is compared with the training data set to get result. In this experiment we found that using color feature of nail image average 65% results are correctly matched with training set data during three tests conducted.

  1. The Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment in Congenital Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ekinci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: this study evaluates how early diagnosis of congenital scoliosis affects results and complication rates of of surgical treatment. METHOD: We have evaluated the efficiency and effectivity of modern posterior spinal instrumentation methods in congenital scoliosis cases who were diagnosed and treated in Gulhane Military Medical Academy Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. We have evaluated 53 patients (13 male,29 female who were operated for congenital scoliosis between 1995 and 2009. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time of diagnosis to evaluate fusion levels, numbers of surgery, surgery methods, reduction rate, intraspinous and other system abnormalities and complications. RESULTS: 9 of 24 patients with diagnosis age before 5 and 11 of 29 patients with diagnosis age after 5 treated with single operation. Correction of main curve was %35.4 and compensatory curve was %13. Main curve correction of patients under 5 age was %36,3 and main curve correction of older group was %34,8 (p>0.05. Average number of fused levels in first group was 2,3±2,1 and in the older group 7,5±3,1. CONCLUSION: In patients before 5 age less invasive surgeries were needed to accomplish succesful treatment and early diagnosis of congenital scoliosis is the most important part of the treatment. KEY WORDS: Congenital ,Scoliosis, Posterior, Instrumentation [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 441-446

  2. Biomarkers in the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Sheng-di

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It has become clear that PD can have a preclinical phase, a period during which neurodegeneration has already begun years before the onset of typical motor symptoms. Consequently, if the early neurodegeneration in PD can be timely diagnosed, it will significantly slow down the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life. To date, there is no fully reliable and validated biomarker for the early diagnosis of PD, but some promising biomarker candidates exist.

  3. Early Diagnosis of Keratoconus with Orbscan- Ⅱ Anterior System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新宇; 刘磊; 邱良秀

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Orbscan- Ⅱ anterior system was used for early diagnosis of keratoconus. 48 Eyes of 24patients with suspicious keratoconus were examined by Orbscan-Ⅱ anterior system from Dec.1999 to Dec. 2000 and followed up. The values of Diff and anterior chamber depth (ACD) wererecorded. Results indicated that values of Diff and ACD were increased in 4 eyes of 2 patients withkeratoconus trend during follow-up. Taking advantage of Orbscan- Ⅱ anterior system to observethe values of Diff and ACD can early diagnose the sub-clinical keratoconus. The values of Diff andACD can sensitively report the progression of keratoconus.

  4. Practical Aspects Regarding the Histopathological Diagnosis of Early Mycosis Fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebeică T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides is the most common primary T-cell lymphoma of skin. The disease has a protean clinical and histological presentation in its early patch and plaque stages, when distinction from mimicking inflammatory dermatoses is difficult. Since no single criterion is specific enough, a reliable diagnosis in early stages requires integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular findings. In skin biopsies, the most helpful histologic features are the detection of atypical lymphocytes in the epidermis with minimal epidermal changes, basal alignment of lymphocytes along dermal-epidermal junction and formation of Pautrier microabscesses. An aberrant immunophenotype of T cells and molecular detection of a clonal T-cell population are factors that could allow a more specific diagnosis. This work recapitulates and discusses these features from a practical perspective.

  5. Early diagnosis and empiric therapy for cirrhosis associated with infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Yuemin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a frequent complication of cirrhosis, which often occurs in the lungs, chest, abdomen, biliary tract, urinary tract, soft tissue, and skin, and occasionally causes spontaneous bacteremia in patients. This paper reviews the risk factors and common types of infection in cirrhosis associated with infection, and the early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment of different types of infection. Moreover, this paper points out that cirrhosis associated with infection is a key factor for disease progression and the early diagnosis and treatment are essential for successful treatment. The third-generation cephalosporins are the first-line antibiotic agents. Drug-resistant bacteria should be treated with antibiotic compound containing β-lactamase inhibitors or carbapenems. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus should be treated with glycopeptide antibiotics or combination therapies. Pulmonary mycoses are mainly treated with caspofungin or voriconazole. Antibiotics combined with supportive therapies including the administration of albumin can improve the treatment outcome and prognosis.

  6. Palmomental reflex a relevant sign in early Alzheimer's disease diagnosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabelle, Audrey; Gutierrez, Laure-Anne; Dartigues, Jean-François; Ritchie, Karen,; Touchon, Jacques; Berr, Claudine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackground: Sophisticated and expensive biomarkers are proposed for the diagnostic of Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid process seems to be early in AD and brain amyloid load affects the frontal lobe. Our objective is to determine if certain simple clinical signs especially frontal-related signs could help reach an earlier and better diagnosis. Methods: In the frame of the 3-City cohort, we conducted a nested case-control study comparing incident cases of Alzheim...

  7. Improved early diagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wu; Nan-Sheng Cheng; Yan-Ge Zhang; Hong-Zhi Luo; Lu-Nan Yan; Jin Li

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas is insensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and surgery is at present the deifnitive treatment. Early and accurate diagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma is crucial for increasing the ifve-year survival rate and the resectable rate. There is no deifnitive and effective method of early diagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas in China and other countries. METHODS: We compared endoscopic ultrasonography-guided (EUS-guided) ifne needle aspiration biopsy combined with cyst lfuid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9 examination with computed tomography (CT), B-ultrasonography (B-US) and serum CEA and CA19-9, to explore methods of early diagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 126 cases of benign pancreatic lesion (90 cases) and cystadenocarcinoma (36). RESULTS: The sensitivity of B-US and CT for cystadeno-carcinoma was 52.8%and 77.8%, while the speciifcity was 78.9%and 86.7%, respectively. When measurement of CEA and CA19-9 of cyst lfuid was combined with EUS-guided ifne needle aspiration biopsy, the sensitivity was 94.4%, higher than that of B-US and CT (P CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided ifne needle aspiration biopsy combined with examination of cyst lfuid CEA, CA19-9 is a credible means for early diagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas. B-US, CT and serum CEA, CA19-9 measurements are in common use, their ifndings are also very important.

  8. Early diagnosis of craniosynostosis in infants at primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoric Jasmina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis or premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures in infants disturbs normal brain growth. This condition causes abnormal skull configuration, increased intracranial pressure, headache, strabismus, blurred vision, blindness, psychomotor retardation. The diagnosis of craniosynostosis is very simple. Pediatricians should routinely assess neurological status and measure head circumference and anterior fontanelle. When necessary, ultrasound of CNS, X-ray and cranial CT scan can be done. When it comes to this condition, early diagnosis and surgical intervention are of utmost importance. In this paper, we have presented a case on craniosynostosis in a female infant, discovered in the third month of life during systematic review that included measurement of head circumference, palpation of anterior fontanelle and cranial sutures. The child was referred to a neurosurgeon who performed the CT scan of endocranium and confirmed the initial diagnosis of craniosynostosis. With head circumference of 40 cm and fused anterior fontanelle, the surgery was timely performed at the sixth month of life due to early diagnosis.

  9. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS IN INFANTS AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoric Jasmina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis or premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures in infants disturbs normal brain growth. This condition causes abnormal skull configuration, increased intracranial pressure, headache, strabismus, blurred vision, blindness, psychomotor retardation. The diagnosis of craniosynostosis is very simple. Pediatricians should routinely assess neurological status and measure head circumference and anterior fontanelle. When necessary, ultrasound of CNS, X-ray and cranial CT scan can be done. When it comes to this condition, early diagnosis and surgical intervention are of utmost importance. In this paper, we have presented a case on craniosynostosis in a female infant, discovered in the third month of life during systematic review that included measurement of head circumference, palpation of anterior fontanelle and cranial sutures. The child was referred to a neurosurgeon who performed the CT scan of endocranium and confirmed the initial diagnosis of craniosynostosis. With head circumference of 40 cm and fused anterior fontanelle, the surgery was timely performed at the sixth month of life due to early diagnosis.

  10. [Early diagnosis of gastric cancer, a utopian idea? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, E

    1981-05-01

    In order to improve the prognosis of gastric cancer it is necessary to discover the lesions at an early stage of the disease. Early gastric cancer has an excellent prognosis with a postoperative survival rate of 77 to 99%. Since 1970 we have diagnosed 76 cases of early gastric cancer and the percentage of early cancer out of all gastric cancers increased from 10 to 23%. This improvement is based on selected examinations of high-risk patients, on better diagnostic methods and on our better knowledge of macroscopic and histological appearance. In particular, the use of snare biopsy in protruding lesions and the implementation of continuous endoscopic-bioptic follow-up of all gastric ulcers until complete healing is achieved have improved the accuracy of histological verification. In 16 out of 76 cases of early gastric cancer a multicentric growth was observed. The diagnosis of gastric cancer at an early stage is not an utopian idea. It is reality when we pay attention to the aspects mentioned before.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging markers for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Marino; Rosella Ciurleo; Giuseppe Di Lorenzo; Marina Barresi; Simona De Salvo; Sabrina Giacoppo; Alessia Bramanti; Pietro Lanzafame; Placido Bramanti

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive degeneration, as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In PD, approximately 60-70% of nigrostriatal neurons are degenerated and 80% of content of the striatal dopamine is reduced before the diagnosis can be established according to widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. This condition describes a stage of disease called "prodromal", where non-motor symptoms, such as olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, depression, precede motor sign of PD. Detection of prodromal phase of PD is becoming an important goal for determining the prognosis and choosing a suitable treatment strategy. In this review, we present some non-invasive instrumental approaches that could be useful to identify patients in the prodromal phase of PD or in an early clinical phase, when the first motor symptoms begin to be apparent. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and advanced MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI, are useful to differentiate early PD with initial motor symptoms from atypical parkinsonian disorders, thus, making easier early diagnosis. Functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging techniques can show abnormalities in the olfactory system in prodromal PD.

  12. Application of Metabonomics in Early Diagnosis of Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiao

    2015-01-01

    With the development of life sciences, people have changed their focus from local research to systematic biology, thus contributing to the development of a series of “omics”, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics, etc. Metabonomics is a presently developed new branch of science that can provide qualitative and quantitative analysis on all metabolites with low-molecular quality in the body, tissues or cells of an organism. It recognizes the changes and rules of the biological endogenous substance under the impact of internal and external factors by generally and quantitatively detecting multiple small molecular compounds in biological samples, in hope of ifnding out the metabolic marker clusters in the early stage of diseases so as to provide new pathways for the early diagnosis of the diseases and the realization of individualized drug administration. Additionally, metabonomics research on clinical diseases has become a hot topic and made great achievement in the developmental condition, diagnostic methods, pathogenic mechanism and pharmaceutical efifcacy evaluation of diseases. This study mainly reviewed the application and advances of metabonomics in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, hoping to provide references and prompts for metabonomics-associated researches.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging markers for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Silvia; Ciurleo, Rosella; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Barresi, Marina; De Salvo, Simona; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Bramanti, Alessia; Lanzafame, Pietro; Bramanti, Placido

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive degeneration, as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In PD, approximately 60-70% of nigrostriatal neurons are degenerated and 80% of content of the striatal dopamine is reduced before the diagnosis can be established according to widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. This condition describes a stage of disease called “prodromal”, where non-motor symptoms, such as olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, depression, precede motor sign of PD. Detection of prodromal phase of PD is becoming an important goal for determining the prognosis and choosing a suitable treatment strategy. In this review, we present some non-invasive instrumental approaches that could be useful to identify patients in the prodromal phase of PD or in an early clinical phase, when the first motor symptoms begin to be apparent. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and advanced MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI, are useful to differentiate early PD with initial motor symptoms from atypical parkinsonian disorders, thus, making easier early diagnosis. Functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging techniques can show abnormalities in the olfactory system in prodromal PD. PMID:25745453

  14. Salivaomics - A promising future in early diagnosis of dental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva plays an important role in the health of the oral cavity and of the body as a whole. Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Saliva reflects the physiologic state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional, and metabolic variations. The collection of saliva samples is noninvasive, safe, and inexpensive. Traditional clinical criteria are insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Salivaomics includes five diagnostic alphabets proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, metabolic compounds, and microbes offering substantial advantages because disease states may be accompanied by detectable changes. Salivaomics, the future of saliva-based techniques for early diagnosis of dental diseases, is promising and may offer a robust alternative for clinicians to use in the near future to make clinical decisions.

  15. Salivaomics - A promising future in early diagnosis of dental diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Koneru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human saliva plays an important role in the health of the oral cavity and of the body as a whole. Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Saliva reflects the physiologic state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional, and metabolic variations. The collection of saliva samples is noninvasive, safe, and inexpensive. Traditional clinical criteria are insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Salivaomics includes five diagnostic alphabets proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, metabolic compounds, and microbes offering substantial advantages because disease states may be accompanied by detectable changes. Salivaomics, the future of saliva-based techniques for early diagnosis of dental diseases, is promising and may offer a robust alternative for clinicians to use in the near future to make clinical decisions.

  16. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, A R; Raviola, C A; Weber, P N; McDonald, P T; Navarro, D A; Jasko, I

    1989-10-01

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of apendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging111 In oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis.

  17. Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis with panoramic radiographs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Landim Borba

    Full Text Available Abstract Carotid artery disease has been linked with cerebral vascular accident, also known as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, or cerebral ischemia. It is caused by narrowing or obstruction of arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries that are responsible for transporting blood from the aorta to the brain. Panoramic radiographs are used in dentistry to show both dental arches as a supplement to the clinical dental examination. The objective of this study is to highlight the importance of panoramic radiographs for diagnosis of arterial disease, by means of a bibliographic review. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords “atherosclerosis” and “panoramic”, with the filters “last 5 years” and “humans”. Twenty articles were identified, six of which were chosen for this study because they were open access. The review concluded that panoramic radiographs enable early diagnosis of carotid artery calcification, resulting in earlier interventions, and offer an accessible cost.

  18. [Hypertension: prevalence, early diagnosis, control and trends in Mexican adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Pedroza, Adolfo; Medina-García, Catalina; Barquera-Cervera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to describe the prevalence, distribution and trends of hypertension (HT) in Mexican adults ≥20 years, and to describe the prevalence of early diagnosis and treatment of HT. A total of 10 898 adults were considered. The measurement of blood pressure was performed following the procedures recommended by the American Heart Association. An adult was considered, hypertensive when he met the diagnostic criteria of JNC-7. The prevalence of HT was 31.5%, of which 47.3% were unaware of their condition. Pharmacological treatment was not associated with a higher percentage of subjects under control. Prevalences from 2000, 2006 and 2012 suggest that there is a stabilization. A health problem of this magnitude requires better diagnosis, care and training of the medical sector so that appropriate treatments are prescribed and HT control can be enhanced.

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Dara N, Sayyari AA, Imanzadeh F. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):1-11.ObjectiveAs acute liver failure (ALF) and chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) continue to increase in prevalence, we will see more cases of hepatic encephalopathy.Primary care physician are often the first to suspect it, since they are familiar with the patient’s usual physical and mental status. This serious complic...

  20. Kidney diseases in children - early diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric kidney diseases were in the focus of the World Kidney Day 2016. Macedonian pediatric nephrologists gave their contribution with public appearance in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, with interactive lectures and discussion with the youngest about the kidney function, healthy life style and simple measures to prevent kidney and urinary tract diseases. Besides promotive appearance in the media, series of lectures were presented in front of the health professionals. The aim was to attract the attention of the professionals for early diagnosis and prevention of kidney disease. The action starts in utero, followed by early postnatal imaging and assessment, conservative treatment and in selected cases surgical treatment. The emphasis is on the multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach to children and adolescents with kidney diseases.

  1. Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available to improve treatment results in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by establishing developmental mechanisms and elaborating methods for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Material and methods. The paper analyzes the results of a clinical observation and laboratory, instrumental, immunological, morphological, and radiological studies of 320 premature neonates at 26—35 weeks gestational age. The following groups of neonates were identified: 1 40 premature neonatal infants without NRDS and with the physiological course of an early neonatal period (a comparison group; 2 190 premature neonates with severe NRDS in whom the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, such as surfactant BL versus curosurf, was evaluated; 3 90 premature newborn infants who had died from NRDS at its different stages. Results. The poor maternal somatic, obstetric, and gynecological histories in the early periods of the current pregnancy create prerequisites for its termination, favor the development of severe acute gestosis, and cause abnormal placental changes. Each gestational age is marked by certain placental changes that promote impaired uterineplacentalfetal blood flow and premature birth. Alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages, including those ante and intranatally, microcircula tory disorders play a leading role in the tanatogenesis of NRDS. Intranatal hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration are one of the important factors contributing to alveolar epithelial damage and NRDS in premature neonates. Exogenous surfactants prevent the development of hyaline membranes and are useful in the normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships and lung biomechanical properties. Conclusion. This study could improve the diagnosis and treatment of NRDS, which assisted in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation from 130±7.6 to 65±11.6 hours, the number of complications (the incidence of intragastric

  2. Bilateral Medial Medullary Stroke: A Challenge in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, I present a young patient with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness, dysarthria, and respiratory failure, who initially was misdiagnosed with acute vestibular syndrome. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that was done in the acute phase was read as normal. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine. MR of C-spine showed lesion at medial medulla; therefore a second MRI of brain was requested, showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI, and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linear DWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarity to an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must recognize clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, which early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome. The abnormal DWI signal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is attention to brainstem as well.

  3. Nested polymerase chain reaction for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Kabir, M R; Haque, N; Yesmin, T; Kayes, M T; Maruf, A A; Kobayashi, N

    2012-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of S. typhi is essential for early diagnosis. This was a study to prospectively evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the S. typhi using flagellin gene related primers. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 82 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 62 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and remaining 20 were apparently healthy controls. Cultures as well as PCR of blood specimens were performed for each of the cases. Among the 62 suspected typhoid fever cases, 8(12.9%) were blood culture positive and 55(88.7%) were PCR positive for S. typhi. All culture positive cases were positive by PCR and among 54 culture negative cases, 47(87%) were positive by PCR. Neither of the healthy controls was positive by PCR or blood culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR using blood culture as gold standard were 88.7%, 100%, 100% and 74% respectively for typhoid fever. In this study, the PCR appears highly specific, very sensitive and superior to blood culture for the early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  4. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  5. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES USING CLONAL ANALYSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱军; 薛永权; 虞斐; 吴亚芳; 潘金兰; 陆定伟

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of clonal analysis to the early diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods: Four types of clonal analyses were performed on the bone marrow samples from 50 patients suspected of MDS: (1) Conventional Cytogenetics (CC) for clonal chromosomal abnormalities; (2) BrdU-Sister Chromatid Differentiation (BrdU-SCD) for cell cycle kinetics; (3) Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) for trisomy 8; (4) Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) for N-ras mutation. Results: The diagnosis of forty-three patients was compatible with the FAB criteria for MDS. The other seven cases didn't meet the FAB criteria, with only one lineage of dyspoiesis or with no obvious dysplastic changes. Among these seven cases, two were morphologically diagnosed with suspicious refractory anemia, one with sideroblastic anemia, one with leukemoid reaction, one with hypercellular anemia and two with chronic aplastic anemia. Clonal analyses of the 7 patients showed that six cases had clonal karyotype abnormalities, four had prolonged cell cycle patterns, four had trisomy 8 of different proportions and one had mutation of the exon 1 of N-RAS. Thus, they were revaluated as MDS patients. Conclusion: The untypical MDS patients with one lineage dyspoiesis or without obvious dysplastic changes can be diagnosed early by combining multiple clonal analysis techniques such as CC, SCD, FISH and PCR-SSCR.

  6. Advances in early diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Xu; Tai-Ping Zhang; Yu-Pei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Recent advances in diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches have increased the possibility of improving the existing poor prognosis. DATA  SOURCES: English-language articles reporting early diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer were searched from the MEDLINE and PubMed databases, Chinese-language articleswerefromCHKD(ChinaHospitalKnowledgeDatabase). RESULT: The current literature about pancreatic cancer was reviewed from three aspects: statistics, screening and early detection, and therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and screening of pancreatic cancer currently should be limited to high risk patients. Surgical resection is the only curative approach available, with some recent improvement in outcomes. Gemcitabine has been a standard treatment during the last decade. Gemcitabine-based combination treatment, especially combined with newer molecular targeted agents, is promising. The rationale for radiotherapy is controversial, but with the recent development of modern radiation delivery techniques, radiotherapy should be intensified. Patients with borderline pancreatic cancer could benefit from neoadjuvant therapy but more evidence is needed and the best neoadjuvant regimen is still to be determined.

  7. [Malignant neuroleptic syndrome--a possibility for early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K T; Scherling, A

    1991-10-21

    A 17-year-old man developed the malignant neuroleptic syndrome and recovered after the neuroleptic drug was discontinued. When the treatment with the neuroleptic was resumed four weeks later, an elevated serum creatine kinase level was found without any other symptoms of the malignant neuroleptic syndrome. The neuroleptic was discontinued and the serum creatine kinase level was normalized. In both episodes, serum creatine kinase level was followed daily. The elimination of creatine kinase followed a first order kinetic, indicating that release of the enzyme to the blood stopped as soon the neuroleptic was discontinued. In the second episode, the increase in serum creatine kinase level was found before the symptoms of malignant neuroleptic syndrome appeared. This opens a possible way to early diagnosis and in that way prevention of severe symptoms.

  8. GEAR CRACK EARLY DIAGNOSIS USING BISPECTRUM DIAGONAL SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A study of bispectral analysis in gearbox condition monitoring is presented.The theory of bispectrum and quadratic phase coupling (QPC) is first introduced, and then equations for computing bispectrum slices are obtained.To meet the needs of online monitoring, a simplified method of computing bispectrum diagonal slice is adopted.Industrial gearbox vibration signals measured from normal and tooth cracked conditions are analyzed using the above method.Experiments results indicate that bispectrum can effectively suppress the additive Gaussian noise and chracterize the QPC phenomenon.It is also shown that the 1-D bispectrum diagonal slice can capture the non-Gaussian and nonlinear feature of gearbox vibration when crack occurred, hence, this method can be employed to gearbox real time monitoring and early diagnosis.

  9. PSA Isoforms' Velocities for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-06-01

    Free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) and its molecular isoforms are suggested for enhancement of PSA testing in prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study we evaluated whether PSA isoforms' velocities might serve as a tool to improve early PCa diagnosis. Our study population included 381 men who had undergone at least one ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy whose pathologic examination yielded PCa or showed no evidence of prostatic malignancy. Serial PSA, fPSA, and proPSA measurements were performed on serum samples covering 7 years prior to biopsy using Beckmann Coulter Access immunoassays. Afterwards, velocities of PSA (PSAV), fPSA% (fPSA%V), proPSA% (proPSA%V) and the ratio proPSA/PSA/V were calculated and their ability to discriminate cancer from benign disease was evaluated. Among 381 men included in the study, 202 (53%) were diagnosed with PCa and underwent radical prostatectomy at our Department. PSAV, fPSA%V, proPSA%V as well as proPSA/PSA/V were able to differentiate significantly between PCa and non-cancerous prostate. The highest discriminatory power between cancer and benign disease has been observed two and one year prior to diagnosis with all measured parameters. Among all measured parameters, fPSA%V showed the best cancer specificity of 45.3% with 90% of sensitivity. In summary, our results highlight the value of PSA isoforms' velocity for early detection of PCa. Especially fPSA%V should be used in the clinical setting to increase cancer detection specificity.

  10. Clinical diagnosis and management in early Huntington's disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefer J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Schiefer,1,* Cornelius J Werner,1,* Kathrin Reetz1,2 1Euregional Huntington Center, 2Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA – Translational Brain Medicine, Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This review focuses on clinical diagnosis and both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic options in early stages of the autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD. The available literature has been reviewed for motor, cognitive, and psychiatric alterations, which are the three major symptom domains of this devastating progressive disease. From a clinical point of view, one has to be aware that the HD phenotype can vary highly across individuals and during the course of the disease. Also, symptoms in juvenile HD can differ substantially from those with adult-onset of HD. Although there is no cure of HD and management is limited, motor and psychiatric symptoms often respond to pharmacotherapy, and nonpharmacological approaches as well as supportive care are essential. International treatment recommendations based on study results, critical statements, and expert opinions have been included. This review is restricted to symptomatic and supportive approaches since all attempts to establish a cure for the disease or modifying therapies have failed so far. Keywords: Neurodegeneration, clinical picture, early symptoms, therapy, treatment

  11. Early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma by the vestibular test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, T.; Rettinger, G.; Berg, M.; Wigand, M.E.

    1981-11-01

    In a series of 390 cases with suspicion of acoustic neurinomas 78 such tumors could be diagnosed, including 12 early stage neurinomas. This relatively high detection quote of small neurinomas is due to a special diagnostical programme: Every patient with unilateral and sensoneural hearingloss, independent of vertigo anamnesis or of the result of X-rays must be further examined by a vestibular test. All 78 patients with acoustic neuroma had pathological vestibular findings. The positional test turned out to be the most sensitive examination in the early diagnosis of acoustic neuromas and yields a still higher incidence than the thermic test: 95% of the patients with a neuroma showed pathological findings in the positional test. Every patient suffering from an unidentified unilateral and sensoneural hearingloss combined with a pathological result in the positional test must be further checked by a cisternomeatography or computerized tomography using airinsufflation. Every fifth of these patients showed typical signs of an acoustic neuroma in the neuroradiological tests. 68 neuromas are operated today and verfied histologically, 10 patients are still waiting for surgical treatment.

  12. Postoperative intussusception in pediatric abdominal malignancies: early diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maged M. Elshafiey; Gehad T. Meselhy; Amal Refaat; Alaa A. Younes

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to review the incidence of postoperative intussusception (POI) in our patients with pediatric abdominal malignancies and the end result of management of these cases. Methods: From November2007 till the end of December 2011, a total of 538 patients with different abdominal malignancies were operated upon by laparotomies in our hospital. Reoperations were required in 12 patients for post operative intestinal obstruction developed in the 1st postoperative month. Review of the identified cases focused on patient's characteristics, the primary tumor type, the primary surgical procedure, clinical and imaging features of the intussusceptions, timing and findings at the 2nd laparotomy and the end result of subsequent interventions. Results: Early post operative intestinal obstruction (within 1 month) developed in 12 patients of whom 8 patients had POI. Five patients had adhesive intestinal obstruction (one patient developed POI then adhesive obstruction). The median duration between the primary surgery and the onset of intestinal obstruction symptoms was 5 days (range 4-12 days) in the POI group and 24 days (range 10-30 days) in the adhesion group. Abdominal CT was done in all cases and it could properly diagnose POI and detect its site in the POI group while in the adhesion group it showed evidence of complete obstruction. Plain radiograph failed to detect signs of intestinal obstruction in 3 cases (two in the POI group and one in the adhesion group). In POI group simple reduction was done in 7 cases while resection anastmosis was done in 1 case due to gangrene of the ileocecal region. Adhesiolysis was done in the 5 cases of intestinal adhesion group.Conclusion: Early POI in pediatric abdominal cancer is a rare complication; however it should be kept in mind with high index of suspicion. Early diagnosis and intervention is essential for successful management. Abdominal CT is very helpful as it can detect the level and possible cause of

  13. Importance of the dentist in early diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The vulgar pemphigus is a chronic, rare, vesicle-bubble disease of autoimmune origin and with a possibility of following a dangerous clinical course when it is not diagnosed and treated in its initial stage. It usually affects people from 40 to 60 years old, being rare in children. In the majority of cases, oral manifestations are the first signs of the disease, so that dentists play an important rol in its early diagnosis. The authors present a case report of vulgar pemphigus in a 17 year-old patient, attended by the Bucco-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service of the “Fundação de Beneficência Hospital de Cirurgia” in Aracaju-SE, Brazil. The patient was admitted with a complaint of the presence of numerous scattered painful ulcers in the mouth that had developed in approximately two months, and reported that at first, blisters that broke quickly appeared, leading to extremely painful ulcerations. Incisional biopsies were performed in the jugal mucosa and retromolar regions, and also a complete hemogram to discard the hypothesis of leukemia. In view of the clinical and histopathological findings, the final diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was made. Before receiving specialized treatment, the patient presented marked worsening of the clinical condition, with exacerbation of intraoral signs and symptoms and development of skin lesions around the body surface. The patient was hospitalized in the “Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe” and treated with prednisone, cimetidine and nystatin, showing significant improvement of symptoms in approximately two weeks. At present, the patient is under the care of an interdisciplinary team that includes dermatologists and dentists.

  14. A multiple classifier system for early melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboner, Andrea; Eccher, Claudio; Blanzieri, Enrico; Bauer, Paolo; Cristofolini, Mario; Zumiani, Giuseppe; Forti, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer and early diagnosis is the key factor in its successful treatment. Well-trained dermatologists reach a diagnosis via visual inspection, and reach sensitivity and specificity levels of about 80%. Several computerised diagnostic systems were reported in the literature using different classification algorithms. In this paper, we will illustrate a novel approach by which a suitable combination of different classifiers is used in order to improve the diagnostic performances of single classifiers. We used three different kinds of classifiers, namely linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and a decision tree, the inputs of which are 38 geometric and colorimetric features automatically extracted from digital images of skin lesions. Multiple classifiers were generated by combining the diagnostic outputs of single classifiers with appropriate voting schemata. This approach was evaluated on a set of 152 digital skin images. We compared the performances of multiple classifiers (2- and 3-classifier groups) between them and with respect to single ones (1-classifier group). We further compared the classifiers' performances with those of eight dermatologists. Classifiers' performances were measured in terms of distance from the ideal classifier. Compared with 1- and 2-classifier groups, performances of 3-classifier systems were significantly higher (Pclassifier groups (P=0.352). While the dermatologists group showed a level of performances significantly higher than the 1-classifier systems (Pclassifier groups and the dermatologists groups, indicating comparable performances. This work suggests that a suitable combination of different kinds of classifiers can improve the performances of an automatic diagnostic system.

  15. The early clinical features of dengue in adults: challenges for early clinical diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny G H Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of dengue throughout the tropical world is affecting an increasing proportion of adult cases. The clinical features of dengue in different age groups have not been well examined, especially in the context of early clinical diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We structured a prospective study of adults (≥ 18 years of age presenting with acute febrile illness within 72 hours from illness onset upon informed consent. Patients were followed up over a 3-4 week period to determine the clinical outcome. A total of 2,129 adults were enrolled in the study, of which 250 (11.7% had dengue. Differences in the rates of dengue-associated symptoms resulted in high sensitivities when the WHO 1997 or 2009 classification schemes for probable dengue fever were applied to the cohort. However, when the cases were stratified into age groups, fewer older adults reported symptoms such as myalgia, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain and mucosal bleeding, resulting in reduced sensitivity of the WHO classification schemes. On the other hand, the risks of severe dengue and hospitalization were not diminished in older adults, indicating that this group of patients can benefit from early diagnosis, especially when an antiviral drug becomes available. Our data also suggests that older adults who present with fever and leukopenia should be tested for dengue, even in the absence of other symptoms. CONCLUSION: Early clinical diagnosis based on previously defined symptoms that are associated with dengue, even when used in the schematics of both the WHO 1997 and 2009 classifications, is difficult in older adults.

  16. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  17. Necrobiosis Lipoidica: Early Diagnosis and Treatment with Tacrolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patsatsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of necrobiosis lipoidica (NL with atypical early lesions and good response to topical tacrolimus. NL is a disease with clinical features that are seldom misinterpreted. Often histology just confirms the clinician’s diagnosis. Only in rare cases, the clinical presentation and the involved body sites may be misleading. A 67-year-old diabetic woman was admitted to our department with a well-defined, persistent plaque on her left arm and on her right shin. Histologic examination of both lesions revealed features of NL despite the dissimilar clinical presentation. The patient was treated with 0.1% topical tacrolimus ointment twice daily for 8 weeks and once daily for 8 weeks. A significant improvement and no further lesions were observed after 1 year of follow-up. A high index of suspicion regarding NL lesions with atypical clinical presentation on different body sites is advised in order to avoid misdiagnosis, wrong treatment decisions and ulceration. Additionally, it appears that topical tacrolimus treatment is an effective therapeutic option in patients with recent, non-ulcerated NL lesions.

  18. Sonographic markers for early diagnosis of fetal malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria; Daniela; Renna; Paola; Pisani; Francesco; Conversano; Emanuele; Perrone; Ernesto; Casciaro; Gian; Carlo; Di; Renzo; Marco; Di; Paola; Antonio; Perrone; Sergio; Casciaro

    2013-01-01

    Fetal malformations are very frequent in industrialized countries.Although advanced maternal age may affect pregnancy outcome adversely,80%-90%of fetal malformations occur in the absence of a specific risk factor for parents.The only effective approach for prenatal screening is currently represented by an ultrasound scan.However,ultrasound methods present two important limitations:the substantial absence of quantitative parameters and the dependence on the sonographer experience.In recent years,together with the improvement in transducer technology,quantitative and objective sonographic markers highly predictive of fetal malformations have been developed.These markers can be detected at early gestation(11-14 wk)and generally are not pathological in themselves but have an increased incidence in abnormal fetuses.Thus,prenatal ultrasonography during the second trimester of gestation provides a"genetic sonogram",including,for instance,nuchal translucency,short humeral length,echogenic bowel,echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst,that is used to identify morphological features of fetal Down’s syndrome with a potential sensitivity of more than 90%.Other specific and sensitive markers can be seen in the case of cardiac defects and skeletal anomalies.In the future,sonographic markers could limit even more the use of invasive and dangerous techniques of prenatal diagnosis(amniocentesis,etc.).

  19. Proteomics for the early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autor OJS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The incidence of primary cancer has been increasing globally and now-a-days it constitutes the 5th most frequent cancer of humans representing around 5% of all cancers worldwide. Chronic HBV infection assumes greater significance because of its reported association with cirrhosis, and more ominously hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC. Hepatitis B infection constitutes a major global problem with nearly 400 million infected individuals. It contributes to a significant degree of morbidity on account of the associated chronicity that develops in 5-10% of infected adults and more than 90% of infected neonates. Globally, around one million people suffering from HBVrelated chronic heptatitis and HCC die per year. Despite the availability of an effective prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis B for over 20 years, effective treatment of the chronic disease and associated HCC remains elusive. Therefore, identification of the cellular mediators and effectors of HCC is an important medical objective for developing new diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies against it. Molecular biomarkers hold great promise for refining our ability to establish early diagnosis and prognosis for HCC, and to predict response to therapy. Proteomics is a rapidly expanding discipline that is expected to change the way in which disease can be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the near future. The proteomic analysis of serum and tumors should allow accurate prediction of what is happening at the protein level in a cancer cell or a body fluid proteome. It is the hope that, by deciphering the alterations in serum and liver proteome, biomarkers and patterns of biomarkers will be found that should be helpful in improving early detection, diagnosis and treatment monitoring of HCC. In the last few years, HCC has been extensively investigated using different proteomic approaches on HCC cell lines

  20. Risk factors and early diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus occlusion secondary to traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Paying close attention to the past medical history of DVT, skull fracture, and the imaging finding of an epidural hematoma that crosses the sinus are necessary for the early diagnosis of CVSO. CTV and MRV help in making an early diagnosis of CVSO.

  1. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: incidence, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio SANTO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. Method The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2% patients were male and 445 (82.8% were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46, and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Results Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5% patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. Conclusion The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years. Contexto A cirurgia bariátrica tem mostrado ser o método mais eficaz de tratamento da obesidade grave. No entanto, sua aceitação como terapia padrão-ouro ainda é questionada. As complicações cirúrgicas observadas no início do período p

  2. Importance of early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without biliary dilatation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kensuke Takuma; Terumi Kamisawa; Taku Tabata; Seiichi Hara; Sawako Kuruma; Yoshihiko Inaba; Masanao Kurata

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops.METHODS:The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM.Of these,patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation.The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated.Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted.RESULTS:Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n =16) or jaundice (n =12).Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%)and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years.Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP).The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer.All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred.Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls,and hyperplastic changes,hypertrophic muscular layer,subserosal fibrosis,and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%),5 (63%),7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients,respectively.Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients

  3. Cytologic and DNA-Cytometric Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten W. Remmerbach

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this prospective study was to report on the diagnostic accuracy of conventional oral exfoliative cytology taken from white‐spotted, ulcerated or other suspicious oral lesions in our clinic. In addition we checked DNA‐image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA‐aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for the early identification of tumor cells in oral brushings. Study design. 251 cytological diagnoses obtained from exfoliative smears of 181 patients from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa and from clinically seemingly benign oral lesions which were exisiced for establishing histological diagnoses were compared with histological and/or clinical follow‐ups of the respective patients. Additionally nuclear DNA‐contents were measured after Feulgen restaining using a TV image analysis system. Results. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis on oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 94.6%, specificity 99.5%, positive predictive value 98.1% and negative predictive value 98.5%. DNA‐aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA‐stemlines or cells with DNA‐content greater 9c were observed. On this basis the prevalence of DNA‐aneuploidy in smears of oral squamous cell carcinomas in situ or invasive carcinomas was 96.4%. Sensitivity of DNA‐aneuploidy in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 96.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative 99.0%. The combination of both techniques increased the sensivity to 98.2%, specificity to 100%, positive predictive value to 100% and negative to 99.5%. Conclusions. Brush cytology of all visible oral lesions, if they are clinically considered as suspicious for cancer, are an easily practicable, cheap, non‐invasive, painless, safe and accurate screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma in all stages. We conclude that

  4. Volatile signature for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparri, Roberto; Santonico, Marco; Valentini, Claudia; Sedda, Giulia; Borri, Alessandro; Petrella, Francesco; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Pennazza, Giorgio; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2016-02-09

    Exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several independent researchers point out that the breath of lung cancer patients shows a characteristic VOC-profile which can be considered as lung cancer signature and, thus, used for diagnosis. In this regard, the analysis of exhaled breath with gas sensor arrays is a potential non-invasive, relatively low-cost and easy technique for the early detection of lung cancer. This clinical study evaluated the gas sensor array response for the identification of the exhaled breath of lung cancer patients. This study involved 146 individuals: 70 with lung cancer confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography-(PET) imaging techniques and histology (biopsy) or with clinical suspect of lung cancer and 76 healthy controls. Their exhaled breath was measured with a gas sensor array composed of a matrix of eight quartz microbalances (QMBs), each functionalized with a different metalloporphyrin. The instrument produces, for each analyzed sample, a vector of signals encoding the breath (breathprint). Breathprints were analyzed with multivariate analysis in order to correlate the sensor signals to the disease. Breathprints of the lung cancer patients were differentiated from those of the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 91%. Similar values were obtained in patients with and without metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia (sensitivity 85%, specificity 88% and sensitivity 76%, specificity 94%, respectively). The device showed a large sensitivity to lung cancer at stage I with respect to stage II/III/IV (92% and 58% respectively). The sensitivity for stage I did not change for patients with or without metabolic comorbidities (90%, 94%, respectively). Results show that this electronic nose can discriminate the exhaled breath of the lung cancer patients from those of the healthy controls. Moreover, the largest sensitivity is observed

  5. To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Mattsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic methods risk erroneous classifications, with potentially grave consequences. However, a possible benefit of early diagnosis even without disease modifying therapy is that it may enable early decision making when patients still have full decision competence, avoiding problems of hypothetical consents. It may also help identifying patients with cognitive dysfunction secondary to other diseases that may be responsive to treatment already today.

  6. Predictors for early diagnosis of cerebral palsy from national registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granild-Jensen, Jakob Bie; Rackauskaite, Gija; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: As early intervention is important in cerebral palsy (CP), an early diagnosis is desirable. The aim of this study was to establish the median diagnostic age of CP and to identify predictors of an early diagnosis in a population-based cohort. METHOD: Using the Danish National Cerebral Palsy...... disability, and abnormalities in the cerebral ultrasonography. The gestational age was not associated with the diagnostic age. INTERPRETATION: The median diagnostic age implies that half of the Danish children with CP will be able to enter an early intervention program before 1 year of age. A late diagnosis...... Registry (NCPR), we identified 1291 children with CP (764 males, 527 females) born between 1995 and 2003. The date of diagnosis was defined as the day the parents were told that their child was spastic or had CP. We calculated the age of diagnosis and analysed the following predictors: type of CP, degree...

  7. The Importance of an Early Diagnosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Gian D; Prevete, Immacolata; Iuliano, Annamaria; Minisola, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a high degree of variability at onset, making it difficult to reach a correct and prompt diagnosis. To present the difficulties faced by the clinician in making a SLE diagnosis, based on the characteristics at study entry of an Italian cohort of SLE patients with recent onset as compared to two similar cohorts. Beginning on 1 January 2012 all patients with a diagnosis of SLE (1997 ACR criteria) and disease duration of less than 12 months were consecutively enrolled in a multicenter prospective study. Information on clinical and serological characteristics was collected at study entry and every 6 months thereafter. Our cohort consisted of 122 patients, of whom 103 were females. Among the manifestations included in the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, cutaneous, articular and hematologic symptoms were the most prevalent symptoms at study entry. Data from the literature confirm that the diagnosis of SLE is challenging, and that SLE is a severe disease even at onset when a prompt diagnosis is necessary for initiating the appropriate therapy.

  8. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  9. Diagnosis and Early Warning of Wind Turbine Faults Based on Cluster Analysis Theory and Modified ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale wind farms results in a dramatic increase of wind turbine (WT faults. The failure mode is also becoming increasingly complex. This study proposes a new model for early warning and diagnosis of WT faults to solve the problem of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA systems, given that the traditional threshold method cannot provide timely warning. First, the characteristic quantity of fault early warning and diagnosis analyzed by clustering analysis can obtain in advance abnormal data in the normal threshold range by considering the effects of wind speed. Based on domain knowledge, Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS is then modified to establish the fault early warning and diagnosis model. This approach improves the accuracy of the model under the condition of absent and sparse training data. Case analysis shows that the effect of the early warning and diagnosis model in this study is better than that of the traditional threshold method.

  10. High-frequency audiometry: A means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H Mehrparvar; Seyyed J Mirmohammadi; Abbas Ghoreyshi; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Ziba Loukzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence...

  11. Computed Tomography Perfusion Usefulness in Early Imaging Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco de Lucas, E.; Mandly, Gonzalez A.; Gutierrez, A.; Sanchez, E.; Arnaiz, J.; Piedra, T.; Rodriguez, E.; Diez, C. [Hospital Univ. Marques de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain). Depts. of Radiology and Neurology

    2006-10-15

    An early diagnosis is crucial in herpes simplex virus encephalitis patients in order to institute acyclovir therapy and reduce mortality rates. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard for evaluation of these patients, but is frequently not available in the emergency setting. We report the first case of a computed tomography (CT) perfusion study that helped to establish a prompt diagnosis revealing abnormal increase of blood flow in the affected temporoparietal cortex at an early stage.

  12. Turnaround time for early infant HIV diagnosis in rural Zambia: A chart review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Sutcliffe (Catherine); J.H. van Dijk (Janneke); F. Hamangaba (Francis); F. Mayani (Felix); W.J. Moss (William)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early infant HIV diagnosis is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas where laboratory capacity is limited. Specimens must be transported to central laboratories for testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. This

  13. A Proposed Framework for the Implementation of Early Infant Diagnosis Point-of-Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Surbhi; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Beard, R. Suzanne; Nkengasong, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of 2 months in 2015. To reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing, with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants. This article describes progress made in follow-up of HIV-exposed infants since 2006, including remaining unmet laboratory and programmatic needs, and recommends strategies for improvement, especially those related to the implementation of point-of-care technology for early infant diagnosis. PMID:27758117

  14. Salivaomics - A promising future in early diagnosis of dental diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Suneetha Koneru; Rambabu Tanikonda

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva plays an important role in the health of the oral cavity and of the body as a whole. Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Saliva reflects the physiologic state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional, and metabolic variations. The collection of saliva samples is noninvasive, safe, and inexpensive. Traditional clinical criteria are insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring ...

  15. [Lugol's solution in endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Zhou, M; Cong, Q

    1995-07-01

    About 1500 high-risk subjects of esophageal cancer were found during screening by balloon cytology and all of them were examined endoscopically. Among them, 120 were considered as having early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. During the examination, Lugol's solution staining was used and guiding biopsy was taken. 98 subjects with unstained lesions were found, and biopsy showed early esophageal cancer in 60 (61.2%) and moderate and severe dysplasia in 38 (38.8%). It is usually extremely difficult to detect and localize the very early esophageal mucosal and submucosal carcinoma. But endoscopic examination and using Lugol's solution staining with multiple spots biopsy from unstained area are of great assistance. Minute malignant lesions may not be overlooked.

  16. A possible new diagnostic biomarker in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kork, Felix; Holthues, Jan; Hellweg, Rainer;

    2009-01-01

    Early diagnosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of great importance since only a sufficient treatment in early stages of this disease helps to keep patients in an autonomous state for as long as possible. Until now, there is no single diagnostic biomarker for AD derived from material...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi DARA*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Dara N, Sayyari AA, Imanzadeh F. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:1-11.ObjectiveAs acute liver failure (ALF and chronic liver disease (cirrhosis continue to increase in prevalence, we will see more cases of hepatic encephalopathy.Primary care physician are often the first to suspect it, since they are familiar with the patient’s usual physical and mental status. This serious complication typically occurs in patients with severe comorbidities and needs multidisciplinary evaluation and care. Hepatic encephalopathy should be considered in any patient with acute liver failure and cirrhosis who presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations, decrease level of consciousness (coma, change of personality, intellectualand behavioral deterioration, speech and motor dysfunction.Every cirrhotic patient may be at risk; potential precipitating factors should be addressed in regular clinic visits. The encephalopathy of liver disease may be prominent, or can be present in subtle forms, such as decline of school performance, emotional outbursts, or depression.“Subtle form” of hepatic encephalopathy may not be obvious on clinical examination, but can be detected by neurophysiologic and neuropsychiatric testing.References:Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, Tarter R, Weissenborn K, Blei AT. Hepatic encephalopathy definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: final report of the working party at the 11th World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna, 1998.Hepatology 2002;35:716-21.BleiAT,Cordoba J. Hepatic encephalopathy. AmJ Gastroenterol 2001;96:1968–76.Vaquero J,Chung C, Cahill ME, BleiAT. Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy in acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis 2003;23:259-69.Bajaj JS, Wade JB, Sanyal AJ. Spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis: Implications for the assessment of hepatic encephalopathy

  18. [Systemic diseases--the significance of early diagnosis exemplified by systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener's granulomatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, H

    1993-12-01

    New therapeutic modalities have shown remarkable advances in the fields of systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener's granulomatosis. For an optimal clinical outcome therapy has to be started early and must be adapted to disease activity. Concerning these two points early diagnosis is essential. This aim can be reached by a detailed evaluation of the patient's history by focusing on early symptoms and on typical clinical constellations, taking into account that both diseases show a great variability and sometimes even an insidious course. Immunological tests, capillary microscopy, echocardiography and computed tomography can be very helpful in the diagnosis of these diseases.

  19. [Early diagnosis of a newborn with a mediastinal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Hernández, Salomón Sergio; Ahumada Mendoza, Héctor; Santana-Montero, Blanca Lilia; González Flores, María de Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour that evolves from the neural crest cell. This neoplasm may arise at any site in the sympathetic nervous system, including the brain, the cervical region, the posterior mediastinum, the para-aortic sympathetic ganglia, the pelvis, and the adrenal medulla. The clinical presentation in neonatal age is rare and the differential diagnosis includes congenital lung malformations, pneumoniae, atelectasia, etc. The case of a newborn with a mediastinal neuroblastoma is presented. This case illustrates how a patient with an X-ray image compatible with a thoracic tumor should be studied.

  20. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for early diagnosis of biliary atresia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittain, Jane Maestri; Kvist, Nina; Johansen, Lars Søndergaard;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of (99m)Technetium-trimethylbromo-iminodiacetic acid hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HS) for the diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2009, a total of 47 infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia...... sensitivity and NPV prevent un-necessary surgery. Because of the low specificity of HS in diagnosing BA, it should be part of a multimodality imaging strategy when the result supports a clinical suspicion of BA. In cases with non-draining HS and normal GGTP blood levels, supplemental imaging modalities...

  1. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Traumatic Vestibulopathy and Postconcussive Dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Michael E; Schubert, Michael C; Balaban, Carey D

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common health condition in amateur and professional sports and in military operations but can occur in everyday life. Dizziness is the most common disorder seen after mTBI followed closely by headache. This article examines the diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders after mTBI. Data are included from the literature, and conclusions are drawn from the literature review and the experience of the authors. Much of what is known about this disorder comes from recent military experience, but the link to more common civilian injuries is detailed in this article.

  2. Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever. Louise Lohse, Åse Uttenthal, Jens Nielsen. National Veterinary Institute, Division of Virology, Lindholm, Technical University of Denmark. Introduction: In order to limit the far-reaching socio......-economic as well as the animal welfare consequences of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF), early diagnosis is essential. However, host-virus interactions strongly influence the course of CSF disease, and the clinical feature is not clear, thus complicating the diagnostic perspective. At the National...... were investigated for their potential as indicators for early diagnosis of CSF. Together, they constitute a promising panel for detection of CSF, however, one single parameter does not by itself hold the potential as a safe indicator of CSF in the early phase of infection. In addition, the results...

  3. Early lipoedema diagnosis and the RCGP e-learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Amy; Fetzer, Sharie

    2015-04-01

    Frequently misdiagnosed as obesity, lipoedema is chronic condition involving an abnormal build-up of fat cells in the legs, thighs and buttocks that cannot be shifted by exercise or dieting. Estimated to affect up to 11% of the female population, the condition is widely unknown by health professionals. This means women typically wait for many years before diagnosis. This allows the condition to progress unchecked, resulting in unnecessary deterioration and the development of associated comorbidities, as well as significant pain and mental anguish. A free, 30-minute Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) e-learning course created in partnership with Lipoedema UK aims to rectify this situation by educating nurses, GPs and other health professionals on how to diagnose and manage lipoedema in primary care. This article aims to describe the condition of lipoedema, how to recognise/diagnose it, current treatment options and the findings of a 240-patient survey carried out by Lipoedema UK in 2013 that included documenting the difficulties for patients in obtaining a diagnosis as well as the mental and physical effects of the condition.

  4. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Methods: Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. Results: In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. Conclusions: The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases. PMID:26019380

  5. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Valeria Jiménez-Báez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 in Quintana Roo, México.Methods:Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed.Results:In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women.Conclusions:The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases.

  6. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devescovi R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raffaella Devescovi,1 Lorenzo Monasta,2 Alice Mancini,3 Maura Bin,1 Valerio Vellante,1 Marco Carrozzi,1 Costanza Colombi4 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM, can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System.Methods: Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20–36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents’ and teachers’ active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months.Results: Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment.Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children

  7. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.

  8. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: the importance of early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotónio, Rute; Marmoto, Dina; Januário, Cristina; Bento, Conceição

    2012-09-17

    A 14-year-old boy was submitted to cardiac transplant due to a dilated cardiomyopathy. On the fourth day of immunosuppression (corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus), he developed right focal seizures and drowsiness. Blood pressure was in the normal range and laboratory findings in cerebral spinal fluid and blood were unremarkable, with drugs in non-toxic levels. The EEG showed a slow background rhythm more pronounced on the right and a seizure onset in the right occipital region. MRI revealed a diffuse hyperintense subcortical white-matter lesion on fluid attenuated inversion recovery, with lesser involvement of left temporal-occipital region. There was no enhancement with gadolinium and MRI diffusion-weighted imaging was consistent with vasogenic oedema. Tacrolimus was stopped with regression of MRI abnormalities and clinical recovery. Posterior reversible encephalopathy associated with tacrolimus is a rare but potentially serious complication of solid organ transplants. A prompt diagnosis and correct treatment is essential to avoid irreversible brain damage.

  9. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  10. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  11. Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernell E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Fernell,1 Mats Anders Eriksson,1,2 Christopher Gillberg11Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008–2012 presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband “early intervention” programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be “created” around affected individuals.Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, epidemiology, screening, etiology, intervention, outcome

  12. Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats Anders; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008-2012) presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband "early intervention" programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be "created" around affected individuals.

  13. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING OF GENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kiran Kohli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genetic diseases are one of the major causes of hospital admissions due to disability and mortality particularly among children (1:5 children of hospital admission either partially/completely as distribution of genetic diseases is not related to socioeconomic background, which implies that developing world has a large number of genetic diseases largely left uncared for, i.e. overall incidence of foetal/neonatal loss due to genetic/genetic environmental causes are as follows: 1:50 newborns have major congenital abnormality, 1:100 have a unifactorial disorder, 1:200 have a major chromosomal abnormality before birth. Diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in foetus is one of the most important challenges in modern perinatology as invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of the study is to review on cytogenetic evaluation of CVS obtained (transcervically during first trimester of pregnancy by direct karyotyping of tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 2001 in Department of Anatomy along with Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, LNJP Hospital. 37 healthy cases with 6-12 weeks of gestational age coming for medical termination of pregnancy were included in the study. After written informed consent for procedure, ultrasound-guided transcervical chorionic villus sampling was done (Brambati’s method. Tissue procured was then processed for direct karyotyping and studied. Metaphase spreads were photographed and karyotypes prepared and studied. RESULTS Out of 37 pregnant females, 30 samples were successfully prepared and processed by Direct method out of which 23 were normal female (46, XX and 7 were normal male (46, XY. No normal anomaly was detected. Best biopsies were obtained with 8-12 weeks gestation. G Banding could not be performed as chromosome obtained were found to be resistant to banding. CONCLUSIONS To summarise chromosome preparations obtained from CVS by Direct method has advantage of providing sufficient number

  14. Novel endoscopic imaging system for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Makoto; Gono, Kazuhiro

    2007-02-01

    We have developed the novel video endoscope imaging techniques; Narrow band imaging (NBI), Auto-Fluorescence Imaging (AFI), Infra-Red Imaging (IRI) and Endo-Cytoscopy System (ECS). The purpose of these imaging techniques is to emphasize the important tissue features associated with early stage of lesions. We have already launched the new medical endoscope system including NBI, AFI and IRI (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM, OLYMPUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Fig.1). Moreover ECS, which has enough magnification to observe cell nuclei on a superficial mucosa under methylene blue dye staining, is the endoscopic instrument with ultra-high optical zoom. In this paper we demonstrate the concepts and the medical efficacy of each technology.

  15. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana Shavit; Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods We performed li...

  16. Early Diagnosis and Monitoring of Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sieni

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (ND-LCH is a rare, unpredictable consequence that may devastate the quality of life of patients cured from LCH. We prospectively applied a multidisciplinary diagnostic work-up to early identify and follow-up patients with ND-LCH, with the ultimate goal of better determining the appropriate time for starting therapy.We studied 27 children and young adults with either ND-LCH verified by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (group 1 or specific risk factors for (diabetes insipidus, craniofacial bone lesions, but no evidence of, neurodegenerative MRI changes (group 2. All patients underwent clinical, neurophysiological and MRI studies.Seventeen patients had MRI alterations typical for ND-LCH. Nine showed neurological impairment but only three were symptomatic; 11 had abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs, and five had abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs. MR spectroscopy (MRS showed reduced cerebellar NAA/Cr ratio in nine patients. SEPs showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV for predicting ND-LCH of 70.6% (95%CI, 44.0%-89.7%, 100% (69.2%-100%, 100% (73.5%-100%, and 66.7% (38.4%-88.2%, respectively. Repeated investigations in group 1 revealed increasingly abnormal EP parameters, or neurological examination, or both, in nine of fifteen patients while MRI remained unchanged in all but one patient.A targeted MRI study should be performed in all patients with risk factors for ND-LCH for early identification of demyelination. The combined use of SEPs and careful neurological evaluation may represent a valuable, low-cost, well-tolerated and easily available methodology to monitor patients from pre-symptomatic to symptomatic stages. We suggest a multidisciplinary protocol including clinical, MRS, and neurophysiological investigations to identify a population target for future therapeutic trials.

  17. Early Diagnosis and Monitoring of Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortilla, Marzia; Savelli, Sara; Grisotto, Laura; Di Giacomo, Gianpiero; Romano, Katiuscia; Fonda, Claudio; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Aricò, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (ND-LCH) is a rare, unpredictable consequence that may devastate the quality of life of patients cured from LCH. We prospectively applied a multidisciplinary diagnostic work-up to early identify and follow-up patients with ND-LCH, with the ultimate goal of better determining the appropriate time for starting therapy. Methods We studied 27 children and young adults with either ND-LCH verified by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (group 1) or specific risk factors for (diabetes insipidus, craniofacial bone lesions), but no evidence of, neurodegenerative MRI changes (group 2). All patients underwent clinical, neurophysiological and MRI studies. Results Seventeen patients had MRI alterations typical for ND-LCH. Nine showed neurological impairment but only three were symptomatic; 11 had abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and five had abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). MR spectroscopy (MRS) showed reduced cerebellar NAA/Cr ratio in nine patients. SEPs showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for predicting ND-LCH of 70.6% (95%CI, 44.0%-89.7%), 100% (69.2%-100%), 100% (73.5%-100%), and 66.7% (38.4%-88.2%), respectively. Repeated investigations in group 1 revealed increasingly abnormal EP parameters, or neurological examination, or both, in nine of fifteen patients while MRI remained unchanged in all but one patient. Conclusion A targeted MRI study should be performed in all patients with risk factors for ND-LCH for early identification of demyelination. The combined use of SEPs and careful neurological evaluation may represent a valuable, low-cost, well-tolerated and easily available methodology to monitor patients from pre-symptomatic to symptomatic stages. We suggest a multidisciplinary protocol including clinical, MRS, and neurophysiological investigations to identify a population target for future

  18. The Use of Frozen Section in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Invasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, C Claire; Clinger, John D

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised patient population. Early diagnosis is key to improving patient outcomes. Frozen section biopsies have been shown to decrease time to diagnosis when compared with permanent pathology. However, its accuracy has not been adequately described in the literature, specifically in regard to AIFS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the statistical diagnostic accuracy of frozen sections and to review the etiology, clinical presentation, and current diagnostic protocols in management of AIFS. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Retrospective review included 67 pathologic records in Co-Path, with search criteria including invasive fungal, clinical history, frozen section, and final diagnosis between the dates of 2006 and 2015. Results Sixty-seven cases were reviewed per the search criteria in Co-Path. Of these, 31 met further criteria of having had frozen section analysis. Variables such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were assessed. All 21 positive frozen sections correlated with positive permanent pathology, giving a positive predictive value of 100%. Frozen section biopsies were 87.5% sensitive and 100% specific. Conclusion Early diagnosis of AIFS has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. Frozen section biopsies remain key in obtaining an early diagnosis among patients with a high clinical suspicion for invasive fungal sinusitis. Frozen section biopsies positive for invasive fungal pathology were universally consistent with definitive diagnosis.

  19. Early diagnosis of Gaucher disease in pediatric patients: proposal for a diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Maja; Andria, Generoso; Deodato, Federica; Giona, Fiorina; Micalizzi, Concetta; Pession, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by an enzyme deficiency that leads to the accumulation of glycolipids in various organs. Although the signs and symptoms of GD emerge in childhood in the majority of patients, the disease often remains unrecognized for many years with delay of benefits of therapy or development of irreversible complications. Based on published data and data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Registry, an algorithm has been drafted for early diagnosis of GD in pediatric patients. It will help hematologists in promoting a timely diagnosis and early access to therapy for pediatric patients with GD.

  20. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, F.S.; Shen, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled. 62 references.

  1. [Lipids composition diet in phenylketonuric children with early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Verónica; Concha, Miluska; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Raimann, Erna

    2005-12-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder caused by a partial or complete mutation of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PHA), fact that produces high levels of phenylalanine in blood resulting in mental retardation if not diagnosed during the neonatal period. Treatment consists of a phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet. Several studies have shown that due to restriction of animal protein, this diet is deficient in fatty acids such as alfalinolenic acid (ALA) and provides high levels of linoleic acid (LA). The objective of this study was to determine the lipid composition of the diet consumed by children with early-diagnosed PKU. Lipid composition of the Phenylalanine restricted diet consumed by 29 children with PKU and in follow-up at INTA, University of Chile, were analyzed. Children were paired by sex and age with a control group. A twenty-four hour dietary recall was performed for 3 consecutive days and total fatty acid intake, including saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, LA and ALA, were calculated. In the restricted diet of children with PKU, 31.8% of total calories are from fat, 13% of which are LA and 0.2% ALA, showing significant differences as compared to the control group. The ratio of saturated:monounsaturated:polyunsaturated fatty acids was 1:1.7:3.9 and the ratio of LA:ALA was ten-fold higher than the recommended ratio of 115:1. It is concluded that the Phenyalanine restricted diet of Chilean children with PKU is high in LA and low in ALA.

  2. CRITERIA FOR LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF VARIOUS FORMS EARLY CONGENITAL SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of clinical and laboratory (blood count and serological monitoring of 156 children with various forms of early congenital syphilis in the initial period and the dynamics on the background of specific therapy. Violations in haemogram characterized hypochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, neytrofillezom stab shift with a sharP increase in ESR, which prevailed among the most children with the disease over polisimptomnym and significantly exceeded the level of the norm even after specific therapy. For serological examination in 84.62 % cases registered positive results in microprecipitation reaction (RMR to 56.52% — IgM, and 97.83% — IgG reaction Enzymeimmuno assay (EIA and 100 % — Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (ТРHА. On the background of specific therapy indicated positive results in the growth of bladder cancer (85.19 %, in the formulation of IgM EIA (72.22 % and IgG (100%, thus, recorded a decline titer positivity serological RMR 2 times , IgM EIA reaction 12 times with simultaneous increase IgG positivity 4 times and 2 times in the ТРHА in the formulation of these reactions in the dynamics.

  3. Value of sympathetic skin response test in the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一宁; 贾志荣; 石昕; 孙相如

    2004-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy is common in diabetes mellitus. The early stage of diabetic neuropathy is often symptomless and difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the results of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) test and the development of diabetic neuropathy, and explore the use of SSR as an objective basis for the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.Methods The latencies and amplitudes of initiation and of the N and P waves were determined by SSR testing of the extremities of 80 diabetic patients and 30 healthy controls. Results The latencies of initiation and of the N and P waves were significantly (P0.05). All but two patients (97.5%) demonstrated abnormal SSR in at least one limb. Conclusions SSR can detect early dysfunction of the small sympathetic fibers in people affected by diabetes mellitus, and may be a useful electrophysiological test for the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Contributions to early HIV diagnosis among patients linked to care vary by testing venue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trott Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Early HIV diagnosis reduces transmission and improves health outcomes; screening in non-traditional settings is increasingly advocated. We compared test venues by the number of new diagnoses successfully linked to the regional HIV treatment center and disease stage at diagnosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using structured chart review of newly diagnosed HIV patients successfully referred to the region's only HIV treatment center from 1998 to 2003. Demographics, testing indication, risk profile, and initial CD4 count were recorded. Results There were 277 newly diagnosed patients meeting study criteria. Mean age was 33 years, 77% were male, and 46% were African-American. Median CD4 at diagnosis was 324. Diagnoses were earlier via partner testing at the HIV treatment center (N = 8, median CD4 648, p = 0.008 and with universal screening by the blood bank, military, and insurance companies (N = 13, median CD4 483, p = 0.05 than at other venues. Targeted testing by health care and public health entities based on patient request, risk profile, or patient condition lead to later diagnosis. Conclusion Test venues varied by the number of new diagnoses made and the stage of illness at diagnosis. To improve the rate of early diagnosis, scarce resources should be allocated to maximize the number of new diagnoses at screening venues where diagnoses are more likely to be early or alter testing strategies at test venues where diagnoses are traditionally made late. Efforts to improve early diagnosis should be coordinated longitudinally on a regional basis according to this conceptual paradigm.

  5. A new Brief computerized cognitive screening battery (CompCogs for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Charchat Fichman

    Full Text Available Abstract Screening tests for early diagnosis of dementia are of great clinical relevance. The ideal test set must be brief and reliable, and should probe cognitive components impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objectives: To develop a new Computerized Cognitive Screening test (CompCogs, and to investigate its validity for the early diagnosis of AD, and evaluate its heuristic value in understanding the processing of information in AD. Methods: The computerized neuropsychological performance battery, originally including six tests, was applied in forty seven patients with probable mild AD and 97 controls matched for age and education. This computerized neuropsychological test battery, developed with MEL Professional, allows control of timing and order of stimuli presentation, as well as recording of response type and latency. A brief-screening version, CompCogs, was selected using the most discriminative neuropsychological test variables derived from logistic regression analysis. Full battery administration lasted about 40 minutes, while the CompCogs took only 15 minutes. Results: CompCogs included the Face test (correct response and Word and Forms with Short term memory tests (reaction time. CompCogs presented 91.8% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity for the diagnosis of AD using ROC analyses of AD diagnosis probability derived by logistic regression. Conclusions: CompCogs showed high validity for AD early diagnosis and, therefore, may be a useful alternative screening instrument.

  6. Early diagnosis of dementia based on intersubject whole-brain dissimilarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, S.; Loog, M.; Lijn, F. van der;

    2010-01-01

    . A kNN classifier was trained on the dissimilarity matrix and the performance was tested in a leave-one-out experiment. A classification accuracy of 81% was attained (spec. 83%, sens. 79%). This demonstrates the potential of whole-brain intersubject dissimilarities to aid in early diagnosis of dementia....

  7. A Case Report of Probable Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: How to Approach Early Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bowei; Morales Mangual, Carlos; Mahmud, Iftekhar; Tongo, Nosakhare D; Mararenko, Larisa; Kay, Arthur

    2017-05-30

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare and fatal spongiform encephalopathy characterized by rapidly progressive dementia and myoclonus. The rarity of this disease and varied initial symptoms make the early diagnosis fairly challenging. Here, we present a case initially admitted for confusion and bizarre behaviors. She had acute deterioration of mental status, akinetic mutism, and myoclonus jerks four weeks later. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was positive for protein 14-3-3. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintensities in the bilateral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalami in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed bihemispheric periodic lateralizing epileptiform discharges. The probable diagnosis of sCJD was reached based on the clinical features, characteristic findings in her MRI, the EEG, and a positive 14-3-3 CSF assay. The literature was also reviewed for early diagnosis of sCJD.

  8. Chinese consensus on early diagnosis of primary lung cancer (2014 version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China have rapidly increased. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China, possibly because of the inadequate early diagnosis of lung cancer. Reaching a consensus on early diagnostic strategies for lung cancer in China is an unmet needed. Recently, much progress has been made in lung cancer diagnosis, such as screening in high-risk populations, the application of novel imaging technologies, and the use of minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis. However, systemic reviews of disease history, risk assessment, and patients' willingness to undergo invasive diagnostic procedures also need to be considered. A diagnostic strategy for lung cancer should be proposed and developed by a multidisciplinary group. A comprehensive evaluation of patient factors and clinical findings should be completed before treatment.

  9. New and chronic use of hypnotics after diagnosis with early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine use and investigate factors associated with use of hypnotics the first year after a diagnosis with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective registry based cohort study linking clinical data from the Danish Breast Cancer Group with the National Prescription Drug...... Database and other health and administrative registries. We included 26 082 women diagnosed with early breast cancer as first time primary cancer during 1996-2006. Use of hypnotics was measured as redeemed prescriptions in the first year after diagnosis of early breast cancer. Prior use of hypnotics.......21-1.42)] and use of antidepressants the year before breast cancer diagnosis [HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.85-2.10)]. CONCLUSION: This study detected a group of patients at great risk for initiating and increasing use of hypnotics and preventive and prophylactic mechanism should be investigated and initiated when this group...

  10. [Advancement in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid in molecular diagnosis of sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Ren, Hui; Peng, Dai-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Early diagnosis of sepsis helps make effective clinical decisions and improve the survival rate of patients with severe infection. However, the timely and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is still a great challenge in clinic. In order to settle the very problem, the scientists in the world have made a lot of exploration and research in the field of rapid molecular identification of pathogens. Nowadays, the nucleic acid detection of sepsis is mainly composed of 3 types of methodological strategies, either based on positive blood culture, single colonies, or directly on blood specimens. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid as molecular diagnosis of sepsis.

  11. Current studies of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekara S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available S Chandrashekara ChanRe Rheumatology and Immunology Center and Research, Basaveshwaranagar, Bangalore, India Abstract: Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs will improve the outcome significantly. Early diagnosis of RA continues to be a challenge. The disease needs to be distinguished from other self-limiting arthritis and connective tissue disease. Currently available autoantibodies like rheumatoid factors and anticitrullinated cyclic peptide have limited sensitivity and specificity. RA, being a heterogeneous disease, with no unique or distinct defect that has been described, is less likely to have a single pathognomonic marker. There are defined predisposing genetic factors, cell characteristics, cytokine changes, autoantibodies, and products of disease process that have been demonstrated to distinguish rheumatoid from normal and other arthritis. Studies have demonstrated that combinations of factors allow for more specific RA diagnosis; however, when considerations are given to the factors separately, sensitivity increases at the cost of specificity. The present review briefly describes the value of some of the candidate factors and their combinations as diagnostic markers of early RA. Well-designed multicenter studies to evaluate these combinations using a scoring system are recommended for the development of precise and widely applicable biomarkers for early diagnosis of RA. Keywords: autoantibodies, combination, early RA, specificity

  12. [Mycosis fungoides or inflammatory dermatitis: differential diagnosis between early lymphoma and inflammation in skin biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, I; Klapper, W

    2013-05-01

    Mycosis fungoides is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with protracted clinical course and progression in different stages with increasing aggressiveness. The clinical picture as well as the histopathology of mycosis fungoides within the early patch and plaque phase is difficult to delineate from some inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, the diagnosis of these early stages of the lymphoma is only possible when clinical, histopathological, and molecular features are integrated into the diagnosis, especially as none of the individual disease criteria is specific. Important clues towards the diagnosis of mycosis fungoides are cytologically abnormal epidermotropic CD4-positive T-cells causing only minor epidermal alterations, the formation of Pautrier-abscesses and basal alignment of the epidermotropic T-cells. The findings of an aberrant T-cell immunophenotype of the intraepidermal lymphoid component as well as the molecular proof of T-cell clonality are important further features. In the differential diagnosis between early stage mycosis fungoides and parapsoriasis, there remains nevertheless a diagnostic and maybe also a true biological grey zone.

  13. Promoting early dementia diagnosis: a video designed by patients, for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Nina; Allan, Charlotte L; Cundell, Maureen; Clark, Samuel; Murray, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Early diagnosis of dementia allows people to access effective treatment and make advance decisions while they still have capacity. We aimed to encourage people to attend memory clinic, in order to boost rates of diagnosis. We created a patient information video about Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust Memory Clinics, to inform and empower those awaiting assessment and to promote early diagnosis. Fourteen people (patients, carers, and staff) were approached prior to developing the video to ascertain their views on the themes the video should cover. The video consisted of unscripted interviews with patients, carers, and staff. We surveyed participants and new patients attending memory clinic to get feedback on the video and to assess patients' level of understanding and confidence about a memory assessment before and after watching the video. The video content was refined based on this feedback and a final version was produced. Patient feedback demonstrated that confidence and understanding increased after watching the video. Although this study is limited by its small sample size and lack of access to those with undiagnosed dementia, feedback suggested that the video empowered and reassured those awaiting assessment and could be used as a tool to reduce barriers to early diagnosis. Patients and carers involved in making the video found it a therapeutic activity in itself.

  14. The Potential of Gait Analysis to Contribute to Differential Diagnosis of Early Stage Dementia: Current Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra; Funk, Melanie; Crossley, Margaret; Basran, Jenny; Kirk, Andrew; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal

    2007-01-01

    Early differential diagnosis of dementia is becoming increasingly important as new pharmacologic therapies are developed, as these treatments are not equally effective for all types of dementia. Early detection and differential diagnosis also facilitates informed family decision making and timely access to appropriate services. Information about…

  15. Testing breast cancer serum biomarkers for early detection and prognosis in pre-diagnosis samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Anna; Blyuss, Oleg; Metodieva, Gergana; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Kiseleva, Elena M; Prytomanova, Olga M; Jacobs, Ian J; Widschwendter, Martin; Menon, Usha; Timms, John F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although mammography screening is available, there is an ongoing interest in improved early detection and prognosis. Herein, we have analysed a combination of serological biomarkers in a case–control cohort of sera taken before diagnosis. Methods: This nested case–control study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) used serum samples from 239 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and 239 matched cancer-free controls. Sera were screened by ELISA for 9 candidate markers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations with clinico-pathological features and between case controls in different time groups before diagnosis. Results: Significant associations with clinico-pathological features related to prognosis were found for several candidates (CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1). However, there were no consistent differences between cases and controls for any candidate in the lead up to diagnosis. Whilst combination models outperformed single markers, there was no increase in performance towards diagnosis. Conclusions: This study using unique pre-diagnosis samples shows that CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1 have potential as early prognostic markers and warrant further investigation. However, none of the candidates or combinations would be useful for screening. PMID:28081538

  16. [The method for early diagnosis of the gastric cancer based metabolomics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furina, R R; Ryzhkov, V L; Mitrakova, N N; Koptina, A V; Safiullin, I K; Lychagin, K A; Eroshkin, P R

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the questions of the usage of metabolomics research results in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. The central idea metabolomics is to identify the specific biomarkers in a biological sample used in a diagnostics this disease. The volatile organic compounds--metabolites isolated from the urine samples from patients are considered as biomarkers. The paper also describes main methods of separation and identification of volatile organic compounds (gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) applied in metabolomics. The paper presents some results of laboratory research aimed at the detection of biomarkers of gastric cancer. The presented material will be of some help in solving the problems of early diagnosis of this disease.

  17. Significance of arthrosonography for knee joint damage diagnosis in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Sizova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess significance of arthrosonography in diagnosis of in knee joint changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 44 patients with early RA aged 19 to 73 years were examined. 29,5% of pts had early RA without primary osteoarthritis (OA, 70,5% had early RA with primary OA. Ultrasonography of knee joints was performed with Diasonics (USA, 1997 by the linear sensor with frequency of 7 MHz. The protocol of ultrasonic examination of knee joints was filled for each pt. Results. Clinical signs of of knee joint synovitis have been revealed in 61,5% of pts with early RA without primary OA, and in 80,6% of pts with early RA with primary OA, ultrasonic - in 100% of pts. Intraarticular knee joint effusion resulted in increase of suprapatellar bursa and lateral recesses size. Extraarticular inflammation was frequently shown by thickening of semymemranous muscles tendons, especially in pts with the early RA with primary OA (p<0,005. Degenerative changes in the group of pts with primary OA were more expressed in early RA and usually accompanied by non-uniform decrease of cartilage thickness and occurrence of osteophytes while cartilage in pts with early RA without primary OA had normal thickness or thickening because of swelling, and osteophytes were absent. Conclusion. Prevalence of knee joint intraarticular and extraarticular inflammatory changes over degenerate changes (symmetric thickening of the synovium, primary increase of the sizes of suprapatellar bursa and lateral recesses because of effusion, thickening of tendons of knee joints at the normal or increased thickness of cartilage because of inflammation can be considered sonographic sign of early RA. In pts with early RA coincided with primary OA these changes were usually found in combination with non-uniform decrease of cartilage thickness. In case of cartilage inflammatory edema, detection of osteophytes allows to confirm presence of OA in pts with

  18. Do diagnosis delays impact receipt of test results? Evidence from the HIV early infant diagnosis program in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Latigo Mugambi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is scant evidence on the association between diagnosis delays and the receipt of test results in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID programs. We determine the association between diagnosis delays and other health care system and patient factors on result receipt. METHODS: We reviewed 703 infant HIV test records for tests performed between January 2008 and February 2009 at a regional referral hospital and level four health center in Uganda. The main outcome was caregiver receipt of the test result. The primary study variable was turnaround time (time between sample collection and result availability at the health facility. Additional variables included clinic entry point, infant age at sample collection, reported HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted a pooled analysis in addition to separate analyses for each facility. We estimated the relative risk of result receipt using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. RESULTS: Overall, the median result turnaround time, was 38 days. 59% of caregivers received infant test results. Caregivers were less likely to receive results at turnaround times greater than 49 days compared to 28 days or fewer (ARR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98. Caregivers were more likely to receive results at the PMTCT clinic (ARR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.40-2.33 and less likely at the pediatric ward (ARR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37-0.81 compared to the immunization clinic. At the level four health center, result receipt was half as likely among infants older than 9 months compared to 3 months and younger (ARR= 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25-0.93. CONCLUSION: In this study setting, we find evidence that longer turnaround times, clinic entry point and age at sample collection may be associated with receipt of infant HIV test results.

  19. {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography in the early diagnosis of enterocolitis: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresnik, E.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Igerc, I.; Kumnig, G.; Gomez, I.; Lind, P. [Nuclear Medicine and Special Endocrinology, PET Centre, General Hospital, St. Veiterstrasse 47, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria); Mikosch, P.; Alberer, D.; Hebenstreit, A. [Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, General Hospital, Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Department of Pathology, General Hospital, Klagenfurt (Austria); Kogler, D.; Gasser, J. [Department of Radiology, General Hospital, Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    Collagenous and eosinophilic colitis are rare diseases characterised by chronic watery diarrhoea. Radiographic evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract and colonoscopy are usually non-diagnostic since as many as one-third of patients will have minor abnormalities. To date a few investigators have reported increased fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with acute enterocolitis, but there have been no reports on the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET for the diagnosis of collagenous or eosinophilic colitis in an early clinical stage. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the early diagnosis of patients with colitis. We investigated five women (mean age 61.2{+-}12.1 years) who had been diagnosed as having colitis in an early clinical stage. In all but one of the patients, the diagnosis of colitis was based on biopsy. Magnetic resonance colonography, ultrasonography and colonoscopy were performed in all but one of the patients. Two women were identified as having collagenous colitis in an early clinical stage. Another two patients had eosinophilic colitis. The morphological imaging methods, magnetic resonance colonography and ultrasonography, yielded no suspicious findings, and the results of colonoscopy similarly showed no abnormalities. One patient had colitis due to bacterial infection. In all patients {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed a pathological increase in tracer uptake in the large bowel, suggestive of colitis. In four of the five patients, colitis was confirmed by histology, and in one, by bacterial analysis. {sup 18}F-FDG PET was able to detect colitis in an early clinical stage, when morphological imaging methods and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic. The early performance of {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging in patients with possible colitis is encouraging. (orig.)

  20. [Bioethical reflections on ill-considered care due to an early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxó, M Jesús; Casado, María

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease raises important bioethical issues. In the interval between early disease detection and symptom onset, there is a time in which the patient's autonomy, privacy, and dignity may be undermined by certain healthcare measures or by family care and support. These measures may eventually turn patients into an object of care, preventing them from accepting the disease, developing an identity, and rearranging their living spaces. Every effort should be made to ensure that care does not become compassionate harassment or an invasive act, annulling the patient's autonomy, identity, and self-determination.

  1. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshua Shapira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  2. Early diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: video-EEG monitoring and biochemical and genetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville, Dorothée; Ginguene, Carole; Marignier, Stéphanie; des Portes, Vincent; de Bellescize, Jullita

    2013-11-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease. A delay of treatment may affect outcome and early initiation of pyridoxine based on effective diagnosis is crucial to ensure good cognitive outcome in neonates. A consensus for the diagnosis of PDE is based on refractive seizures and responsiveness to pyridoxine, however, a growing body of evidence suggests that additional elements should be considered which include biochemical data, genetic screening, and EEG monitoring. We present a case study of a neonate with PDE, who presented with misleading clinical presentation and a novel mutation in the antiquitin (ALDH7A1) gene (A294V), and highlight important aspects in order to consider the definition of diagnosis and management of PDE in the light of more recent data.

  3. Endoluminal Diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer and Its Precursors: Bridging the Gap Between Endoscopy and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi

    Although dye-based and image-enhanced endoscopic techniques have revolutionized endoscopic diagnosis, conventional white light endoscopy still plays an important role in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC) during routine endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy reveals morphological characteristics of the mucosal lesions by enhancing mucosal contrast, while narrow-band imaging (NBI) facilitates detailed evaluation of the vascular architecture and surface features. Positive diagnostic findings of EGC on white light imaging and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy are a sharply demarcated lesion and irregularity in surface morphology or color. Magnifying NBI further improves diagnostic accuracy of white light imaging and chromoendoscopy. We review our approach to the endoscopic diagnosis of (pre-)malignant lesions in the stomach and discuss in detail novel endoscopic microvascular architectural patterns which further leverage diagnostic biopsy yield. We expect that further improvement of endoscopic techniques and correlative studies will close the gap between endoscopy and pathology.

  4. Basal cell carcinoma with halo phenomenon in a young female: Significance of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yuksel Basak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo phenomenon of nevus may be observed as a circular reaction, although it is unusual around tumors. A 29-year-old woman presented with a pigmented lesion on the cheek since three years. She noted whitening of the skin around the lesion almost after a year following its appearance. Dermatologic examination revealed a pigmented nodular lesion with a hypopigmented halo on the left infraorbital region. The clinical impression was halo nevus, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC was considered in dermatoscopic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis was infiltrative-type BCC histopathologically. The persistence of a perilesional halo around an enlarging pigmented lesion should be carefully examined with accompanying dermatoscopic findings even in young patients for early diagnosis of tumoral lesions.

  5. MRI Manifestation and Early Diagnosis of Bone Infarct: A Rare Complication of Steroid Therapy for Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UC Parashari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyse the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI manifestation of bone infarction and explore the value of such imaging in early diagnosis. In bone infarction, aseptic osteonecrosis occurs in the metaphysis and diaphysis of long bones. The “Double line” sign in MRI is most characteristic of this lesion and is seen as high signal intensity in the inner zone along with lowsignal-intensity line in the outer zone in a T2 weighted image. In clinically suspected patients, MRI can be used for early diagnosis. Here we describe a case of pemphigus resulting from steroid therapy leading to development of bone infarction in the metadiaphyseal region of the femur and tibia.

  6. Early Diagnosis of Cutaneous Mucormycosis Due to Lichtheimia corymbifera After a Traffic Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyll, Tomas; Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Muller, Martin; Zelenka, Lubomir; Curdova, Martina; Tuckova, Inna; Kolarik, Miroslav; Hamal, Petr

    2016-02-01

    A case report of cutaneous mucormycosis and obstacles to early diagnosis is presented. A 38-year-old male was involved in a car accident that led to amputation of both lower limbs. Subsequently, he developed fungal wound infection of the left lower limb stump. The infection was detected very early, although the diagnosis was difficult because only a small area was affected and histopathological examination was initially negative. The infection was proven by microscopy, culture and histopathology. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region gene (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA) as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Liposomal amphotericin B and surgery were successful in management of the disease.

  7. Does adenosine deaminase activity play a role in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.

  8. The value of serum creatine kinase in early diagnosis of heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Andrew L; Williams, Joan; Patrick, Lornette; Banovac, Kresimir

    2003-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a complication of spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by formation of ectopic bone. Early diagnosis is critical, but available diagnostic methods have drawbacks. Serum creatine kinase may be a marker for the development and severity of HO. 18 SCI patients with diagnosed HO based on clinical findings and bone scintigraphy. Serum creatine kinase levels were taken at the time of diagnosis of HO and during subsequent etidronate therapy. Of the 14 patients with normal creatine kinase values, 13 had no evidence of HO on follow-up radiographic examination. Of the 4 patients with elevated creatine kinase, all developed radiographic signs of HO. Elevated serum creatine kinase may be associated with a more aggressive course of HO as well as resistance to etidronate therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether creatine kinase may serve as a marker for early, active HO.

  9. Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    -economic as well as the animal welfare consequences of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF), early diagnosis is essential. However, host-virus interactions strongly influence the course of CSF disease, and the clinical feature is not clear, thus complicating the diagnostic perspective. At the National......Comparison of clinical and paraclinical parameters as tools for early diagnosis of classical swine fever. Louise Lohse, Åse Uttenthal, Jens Nielsen. National Veterinary Institute, Division of Virology, Lindholm, Technical University of Denmark. Introduction: In order to limit the far-reaching socio...... demonstrated that it remains a particular challenge to provide a competent diagnostic tool box for low virulent strains of CSFV, e.g. CSFV-Glentorf. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank the EU Reference laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, TIHO, Hannover, for kindly supplying the CSFV-Romania, the CSFV...

  10. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer.

  11. Palatal radicular groove: Clinical implications of early diagnosis and surgical sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Corrêa-Faria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal radicular groove is a discreet alteration in tooth morphology, characterized by an invagination that begins near the cingulum of the tooth and moves in an apical direction. Clinically, palatal radicular groove may be associated with periodontal and/or endodontic problems. This paper describes a clinical case of a young patient with palatal radicular groove with no signs of periodontal disease or endodontic impairment. An early diagnosis was made and treatment consisted of surgical sealing of the defect. After a 2-year period, reexaminations demonstrated adequate hygiene, maintenance of tooth vitality and periodontal health. The early diagnosis and sealing of the groove observed surgically made the root surface smooth, avoiding subgingival bacterial plaque buildup, and preventing possible periodontal and/or pulp impairment stemming from the defect.

  12. Early Diagnosis of Rare Diseases with a Focus on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaguro, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Health outcomes for rare diseases can be greatly affected by timely diagnosis.This paper presents a narrative review of current literature on rare diseases, with a focuson Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH), to identify needs for early diagnosisinitiatives. The review assessed: what needs to be done, what is currently being done,and what are the approaches or change theories that underlie these initiatives.Literature from online key-word searches included academic articles pertaining todia...

  13. A Case Report of Probable Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: How to Approach Early Diagnosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Bowei; Morales Mangual, Carlos; Mahmud, Iftekhar; Tongo, Nosakhare D; Mararenko, Larisa; Kay, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare and fatal spongiform encephalopathy characterized by rapidly progressive dementia and myoclonus. The rarity of this disease and varied initial symptoms make the early diagnosis fairly challenging. Here, we present?a case initially admitted for confusion and bizarre behaviors. She had acute deterioration of mental status, akinetic mutism, and myoclonus jerks four weeks later. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was positive for protein 14-3-3....

  14. ORGANIZATION OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF ONCOUROLOGICAL DISEASES IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zhuravlev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of this paper is on the organization of specialized urological treatment, by taking into account the Governor's program “Male urological health” in the Sverdlovsk Region. It also shows the great importance of financial support for early diagnosis, timely effective treatment, clinical examination, and better quality of life in the male population of the Sverdlovsk Region. 

  15. Early diagnosis of complex diseases by molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and dynamical network biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Xiangdong; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have been carried out for early diagnosis of complex diseases by finding accurate and robust biomarkers specific to respective diseases. In particular, recent rapid advance of high-throughput technologies provides unprecedented rich information to characterize various disease genotypes and phenotypes in a global and also dynamical manner, which significantly accelerates the study of biomarkers from both theoretical and clinical perspectives. Traditionally, molecular biomarkers that distinguish disease samples from normal samples are widely adopted in clinical practices due to their ease of data measurement. However, many of them suffer from low coverage and high false-positive rates or high false-negative rates, which seriously limit their further clinical applications. To overcome those difficulties, network biomarkers (or module biomarkers) attract much attention and also achieve better performance because a network (or subnetwork) is considered to be a more robust form to characterize diseases than individual molecules. But, both molecular biomarkers and network biomarkers mainly distinguish disease samples from normal samples, and they generally cannot ensure to identify predisease samples due to their static nature, thereby lacking ability to early diagnosis. Based on nonlinear dynamical theory and complex network theory, a new concept of dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs, or a dynamical network of biomarkers) has been developed, which is different from traditional static approaches, and the DNB is able to distinguish a predisease state from normal and disease states by even a small number of samples, and therefore has great potential to achieve "real" early diagnosis of complex diseases. In this paper, we comprehensively review the recent advances and developments on molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and DNBs in particular, focusing on the biomarkers for early diagnosis of complex diseases considering a small number of samples and high

  16. Low dopamine function in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: should genotyping signify early diagnosis in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Mark S; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor selfesteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with ≥ 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches.

  17. High-frequency audiometry: a means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Amir H; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed J; Ghoreyshi, Abbas; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Loukzadeh, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence of hearing loss in conventional and high frequencies of audiometry among textile workers divided into two groups: With and without exposure to noise more than 85 dB. The highest hearing threshold was observed at 4000 Hz, 6000 Hz and 16000 Hz in conventional right ear audiometry, conventional left ear audiometry and HFA in each ear, respectively. The hearing threshold was significantly higher at 16000 Hz compared to 4000. Hearing loss was more common in HFA than conventional audiometry. HFA is more sensitive to detect NIHL than conventional audiometry. It can be useful for early diagnosis of hearing sensitivity to noise, and thus preventing hearing loss in lower frequencies especially speech frequencies.

  18. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  19. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  20. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  1. Improving outcomes in patients with melanoma: strategies to ensure an early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss RK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rachel K Voss,1 Tessa N Woods,1 Kate D Cromwell,1 Kelly C Nelson,2 Janice N Cormier1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Patients with thin, low-risk melanomas have an excellent long-term prognosis and higher quality of life than those who are diagnosed at later stages. From an economic standpoint, treatment of early stage melanoma consumes a fraction of the health care resources needed to treat advanced disease. Consequently, early diagnosis of melanoma is in the best interest of patients, payers, and health care systems. This review describes strategies to ensure that patients receive an early diagnosis through interventions ranging from better utilization of primary care clinics, to in vivo diagnostic technologies, to new “apps” available in the market. Strategies for screening those at high risk due to age, male sex, skin type, nevi, genetic mutations, or family history are discussed. Despite progress in identifying those at high risk for melanoma, there remains a lack of general consensus worldwide for best screening practices. Strategies to ensure early diagnosis of recurrent disease in those with a prior melanoma diagnosis are also reviewed. Variations in recurrence surveillance practices by type of provider and country are featured, with evidence demonstrating that various imaging studies, including ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, provide only minimal gains in life expectancy, even for those with more advanced (stage III disease. Because the majority of melanomas are attributable to ultraviolet radiation in the form of sunlight, primary prevention strategies, including sunscreen use and behavioral interventions, are reviewed. Recent international government regulation of tanning beds is described, as well as issues surrounding the continued use artificial ultraviolet

  2. Recognition of Immune Response for the Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrese M. Kandahari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a common and debilitating joint disease that affects up to 30 million Americans, leading to significant disability, reduction in quality of life, and costing the United States tens of billions of dollars annually. Classically, osteoarthritis has been characterized as a degenerative, wear-and-tear disease, but recent research has identified it as an immunopathological disease on a spectrum between healthy condition and rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic literature review demonstrates that the disease pathogenesis is driven by an early innate immune response which progressively catalyzes degenerative changes that ultimately lead to an altered joint microenvironment. It is feasible to detect this infiltration of cells in the early, and presumably asymptomatic, phase of the disease through noninvasive imaging techniques. This screening can serve to aid clinicians in potentially identifying high-risk patients, hopefully leading to early effective management, vast improvements in quality of life, and significant reductions in disability, morbidity, and cost related to osteoarthritis. Although the diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis routinely utilize both invasive and non-invasive strategies, imaging techniques specific to inflammatory cells are not commonly employed for these purposes. This review discusses this paradigm and aims to shift the focus of future osteoarthritis-related research towards early diagnosis of the disease process.

  3. A systematic review of barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as

  4. [Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early adhesive small bowel obstruction after gynecological surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, M E; Breusenko, V G; Shapoval'iants, S G; Fedorov, E D; Larichev, S E; Kretsu, V N

    2015-01-01

    It is presented the results of diagnostic and curative laparoscopic interventions in 33 patients with acute early adhesive small bowel obstruction. Ileus developed after surgical treatment (laparotomy) of different gynecological diseases. Laparoscopy appeared as the most informative diagnostic method to confirm diagnosis in all patients, to estimate state of abdominal cavity and small pelvis organs what can help to determine method of surgical treatment. Contraindications for laparoscopic surgery were identified in 12 (36.4%) patients and conversion to laparotomy was applied in this group. Postoperative complications were diagnosed in 1 (8.3%) patient. 2 (16.6%) patients died. Early adhesive ileus was resolved laparoscopically in 21 (63.6%) of 33 patients. Recurrent acute early adhesive ileus was detected in 1 (4.7%) patient.

  5. Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score for early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Vignesh; Ooi, Geraldine; Weidlich, Stephanie; Carson, Phillip

    2017-03-15

    Soft tissue infections are a major health burden in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is associated with mortality rates from 8 to 40%. Early recognition and aggressive surgical debridement are the cornerstones of successful treatment. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score, developed by Wong et al., uses six routine biochemical variables to aid early diagnosis. We aim to assess the diagnostic efficacy of the LRINEC score in our population. A retrospective review of patients with NF between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. A time matched cohort of abscesses/cellulitis was selected. Admission bloods were used to calculate the LRINEC score. An intraoperative finding of NF was used as the gold standard definition for comparison. The diagnostic accuracy of the LRINEC score was assessed. Ninety-eight patients with NF and 205 control patients were identified. The area under the receiver operator curve for the LRINEC score in detecting NF was 0.925 (0.890-0.959, P < 0.001). The sensitivity of the LRINEC ≥5 for NF was 76.3%, with a specificity of 93.1%. The positive and negative predictive values were 95.5 and 88.1%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 11 and 0.25. The LRINEC score is a useful, robust, non-invasive and easily calculated scoring system that can be used as an adjunct to early diagnosis of NF. However, a high degree of clinical suspicion remains the most important factor in early diagnosis of NF. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence as a method of early caries diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Wiewior, Piotr

    2001-07-01

    Use of lasers in dentistry dates back 20 years but is still not fully exploited, especially when concerning the hard dental tissues. Over the past many efforts and actions have been involved in testing and developing new methods for caries diagnosis. The implementation of these methods in general dental practice is unfortunately still limited because too little scientific evidence exists to support them. One of the age-old concerns for dentists is that decay is often discovered too late. Dentists commonly use x-ray imaging for early caries detection, but this method cannot reveal decay at a sufficiently early stage to avoid restorative methods. Generally, if a caries lesion si detected by x-ray, the mineral loss within the tooth is normally very high and will need invasive treatment. Several laser based techniques, as also other optical methods of detecting caries lesions at an early stage seem to be very promising. Fluorescence of tooth structure is observed when hard tissues are illuminated using laser light. Decayed areas appear dark and provide a contrast against the healthy background surrounding them, so discriminating sound and carious tissues. The aim of this study was to present the possibilities of using laser induced fluorescence in the diagnosis of early caries lesions. The current state-of-the-art is presented, as well as results of our investigations. In our studies an argon ion laser was used to illuminate the teeth and the fluorescence pictures were captured with a CCD camera and then analyzed. Results confirmed that laser induced fluorescence can be used as a sensitive method of caries diagnosis.

  7. Clinical prediction and diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients with early Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaresq, Jeannot; Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S W; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS.

  8. Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome – the markers for an early HSES diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaichi Toshinori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES is a devastating disease that affects young children. The outcomes of HSES patients are often fatal or manifesting severe neurological sequelae. We reviewed the markers for an early diagnosis of HSES. Methods We examined the clinical, biological and radiological findings of 8 patients (4 months to 9 years old who met the HSES criteria. Results Although cerebral edema, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC, and multiple organ failure were seen in all 8 cases during their clinical courses, brain computed tomography (CT scans showed normal or only slight edema in 5 patients upon admission. All 8 patients had normal platelet counts, and none were in shock. However, they all had severe metabolic acidosis, which persisted even after 3 hours (median base excess (BE, -7.6 mmol/L. And at 6 hours after admission (BE, -5.7 mmol/L they required mechanical ventilation. Within 12 hours after admission, fluid resuscitation and vasopressor infusion for hypotension was required. Seven of the patients had elevated liver enzymes and creatine kinase (CK upon admission. Twenty-four hours after admission, all 8 patients needed vasopressor infusion to maintain blood pressure. Conclusion CT scan, platelet count, hemoglobin level and renal function upon admission are not useful for an early diagnosis of HSES. However, the elevated liver enzymes and CK upon admission, hypotension in the early stage after admission with refractory acid-base disturbance to fluid resuscitation and vasopressor infusion are useful markers for an early HSES diagnosis and helpful to indicate starting intensive neurological treatment.

  9. [Application evaluation of multi-parametric MRI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer and prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Huang, Y; Li, Y; Cai, L; Ji, G H; Zheng, Y; Chen, Z Q

    2016-10-11

    Objective: To evaluate the value of multi-parametric MRI (Mp-MRI) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer(PCa) in the peripheral zone(PZ) and low T2WI signal intensity of prostatitis. Methods: A total of 40 patients with PZ early PCa and 37 with prostatitis of hypointense T2WI signal in PZ were retrospectively analyzed, which were collected from the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from Janurary 2009 to June 2015, who underwent T2WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI examination and all patients were confirmed by pathology. All the data was transferred to GE Advanced Workstation AW4.3, the indexes divided into cancerous and prostatitis regions were calculated by Functool2 of signal intensity-time(SI-T) curve and ADC value, to calcuate the time to minimum(Tmax), the whole enhancment degree (SImax). ROC cure was used to determine the cutoff value for PCa detection with the ADC value. Result: On T2WI, 57.5% of PCa (23/40) showed focal nodular homogeneous low signal intensity, 70.3% of prostatitis(26/37) showed diffuse inhomogeneous low signal intensity. DCE-MRI, the distribution of curve types for malignant tumors was type Ⅰ 2.5%(1/40), typeⅡ32.5%(13/40) and type Ⅲ 65.0% (26/40). While the numbers for prostatitis was type Ⅰ 16.2%(6/37) , type Ⅱ 56.8% (21/37) and type Ⅲ 27.0% (10/37)respectively.The patterns of curve types in malignant lesions were different from benign lesions significantly(χ(2) =12.32, P<0.01). The mean values of Tmax, SImax in cancerous and prostatitis regions were (17.96±2.91)s, 1.76%±0.23% and (21.19±3.59)s, 1.53%±0.18%, respectively (t=5.37, 6.10; P<0.01). On DWI, The mean ADC values in cancerous and prostatitis regions were (0.95±0.13)×10(-3) mm(2)/s and (1.12±0.13)×10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively (t=7.10, P<0.01). According to the ROC analysis, when the cutoff value was 1.01×10(-3) mm(2)/s, the early PCa of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was 79.1%, 72.7% and 76.1% respectively

  10. Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liu-ye; CUI Jun; WU Cheng-rong; LIU Yun-xiang; XU Ning

    2009-01-01

    Background In the recent years,the incidence of esophageal cancer in China has increased.The key point for raising the survival rate is the diagnosis and treatment at an early stage.Narrow-band imaging (NBI) can enhance the contrast of the mucous membrane of the esophagus without staining.This study aimed to explore the value of NBI in the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.Methods The esophagus was examined with ordinary endoscopy and NBI endoscopy.Pit patterns and blood capillary forms were examined with routine magnifying endoscopy and NBI endoscopy.Finally,a 1.2% Lugoul's iodine solution was used to stain the esophageal mucosal surface and a biopsy was taken at all the sites where NBI or iodine staining was positive.NBI and iodine staining scales were compared with pathologic diagnosis,which was considered as the gold standard.Results A total of 90 cases (138 lesions in total) were diagnosed as early esophageal cancer or precancerous lesions:104 lesions (75.4%) were detected with ordinary endoscopy,120 lesions (87.0%) were detected with NBI endoscopy,and 138 lesions (100%) were detected with iodine staining.The lesion detection rate of NBI was significantly lower than that of iodine staining (X2=17.176,P <0.01).However,there was no significant difference between NBI and iodine staining for the diagnosis of high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (X2=1.362,P >0.05),while the detection rate of NBI was significantly lower than that of iodine staining for the diagnosis of low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (X2=13.388,P <0.01).The pit pattern and blood capillary form of eady esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions could be demonstrated clearer with NBI than with ordinary endoscopy.Conclusions NBI can enhance the contrast of the mucous membrane of the esophagus without staining.The combination of NBI and iodine staining can raise the diagnostic rate of early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.

  11. Early diagnosis of typhoid fever by nested PCR for flagellin gene of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Harish, B N; Menezes, G A; Acharya, N S; Parija, S C

    2012-11-01

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi continues to be a major health problem in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Inability to make an early laboratory diagnosis and resort to empirical therapy, often lead to increased morbidity and mortality in cases of typhoid fever. This study was aimed to optimize a nested PCR for early diagnosis of typhoid fever and using it as a diagnostic tool in culture negative cases of suspected typhoid fever. Eighty patients with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and 40 controls were included in the study. The blood samples collected were subjected to culture, Widal and nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene of S. Typhi. The sensitivity of PCR on blood was found to be 100 per cent whereas the specificity was 76.9 per cent. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR was calculated to be 76.9 per cent with an accuracy of 86 per cent. None of the 40 control samples gave a positive PCR. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity nested PCR can be used as a useful tool to diagnose clinically suspected, culture negative cases of typhoid fever.

  12. Neglected evidence in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Cottin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, some facts or concepts based on substantial evidence, whilst implicit for learned subspecialists, have previously been neglected and/or not explicitly formulated or made accessible to a wider audience. IPF is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is predominantly a disease of ageing. However, its cause(s remain elusive and, thus, it is one of the most challenging diseases for the development of novel effective and safe therapies. With the approval of pirfenidone for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF, an earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for earlier treatment and, potentially, improvement of the long-term clinical outcome of this progressive and ultimately fatal disease. An earlier diagnosis may be achieved in IPF by promoting thin-slice chest high-resolution computed tomography screening of interstitial lung disease as a “by-product” of large-scale lung cancer screening strategies in smokers, but other techniques, which have been neglected in the past, are now available. Lung auscultation and early identification of “velcro” crackles has been proposed as a key component of early diagnosis of IPF. An ongoing study is exploring correlations between lung sounds on auscultation obtained using electronic stethoscopes and high-resolution computed tomography patterns.

  13. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Shavit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods: We performed literature investigation through MEDLINE (PubMed electronic database and manual search through dental journals to find articles concerning inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement. The search was restricted to English language articles published during the last 10 years, from December 2004 to March 2014. Results: In total, we found 33 articles related to the topic, of which 27 were excluded due to incompatibility with established inclusion criteria. Six articles were eventually chosen to be suitable. The studies presented diagnostic methods of inferior alveolar nerve sensory deficit, and we carried out an assessment of the proportion of patients diagnosed within different time intervals from the time the injury occurred. Conclusions: Various diagnostic methods have been developed throughout the years for dealing with 1 quite frequent complication in the implantology field - inferior alveolar nerve injury. Concurrently, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment was proved repeatedly. According to the results of the data analysis, a relatively high percentage of the practitioners successfully accomplished this target and achieved good treatment outcomes.

  14. Early diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, M; Gudat, F; Dalquen, P; Huser, B; Thiel, G; Fujimoto, N; Ichikawa, Y; Fukunishi, T; Nagano, S; Mihatsch, M J

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2000 urine samples from 53 kidney transplant recipients were studied to develop a routine method for the early diagnosis of rejection and cyclosporin (CSA) nephrotoxicity in urine. New-Sternheimer staining and an immunocytochemical technique were used together with classical Papanicolaou staining to differentiate cells in the urine. After cell count and differentiation of second morning urine samples with New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou stains, immunocytochemistry was performed using antibodies against the following antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD71 (transferrin receptor), HLA-DR and cytokeratin (Lu-5). Cell counts were obtained for the positively-reacting cells per millilitre of urine. By New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining, CSA nephrotoxicity was characterized by the predominance of proximal tubular cells. During rejection episodes, increased numbers of mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells were found. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a significant increase in CD2-, CD4-, CD8-, CD25-, CD71-, and HLA-DR-positive epithelial cells and in the ratio HLA-DR/cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells in rejection. CD25-positive cells had the highest sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of rejection. Our urine cytology technique proved to be a useful and non-invasive method for the early diagnosis of rejection and CSA nephrotoxicity.

  15. Early diagnosis of rheumatic diseases: an evaluation of the present situation and proposed changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Maślińska, Maria; Gryglewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a very common complaint, affecting 30-40% of the European population. It is estimated that approximately 400,000 Poles suffer from inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, and a vast majority of those affected are working-age individuals. Patients with suspected arthritis require prompt diagnosis and treatment, as any delays may result in irreversible joint destruction and disability. Currently in Poland, the lag time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis is, on average, as much as 35 weeks. In this paper, we review the current state of specialist rheumatology care in Poland and propose a reorganised care model that includes early diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis. The main goal we wish to achieve with our reorganised model is to enhance access to outpatient specialist rheumatology care for patients with suspected arthritis. We believe that our model should make it possible to considerably reduce the lag time between GP referral and the diagnosis and treatment by a rheumatologist to as little as 3 to 4 weeks. This article provides a proposal of changes that would achieve this goal and is a summary of the report published by the Institute of Rheumatology in September 2014.

  16. Desirability of early identification of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): parent’s experiences of the period prior to diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, R.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Vroom, E.; Westerman, M.J.; Plass, A.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), X-linked recessively inherited, is the most common progressive muscular disorder in children. Early diagnosis could offer opportunities for timely initiation of treatment possibilities, genetic counselling, and prevent a long diagnostic quest. Despite the

  17. Desirability of early identification of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): parent’s experiences of the period prior to diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, R.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Vroom, E.; Westerman, M.J.; Plass, A.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), X-linked recessively inherited, is the most common progressive muscular disorder in children. Early diagnosis could offer opportunities for timely initiation of treatment possibilities, genetic counselling, and prevent a long diagnostic quest. Despite the availabil

  18. A magnetic-field enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy strategy towards the early diagnosis of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2012-03-01

    Early malaria diagnosis is important because malaria disease can develop into fatal illness within hours upon the appearance of the first symptom. The low concentration of the diagnosis biomarker, hemozoin, at the early stage of malaria disease makes early diagnosis difficult. In this paper, we present a magnetic field-enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) strategy for the sensitive detection of β - hematin crystals, which is equivalent to hemozoin in the characteristics of Raman spectrum, by using magnetic nanoparticles. We observe several orders of magnitude enhancement in the SERRS signal of enriched β - hematin in comparison to the Raman signal of β - hematin in the cases of SERRS alone or magnetic enrichment alone, showing the great potential of this method towards early malaria diagnosis.

  19. The Role of Pancreatic Stone Protein in Diagnosis of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. Rass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal sepsis may help decrease neonatal mortality. Aim of the Study. To evaluate the role of pancreatic stone protein as a marker for early onset neonatal sepsis. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study was conducted on 104 (52 uninfected and 52 infected neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of Zagazig University hospitals during the period from April 2014 to April 2015. All newborns were subjected to full history taking, careful neonatal assessment, blood, C-reactive protein (CRP, and serum pancreatic stone protein. Results. Serum PSP levels were significantly higher in the infected group than in the uninfected group. At a cutoff level of PSP 12.96 ng/mL, the sensitivity was 96.2%, the specificity was 88.5%, positive predictive value was 95.8%, negative predictive value was 89.3%, and area under the curve was 0.87. A significant positive correlation between CRP and PSP was found in infected group. Conclusion. The high negative predictive value of PSP (89.3% indicates that the serum PSP level is a good marker for diagnosis of early onset neonatal sepsis and can be used to limit hospital stay and antibiotic use in neonates treated for suspected sepsis.

  20. Humphrey visual field and frequency doubling perimetry in the diagnosis of early glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (HVF and Frequency Doubling Perimetry (FDP testing in the diagnosis of early glaucoma. Methods: We performed HVF (24-2 standard full threshold and FDP (N-30 evaluations in 34 consecutive patients with early primary glaucoma and 96 normal subjects. Early glaucoma was defined on the basis of disc changes of glaucoma; the mean deviation on white-on-white perimetry had to be no worse than 6 decibels. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy was defined as a combination of cup-disc asymmetry of more than 0.2, notching, excavation, thinning or pallor of superior or inferior neuroretinal rims, retinal nerve fibre layer defects of the wedge or diffuse type and neuroretinal rim haemorrhage. Both the glaucoma patients and normal subjects had vision better than 6/9 with correction. They had no media opacities other than early nuclear sclerosis and no fundus pathology. Further, normal subjects were free of systemic diseases known to affect the retina or optic nerve, The sensitivity and specificity of HVF and FDP were calculated. Results: There were 44 eligible eyes among the 34 subjects. The glaucomatous disc findings included notch (n=8, pallor (n=21, thinning (n=23 and haemorrhage (n=1 of the neuroretinal rim. The sensitivity and the specificity of the HVF were 52.3% and 57.3% respectively. The sensitivity and the specificity of FDP were 65.9% and 61.5% respectively. Conclusion: The difference between FDP and HVF in the diagnosis of early glaucoma is not marked.

  1. [Guidelines for the early diagnosis of lung cancer for primary care physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious/medical and social problem. It belongs to the most common cancers. In the past decades, lung cancer has steadily held a leading place in the structure of cancer morbidity and mortality in our country and in the majority of European countries. Cigarette smoking remains to be the major if not only risk factor for lung cancer. Many attempts were previously made to set up systems for the early (timely) lung cancerdetection in risk groups through cytological and radiological examinations. Prophylactic fluorography and X-ray study have long been an important screening procedure in Russia and foreign countries. Recently this procedure has transformed into digital lung radiography. However, there have been no conclusive proofs for its efficiency in the early detection of lung cancer for a few decades. In the past decade, large-scale prospective randomized trials of low-dose computed tomography (CT) have been performed to screen lung cancer. These have shown that this technology can potentially reduce mortality from this disease. This encouraging result has caused a substantial change in the tactics of examining people at high risk for lung cancer. CT has fully replaced linear tomography and all others special X-ray procedures in the verified diagnosis of lung cancer. The indications for pre-examination CT have been considerably expanded in patients with X-ray detected pathology. The tactics for estimating the small lung tissue foci found at CT has been changed. Availability of CT, clear clinical indications for the study, and observance of the standard procedure have become important elements of the entire system for the early identification of lung cancer. These clinical recommendations largely deal just with organizational and methodological issues. The authors hope that the recommendations will serve as a guide for primary care physicians (therapists, pulmonologists,and radiologists) in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and in the optimization

  2. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Keogh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD, laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, optical coherence tomography (OCT and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness.

  3. Multiparameter analysis of biomarkers in the laboratory diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Novikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. 102 patients with early RA (79 women and 23 men; median age 51 years [41 to 62, 25th to 75th percentile]; disease duration 4 months [2.5 to 6.0]; DAS28 5.4 [4.1 to 5.9] were examined. A comparison group consisted of 616 patients including 27 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 15 with Sjö gren’s syndrome, 25 with ankylosing spondyloarthritis; 33 with osteoarthritis, 20 with overlap syndrome, 9, 22, and 168 patients with gouty, psoriatic, and undifferentiated arthritis, respectively; as well as 297 healthy donors matched with the examinees for gender and age. The concentrations of 36 biomarkers were measured by an immunonephelometric method, enzyme immunoassay, and xMAP technology. The values of one variable from others were predicted using a multiple linear regression method (multivariate analysis. Results. The strongest predictors of early RA, such as the concentrations of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, granulo-cyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IFN^-inducible protein, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, were identified and a candidate for MDI was developed for early RA (MIRRA. After thorough validation, MIRRA may be regarded as a precision serological assay for the early diagnosis of RA. Conclusion. The development of MDI having a higher diagnostic precision than routinely used biomarkers is imperative for early RA diagnosis that allows one to initiate active antirheumatic therapy that is able to effectively delay progressive joint injury.

  4. Development of new strategies for early diagnosis of mucormycosis from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas J; Skiada, Anna; Cornely, Oliver A; Roilides, Emmanuel; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Groll, Andreas; Lortholary, Olivier; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Petrikkos, George

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis and initiation of amphotericin B (AmB) for treatment of mucormycosis increases survival from approximately 40% to 80%. The central objective of a new study of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) Zygomycosis Working Group is to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis. The diagnostic tools generated from this study may help to significantly improve survival from mucormycosis worldwide. The study has three major objectives: to conduct a prospective international registration of patients with mucormycosis using a well-established global network of centres; to construct a predictive risk model for patients at risk for mucormycosis; and to establish an international archive of specimens of tissues, fluids, and organisms linked from the patients enrolled into the registry that will be used for development of leading edge molecular, proteomic, metabolic and antigenic systems for mucormycosis.

  5. Toxic scarlet fever complicating cellulitis: early clinical diagnosis is crucial to prevent a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S K; Woo, P C; Yuen, K Y

    2004-04-01

    We describe a case of toxic scarlet fever in a healthy adult with streptococcal cellulitis of the right elbow as a result of skin abrasion. The clinical picture mimicked that of drug eruption after treatment of cellulitis with antibiotics. Among the five cases of scarlet fever complicating cellulitis, including the present one, reported in the English literature, four had severe systemic complications and two died. As a result of re-emergence of invasive streptococcal infections, clinicians should be aware of the differential diagnosis of scarlet fever in patients presenting with cellulitis and skin rash. Early clinical diagnosis is crucial to exclude drug eruptions, prompt initiation of antibiotic treatment, and prevention of the potentially fatal outcome.

  6. Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway Regulated-Circulating microRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0715 TITLE: Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway -Regulated Circulating microRNA PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway - Regulated Circulating microRNA Sb. GRANT NUMBER...panel of diagnostic miRNAs that are measurable in serum and will be able to identify kidney cancer in its earliest stages. We hypothesized that serum

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of early knee osteoarthritis based on MRI T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yixiao; Yang, Ran; Jia, Sen; Li, Zhanjun; Zhou, Zhiyang; Lou, Ting

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the method of computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA (OA: osteoarthritis). Based on the technique of MRI (MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging) T2 Mapping, through computer image processing, feature extraction, calculation and analysis via constructing a classifier, an effective computer-aided diagnosis method for knee OA was created to assist doctors in their accurate, timely and convenient detection of potential risk of OA. In order to evaluate this method, a total of 1380 data from the MRI images of 46 samples of knee joints were collected. These data were then modeled through linear regression on an offline general platform by the use of the ImageJ software, and a map of the physical parameter T2 was reconstructed. After the image processing, the T2 values of ten regions in the WORMS (WORMS: Whole-organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score) areas of the articular cartilage were extracted to be used as the eigenvalues in data mining. Then,a RBF (RBF: Radical Basis Function) network classifier was built to classify and identify the collected data. The classifier exhibited a final identification accuracy of 75%, indicating a good result of assisting diagnosis. Since the knee OA classifier constituted by a weights-directly-determined RBF neural network didn't require any iteration, our results demonstrated that the optimal weights, appropriate center and variance could be yielded through simple procedures. Furthermore, the accuracy for both the training samples and the testing samples from the normal group could reach 100%. Finally, the classifier was superior both in time efficiency and classification performance to the frequently used classifiers based on iterative learning. Thus it was suitable to be used as an aid to computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA.

  8. Towards early in vivo photoacoustic malaria diagnosis with 10,000-fold sensitivity improvement (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kai A.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Stumhofer, Jason S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-03-01

    Roughly 0.6 million people die each year from malaria due to lack of early diagnosis and well-timed treatment. Our previous study demonstrated great potential of in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for early diagnosis of deadly diseases with focus on cancer and thromboembolic complications. Here we demonstrate potential of advanced PAFC platforms using new laser, ultrasound transducer array and recording system to detect infected red blood cells (iRBCs) with malaria-associated pigment hemozoin which has a higher PA contrast than blood background. Mature parasites of human infecting species such as P. falciparum characteristically sequester mature iRBCs in the capillary bed and display synchrony in their reproductive cycle. To address this issue prior to clinical application, new PAFC platform was verified in a pre-clinical study using new animal models. Specifically, we used P. chabaudi (a rodent malaria species that mimics the characteristics of the most virulent human counterpart) to estimate the detection sensitivity with immature ring-stage parasites in peripheral blood, compared PA signals from the differing species, and examined the relationship between PA signal amplitudes and level of blood oxygenation. Based on previous successful trials on melanoma patients with melanin as an intrinsic PA marker, which has similar absorption as hemozoin, we believe that after additional malaria-related clinical trials, PAFC with a small 1064 nm laser and wearable a cost-effective, easy-to-use, watch-like, safe PA probe will provide malaria diagnosis in humans at parasitemia levels 10e4 -times lower than the current gold standard of diagnosis, the Giemsa-stained blood smear. It can reduce malaria-related mortality by well-timed treatment, especially in children in malaria-endemic countries.

  9. [The new concept of osteoporosis. Early diagnosis, prevention and therapy are possible today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesch, R D; Harms, H; Rittinghaus, E F; Brabant, G

    1990-04-15

    A paradigma of osteoporosis pathology is discussed, at the center of which is the hormone-related disturbance of the osteoblast/osteoclast functional unit. A liberal replacement of estrogen-gestagen in post-menopausal women is advocated. Early diagnosis with the aid of quantitative computed tomography makes it possible to establish the indication for timely hormonal treatment in the future, which can result in a measureable increase in bone mass. Late therapy, that is, treatment initiated after the occurrence of fractures, has proven largely ineffective.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging applications in early rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troum, Orrin M; Pimienta, Olga; Olech, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment have been recognized as essential for improving clinical outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive modality that can assess both inflammatory and structural lesions. MRI can assist in following the disease course in patients treated with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biological therapies both in the clinic and in research trials. Therefore, it is anticipated that MRI becomes the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in RA clinical trials while remaining a useful tool for clinicians evaluating patients with RA.

  11. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: importance of early diagnosis and aggressive physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Sushruta; Arora, Shikha; Ramesh, V

    2012-09-15

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a congenital ichthyotic disorder with spasticity. We describe a case of a 5-year-old boy with SLS diagnosed clinically based on congenital ichythosis, quadriplegia, and mental retardation. The child responded well to emollients and antihistamines. His quadriplegia was managed by aggressive physiotherapy and mental retardation by stimulation techniques. After a 3-year follow up, significant improvement was seen in his motor and mental disability. This case highlights the importance of clinical diagnosis and early intervention for such a disabling disorder.

  12. De Garengeot's hernia: the importance of early diagnosis and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan Coskun, A; Kilbas, Z; Yigit, T; Simsek, A; Harlak, A

    2012-12-01

    De Garengeot's hernia is a rare condition of acute appendicitis in an incarcerated femoral hernia. A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room with a 3-day history of a painful and non-reducible mass in her right groin. The patient underwent emergency surgery. At exploration, an acute appendicitis in an incarcerated femoral hernia was identified, likely prediagnosed by computed tomography. The postoperative period was uneventful. In De Garengeot's hernia, early diagnosis is important to reduce the morbidity rate. The surgical approach should be designed according to the condition of the patient, the anatomical position of the appendix vermiformis, and the likelihood of complications.

  13. Endoscopic diagnosis of early carcinoma of the esophagus using Lugol's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, K; Kitamura, K; Baba, K; Ikebe, M; Kuwano, H

    1992-01-01

    Small esophageal lesions, particularly intraepithelial cancers, are extremely difficult to detect. We used Lugol's iodine solution with panendoscopic examination to detect the presence and spread of small squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus. Serial histologic specimens of the surgically removed esophagus from 32 patients with Lugol's combined endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal carcinoma were examined to determine the correlation between endoscopic and histologic findings. All of the early staged carcinomas clearly remained unstained by Lugol's solution. We believe that the application of Lugol's solution will greatly aid in instances when a suspicious mucosal lesion is noted, when the margin of the lesion is unclear, or when there is suspicion that a mucosal lesion may have been overlooked.

  14. AUTOFLUORESCENCE BRONCHOSCOPY AS A MODALITY FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAW Nugraha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has become a complicated health problem in the world. In 2005, approximately 172,500 people diagnosed with lung cancer in the United States. In Indonesia, lung cancer ranks fourth highest. Lung cancer is also the most common cause of death from cancer, so we need appropriate early detection modality to reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. Compared with other modalities that currently available, Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB seems to have better accuracy in early diagnosis of lung cancer. AFB can be used to evaluate patients with high-grade sputum atypia, evaluating patients with suspected or had suffered from lung cancer, and have a role in follow-up of bronchial high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.

  15. Early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma by quantitative neurootological and neuroradiological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, C.T.

    1983-02-01

    Every patient with unilateral and sensoneural loss of hearing, independent of vertigo anamnesis or X-rays must be further examined by a vestibular test. Between 1974 and 1980, 80 acoustic neuromas could be diagnosed, including 12 early stage neuromas. This relatively high detection quote of small neuromas is due to a special diagnostical program: All 80 patients with acoustic neuroma had a pathological vestibular result. The positional test turned out to be the most sensitive examination in the early diagnosis of acoustic neuromas and yields a still higher incidence than the caloric test: 95% of the patients with a neurinoma showed a pathological result in the positional test. So every patient suffering from an unidentified unilateral and sensoneural hearing loss combined with a pathological result in the positional test must be further examined by a cisternomeatography or computerized tomography (using air-insufflation). Every fifth of these patients showed unique hints of an acoustic neuroma in the neuroradiological test.

  16. A case of Kartagener′s syndrome: Importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kartagener′s syndrome is a very rare congenital malformation comprising of a classic triad of sinusitis, situs inversus and bronchiectasis. Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disorder with manifestations present from early life and this distinguishes it from acquired mucociliary disorders. Approximately one half of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia have situs inversus and, thus are having Kartagener syndrome. We present a case of 12 year old boy with sinusitis, situs inversus and bronchiectasis. The correct diagnosis of this rare congenital autosomal recessive disorder in early life is important in the overall prognosis of the syndrome, as many of the complications can be prevented if timely management is instituted, as was done in this in this case.

  17. A case of Kartagener′s syndrome: Importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kartagener′s syndrome is a very rare congenital malformation comprising of a classic triad of sinusitis, situs inversus and bronchiectasis. Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disorder with manifestations present from early life and this distinguishes it from acquired mucociliary disorders. Approximately one half of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia have situs inversus and, thus are having Kartagener syndrome. We present a case of 12 year old boy with sinusitis, situs inversus and bronchiectasis. The correct diagnosis of this rare congenital autosomal recessive disorder in early life is important in the overall prognosis of the syndrome, as many of the complications can be prevented if timely management is instituted, as was done in this in this case.

  18. The Usefulness of Biological and Neuroimaging Markers for the Diagnosis of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Padovani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent proposed criteria for Alzheimer's Disease (AD have strongly claimed the usefulness of biological and neuroimaging markers for early identification AD. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF Tau/Abeta ratio, hippocampal atrophy, posterior cingulate, and neocortical associative area hypometabolism, or amyloid burden evaluated by PiB compound, held the premises to increase diagnostic accuracy in the preclinical disease stages. Despite many efforts to identify subjects at risk of developing AD, less attention has been paid to presenile AD diagnosis. A few data are already available in early onset AD, mainly obtained in cases of monogenic disorder. In this paper, we discuss the current literature on the role of biological and neuroimaging markers in presenile AD.

  19. Guidelines for Screening, Early Diagnosis and Management of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkaikar, Manisha; Aluri, Jahnavi; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe and fatal forms of inherited primary immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis of SCID improves the outcome of life before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is commonly used in western countries as part of newborn blood spot screening (NBS) program as the assay has high sensitivity and specificity to identify SCID infants, allowing early intervention and curative bone marrow (BM) transplantation. In India, the blood spot based screening programs are yet to mature into a full-fledged national program. Moreover, TREC assay, a PCR based test, is not widely available and may cost USD 5-7 per test; thus limiting its applicability for screening newborns in Indian scenario. Most of the SCID patients have lymphopenia at birth and routine evaluation for absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on cord blood samples can help in pre-symptomatic detection and early intervention for neonates with SCID. Although ALC count lacks the sensitivity and specificity of TREC assay; its lower cost and widespread availability makes it an attractive option for identifying newborns with lymphopenia during the post-partum hospital stay. BCG vaccine and other live attenuated vaccines (e.g., oral polio vaccine) should be withheld in lymphopenic infants until SCID is excluded by clinical and/or immunological work-up. A diagnosis of SCID warrants immediate care to prevent and treat infections and wherever feasible, early stem cell transplantation for disease free survival.

  20. Recommendations for early diagnosis and intervention in autism spectrum disorders: an Italian-Israeli consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A; Curatolo, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    On April 2013 experts in the field of autism from Italy and Israel convened in Jerusalem to discuss and finalize clinical recommendations for early diagnosis and intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this paper, we summarize the results of this Italian-Israeli consensus conference. ASDs constitute a class of severe and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions caused by atypical brain development beginning during early prenatal life, reflecting many genetic, neurobiological and environmental influences. The first clinical signs of ASDs begin to be evident in children between 12 and 18 months of age, often after a period of relatively typical postnatal development. Recent longitudinal studies reveal substantial diversity in developmental trajectories through childhood and adolescence. Some intervention approaches have been demonstrated to be effective in improving core symptoms of ASDs, even if the heterogeneity and developmental nature of the disorder make it implausible that only one specific treatment will be best for all children with ASDs. More randomized control trials (RCTs) on early intervention are needed to identify the most effective strategies and provide the most efficient allocation of resources during the critical early intervention time period. Future research should focus on linking biological phenotypes with specific genotypes, thus establishing a foundation for the development of diagnostic screening tools and individualization of treatments. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of quantitative sacro-iliac scintigraphy in the early diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjällman, M; Nylén, O; Hansén, M

    1986-01-01

    Over the period 1976-83 the clinical records were studied of 150 patients with the diagnosis of confirmed or possible sacro-iliitis. All these patients had pathologic sacro-iliac indices on quantitative bone scintigraphy. The most recent radiographs of the sacro-iliac joints were examined by two radiologists independently of each other. 103 (68%) patients with a mean duration of symptoms of 6.7 years, had normal radiographs. The frequency of HLA B27 in this group was only 27%, contrary to the expected 90-100% in an ankylosing spondylitis (AS) population. In a follow-up study, 30 patients, who in 1976-79 had normal sacro-iliac joint X-rays, were further investigated. The mean duration of symptoms was 11.3 years. 21 patients (70%) still had normal radiographs of their sacro-iliac joints and the HLA B27 frequency in this group was 28%. Normal radiographs of the sacro-iliac joints, in spite of the long duration of symptoms together with a low frequency of HLA B27, makes the diagnosis of AS most unlikely. This indicates a low specificity for quantitative sacro-iliac scintigraphy in the early diagnosis of AS. In the follow-up study, Calin's screening test for AS was included and was also found to have a low specificity.

  2. Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids of the stomach and intestines - early diagnosis and minimally invasive endoscopic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuryk O.G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and intestines are rare diseases. Increasing incidence and complexity of diagnosis of these diseases cause acuteness of the problem. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of morphological examination of endoscopic biopsy material for diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors and for evaluation of completeness of minimally invasive endoscopic surgical interventions (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection at neuroendocrine tumors. Methods. On the basis of Medical center "Oberig" in 2009 - 2013 in eight cases neuroendocrine tumors were diagnosed: 2 (25 % in the stomach, 2 (25% – in the duodenum, 2 (25% - in the small intestine, 1 (12.5 % - in the ascending colon, 1 (12.5% - in the rectum. Neuroendocrine tumors of stomach and ileum were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection, duodenal bulb and rectum neuroendocrine tumors – by endoscopic submucosal dissection, papillary duodenum, colon and jejunum neuroendocrine tumors – by surgical resection. Results. It was shown, that morphological evaluation of endoscopic mucosal biopsies is effective way to diagnose the neuroendocrine tumors. Conclusion. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection allows to get advanced material for morphological diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors and an adequate method of their removing Citation: Kuryk OG, Yakovenko VO, Bazdyrev VV, Bodnar LV. [Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids of the stomach and intestines - early diagnosis and minimally invasive endoscopic procedures]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:58-64. Ukrainian.

  3. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings supporting early diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Behzad; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2014-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease, which is usually transmitted to humans by tick bites or contact with blood or other infected tissues of livestock. Patients suffering from CCHF demonstrate an extensive spectrum of clinical symptoms. As it can take considerable time from suspecting the disease in hospital until reaching a definitive diagnosis in the laboratory, understanding the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of CCHF patients is of paramount importance for clinicians. The data were collected from patients who were referred to the Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers at the Pasteur institute of Iran with a primary diagnosis of CCHF between 1999 and 2012 and were assessed by molecular and serologic tests. Referred patients were divided into two groups: patients with a CCHF positive result and patients with a CCHF negative result. The laboratory and clinical findings of these two groups were then compared. Two-thousand five hundred thirty-six probable cases of CCHF were referred to the laboratory, of which 871 cases (34.3%) were confirmed to be CCHF. Contact with infected humans and animals increased the CCHF infection risk (P important role in patient survival and the application of the findings of this study can prove helpful as a key for early diagnosis.

  4. The MUC gene family: Their role in diagnosis and early detection of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löhr Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, as well as distinguishing between chronic pancreatitis and malignant pancreatic disease, remains still a clinical problem. Presently, there is no specific tumor marker for diagnosing pancreatic cancer. Mucin-associated marker like CA 19-9 are the most widely available pancreatic cancer tumor marker, but its value as a screening marker is limited by its reduced specificity. Mucins (MUCs are heavily glycosylated, high molecular weight glycoproteins with an aberrant expression profile in various malignancies. This review considers briefly the potential use of the mucin expression pattern in diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm. The overview will point out the present knowledge about changes in the mucin gene expression in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs as precursor lesions and in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, compared to normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis and the potential role for differentiating chronic pancreatitis from pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the potential use of MUCs in the diagnosis and differentiation of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm's (IPMNs will be discussed.

  5. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  6. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Colmenares, Grecia V.; Ramirez-Villar, Gema L.; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Matute de Cardenas, Jose A.; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a locally aggressive vascular tumor that may be complicated by Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP), a profound thrombocytopenia resulting from platelet trapping within a vascular tumor, either KHE or tufted angioma (TA). Typical features also include low fibrinogen and elevated D-dimers. It is well known that KMP is not caused by infantile hemangiomas. Management of vascular tumors complicated by KMP is challenging, and it is common for referral centers to receive patients in critical medical condition after multimodality treatment failure of vascular anomalies. Our aim is to communicate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of KHE associated with KMP. A full-term male newborn with KHE complicated by KMP is reported. Treatment with vincristine, aspirin and ticlopidine normalized the coagulation parameters within one week, requiring a total of six doses of vincristine, seven months of ticlopidine and 17 months of aspirin. Early diagnosis and treatment of KHE complicated by KMP may allow the administration of fewer doses of vincristine and avoid the use of corticosteroids. PMID:25692091

  7. Early and rapid prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 2q36.1 in trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Gérard; Aboura, Azzedine; Brisset, Sophie; Dommergues, Marc; Gajdos, Vincent; Labrune, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    CVS is the earliest procedure for cytogenetic analysis but the quality of metaphases obtained does not allow the characterization of subtle chromosomal anomalies. We report the application interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization for the rapid prenatal diagnosis of a subtle structural chromosome anomaly in trophoblast cells. The foetus was karyotyped because of a paternal complex chromosomal anomaly 46,XY,inv(2)(q14.3q35),ins(10;2)(q25;q36.1q36.1). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were performed on interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes from uncultured chorionic villi using bacterial artificial chromosomes specific for the 2q chromosomal region. Direct conventional cytogenetics showed an apparently normal male karyotype, whereas fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a deletion of the chromosomal region 2q36.1 and a paracentric inversion of the chromosome 2q leading to a partial monosomy 2q36.1. This strategy allowed us to offer an early and rapid chromosomal analysis for this couple leading to a better management of the pregnancy. This report demonstrates that interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization can be used in direct CVS for a rapid and early prenatal diagnosis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Significance of Nueroelectrophysiological Tests in the Early Diagnosis of Sub-clinical Neuropathay with Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; HU Xiaoqing; TANG Nai

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of nueroelectrophysiological tests in early diagnosis of sub-clinical neuropathy in diabetes mellitus (DM), The routine nerve conductive velocity (NCV),F-wave and sympathetic skin response (SSR) were detected in 27 patients with diabetes mellitus but without symptoms and signs of lesions of nerve system. Our results showed that 48.1%, 44.4 %, 51.9 % of the patients were found to have abnormal NCV, F-wave and SSR respectively. The abnormalities were mainly characterized by prolonged latency, reduced velocity and absence of wave-form.There were significant differences between the controls and the DM group (P<0.05). Both the distal and proximal segments of nerves were affected and the distal lesions took place earlier than proximal ones and the changes in low extremities were more severe than those of upper extremities. F-wave can be used as a sensitive indicator for the early diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy and it can help to detect the subclincial lesions. SSR can be used for the evaluation of functional status of autonomic nerves in DM patients.

  9. Contrast-enhanced FLAIR in the early diagnosis of infectious meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splendiani, Alesssandra; Puglielli, Edoardo; Amicis, Rosanna De; Masciocchi, Carlo; Gallucci, Massimo [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, L' Aquila (Italy); Necozione, Stefano [University of L' Aquila, Department of Statistic, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the accuracy of MRI in the early diagnosis of infectious meningitis with emphasis on the value of gadolinium-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Twenty-seven patients with clinical suspicion of infectious meningitis were included. MRI was performed within 3 h of clinical evaluation. For all patients, T1-weighted spin-echo, dual-echo T2-weighted fast-spin-echo and FLAIR sequences were performed, followed by gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo and FLAIR sequences. Final diagnosis was based on the clinical findings and the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, obtained by lumbar puncture after the MRI. Infectious meningitis was confirmed in 12 patients. In all of these patients of the plain studies, FLAIR was positive in only four patients. MRI gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR showed abnormal meningeal enhancement in all 12 patients, while gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo was positive only in six cases. There were no false-positive or false-negative results. It is concluded that MRI could have an important role in the early screening for infectious meningitis, provided a gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR sequence is used. (orig.)

  10. Role of transvaginal contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the early diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; TIAN Jia-wei; XU Yi; CHENG Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecological malignancies among women.Early diagnosis and correct preoperative evaluation of myometrial invasion are necessary to improve the prognosis.This study aimed to determine whether features and time-intensity curves (TIC) of transvaginal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) differ from those of conventional ultrasound for endometrial carcinoma,and to further explore the clinical role of transvaginal CEUS in the early diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma.Methods Forty women with a normal uterus and seventy-nine patients with endometrial carcinoma were examinedby the transvaginal CEUS with SonoVue (Bracco,Imaging B.V,Switzerland).The enhancement patterns and TIC of lesions were analyzed.The results of CEUS were compared with those of conventional ultrasound and pathology.Results In the early and late enhanced stages,the intensity of enhancement of the normal endometrium was always lower than that in the myometrium,and the boundary between normal endometrium and myometrium was clear.A total of 65.8% (52/79) of lesions presented with inhomogeneous enhancement,34.2% (27/79) presented with homogeneous enhancement; 60.8% (48/79) presented with hyperechoic enhancement,27.8% (22/79) presented with isoechoic enhancement,and 11.4% (9/79) presented with hypoechoic enhancement.The average arrival time,time to peak,rise time,half-wash out time of lesions were shorter than of normal endometrium (P <0.05).The average peak intensity,relative rise in intensity,half-wash out intensity of lesions were higher than of normal endometrium (P<0.05).There were 49 (must be and may be present) cases of endometrial carcinoma by ultrasound (US); 24 cases were consistent with pathology results,16 cases were underestimated and 9 cases were overestimated.There were 72 (must be and may be present) cases of endometrial carcinoma by CEUS; 53 cases were consistent with pathology results,12 cases were underestimated and 7

  11. Cardiac troponins I and T: molecular markers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and accurate triaging of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ram P; Jain, Anubhav; Khan, Zakir; Kohli, Veena; Bharmal, R N; Kartikeyan, S; Bisen, Prakash S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with early diagnosis still being difficult. Promising new cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are being studied and integrated into clinical practice for early diagnosis of AMI. The cardiac-specific troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) have good sensitivity and specificity as indicators of myocardial necrosis and are superior to CK and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in this regard. Besides being potential biologic markers, cardiac troponins also provide significant prognostic information. The introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays has enabled more sensitive and timely diagnosis or exclusion of acute coronary syndromes. This review summarizes the available information on the potential of troponins and other cardiac markers in early diagnosis and prognosis of AMI, and provides perspectives on future diagnostic approaches to AMI.

  12. Dairy calf pneumonia: Effective treatment depends on early and accurate diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panousis Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy calf pneumonia is one of the most economically important diseases of calves. A delayed diagnosis could result endemic herd problem, prolonged use of antibiotics, high recurrence rate, pulmonary abscessation and ear infections. The key for effective control is the early detection of pneumonia and the accurate diagnosis of the etiologic factor. For the early detection, a respiratory disease score was assigned based on rectal temperature, character of nasal discharge, eye discharge or ear appearance, and presence of a cough. Each clinical sign has a point scale from 0 (normal to 4 (severe. The respiratory disease score is the sum of points from the 4 categories of clinical signs, with increasing values representing progressive severity. The scoring system results in a minimum score of 0 and a maximum score of 12. Calves with score 5 or higher, having at least 2 clinical signs of respiratory disease, are considered sick and have to be treated. For the accurate diagnosis of the etiological agent the best tool in a live calf is bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collection. Sampling of severely affected animals should be avoided. New acute cases are ideal. BAL is performed in sedated calves using a sterilized, flexible catheter with a 5-cc balloon cuff. The fresh BAL fluid sample is processed within 2 hours of collection or refrigerated until analysis. Part of the sample is used for microbiology and the remaining is submitted for cytology. BAL fluid that yields homogenous (>106 CFU/ml bacterial or positive Mycoplasma bovis culture is considered abnormal. A disproportionate lowering of macrophages (39% provides evidence of an inflammatory response with or without a positive culture. The ideal antibiotic selection would be based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of lung pathogens after BAL fluid culture.

  13. Utility of Early MRI in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijman, Christine A.C.; Venkatasubramanian, Chitra; Bruins, Sara; Fischbein, Nancy; Schwartz, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Background The optimal diagnostic evaluation for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ICH diagnosis and management. Methods Eighty-nine (72%) of 123 patients with spontaneous ICH underwent a brain CT and MRI within 30 days of ICH onset. Seventy patients with a mean age of 62 ± 15 years were included. A stroke neurologist and a general neurologist, each blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reviewed the admission data and the initial head CT and then assigned a presumed ICH cause under 1 of 9 categories. ICH cause was potentially modified after subsequent MRI review. The final ‘gold standard’ ICH etiology was determined after review of the complete medical record by an independent investigator. Change in diagnostic category and confidence and the potential impact on patient management were systematically recorded. Results Mean time to MRI was 3 ± 5 days. Final ICH diagnosis was hypertension or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in 50% of patients. After MRI review the stroke neurologist changed diagnostic category in 14%, diagnostic confidence in an additional 23% and management in 20%, and the general neurologist did so in 19, 21 and 21% of patients, respectively. MRI yield was highest in ICH secondary to ischemic stroke, CAA, vascular malformations and neoplasms, and did not differ by age, history of hypertension, hematoma location or the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions The results of this study suggest potential additive clinical benefit of early MRI in patients with spontaneous ICH. PMID:20733299

  14. Early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity troponin I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Francisco; Renné, Thomas; Schnabel, Renate B.; Zeller, Tanja; Karakas, Mahir; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a clinical need for early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend diagnosis of non-ST-elevation AMI based on serial troponin measurements. We aimed to challenge the ESC guidelines using 1) a high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) baseline cutoff, 2) an absolute hs-TnI change after 1 hour and 3) additional application of an ischemic ECG. Methods 1,516 patients with suspected AMI presenting to the emergency department were included. Hs-TnI was measured directly at admission, after 1 and 3 hours. We investigated baseline concentrations, absolute changes of hs-TnI and additional application of an ischemic ECG to diagnose AMI. A positive predictive value (PPV) of more than 85% was targeted. Results The median age of the study population was 65 years; 291 patients were diagnosed with AMI. The PPV of the 3-hours ESC algorithm was 85.5% (CI 79.7, 90.1) and 65.8% (CI 60.5,70.8) for the 1-hour algorithm. Using a high baseline hs-TnI concentration of 150 ng/L resulted in a PPV of 87.8% (CI 80.9,92.9). Alternatively, a hs-TnI change of 20 ng/L after 1 hour, resulted in a PPV of 86.5% (80.9,91.0), respectively for the diagnosis of AMI. Additional use of an ischemic ECG increased the PPV to 90.5% (CI 83.2,95.3), while reducing the efficacy. Conclusion The diagnosis of AMI based on hs-TnI is challenging. The application of absolute hs-TnI changes after 1 hour may facilitate rapid rule-in of patients. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457). PMID:28333976

  15. Polymerase Chain Reaction: An Important Tool for Early Diagnosis of Leptospirosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Summaiya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various diagnostic methods like Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), IgM ELISA, Isolation of Leptospira from the clinical specimen, Rapid leptocheck tests etc., are available for diagnosis of leptospirosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used for diagnosis of various diseases of infectious origin including leptospirosis but there is paucity of data about comparison of PCR with other available method of diagnosis of leptospirosis. Aim The aim of the study was to detect the leptospiral DNA by PCR method and to compare the results of PCR with other available diagnostic methods used for diagnosis of suspected leptospirosis cases in acute phase of illness. Materials and Methods A total of 207 blood samples were obtained from suspected patients of leptospirosis admitted in New Civil Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in South Gujarat, during the period of July 2008 to November 2008. These blood samples were subjected to Rapid leptocheck, IgM ELISA, MAT test to detect (IgG or IgM) antibody level, Leptospira culture and PCR. Results In early phase of the disease, Rapid leptocheck test gave 44% detection, but along with PCR seropositivity reached upto 71%. Detection rate by IgM ELISA was 59% which increased to 80% with PCR. By MAT seropositivity was 57% but combined seropositivity of MAT with PCR was 78%. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR as compared to MAT (Gold standard) was 52% and 79% respectively. Leptospira was not growing in culture. Conclusion In present study, PCR picked up to 50% of cases which were negative by other serological tests so these finding suggest that PCR should be used routinely in acute phase of disease.

  16. A Novel Electrochemical Microfluidic Chip Combined with Multiple Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao; Zhi, Xiao; Su, Haichuan; Wang, Kan; Yan, Zhen; He, Nongyue; Zhang, Jingpu; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis is very important to improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and to understand the biology of cancer. In order to meet the clinical demands for early diagnosis of gastric cancer, we developed a disposable easy-to-use electrochemical microfluidic chip combined with multiple antibodies against six kinds of biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Helicobacter pylori CagA protein (H.P.), P53oncoprotein (P53), pepsinogen I (PG I), and PG-II). The six kinds of biomarkers related to gastric cancer can be detected sensitively and synchronously in a short time. The specially designed three electrodes system enables cross-contamination to be avoided effectively. The linear ranges of detection of the electrochemical microfluidic chip were as follows: 0.37-90 ng mL-1 for CEA, 10.75-172 U mL-1 for CA19-9, 10-160 U L-1 for H.P., 35-560 ng mL-1 for P53, 37.5-600 ng mL-1 for PG I, and 2.5-80 ng mL-1for PG II. This method owns better sensitivity compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results of 394 specimens of gastric cancer sera. Furthermore, we established a multi-index prediction model based on the six kinds of biomarkers for predicting risk of gastric cancer. In conclusion, the electrochemical microfluidic chip for detecting multiple biomarkers has great potential in applications such as early screening of gastric cancer patients, and therapeutic evaluation, and real-time dynamic monitoring the progress of gastric cancer in near future.

  17. Altered serum microRNAs as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuhua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB is a highly lethal infectious disease and early diagnosis of TB is critical for the control of disease progression. The objective of this study was to profile a panel of serum microRNAs (miRNAs as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB infection. Methods Using TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA analysis followed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR validation, expression levels of miRNAs in serum samples from 30 patients with active tuberculosis and 60 patients with Bordetella pertussis (BP, varicella-zoster virus (VZV and enterovirus (EV were analyzed. Results The Low-Density Array data showed that 97 miRNAs were differentially expressed in pulmonary TB patient sera compared with healthy controls (90 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated. Following qRT-PCR confirmation and receiver operational curve (ROC analysis, three miRNAs (miR-361-5p, miR-889 and miR-576-3p were shown to distinguish TB infected patients from healthy controls and other microbial infections with moderate sensitivity and specificity (area under curve (AUC value range, 0.711-0.848. Multiple logistic regression analysis of a combination of these three miRNAs showed an enhanced ability to discriminate between these two groups with an AUC value of 0.863. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered levels of serum miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of pulmonary TB infection.

  18. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies

  19. Heat shock protein 70 acts as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongshi; Song, Yao; Xing, Rui; Yu, Haiyi; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Early identification for heart failure (HF) may be useful for disease modifying treatment in order to reduce heart disease progression or even to reverse it. In our previous studies, we have revealed a group of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which might be related to neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by proteomic approach. Here, we confirm that HSPs, including HSP27 and HSP70, altered in the early stage of cardiac remodeling in vivo animal model. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of those HSPs and their potential screening value were evaluated at different stages in 222 patient subjects. Plasma HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicate that HSP70 was positively correlated to the severity (progression) of HF (r = 0.456, p<0.001). The area under the rate of change (ROC) curve was 0.601 (p = 0.017) in patients with stage B HF and 0.835 (p<0.001) in those with stage C HF. However, HSP27 and HSP90 did not display significant changes in any stage of HF in this study. Taken together, plasma concentrations of HSP70 elevated with the progression of HF and might act as a potential screening biomarker for early diagnosis of HF.

  20. Serum-based microRNA signatures in early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Petra; Radova, Lenka; Sachlova, Milana; Kosarova, Zdenka; Slaba, Katerina; Fabian, Pavel; Grolich, Tomas; Prochazka, Vladimir; Kala, Zdenek; Svoboda, Marek; Kiss, Igor; Vyzula, Rostislav; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Early detection of colorectal cancer is the main prerequisite for successful treatment and reduction of mortality. Circulating microRNAs were previously identified as promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to identify serum microRNAs enabling early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of colon cancer. In total, serum samples from 427 colon cancer patients and 276 healthy donors were included in three-phase biomarker study. Large-scale microRNA expression profiling was performed using Illumina small RNA sequencing. Diagnostic and prognostic potential of identified microRNAs was validated on independent training and validation sets of samples using RT-qPCR. Fifty-four microRNAs were found to be significantly deregulated in serum of colon cancer patients compared to healthy donors (P colon cancer patients from healthy donors with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 81% (AUC = 0.922). This panel of microRNAs exhibited high diagnostic performance also when analyzed separately in colon cancer patients in early stages of the disease (T1-4N0M0; AUC = 0.877). Further, a prognostic panel based on the expression of miR-23a-3p and miR-376c-3p independent of TNM stage was established (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.44-3.66; P colon cancer were identified. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Early Diagnosis of Bladder Exstrophy: Quantitative Assessment of a Low-Inserted Umbilical Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel-Bartal, Michal; Perlman, Sharon; Messing, Baruch; Bardin, Ron; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-09-01

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare severe congenital malformation. Early prenatal diagnosis is scarcely described in the literature. Low insertion of the umbilical cord is a constant anatomic feature of bladder exstrophy. The aim of our study was to assess whether early measurements of the umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length may serve as quantitative measurements for a low-inserted umbilical cord in cases of bladder exstrophy. The umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length was prospectively measured in all cases referred for a nonvisualized urinary bladder before 18 weeks' gestation. Final diagnoses were compared with prenatal measurements. Fifteen fetuses were evaluated for a nonvisualized bladder at a mean gestational age of 15.7 weeks (range, 14-17 weeks). Of them, 6 cases were diagnosed with bladder exstrophy, and 9 cases had a normal urinary bladder. All cases with bladder exstrophy had an umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length below the fifth percentile for gestational age, whereas cases with a normal bladder had a normal measurement. Fetuses with bladder exstrophy have an umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length below the fifth percentile of the general population. This measurement may serve as a complementary objective sonographic parameter in the prenatal assessment and counseling of cases suspected of having bladder exstrophy during early pregnancy. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumeiko N.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.

  3. Social Awareness on Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Bladder Cancer: Importance of Age and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Değer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the recognition level of bladder cancer in the society by conducting a survey with regards to social awareness in early diagnosis of bladder cancer in this study. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted on 100 randomly selected patients who were admitted to our clinic in May 2016 for any complaints. In the survey, the main focus was hematuria which is the first and the most common symptom of bladder cancer and questions and statements on this subject was used. Results: Of 100 patients, 67 (66.7% were male, and 33 (33.3% were female. Thirty six of the patients were younger than 50 (36%, and 64 of them (64% were 50 years and older. Education level of 40 (40% patients was found to be university level, and 60 (60% patients we high school graduates or lower. Twenty seven (27% patients had complains about blood in the urine, while 67 (67% of them had no such complaint. Of 27 patients that had complaint about hematuria, which is the most important symptom of bladder cancer 22 (81% were male and 5 (19% were female. We divided the patients into two groups based on 50 age limit. Group 1 included patients who were below 50, while the group 2 consisted of patients who were 50 years old and above. The rates of immediate consultation were determined to be significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. The rate of consulting urology department in the presence of hematuria, and the rates of considering the risk of bladder cancer as a possible diagnosis were higher in group 2, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference found between the two groups who were separated by age in terms of required diagnostic tests. The patients were divided into two more groups based on their education level. Group 3 included patients of university graduates, and group 4 included patients with high school graduates or lower. The rates of immediate consultation were significantly higher in group 4

  4. THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS AT THE EUROPEAN CONGRESS OF RHEUMATOLOGY 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The European  League Against Rheumatism (EULAR  Congress (EULAR-15 was held in Rome on 10–13 June 2015. One of the most important  aspects of the Congress was the problem of spondyloarthritis  (SpA. Reports on the pathogenesis of SpA, including a relationship between the inflammatory processes and the mechanisms  of bone proliferation, occupied a prominent place in the program of the Congress. The fundamental  importance  of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 17 (IL17/IL23, for SpA was the subject of wide speculation. As in previous years, many reports were dedicated to the early diagnosis of SpA, the comparison of different SpA classification criteria, and the progression of non-radiographic axial SpA to ankylosing spondylitis. Much time was devoted to the results of the latest studies visualizing sacroiliitis and spondylitis.

  5. Quantitative ultrasound venous valve movement: early diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Suberi, Anis Azwani; Wan Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani; Tomari, Razali; Ibrahim, Nabilah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of computer aided system for the early diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). Normally, patients are diagnosed with DVT through ultrasound examination after they have a serious complication. Thus, this study proposes a new approach to reduce the risk of recurrent DVT by tracking the venous valve movement behaviour. Inspired by image processing technology, several image processing methods namely, image enhancement, segmentation and morphological have been implemented to improve the image quality for further tracking procedure. In segmentation, Otsu thresholding provides a significant result in segmenting valve structure. Subsequently, morphological dilation method is able to enhance the region shape of the valve distinctly and precisely. Lastly, image subtraction method is presented and evaluated to track the valve movement. Based on the experimental results the normal range of valve velocity lies within the range of blood flow velocity (Vb) and occasionally may result in higher values.

  6. Application of a Computational Method for the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Using Proteomic Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzenir Montes,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on the recognition of proteomic patterns for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, using computational techniques, applied in the database of SELDI-TOF proteomic patterns. The method is based on classifying the individual as to the portability stage of prostate cancer. To do so, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA technique is used to extract the characteristics, after which are utilized the algorithm of Maximum Relevance and Minimum Redundancy to reduce the computational cost, and finally the Support Vector Machine to obtain the classification. The best result of the method was obtained with a vector of 27 characteristics, achieving accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively of 89.21%, 83.68% and 95.08%.

  7. Signs and senses: diagnosis and prognosis in early medieval pulse and urine texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, F

    2000-08-01

    The character of early medieval medical manuscripts makes it difficult to generalize about the nature of medical knowledge in this period. In order to reconstitute one field of medical science, namely diagnosis and prognosis, while avoiding the pitfalls of unjustified generalization, this essay limits itself to reconstructing the understanding of pulse and urine inspection available in a particular place and time: the Italian monastery of Monte Cassino at the end of the first millennium. The available texts reveal little about the rationale behind these bedside techniques; indeed, pulse and urine seem to be signs without any semiotics, any underlying theory. The clue to this paradox is the fact that these texts see pulse and urine as primarily prognostic rather than diagnostic. Prognosis was understood to be analogous to forms of intuition, judgement, revelation, and prophecy that operated outside the logic of causality. Hence a fully rationalized semiotics was not regarded as necessary for effective medical practice.

  8. Combining multifractal analyses of digital mammograms and infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, E.; Toner, B.; Marin, Z.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Argoul, F.; Khalil, A.; Gileva, O.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We used a 1D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature recorded with an infrared (IR) camera from a panel of patients with breast cancer. This study shows that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts, is lost in the region of the malignant tumor in cancerous breasts. Then, we applied the 2D WTMM method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same patients. Compared to the correlated roughness fluctuations observed in the healthy areas, some clear loss of correlations is detected in malignant tumor foci. These physiological and architectural changes in the environment of malignant tumors detected in both thermograms and mammograms open new perspectives in computer-aided multifractal methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  9. [Pyoderma gangrenosum: spontaneous healing after early diagnosis. Three cases and general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, R; Scevola, A; Veber, M; Toussoun, G; Delay, E

    2013-04-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the recurring development of necrotizing and painful ulcers and therefore, often misinterpreted. This condition can simulate fulminant infection, particularly after surgery. The presentation is often impressive in extensive ulcerations and scarring and lead to significant sequelae. A rapid initial management avoids a dramatic evolution. We report the case of three PG for patients followed for breast reconstruction after breast cancer. PG is a neutrophilic dermatosis that can occur after injuries of varying intensity. Its shape after surgery is a rare disease whose presentation loud and fast pace "infectious" contrasts with the absence of inflammatory lymphangitis or lymphadenopathy. Be aware of prescribing high doses of corticosteroids. These three cases illustrate the importance for early diagnosis and treatment of PG, who can allow spontaneous healing without complex surgery, always feared in this context. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Crystallographic study of PET radiotracers in clinical evaluation for early diagnosis of Alzheimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Altomare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H25NO3·2CH3OH, which crystallized as a methanol disolvate, has applications as a PET radiotracer in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The dihedral angle between the biphenyl rings is 8.2 (2° and the heterocyclic ring adopts a half-chair conformation with the N atom adopting a pyramidal geometry (bond-angle sum = 327.6°. The C atoms of both methoxy groups lie close to the plane of their attached ring [deviations = 0.107 (6 and 0.031 (6 Å]. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  11. [Serum iron and serum copper balance in the early diagnosis of metastases of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllgens, P; Kuhne-Velte, H J; Franke-Lompa, C

    1980-02-01

    In a study made in the follow-up clinic on 684 patients with mammary carcinoma it was found that there were 64 cases of local recurrence and 244 cases of distant metastases. In both groups the serum iron and the serum copper balance in blood tests, in relation to the clinical proof of local recurrence and/or distant metastases, was investigated. It was found that there were 43.7% pathological serum iron and serum copper findings with local recurrences and 62.7% with distant metastases. The drift apart tendency of the blood serum values in patients with distant metastases could be proved in 78.7% of the cases and in 77.5% of the cases before any clinical proof. Thus, these observations allow the statement that the blood serum iron and serum copper imbalance in blood tests is of very real value in the early diagnosis of distant metastases.

  12. Neuroimaging markers for the prediction and early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Michael; Sperling, Reisa A.; Klunk, William E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Hampel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disease. At the time of clinical manifestation of dementia, significant irreversible brain damage is already present, rendering the diagnosis of AD at early stages of the disease an urgent prerequisite for therapeutic treatment to halt, or at least slow, disease progression. In this Review, we discuss various neuroimaging measures that are proving to have potential value as biomarkers of AD pathology for the detection and prediction of AD before the onset of dementia. Recent studies that have identified AD-like structural and functional brain changes in elderly people who are cognitively within the normal range or who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are discussed. A dynamic sequence model of changes that occur in neuroimaging markers during the different disease stages is presented and the predictive value of multimodal neuroimaging for AD dementia is considered. PMID:21696834

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity: A complimentary tool in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taori Girdhar M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the commonest form of neurotuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB. The diagnosis of TBM is often difficult. A reliable, cost-effective and rapid diagnostic test, which can be performed in any standard pathology laboratory, could be of help in the diagnosis of TBM. In the present study we measured the adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of TBM and non-TBM patients. Method ADA activity in CSF was determined according to a method based on the Berthlot reaction, which is the formation of a colored indophenol complex from ammonia liberated from adenosine, and quantified spectrophotometrically. Results The CSF ADA activity from TBM patients was compared with CSF ADA from non-TBM infectious meningitis patients, and from patients with non-infectious neurological disorders. The mean CSF ADA activity was found to be significantly higher in CSF of TBM patients, 14.31 ± 3.87 (2.99–26.94, mean ± SD with range, than in the CSF from non-TBM infectious meningitis, 9.25 ± 2.14 (4.99–13.96 and from the non-infectious neurological disorders group, 2.71 ± 1.96 (0.00–7.68, P Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADA activity in the CSF of TBM patients, using a cut-off value 11.39 U/L/min, can be useful for the early differential diagnosis of TBM. This test can be performed in any pathology laboratory where more sophisticated methods are not available.

  14. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  15. A hybrid feature selection approach for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Jutglà, Esteve; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Vialatte, François-Benoît; Elgendi, Mohamed; Cichocki, Andrzej; Dauwels, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Recently, significant advances have been made in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from electroencephalography (EEG). However, choosing suitable measures is a challenging task. Among other measures, frequency relative power (RP) and loss of complexity have been used with promising results. In the present study we investigate the early diagnosis of AD using synchrony measures and frequency RP on EEG signals, examining the changes found in different frequency ranges. Approach. We first explore the use of a single feature for computing the classification rate (CR), looking for the best frequency range. Then, we present a multiple feature classification system that outperforms all previous results using a feature selection strategy. These two approaches are tested in two different databases, one containing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy subjects (patients age: 71.9 ± 10.2, healthy subjects age: 71.7 ± 8.3), and the other containing Mild AD and healthy subjects (patients age: 77.6 ± 10.0 healthy subjects age: 69.4 ± 11.5). Main results. Using a single feature to compute CRs we achieve a performance of 78.33% for the MCI data set and of 97.56% for Mild AD. Results are clearly improved using the multiple feature classification, where a CR of 95% is found for the MCI data set using 11 features, and 100% for the Mild AD data set using four features. Significance. The new features selection method described in this work may be a reliable tool that could help to design a realistic system that does not require prior knowledge of a patient's status. With that aim, we explore the standardization of features for MCI and Mild AD data sets with promising results.

  16. The role of neuroimaging in the early diagnosis and evaluation of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibyl, J; Jennings, D; Tabamo, R; Marek, K

    2005-10-01

    The development of imaging biomarkers which target specific sites in the brain represents a significant advance in neurodegenerative diseases and Parkinson's disease with the promise of new and improved approaches for the early and accurate diagnosis of disease as well as novel ways to monitor patients and assess treatment. The 3 major applications of imaging may play a role in Parkinson's disease include: 1) the use of neuroimaging as a biomarker of disease in order to improve the accuracy, timeliness, and reliability of diagnosis; 2) objective monitoring of the progression of disease to provide a molecular phenotype of Parkinson's disease which may illuminate some of the sources of clinical variability; 3) the evaluation of so-called ''disease-modifying'' treatments designed to retard the progression of disease by interfering with pathways thought implicated in the ongoing neuronal loss or replace dopamine-producing cells. Each of these areas has shown a numbers of critical clinical investigations which have better defined the utility of the imaging tools to these tasks. Nonetheless, current unresolved issues around the clinical role of neuroimaging in monitoring patients over time and validation of quantitative imaging measures of dopaminergic function are immediate issues for the field and the subject of current research efforts and the extension of the lessons learned in Parkinson's to other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's dementia.

  17. Standardization of fungal polymerase chain reaction for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An early initiation of antifungal therapy in invasive fungal infections (IFIs is critical in reducing the high mortality rate. Current diagnosis of fungal infection relies on microscopy, culture, antigen, antibody specific tests and histological diagnosis. However, these tests either lack sensitivity or specificity. There is thus the need for a rapid, specific and accurate diagnostic method. Objective: The aim of our study was to establish PCR for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus species in clinical specimens with improved sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 proven cases of IFI (confirmed by culture were collected. A total of 15 healthy, 15 patients suffering from bacterial sepsis and 15 patients with HIV, HBV viral infections were included as controls. Clinical specimens were subjected to a standardized nested amplification to produce Round I (504 bp and Round II (150 bp amplicons. Restriction digestion was performed on these products for further identification. Results: Analytical sensitivity was determined using 10 6 -10 CFU/ml of cell suspension. The lower detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU/ml of blood. This test was 100% sensitive and specific with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96.7%. Conclusion: The assay was found to be effective for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus in clinical specimens.

  18. Quality Improvement Interventions for Early HIV Infant Diagnosis in Northeastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izudi, Jonathan; Akot, Agnes; Kisitu, Grace Paul; Amuge, Pauline; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Early infant diagnosis (EID) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ensures prompt treatment and infant survival. In Kaabong Hospital, 20% of HIV exposed infants (HEIs) had access to HIV diagnosis by eight weeks. We aimed to improve EID of HIV by deoxyribonucleic acid-polymerase chain reaction (DNA-PCR) testing by eight weeks from 20 to 100% between June 2014 and November 2015. Method. In this quality improvement (QI) project, EID data was reviewed, gaps prioritized using theme matrix selection, root causes analyzed using fishbone tool, and improvement changes were selected using counter measures matrix but implemented using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. Root causes of low first DNA-PCR testing included maternal EID ignorance, absent lost mother-baby pairs (LMBP) tracking system, and no EID performance reviews. Health education, Continuous Medical Education (CMEs), and integration of laboratory and EID services were initial improvement changes used. Results. DNA-PCR testing increased from 20 to 100% between June 2014 and July 2015 and was sustained at 100% until February 2016. Two declines, 67% in September 2014 and 75% in June 2015, due to LMBP were addressed using expert clients and peer mothers, respectively. Conclusion. Formation of WIT, laboratory service integration at MBCP, and task shifting along EID cascade improved EID outcomes at 6 weeks.

  19. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of disseminated toxoplasmosis after cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Taro; Sumi, Masahiko; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Ueno, Mayumi; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Kaneko, Yumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Norose, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-06-01

    A 66-year-old woman with refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma underwent cord blood transplantation. Prior to transplantation, a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies was positive. On day 96, she exhibited fever and dry cough. Chest CT showed diffuse centrilobular ground glass opacities in both lungs. The reactivation of T. gondii was identified by the presence of parasite DNA in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, brain MRI revealed a space occupying lesion in the right occipital lobe. Therefore, disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. She received pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine from day 99. The lung and brain lesions both showed improvement but the PCR assay for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood was positive on day 133. On day 146, she developed blurred vision and reduced visual acuity, and a tentative diagnosis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was made based on ophthalmic examination results. As agranulocytosis developed on day 158, we decided to discontinue pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine and the treatment was thus switched to atovaquone. Moreover, we added spiramycin to atovaquone therapy from day 174, and her ocular condition gradually improved. In general, the prognosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor. However, early diagnosis and treatment may contribute to improvement of the fundamentally dismal prognosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis after HSCT.

  20. Efficient mining of association rules for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, R; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Illán, I A; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Gómez-Río, M

    2011-09-21

    In this paper, a novel technique based on association rules (ARs) is presented in order to find relations among activated brain areas in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. In this sense, the aim of this work is to discover associations among attributes which characterize the perfusion patterns of normal subjects and to make use of them for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Firstly, voxel-as-feature-based activation estimation methods are used to find the tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs serve as input to secondly mine ARs with a minimum support and confidence among activation blocks by using a set of controls. In this context, support and confidence measures are related to the proportion of functional areas which are singularly and mutually activated across the brain. Finally, we perform image classification by comparing the number of ARs verified by each subject under test to a given threshold that depends on the number of previously mined rules. Several classification experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the proposed methods using a SPECT database that consists of 41 controls (NOR) and 56 AD patients labeled by trained physicians. The proposed methods were validated by means of the leave-one-out cross validation strategy, yielding up to 94.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for computer aided diagnosis of AD.

  1. Early molecular diagnosis and detection of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, C; Shichang, X; Ruiming, L; Taiguo, L; Wanquan, C

    2008-05-01

    Wheat stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is the most important foliar disease on wheat in China. Early molecular diagnosis and detection of stripe rust will provide a useful aid to the accurate forecast and seasonal control of this destructive disease. Our objective was to develop PCR assays for the rapid identification and detection of P. striiformis. The genomic DNA of P. striiformis and P. triticina were amplified by a pair of primers derived from conserved beta-tubulin gene sequence. A 235-bp specific DNA fragment of P. striiformis was isolated and purified. Based on its sequence, another two primer sets were designed successfully to obtain new sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of P. striiformis, which could be amplified in all test isolates of P. striiformis, whereas no DNA fragment was obtained in other nontarget wheat pathogens. The detection limit of the primer set YR (f)/YR (r1) was 2.20 pg microl(-1). The new SCAR markers of P. striiformis can also be detected in Pst-infected wheat leaves postinoculated for 2 days. Our assays are significantly faster than the conventional methods used in the identification of P. striiformis. Development of a simple, high-throughput assay kit for the rapid diagnosis and detection of wheat stripe rust would be anticipated in a further study.

  2. Integrated proteo-genomic approach for early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hem D; Mahmood, Javed; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality among men and women worldwide. Despite the availability of numerous diagnostic techniques for various cancers, the overall survival rate remains low and the majority of patients die due to late diagnosis and advanced stage of the disease. Diagnosing and treating cancer at its early stages ideally during the precancerous phase could significantly increase survival rate with the possibility of cure and prolong survival. Cancer is a genetic disease and it is illicitly activated by the acquisition of somatic DNA lesions and aberrations in genome structure and defects in maintenance and repair. These somatic DNA mutations known as driver mutations seem to be the prime cause in initiating tumorigenesis. The advances in genomic technologies have immensely facilitated the understanding of cancer progression and metastasis, and the discovery of novel biomarkers. However, changes in somatic mutational landscape of the oncogenome are translated into aberrantly regulated oncoproteome which drives the cancer initiation. Thus, combination of proteomic and genomic technologies is urgently required to discover biomarkers for early diagnosis. The recent advances in human genome based detection of cancer using advanced genomic technologies like NextGen Sequencing, digital PCR, cfDNA technology have shown promise; for example oncogenic somatic mutation variants, transcriptomic analysis, copy number variant, and methylation data from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Similarly, oncoproteomics has the potential to revolutionize clinical management of the disease, including cancer diagnosis and screening based on new proteomic database which embodies somatic variants and post translational modifications, thus devising proteomic technologies as a complement to histopathology. Further, the use of multiple proteomic and genomic biomarkers rather than a single gene or protein could greatly improve diagnostic accuracy and enhance the predictive power for

  3. Are the Duke criteria really useful for the early bedside diagnosis of infective endocarditis? Results of a prospective multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Enrico; Trinchero, Rita; Imazio, Massimo; Forno, Davide; Dal Conte, Ivano; Lipani, Filippo; Brusca, Antonio; Gnavi, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    To date, no studies have evaluated the usefulness of the Duke vs the modified Duke criteria for the early diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE), nor is it known whether a probabilistic approach may be useful in establishing an early clinical diagnosis of IE. The aim of this study was (1) to assess and compare the clinical usefulness of the Duke vs the modified Duke criteria for the early diagnosis of IE, and (2) to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a probabilistic approach based on the echocardiographic criterion. From January 2000 to December 2001, 267 consecutive patients with suspected IE were enrolled in a prospective multicenter trial. IE was diagnosed in 147 cases (55%) and rejected in 120 cases (45%). The Duke and the modified Duke criteria had a high similar sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The time to diagnosis was 8.15 +/- 7.4 days for the Duke criteria and 8.18 +/- 7.1 days for the modified Duke criteria. The time to diagnosis based on a probabilistic approach was shorter than that based on the Duke and the modified Duke criteria (4.96 +/- 7.1 days, for all p < 0.001). Although the Duke and the modified Duke criteria have a very similar sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, the delay in the time to diagnosis may be significant. A probabilistic approach based on clinical suspicion and echocardiographic evidence may be useful for decision-making, whilst awaiting case definition by means of the Duke criteria.

  4. Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants - One Caribbean and Six Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Karidia; Kim, Andrea A; Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Beard, R Suzanne; Dale, Helen; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Rivadeneira, Molly; Fonjungo, Peter N; Broyles, Laura N; Zhang, Guoqing; Sleeman, Katrina; Nguyen, Shon; Jadczak, Steve; Abiola, Nadine; Ewetola, Raimi; Muwonga, Jérémie; Fwamba, Franck; Mwangi, Christina; Naluguza, Mary; Kiyaga, Charles; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Varough, Deyde; Wysler, Domercant; Lowrance, David; Louis, Frantz Jean; Desinor, Olbeg; Buteau, Josiane; Kesner, Francois; Rouzier, Vanessa; Segaren, Nat; Lewis, Tessa; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Chipungu, Geoffrey; Gupta, Sundeep; Singer, Daniel; Mwenda, Reuben; Kapoteza, Hilary; Chipeta, Zawadi; Knight, Nancy; Carmona, Sergio; MacLeod, William; Sherman, Gayle; Pillay, Yogan; Ndongmo, Clement B; Mugisa, Bridget; Mwila, Annie; McAuley, James; Chipimo, Peter J; Kaonga, Wezi; Nsofwa, Dailess; Nsama, Davy; Mwamba, Fales Zulu; Moyo, Crispin; Phiri, Clement; Borget, Marie-Yolande; Ya-Kouadio, Leonard; Kouame, Abo; Adje-Toure, Christiane A; Nkengasong, John

    2016-11-25

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3). Since 2011, the annual number of HIV-infected children has declined by 50%. Despite this gain, in 2014, only 42% of HIV-exposed infants received a diagnostic test for HIV (2), and in 2015, only 51% of children living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (1). Access to services for early infant diagnosis of HIV (which includes access to testing for HIV-exposed infants and clinical diagnosis of HIV-infected infants) is critical for reducing HIV-associated mortality in children aged HIV testing services for early infant diagnosis was assessed. During 2011-2015, the total number of HIV diagnostic tests performed among HIV-exposed infants within 6 weeks after birth (tests for early infant diagnosis of HIV), as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) increased in all seven countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia); however, in 2015, the rate of testing for early infant diagnosis among HIV-exposed infants was HIV positivity among those tested declined in all seven countries, with three countries (Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda) reporting >50% decline. The most common challenges for access to testing for early infant diagnosis included difficulties in specimen transport, long turnaround time between specimen collection and receipt of results, and limitations in supply chain management. Further reductions in HIV mortality in children can be achieved through

  5. Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in low-income and middle-income countries: does one size fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penazzato, Martina; Revill, Paul; Prendergast, Andrew J; Collins, Intira J; Walker, Simon; Elyanu, Peter J; Sculpher, Mark; Gibb, Diana M

    2014-07-01

    Despite expansion of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), about 700 infants acquire HIV every day. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected infants reduces mortality but requires diagnosis by virological testing, which is complex, expensive, and inaccessible in many settings. Little cost-effectiveness evidence exists about different strategies to deliver early infant diagnosis services. Cost-effectiveness will vary depending on entry points for testing, underlying prevalences of HIV, PMTCT coverage, treatment availability, programme attrition, and other factors. Appropriate policy responses are therefore context-specific. In most cases, early infant diagnosis should be concentrated at entry points where underlying infant HIV prevalence is highest (eg, malnutrition wards). This strategy contrasts with the tendency at present to test mainly within PMTCT programmes. If testing is undertaken in PMTCT programmes with high coverage, addition of a virological test at birth might have advantages, including greater predictive value, earlier diagnosis, and better infant follow-up. National programme managers should recognise the opportunity costs of the limited resources available, acknowledge the changing scenario of PMTCT scale-up, ensure implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling, and tailor early infant diagnosis programmes to maximise health gains for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.; Tian, Q.; Baek, S. J.; Shang, X. L.; Park, A.; Liu, Z. C.; Yao, X. Q.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, X. H.; Cheng, Y.; Peng, J.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm-1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital.

  7. Early diagnosis of tongue malignancy using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan V., K.; Ongole, Ravikiran; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-07-01

    Oral cancer together with pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with high mortality ratio among all malignancies [1]. Worldwide 450,000 new cases are estimated in 2014[2]. About 90% are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC of the tongue is the most common oral malignancy accounting for approximately 40% of all oral carcinomas. One of the important factors for successful therapy of any malignancy is early diagnosis. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, lack of reliable diagnostic methods for early detection leading to delay in therapy is an important factor responsible for the increase in the mortality rate in various types of cancers. Spectroscopy techniques are extremely sensitive for the analysis of biochemical changes in cellular systems. These techniques can provide a valuable information on alterations that occur during the development of cancer. This is especially important in oral cancer, where "tumor detection is complicated by a tendency towards field cancerization, leading to multi-centric lesions" and "current techniques detect malignant change too late" [3], and "biopsies are not representative of the whole premalignant lesion". [4

  8. Spinal cord injury of cervical vertibrae and early diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈扬; 李振宇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To sum up clinical data and CT and MRI examination in 22 patients with spinal cord injury of cervical vertebrae.Methods:CT and MRI examination of the 22 patients with spinal cord injury of cervical vertebrae revealed that 16 patients had spinal comprssion caused by fracture dislocation and protrusion of intervertebral disc,5 suffered from intramedullary hemorrhage and 1 had complete spinal cord injury.A combined modality therapy of intramedullary and extramedullary decompression for spinal cord,skull traction and avoiding reinjury to spinal cord were used. Results:According to Frankel Classification,before operation 3 cases were classified as A degree,2 as B degree,5as C degree,8 as D degree and 4 as Edegree;after operation 2 were classified as A degree,1 as B degree,6 as C degree,6 as D degree and 7 as E degree.Conclusions:Early diagnosis and timely treatmetn,clear mechanism and degree of injury and early selection of effective treatment are very important in raising the rate of curing spinal cord injury.

  9. A nanostructured genosensor for the early diagnosis of systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Thalita; Cancino, Juliana; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2015-02-01

    The rapid progress of nanomedicine, especially in areas related to medical imaging and diagnostics, has motivated the development of new nanomaterials that can be combined with biological materials for specific medical applications. One such area of research involves the detection of specific DNA sequences for the early diagnosis of genetic diseases, using nanoparticles-containing genosensors. Typical genosensors devices are based on the use of sensing electrodes - biorecognition platforms - containing immobilized capture DNA probes capable of hybridizing with specific target DNA sequences. In this paper we show that upon an appropriate design of the biorecognition platform, efficient sandwich-type genosensors based upon DNA-AuNPs nanocomplexes can be efficiently applied to the detection of a Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) polymorphism located in intron 16 of the Angiotensin-converter enzyme (ACE) gene. Since SAH is intimately related to heart diseases, especially blood hypertension, its early detection is of great biomedical interest. The biorecognition platforms were assembled using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMmix), which provided the immobilization of organized architectures with molecular control. Detection of the DNA target sequence at concentrations down to 1 nM was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We show that the use of EIS combined with specific nanobiocomplexes represents an efficient method for the unambiguous detection of complementary DNA hybridization for preventative nanomedicine applications.

  10. Clinical study of quantitative diagnosis of early cervical cancer based on the classification of acetowhitening kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative colposcopic imaging system for the diagnosis of early cervical cancer is evaluated in a clinical study. This imaging technology based on 3-D active stereo vision and motion tracking extracts diagnostic information from the kinetics of acetowhitening process measured from the cervix of human subjects in vivo. Acetowhitening kinetics measured from 137 cervical sites of 57 subjects are analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical algorithms. Cross-validation methods are used to evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithms. The results show that an algorithm for screening precancer produced 95% sensitivity (SE) and 96% specificity (SP) for discriminating normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected tissues from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. For a diagnostic algorithm, 91% SE and 90% SP are achieved for discriminating normal tissue, HPV infected tissue, and low-grade CIN lesions from high-grade CIN lesions. The results demonstrate that the quantitative colposcopic imaging system could provide objective screening and diagnostic information for early detection of cervical cancer.

  11. 产后出血的急救%Early diagnosis and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锰; 刘兴会

    2013-01-01

    产后出血仍是我国孕产妇死亡的最主要原因,其早期的诊断和及时的救治是提高抢救成功率、降低孕产妇死亡率的关键.本综述主要从产后出血的早期诊断、及时干预及合理转诊对产后出血的急救进行阐述,并根据我国产后出血的诊疗现状,以期帮助产科医务人员对产后出血的诊治有更深一步的认识.%Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death in China. Early detection and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage play a key role in reducing maternal mortality rate. This review mainly focus on the early diagnosis,effective treatment and transportation of patients with postpartum hemorrhage in China in order to help the obstetric medical staffs to gain a deeper understanding of this life-threatening condition.

  12. Current Challenges in Diabetic Nephropathy: Early Diagnosis and Ways to Improve Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, In Joo

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is the primary cause of kidney failure in half of patients who receive dialysis therapy. Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and its high morbidity and mortality, diabetic nephropathy is a serious drawback in individual patients and a tremendous socioeconomic burden on society. Despite growing concern for the management of diabetic nephropathy, the prevalence of CKD with diabetes is the same today as it was 20 years ago. The current strategy to manage diabetic nephropathy, including the control of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure and the wide-spread use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, is well established to be beneficial in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. However, the effects are uncertain in patients with relatively progressed CKD. Therefore, early diagnosis or risk verification is extremely important in order to reduce the individual and socioeconomic burdens associated with diabetic nephropathy by providing appropriate management to prevent the development and progression of this condition. This review focuses on recent research and guidelines regarding risk assessment, advances in medical treatment, and challenges of and future treatments for diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Massively parallel sequencing for early molecular diagnosis in Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Frauke; De Wilde, Bram; Lefever, Steve; De Meester, Ellen; De Rocker, Nina; Van Cauwenbergh, Caroline; Pattyn, Filip; Meire, Françoise; Leroy, Bart P; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo; De Baere, Elfride

    2012-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare congenital retinal dystrophy associated with 16 genes. Recent breakthroughs in LCA gene therapy offer the first prospect of treating inherited blindness, which requires an unequivocal and early molecular diagnosis. While present genetic tests do not address this due to a tremendous genetic heterogeneity, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) strategies might bring a solution. Here, we developed a comprehensive molecular test for LCA based on targeted MPS of all exons of 16 known LCA genes. We designed a unique and flexible workflow for targeted resequencing of all 236 exons from 16 LCA genes based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplicon ligation, shearing, and parallel sequencing of multiple patients on a single lane of a short-read sequencer. Twenty-two prescreened LCA patients were included, five of whom had a known molecular cause. Validation of 107 variations was performed as proof of concept. In addition, the causal genetic defect and a single heterozygous mutation were identified in 3 and 5, respectively, of 17 patients without previously identified mutations. We propose a novel targeted MPS-based approach that is suitable for accurate, fast, and cost-effective early molecular testing in LCA, and easily applicable in other genetic disorders.

  14. Current Challenges in Diabetic Nephropathy: Early Diagnosis and Ways to Improve Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD and is the primary cause of kidney failure in half of patients who receive dialysis therapy. Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and its high morbidity and mortality, diabetic nephropathy is a serious drawback in individual patients and a tremendous socioeconomic burden on society. Despite growing concern for the management of diabetic nephropathy, the prevalence of CKD with diabetes is the same today as it was 20 years ago. The current strategy to manage diabetic nephropathy, including the control of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure and the wide-spread use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, is well established to be beneficial in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. However, the effects are uncertain in patients with relatively progressed CKD. Therefore, early diagnosis or risk verification is extremely important in order to reduce the individual and socioeconomic burdens associated with diabetic nephropathy by providing appropriate management to prevent the development and progression of this condition. This review focuses on recent research and guidelines regarding risk assessment, advances in medical treatment, and challenges of and future treatments for diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the serological diagnosis of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, A; Young, H

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of various serological tests in the diagnosis of early syphilis. The Murex enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test was used for screening; the Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and the Mercia antitreponemal IgM EIA were used in all the patients with a positive screening test and in those with suspected syphilis or in known contacts. In 89 cases of primary syphilis, the Murex EIA screening test was positive in 67 (75%) patients, the Mercia IgM EIA in 80 (90%) cases, the VDRL in 60 (67%) cases and the TPPA in 85 (96%) cases. All the tests were positive in 68 patients with secondary syphilis. In 72 cases of early latent syphilis, the Murex EIA screening test was positive in 68 (94%) patients, the Mercia IgM EIA in 50 (69%) cases, the VDRL in 61 (85%) cases and the TPPA in 68 (94%) cases. The Mercia IgM EIA was the only test positive in four (6%) of these cases; these four patients were known contacts. Antibody titres in the VDRL and TPPA increased as the infection progressed.

  16. How Should the Screening Programs be planned for the Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kilbas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women, and it ranks as the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Although breast cancer incidence in western countries is higher than developping countries, very favorable survival rates in the developed countries have been attributed to early detection by screening. Despite screening mammography have been used for a long time, there is not a strong consensus related to when to start?, how frequently to screen?, and when to finish screening. Many factors including the risk stratification of patient, incidence of breast cancer, social and economic status, the availability of mammography and medical team should be considered when creating national screening programs. Today, the most effective way to reduce breast cancer mortality is early diagnosis and treatment. By the help of effective screening programmes and organizations related to breast cancer awareness, downstaging of breast cancer and reduction in mortality rate in community could be possible. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 225-230

  17. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD.

  18. Early diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS in Indian patients by nerve conduction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Geetanjali Sharma MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for early confirmation of clinically diagnosed patients of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS by electro-diagnostic tests which included motor conduction, sensory conduction studies and F-wave studies. The aim of the study was early confirmation of clinically suspected patients of CTS by motor and sensory conduction studies of median and ulnar nerves. Eighty subjects of age group 30-50 years (40 clinically suspected patients of CTS, 40 as control group were studied. Motor and Sensory conduction velocities, distal motor and sensory latencies and F wave latencies of median and ulnar nerves were performed using RMS EMG EP Mark –II. Statistically significant (P < 0.001 slowing of motor conduction velocities for both nerves was seen in the CTS group as compared to control group. Decrease in sensory conduction velocity was more pronounced in CTS group as compared to Control group. Statistically significant (P < 0.001 increase in distal motor and sensory latencies was also observed for both median and ulnar nerves in the CTS group as compared to Control group, with more increase in distal motor latency than sensory latency. Increase in F wave latencies of both nerves was seen in the CTS group. Electrophysiological studies confirmed the early diagnosis of CTS with a high degree of sensitivity. Present results confirm selective slowing of sensory & motor conduction within wrist to palm segment in patients of CTS which is attributable to compression by the transverse carpal ligament or to a disease process of the terminal segment.

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Brain Perfusion SPECT with Brodmann Areas Mapping in Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on clinical criteria alone may be problematic, while current and future treatments should be administered earlier in order to be more effective. Thus, various disease biomarkers could be used for early detection of AD. We evaluated brain perfusion with 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Brodmann areas (BAs) mapping in mild AD using an automated software (NeuroGam) for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 34 consecutive patients with mild AD: 9 men, 25 women, mean age 70.9 ± 8.1 years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination 22.6 ± 2.5. BAs 25L, 25R, 38L, 38R, 28L, 28R, 36L, and 36R had the lower mean perfusion values, while BAs 31L, 31R, 19R, 18L, 18R, 17L, and 17R had the higher mean values. Compared with healthy subjects of the same age, perfusion values in BAs 25L, 25R, 28R, 28L, 36L, and 36R had the greatest deviations from the healthy sample, while the lowest deviations were found in BAs 32L, 32R, 19R, 24L, 17L, 17R, 18L, and 18R. A percentage of ≥94% of patients had perfusion values more than -2SDs below the mean of healthy subjects in BAs 38R, 38L, 36L, 36R, 23L, 23R, 22L, 44L, 28L, 28R, 25L, and 25R. The corresponding proportion was less than 38% for BAs 11L, 19R, 32L, 32R, 18L, 18R, 24L, and 17R. In conclusion, brain SPECT studies with automated perfusion mapping could be useful as an ancillary tool in daily practice, revealing perfusion impairments in early AD.

  20. Analysis of factors responsible for the image in early stage emphysema and research concerning the diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hirotaka [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    To clarify the utility of the CT image to a clinical diagnosis of the early stage emphysema, the relation of CT value to the level of the lung destruction, the change in the lung density and pulmonary function was examined. Experimental pulmonary emphysema model in canine was produced by inhalation of aerosolized papain solution. In this model, the relationship between the destruction in lung tissues and the analysis of CT images was investigated. Changes in the alveolar surface area per unit lung volume well reflected those in mean CT value in the lung parenchyma. Also, it was clarified that the degree of the lung destruction in this model corresponded to that in patients with the early stage emphysema. Mean CT value in the area that formed lowest 5th percentile of the CT value histogram (mCT (5%ile)) was developed to analyze CT images in emphysema. To develop this study, changes of the mCT (5%ile) at the respiratory level from 5% to 95% inspiratory vital capacity (mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC))) was examined. In experimental studies, there was statistical significance between control and emphysema model. In clinical study using 14 patients with emphysema, the mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)) reflected well the values of pulmonary function tests which indicated air flow limitation such as %pred. FEV 1.0 and MMF. The present studies demonstrated that it might be useful to detect the pathological and functional impairment in the early stage emphysema by using mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)). (author)

  1. A preliminary clinical report of 2LC reagent for early gastric cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Xue Zhong Chen; Zhi Xue Lin; Ling Chen

    2000-01-01

    AIM To explore the feasibility of early gastric cancer diagnosis with 2LC reagent, and to establish a grossexploration method for early gastric cancer with the reagent based on the feasibility.METHODS Add 30 mg or 0.3 mL 2LC reagent into 5 mL urinary sample, observe the change of urinary,and analyze the sample on DAO-JIN-UV-260 Ultraviolet-analyzer at 190nm - 700nm, then, record theabsorbance at 490nm. To determine best stage of sample, take some samples on 8:00 pm and 8:00 am,respectively. To select best dosage of 2LC, take the test with different concentrations. To test the effect ofoperation, conduct the experiment in different stages before and after the operation for the patients withgastric cancer. Two parallel samples were taken each time in the whole experiment.RESULTS Red compound produced by some reactions when the 2LC reagent was added into the urinary ofpatients with gastric cancer, and the urine had obvious absorptivity at about 490nm (positive). There was almost no reaction in the urine of other samples (negative). A total of 172 samples were tested, the positiverate of gastric cancer was above 90% in 48 samples before the operation, in which 8 advanced gastric cancerand 9 early stage gastric cancer samples behaved stronger positive reaction. The positive rate of 118 othersamples was less than 10%. The urine taken in the morning was batter than that in the evening. The bestdosage of 2LC was 6 mg/mL for crystal and 0.05 mL/mL for liquid. The test results of gastric cancerpatients with postoperative tumor recrudescence or transfer were positive, and the others were negative.CONCLUSION There is a high feasibility in manipulation simplification, specificity and receptivity of 2LCreagent for early gastric cancer detection, and the characteristics mentioned above will be improved based onthe advanced raw material used and the style of the 2LC reagent. It is an effective gross exploration methodfor early gastric cancer with the 2LC reagent, and can determine

  2. [Real-time sonography of the infant hip joint in the early diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casser, H R; Forst, R

    1985-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination of infant hip joint means a great advantage in early diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia. The sonographic type classification by Graf enables the experienced examiner to make up a differentiated diagnostic-therapeutic concept as early as possible. Therapeutic omissions just as well as exaggerated therapeutic measures can be avoided. Consequently the prognosis of hip joint dysplasia is considerably improved by ultrasonic examination of new-born hip joints.

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE METHODS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF OCCLUSAL CARIES LESIONS – in vitro study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova; Radostina Anastasova; Vladimir E. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile met...

  4. Claves para el diagnóstico precoz del glaucoma (Keys to early diagnosis of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molleda-Carbonell José Mª

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl diagnóstico precoz del glaucoma es un problema en oftalmologíaveterinaria. Basándose en los síntomas clínicos habituales el diagnóstico suele hacerse en un punto en el que la visión ha sufrido un importante deterioro. Basados en el hecho de que el glaucoma es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa del nervio óptico y que sus primeras manifestaciones son degeneración y muerte de las células ganglionares de la retina, degeneración de axones del nervio óptico y por tanto disminución de la capa de fibras nerviosas nerviosas, con aumento de la excavación papilar, disminución del anillo neuro-retniano y desestabilización de la cabeza del nervio óptico, es obvio que el diagnóstico debe de centrarse en detectar, loantes posible, estos cambios. En la actualidad, sin menospreciar latonometría y la gonioscopia se debe profundizar en aquellas técnicas que como la oftalmoscopia de la retina y papila evalúen el daño y progresión del nervio óptico. Así junto al estudio de la progresión de la excavación papilar frente a la disminución del anillo neurorretiniano, es necesario avanzar en el uso de técnicas actuales como la tomografía de coherencia óptica (OCT y el analizador de fibras nerviosas GDX, que detectan daños y su progresión en la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina incluso antes de que se traduzcan en una pérdida apreciable de la función visual.SummaryEarly diagnosis of glaucoma is a problem in veterinary ophthalmologybecause the diagnosis is based on the clinical sings when there is animportant visual alteration. Two groups of eye conditions have beenproposed in glaucoma. One of them has the common feature aboutprogressive optic neuropaty involving loss of retinal ganglion cells, getting smaller the neuroretinal rim, loss of nerve fibre layer and generalised or focal enlargement of the cup. Only a preventive glaucoma diagnosis can preserve effectively the vision. Early detection is the key to protecting the

  5. Explore the Possibility of Early Clinical Diagnosis of Endocrine Ophthalmopathy Based on Eye Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the possibility of early clinical diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy based on ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods: we analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism in 139 patients (278 orbits with newly diagnosed endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 1, developed on the background of diffuse toxic goiter. The comparison group consisted of 80 patients (160 orbits with newly diagnosed diffuse toxic goiter with no radiographic evidence of endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 2. All patients were examined by an ophthalmologist and endocrinologist. We analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism (symptom Dalrymple’, Mobius’, Zenger’, and combinations thereof, often encountered in diffuse toxic goiter, flowing with endocrine ophthalmopathy, and/or lack thereof - in the group of “thyrotoxic exophthalmos”. We took into account the frequency distribution of these clinical signs, and their combinations. We analyzed the clinical sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis based on the three most common symptoms, and their combinations, associated both with thyrotoxicosis and with endocrine ophthalmopathy. Results: Dalrymple’ symptom, is more common in thyrotoxic exophthalmos than with endocrine ophthalmopathy (compared to 100.0% versus 61.9 %, p<0,001. This suggests that Dalrymple’ symptom leads to over diagnosis aspect endocrine ophthalmopathy. It is obvious that it can be used to recognize and thyrotoxic exophthalmos hyperthyroidism, but you cann’t credibly claim based on orbit about the presence of the disease. In this aspect, the greatest practical interest to provide a comparative assessment of the frequency of detection of symptoms of Mobius’ and Zenger’ and their combinations in a population of endocrine ophthalmopathy and in the group of thyrotoxic exophthalmos. Significantly more symptoms Zenger’ and Mobius’ developed with endocrine ophthalmopathy (66,2% and 81

  6. Ensembles of Deep Learning Architectures for the Early Diagnosis of the Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrés; Munilla, Jorge; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) constitutes an important tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), which, in turn, allows the application of treatments that can be simpler and more likely to be effective. This paper explores the construction of classification methods based on deep learning architectures applied on brain regions defined by the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL). Gray Matter (GM) images from each brain area have been split into 3D patches according to the regions defined by the AAL atlas and these patches are used to train different deep belief networks. An ensemble of deep belief networks is then composed where the final prediction is determined by a voting scheme. Two deep learning based structures and four different voting schemes are implemented and compared, giving as a result a potent classification architecture where discriminative features are computed in an unsupervised fashion. The resulting method has been evaluated using a large dataset from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Classification results assessed by cross-validation prove that the proposed method is not only valid for differentiate between controls (NC) and AD images, but it also provides good performances when tested for the more challenging case of classifying Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Subjects. In particular, the classification architecture provides accuracy values up to 0.90 and AUC of 0.95 for NC/AD classification, 0.84 and AUC of 0.91 for stable MCI/AD classification and 0.83 and AUC of 0.95 for NC/MCI converters classification.

  7. Short-distance sensory stimulation technique in the early diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Çevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Normal results obtained from nerve conduction studies do not exclude the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. We intended to increase diagnostic sensitivity of nerve conduction studies in the early stage CTS by stimulating shorter palm-wrist segment, and excluding distal region outside the entrapment site of the median nerve which is unaffected from pathologic changes. Methods. In this prospective study, 41 patients (66 hands with clinically diagnosed CTS with normal conventional electrophysiologic examinations were stimulated with electrodes placed at 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 cm from the distal wrist crease (DWC on the palm-wrist segment, and the conduction velocities, latencies, and the differential latencies (conduction delay were compared with those of 34 patients (68 hands in the control group. Results. Conduction delay recorded between 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8 cm. away from DWC of both groups was statistically insignificant (p>0.1, while the conduction velocities and the latencies obtained from the electrodes placed on 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 cm away from DWC differed statistically significantly between two groups (p<0.001. Conclusion. In electrophysiologic examinations performed to confirm the diagnosis of CTS, assessment of shorter palm-wrist segment, and stimulation of a predetermined location 4 or 5 cm distal to DWC are sufficient to detect a slight and localized conduction delay in the carpal tunnel. This method eliminated slowing-down effect of distal segment on normal nerve conduction velocities yielding higher degrees of (up to 92.4 % sensitivity.

  8. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: role of early diagnosis and surgical treatment in patients with acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursavas Ahmet

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling fungus known to cause significant pulmonary infection in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of aspergillosis has increased during the past two decades and is a frequently lethal complication of acute leukemia patients that occurs following both chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA according to the criteria that are established by European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group raise difficulties in severely ill patients. Despite established improvements in field of diagnosis (galactomannan antigen, quantitative PCR, real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp., and findings of computed tomography and treatment with new antifungals, it is still a major problem in patients with acute leukemia. However, prompt and effective treatment of IPA is crucial because most patients will need subsequent chemotherapy for underlying hematologic disease as soon as possible. Case presentation We report a 33-year-old male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia diagnosed in 1993 that developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to A. flavus at relapse in 2003. The patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and underwent surgical pulmonary resection. The operative course was uneventful. Conclusion This report emphasizes the clinical picture, applicability of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for IPA. For early identification of a patient infected with IPA, a high index of suspicion and careful clinical and radiological examinations with serial screening for galactomannan should be established. If aspergillosis is suspected, anti-aspergillosis drug should be administered immediately, and if a unique pulmonary lesion remains, surgical resection should be considered to prevent reactivation during consecutive chemotherapy courses and to improve the outcome.

  9. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute or subacute spinal epidural hematoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hang-ping; FAN Shun-wu; YANG Hui-lin; TANG Tian-si; ZHOU Feng; ZHAO Xing

    2007-01-01

    postoperative and preoperative scales (u=3.66, P<0.01). Most patients recovered after therapy, but the recovery of patients treated at our hospitals was superior to that of those transferred from community hospitals (t =2.95, P<0.05). Of the patients treated at our hospitals, 4 were cured and 1 was upgraded with scale from A to D, whereas none of those transferred from community hospitals recovered completely,even one remained scale C.Conclusions Physical examination plus MRI is essential to early diagnosis of acute or subacute spinal epidural hematoma. Preventive and curative measures including emergency operation are helpful to the recovery of patients'nerve function.

  10. [Molecular diagnosis as a strategy for differential diagnosis and at early ages of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martha; Batista, Oriana

    2015-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), is a haploinsufficient and multisystemic disease, caused by inherited or sporadic mutations in the NF1 gene. Its incidence is one in 2,500 to 3,000 individuals, it has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, high clinical variability, complete penetrance and age-dependent complications. Neurofibromin is the product of the NF1 gene and is believed to act as a tumor suppressor since the loss of its function has been associated with benign and malignant tumors in neural crest-derived tissues. Only two correlations between clinical phenotype and mutant alleles in the NF1 gene have been observed. The established criteria for disease diagnosis are very efficient in adults and children older than 3 years of age, but not for children under this age. Mutational analysis is therefore recommended to confirm the disease in young children with a negative family history. A pathogenic mutation in the NF1 should be added to the list of diagnostic criteria. Mutational analysis is also recommended for differential diagnosis and for prenatal or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, taking into consideration the family history and the type of method to be applied. Molecular studies of this disease using different complimentary molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools have characterized NF1 gene mutations at both the DNA and mRNA levels, increasing the mutational spectrum. Consequently, about 1,289 defects have been reported to date, mainly nonsense/missense mutations, deletions and splice site defects.

  11. Implementation of Early Diagnosis and Intervention Guidelines for Cerebral Palsy in a High-Risk Infant Follow-Up Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Rachel; Noritz, Garey; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2017-08-30

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability in childhood, and is mostly diagnosed after age 2 years. Delays in diagnosis can have negative long-term consequences for children and parents. New guidelines for early cerebral palsy diagnosis and intervention were recently published, after systematic review of the evidence by international multidisciplinary experts aiming to decrease age at diagnosis. The current study tested the feasibility of implementing these guidelines in an American clinical setting. We designed a stepwise implementation process in a neonatal intensive care follow-up clinic. Efficacy was tested by comparing 10-month pre- and post-implementation periods. Clinic visit types, cerebral palsy diagnosis, provider competencies and perspectives, and balancing measures were analyzed. Changes to infrastructure, assessments, scheduling algorithms, documentation and supports in diagnosis or counseling were successfully implemented. Number of three- to four-month screening visits increased (255 to 499, P cerebral palsy care guidelines for infants under age 2 years. We demonstrated for the first time in a US clinical setting the feasibility of implementation of international early diagnosis and treatment guidelines for cerebral palsy. This process is adaptable to other settings and underscores the necessity of future research on cerebral palsy treatments in infancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early diagnosis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis on magnetic resonance imaging: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Khaladkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE is a common hip condition occurring in adolescents, with a prevalence of 10 cases per 100,000 children. It usually affects younger age group from 10 to 17 years. The condition is usually found to be coexistent with various other conditions such as obesity, growth surges, and endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, growth hormone supplementation, hypogonadism, and pan-hypopituitarism. Patients present with limping and a poorly localized pain in the hip, groin, thigh, or knee. Diagnosis of the condition is often delayed due to its nonassociation with trauma and hence increases the chances of developing various complications such as avascular necrosis, chondrolysis and deformity. Majority of researches of SCFE are from Europe and North America, while studies in Asian populations are rare. Delay in diagnosis of SCFE is usually due to patients presenting with knee pain. Imaging can thus aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease, which in turn reduces incidence of deformity and disability in the affected children. Bilateral hip radiography - anteroposterior and frog′s-leg lateral views and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are the radiological techniques that help in early diagnosis. MRI detects early physeal changes of both preslip and SCFE even when radiographs and computed tomography are normal. MRI should be routinely used to diagnose early SCFE in preslip stage to avoid further complications.

  13. [Serological diagnosis of an infestation caused by the early developmental stages of botfly larvae (Oedemagena tarandi) in reindeer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopov, N V; Kalinina, N G

    1984-01-01

    Undertaken investigations have shown that the antigen prepared from larvae of O. tarandi is diagnostically effective and stricktly specific only to this infection in the reaction of indirect hemagglutination (RIHA). The experiments have proved the possibility of practical use of RIHA as a principal method of early diagnosis of infection of reindeer caused by O. tarandi.

  14. Role of serum procalcitonin level in early diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in children, a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohd Saleem

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Serum PCT is an important biomarker for prompt diagnosis of bacterial infection and a sensitive indicator to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial pneumonia. Evaluating serum PCT levels helps in early use of antibiotic therapy and prognosis of underlying disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1518-1521

  15. The utility of perfusion CT and CT angiography on early diagnosis and the management of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Zabihyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage is one of the most important and dangerous neurologic emergencies worldwide. It is characterized by a sudden and severe headache caused most commonly by the rupture of intracranial aneurysm. Cerebral vasospasm is the most important cause of disability and death in whom survived from the first event. Early diagnosis and management of cerebral vasospasm could prevent and reduce its morbidity and mortality. Thus, an ideal technique must be able to detect the vasospasm before the occurrence of neurological deficits. Perfusion computed tomography could assess vascularity of brain including cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, time to peak and mean transit time. For this application, perfusion computed tomography and computed tomography angiography techniques offer significant advantages and can result in early diagnosis of vasospasm. In this review, we discuss the utility of these two techniques and their safety in the diagnosis and the management of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis: A Presentation of Multi-Institutional Cases to Promote Early Diagnosis and Management of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwinee Natu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare three cases of Herpes simplex virus (HSV hepatitis to increase early diagnosis of the disease. Case  1. A 23-year-old man with Crohn’s disease and oral HSV. HSV hepatitis was diagnosed clinically and he improved with acyclovir. Case  2. An 18-year-old G1P0 woman with transaminitis. Despite early empiric acyclovir therapy, she died due to fulminant liver failure. Case  3. A 65-year-old woman who developed transaminitis after liver transplant. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and she had resolution of acute liver failure with acyclovir. Conclusion. It is imperative that clinicians be aware of patients at high risk for developing HSV hepatitis to increase timely diagnosis and prevent morbidity and fatality.

  17. Essentiality of early diagnosis of molar incisor hypomineralization in children and review of its clinical presentation, etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nishita; Jain, Abhay Kumar; Saha, Sonali; Singh, Jaspal

    2012-09-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. One to four molars, and often also the incisors, could be affected. Since first recognized, the condition has been puzzling and interpreted as a distinct phenomenon unlike other enamel disturbances. Early diagnosis is essential since, rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its diagnosis and clinical management in young children. How to cite this article: Garg N, Jain AK, Saha S, Singh J. Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):190-196.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of early bioprosthetic malfunction in the mitral valve position due to thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnaru, Adi; Shaheen, Joseph; Tzivoni, Dan; Tauber, Rachel; Bitran, Daniel; Silberman, Shuli

    2013-11-01

    Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is uncommon and the diagnosis is often elusive and may be confused with valve degeneration. We report our experience with mitral bioprosthetic valve thrombosis and suggest a therapeutic approach. From 2002 to 2011, 149 consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve replacement with a bioprosthesis at a single center were retrospectively screened for clinical or echocardiographic evidence of valve malfunction. Nine were found to have valve thrombus. All 9 patients had their native valve preserved, representing 24% of those with preserved native valves. Five patients (group 1) presented with symptoms of congestive heart failure at 16.4 ± 12.4 months after surgery. Echocardiogram revealed homogenous echo-dense film on the ventricular surface of the bioprosthesis with elevated transvalvular gradient, resembling early degeneration. The first 2 patients underwent reoperation: valve thrombus was found and confirmed by histologic examination. Based on these, the subsequent 3 patients received anticoagulation treatment with complete thrombus resolution: mean mitral gradient decreased from 23 ± 4 to 6 ± 1 mm Hg and tricuspid regurgitation gradient decreased from 83 ± 20 to 49 ± 5 mm Hg. Four patients (group 2) were asymptomatic, but routine echocardiogram showed a discrete mass on the ventricular aspect of the valve: 1 underwent reoperation to replace the valve and 3 received anticoagulation with complete resolution of the echocardiographic findings. In conclusion, bioprosthetic mitral thrombosis occurs in about 6% of cases. In our experience, onset is early, before anticipated valve degeneration. Clinical awareness followed by an initial trial with anticoagulation is warranted. Surgery should be reserved for those who are not responsive or patients in whom the hemodynamic status does not allow delay. Nonresection of the native valve at the initial operation may play a role in the origin of this entity.

  19. [Hearing handicap in childhood--responsibilities of public health, early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, G; Föll, U; Lutt, B; Schaffrath, R

    1989-01-01

    Serious congenital hearing impairment occur in 1 per 1,000 people. Hereditary disease, perinatal complications, and postnatal disease present particular risk factors. Children, who do not hear or are extremely hard of hearing are slow in their language development and thus become retarded in their mental growth if not given appropriate stimulation. The Counseling Center for the hearing impaired was stablished as a multidisciplinary institution of the Health Office of Berlin-Neukölln for early recognition of and therapy for hearing impaired children. The average age at initial diagnosis of children with hearing impairment in the Federal Republic of Germany is between 3.3-3.4 years according to statistics from 1981. An effort should be made, however, to use the time before the completion of the first year of on's life for an optimal early therapy. Statistics from the Counseling Center for the hearing impaired indicate that at the present time all children with distinct hearing impairments, born in the FRG and West-Berlin, are diagnosed before they reach 32 months of age and are then assigned to special education programs. The average age of recognizing hearing impairments is 13.4 months. This favorable, however not optimal result can be attributed to the situation of a metropolis and its population informed by special professional events for target groups including employees of theYouth Health Services, established pediatricians and ENT specialists, teachers, social workers, educators, and also to the model of the "Berlin-Neukölln Counseling Center" which has proven successful over the past 30 years.

  20. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  1. Study on the value of detecting early secretory antigenic target-6 in cerebrospinal fluid monocytes by laser scanning confocal microscopy techniques in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-jie LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of detecting early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monocytes by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM techniques in early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM, and to find a more specific method for early diagnosis.  Methods Double immunofluorescence staining was applied to detect ESAT-6, and LSCM was used to observe the dyeing result of CSF monocytes and to analyze three-dimensional images. ESAT-6 positive cells will present red fluorescence cytoplasm and blue fluorescence nuclei, and negative cells present blue fluorescence nuclei while the cytoplasm is not stained.  Results ESAT-6 was mainly expressed with red fluorescence in cytoplasm of CSF monocytes in patients with TBM. Among 35 cases of TBM patients, there were 28 patients (80% ESAT-6 positive, one case (2.86% ESAT-6 positive in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 42.918, P = 0.000. ESAT-6 sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 97.14%.  Conclusions The detection of ESAT-6 can provide a certain basis for the early diagnosis of TBM and has high specificity. LSCM techniques can realize simultaneously the observation of multiple fluorescence and provide clear tomography and three-dimensional images. The cytological research has been improved to a new level. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.010

  2. C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setal B Chauhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

  3. Contrast-enhanced MRI features in the early diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijpers, Taco W.; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nusman, Charlotte M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Marion A.J. van; Berg, J.M. van den [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Reade, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Reade, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    To determine whether clinical, laboratory or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures differentiate Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) from other forms of active childhood arthritis. We prospectively collected data of 80 treatment-naive patients clinically suspected of JIA with active non-infectious arthritis of (at least) one knee for <12 months duration. Upon presentation patients underwent clinical and laboratory assessments and contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI was not used as a diagnostic criterion. Forty-four (55 %) patients were clinically diagnosed with JIA, whereas in 36 (45 %) patients the diagnosis of JIA was discarded on clinical or laboratory findings. MRI-based synovitis was present in 27 (61.4 %) JIA patients and in 7 (19.4 %) non-JIA patients (P < 0.001). Five factors (male gender, physician's global assessment of overall disease activity, joints with limited range of motion, HLA-B27, MRI-based synovitis) were associated with the onset of JIA. In multivariate analysis MRI-based synovitis proved to be independently associated with JIA (OR 6.58, 95 % CI 2.36-18.33). In patients with MRI-based synovitis, the RR of having JIA was 3.16 (95 % CI 1.6-6.4). The presence of MRI-based synovitis is associated with the clinical onset of JIA. Physical examination could be supported by MRI, particularly to contribute in the early differentiation of different forms of non-infectious childhood arthritis. (orig.)

  4. Differential sialylation of serpin A1 in the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jesse

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD increases with age. Up to 50% of PD show cognitive decline in terms of a mild cognitive impairment already in early stages that predict the development of dementia, which can occur in up to 80% of PD patients over the long term, called Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD. So far, diagnosis of PD/PDD is made according to clinical and neuropsychological examinations while laboratory data is only used for exclusion of other diseases. The aim of this study was the identification of possible biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of PD, PDD and controls (CON which predict the development of dementia in PD. For this, a proteomic approach optimized for CSF was performed using 18 clinically well characterized patients in a first step with subsequent validation using 84 patients. Here, we detected differentially sialylated isoforms of Serpin A1 as marker for differentiation of PD versus PDD in CSF. Performing 2D-immunoblots, all PDD patients could be identified correctly (sensitivity 100%. Ten out of 24 PD patients showed Serpin A1 isoforms in a similar pattern like PDD, indicating a specificity of 58% for the test-procedure. In control samples, no additional isoform was detected. On the basis of these results, we conclude that differentially sialylated products of Serpin A1 are an interesting biomarker to indicate the development of a dementia during the course of PD.

  5. Early diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome: EULAR-SS task force clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Baldini, Chiara; Seror, Raphaèle; Retamozo, Soledad; Quartuccio, Luca; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Dörner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Bombardieri, Stefano; de Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike A; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio; Buyon, Jill; Izmirly, Peter; Fox, Robert; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine glands, leading to generalized mucosal dryness. However, primary SjS may initially present with non-sicca (systemic) manifestations. When these features appear before the onset of an overt sicca syndrome, we may talk of an underlying 'occult' SjS. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) has promoted and supported an international collaborative study group (EULAR-SS Task Force) aimed at developing consensual recommendations to provide a homogeneous approach to the patient with primary SjS presenting with systemic involvement. This review summarizes the key factors that should be taken into account in the diagnostic approach in a patient with suspected SjS according to the main clinical patterns of presentation, and is especially focused on organ-specific systemic disease presentations, including a consensus set of recommendations in order to reach an early diagnosis. Close collaboration with the different specialties involved through a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is essential in SjS patients presenting with systemic involvements.

  6. An availability of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the early diagnosis of latent hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Noaki; Tanabe, Masako; Fujiwara, Akiko; Minato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Hiromasa [Hiroshima Posts and Telecommunications Hospital (Japan); Higashi, Toshihiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1996-03-01

    Brain MRI was carried out in patients with chronic liver diseases. No abnormal findings were recognized in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, while 59.2% of cirrhotics showed a symmetrically strong signal in basal ganglia on T1 weighted image in MRI. This finding significantly related with lowered Fischer`s ratio of serum amino acid, increased levels of serum phenylalanine, tyrosine and hyaluronic acid, prolonged prothrombin time and decreased platelet counts in the peripheral blood. Overt hepatic encephalopathy was observed in 6 of 34 patients with the strong signal in MRI during follow-up period, while none of patients without that finding developed hepatic encephalopathy. These results have indicated that the strong signal in basal ganglia on MRI appears in cirrhotic patients with severe liver dysfunction, and it is an useful index in the early diagnosis of latent hepatic encephalopathy. An improvement of this MRI finding was not observed by long-term oral administration of branched-chain amino acid. (author).

  7. Tattoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea. Next to these inflammatory skin reactions we have to consider also the possibility of the development of cutaneous conditions such as pseudolymphomatous reactions and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The aim of this study is to underline the importance of an early diagnosis by performing a histological examination especially when we are in front of suspected papulonodular lesions arising from a tattoo, followed by a proper treatment, since cutaneous neoplastic evolution is known to be a rare but possible complication.

  8. Role of Electrophysiology in the Early Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pescosolido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy is a severe and common complication of diabetes, representing a leading cause of blindness among working-age people in developed countries. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR will increase from 126.6 million in 2011 to 191 million by 2030. The pathology seems to be characterized not only by the involvement of retinal microvessels but also by a real neuropathy of central nervous system, similar to what happens to the peripheral nerves, particularly affected by diabetes. The neurophysiological techniques help to assess retinal and nervous (optic tract function. Electroretinography (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP allow a more detailed study of the visual function and of the possible effects that diabetes can have on the visual function. These techniques have an important role both in the clinic and in research: the central nervous system, in fact, has received much less attention than the peripheral one in the study of the complications of diabetes. These techniques are safe, repeatable, quick, and objective. In addition, both the ERG (especially the oscillatory potentials and the flicker-ERG and VEP have proved to be successful tools for the early diagnosis of the disease and, potentially, for the ophthalmologic follow-up of diabetic patients.

  9. APPLICATION VALUE OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE SEQUENCES IN DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY SPINAL METASTATIC TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xia Wang; Xiang-quan Kong; He-shui Shi; Ding-xi Liu; Yin Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of different magnetic resonance (MR) pulse sequences in diagnosis of spinal metastatic tumor.Methods Fifteen patients with clinically suspected spinal metastatic tumor were included in this study. These patients were with documented primary tumors. Four MR pulse sequences, T1-weighted spin echo (T1WI SE), T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2WI FSE), short time inversion recovery (STIR), and gradient echo 2-D multi echo data imaging combination (GE Me-2D) were used to detect spinal metastasis.Results Fifteen vertebral bodies were entire involvement, 38 vertebral bodies were section involvement, and totally 53 vertebral bodies were involved. There were 19 focal infections in pedicle of vertebral arch, 15 metastases in spi-nous process and transverse process. Fifty-three vertebral bodies were abnormal in T1WI SE and GE Me-2D, 35 vertebral bodies were found abnormal in T2WI FSE, and 50 vertebral bodies were found abnormal in STIR. The verges of focal signal of involved vertebral bodies were comparatively clear in T1WI SE, comparatively clear or vague in T2WI FSE, vague in STIR, and clear in GE Me-2D.Conclusions GE Me-2D may be the most sensitive technique to detect metastases. So three sequences (T1WI SE, T2WI FSE, GE Me-2D) can demonstrate the early changes of spinal metastasis roundly.

  10. Non-invasive screening for early Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis by a sensitively immunomagnetic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Lin, Chih-Wen; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Hsu, Po-Hung; Liu, Hao-Li; Lu, Yu-Jen; Lin, Sheng-Chi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Ma, Chen-Chi M.

    2016-04-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide 1–42 (Aβ42) is considered as a reliable biomarker for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, it is urgent to develop a simple and efficient method for the detection of Aβ42. In this work, a reusable biosensor based on magnetic nitrogen-doped graphene (MNG) modified Au electrode for the detection of Aβ42 has been developed. The antibodies of Aβ 1–28 (Aβab) are used as the specific biorecognition element for Aβ42 that were conjugated on the surface of MNG. In the presence of magnetic nanoparticles on MNG, the electrode coating material, the biosensor can be quickly constructed, without requiring an electrode drying process, which reduce the analysis time and is convenient for proceeding to detection. The reusable biosensor with good reproducibility and stability was linear within the range from 5 pg mL‑1 to 800 pg mL‑1, covering the cut-off level of Aβ42 and a detection limit of 5 pg mL‑1 had been achieved. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor for Aβ42 detection not only improves the detection performance but also reduces the cost and shortens the response time, demonstrating its potential in diagnosing applications.

  11. A Novel Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Glass Microballoons Immunosensor: A Tool for Early Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gikunoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for direct detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2 antigen using carbon nanofiber (CNF forests grown on glass microballoons (NMBs. Secondary antibodies specific to PfHRP-2 densely attached to the CNFs exhibit extraordinary ability for the detection of minute concentrations of Plasmodium species. A sandwich immunoassay protocol was employed, where a glass substrate was used to immobilize primary antibodies at designated capture zones. High signal amplification was obtained in both colorimetric and electrical measurements due to the CNFs through specific binding. As a result, it was possible to detect PfHRP-2 levels as low as 0.025 ng/mL concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS using a visual signal within only 1 min of test duration. Lower limits of 0.01 ng/mL was obtained by measuring the electrical resistivity of the capture zone. This method is also highly selective and specific in identifying PfHRP-2 and other Plasmodium species from the same solution. In addition, the stability of the labeling mechanism eliminates the false signals generated by the use of dyes in current malaria rapid diagnostic test kits (MRDTs. Thus, the rapid, sensitive and high signal amplification capabilities of NMBs is a promising tool for early diagnosis of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  12. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  13. Radiographic Follow-Up during Orthodontic Treatment for Early Diagnosis of Sequential Supernumerary Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga

    2016-01-01

    Most supernumerary teeth are impacted and asymptomatic. Objective. The aim of this paper is to describe two cases of sequential development of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular premolar region, identified during orthodontic treatment. Reports. The first case describes the radiographic follow-up of a female patient that presented a supernumerary tooth at the age of 9 years and 10 months in the right mandibular premolar region, followed by a further supernumerary tooth in the left mandibular premolar region identified at the age of 11 years and 3 months. In the second case, the radiographic follow-up of a male patient demonstrated 3 supernumerary teeth in the premolar region at the age of 16 years. During orthognathic surgery planning at the age of 20 years and 5 months, a supplemental supernumerary tooth was found in the left mandibular region. Conclusion. Considering the late developing of supernumerary premolars, appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs of patients with previous experience of supernumerary teeth is essential for early diagnosis of supplemental premolars to prevent possible complications. PMID:27313911

  14. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with 99 NFLDs, were used. After major blood vessels were removed, the images were transformed so that the curved paths of retinal nerves become approximately straight on the basis of ellipses, and the Gabor filters were applied for enhancement of NFLDs. Bandlike regions darker than the surrounding pixels were detected as candidates of NFLDs. For each candidate, image features were determined and the likelihood of a true NFLD was determined by using the linear discriminant analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN). The sensitivity for detecting the NFLDs was 91% at 1.0 false positive per image by using the ANN. The proposed computerized system for the detection of NFLDs can be useful to physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in a mass screening.

  15. Role of Color Doppler Imaging in Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Progression in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Jimenez-Aragon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal and prospective study analyzes the ability of orbital blood flow measured by color Doppler imaging (CDI to predict glaucoma progression in patients with glaucoma risk factors. Patients with normal perimetry but having glaucoma risk factors and patients in the initial phase of glaucoma were prospectively included in the study and divided, after a five-year follow-up, into two groups: “Progression” and “No Progression” based on the changes in the Moorfields regression analysis (MRA classification of Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT. An orbital CDI was performed in all patients and the parameters obtained were correlated with changes in HRT. A logistic discrimination function (LDF was calculated for ophthalmic artery (OA and central retinal artery (CRA parameters. Receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC were used to assess the usefulness of LDFs to predict glaucomatous progression. A total of 71 eyes were included. End-diastolic velocity, time-averaged velocity, and resistive index in the OA and CRA were significantly different (P<0.05 between the Progression and No Progression groups. The area under the ROC curves calculated for both LDFs was of 0.695 (OA and 0.624 (CRA. More studies are needed to evaluate the ability of CDI to perform early diagnosis and to predict progression in glaucoma in eyes.

  16. Can Baropodometric Analysis be a Useful Tool in the Early Diagnosis of Atypical Parkinsonism? Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Anna; Imbesi, Donatella; La Fauci Belponer, Francesca; Militi, David; Gervasi, Giuseppe; Pastura, Concetta; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The differential diagnosis between atypical parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease is difficult, especially in the early stage. Severe postural instability, falls, and complex gait impairments are usually confined to the later stage of Parkinson’s disease, while atypical parkinsonism patients may present a severe postural instability with consequent falls in the earlier stages. Methods: We retrospectively studied 20 subjects with parkinsonism using clinical and baropodometric tools to give quantitative and objective data on the postural, balance, and gait disturbances. Results: The statistical analysis between atypical parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease patients showed a significant difference in the frequency of long lead time parameter, foot area, foot load and speed, and, in particular, atypical parkinsonism patients presented a prevalent long lead time impairment (8/8 patients) when compared with Parkinson’s disease patients. Discussion: Beside significant differences in the clinical features between the Parkinson’s disease and atypical parkinsonism, our study showed that baropodometric investigation may a valuable tool for the definition of postural and motor extrapyramidal abnormalities, permitting an earlier differentiation between atypical parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24653938

  17. Plasma-Enabled Carbon Nanostructures for Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Pineda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures (CNs are amongst the most promising biorecognition nanomaterials due to their unprecedented optical, electrical and structural properties. As such, CNs may be harnessed to tackle the detrimental public health and socio-economic adversities associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs. In particular, CNs may be tailored for a specific determination of biomarkers indicative of NDs. However, the realization of such a biosensor represents a significant technological challenge in the uniform fabrication of CNs with outstanding qualities in order to facilitate a highly-sensitive detection of biomarkers suspended in complex biological environments. Notably, the versatility of plasma-based techniques for the synthesis and surface modification of CNs may be embraced to optimize the biorecognition performance and capabilities. This review surveys the recent advances in CN-based biosensors, and highlights the benefits of plasma-processing techniques to enable, enhance, and tailor the performance and optimize the fabrication of CNs, towards the construction of biosensors with unparalleled performance for the early diagnosis of NDs, via a plethora of energy-efficient, environmentally-benign, and inexpensive approaches.

  18. VitalQPlus: a potential screening tool for early diagnosis of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui CF

    2015-08-01

    /FEV6 <0.75 compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms (scores <5. Conclusion: With the availability of a simple screening questionnaire and the COPD-6, there is an opportunity easily to make patients more aware of their lung symptoms and to encourage the provision of early treatment. The proposed dual assessment approach, which we termed the VitalQPlus, may play a profound role in the early diagnosis of COPD, which is crucial in improving the clinical management of the disease. Keywords: spirometry, pulmonary function test, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, airway obstruction

  19. An MRI-based diagnostic framework for early diagnosis of dyslexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Baz, A. [University of Louisville, Bioengineering Department, Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.; Mott, M.; Switala, A. [University of Louisville, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Louisville, KY (United States); Gimel' farb, G. [University of Auckland, Computer Science Department, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early diagnosis of dyslexia was developed and tested. Dyslexia can severely impair the learning abilities of children so improved diagnostic methods are needed. Neuropathological studies show abnormal anatomy of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dyslexic brains. We sought to develop an MRI-based macroscopic neuropathological correlate to the minicolumnopathy of dyslexia that relates to cortical connectivity: the gyral window. The brains of dyslexic patients often exhibit decreased gyrifications, so the thickness of gyral CWM for dyslexic subjects is greater than for normal subjects. We developed an MRI-based method for assessment of gyral CWM thickness with automated recognition of abnormal (e.g., dyslexic) brains. In vivo data was collected from 16 right-handed dyslexic men aged 18-40 years, and a group of 14 controls matched for gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic background, handedness and general intelligence. All the subjects were physically healthy and free of history of neurological diseases and head injury. Images were acquired with the same 1.5T MRI scanner (GE, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with voxel resolution 0.9375 x 0.9375 x 1.5 mm using a T1-weighted imaging sequence protocol. The ''ground truth'' diagnosis to evaluate the classification accuracy for each patient was given by the clinicians. The accuracy of diagnosis/classification of both the training and test subjects was evaluated using the Chi-square test at the three confidence levels - 85, 90 and 95% - in order to examine significant differences in the Levy distances. As expected, the 85% confidence level yielded the best results, the system correctly classified 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects (a 100% accuracy) and 14 out of 14 control subjects (a 100% accuracy). At the 90% confidence level, 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects were still classified correctly; however, only 13 out of 14 control subjects were correct, bringing the

  20. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  1. Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiangwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a

  2. Poor Outcome in a Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy Patient with a Novel TYMP Mutation: The Need for Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Scarpelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE is a devastating autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in TYMP, which cause loss of function of thymidine phosphorylase (TP, nucleoside accumulation in plasma and tissues and mitochondrial dysfunction. The clinical picture includes progressive gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis and ophthalmoparesis, peripheral neuropathy and diffuse leukoencephalopathy, which usually lead to death in early adulthood. Therapeutic options are currently available in clinical practice (allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and carrier erythrocyte entrapped TP therapy and newer, promising therapies are expected in the near future. However, successful treatment is strictly related to early diagnosis. We report on an incomplete MNGIE phenotype in a young man harboring the novel heterozygote c.199 C>T (Q67X mutation in exon 2, and the previously reported c.866 A>C (E289A mutation in exon 7 in TYMP. The correct diagnosis was achieved many years after the onset of symptoms and unfortunately, the patient died soon after diagnosis because of multiorgan failure due to severe malnutrition and cachexia before any therapeutic option could be tried. To date, early diagnosis is essential to ensure that patients have the opportunity to be treated. MNGIE should be suspected in all patients who present with both gastrointestinal and nervous system involvement, even if the classical complete phenotype is lacking.

  3. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  4. Use of amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (Gen-probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA in the diagnosis of tubercular synovitis and early arthritis of knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: AMTDT or Genprobe is a rapid diagnostic test for early diagnosis of tubercular arthritis, but has low sensitivity in knee joint tuberculosis. Nuclear amplification tests are still far from being a single promising alternative to conventional tests in cases of joint tuberculosis. Routine use of arthroscopic biopsies in all suspected cases is helpful in the early diagnosis of knee joint tuberculosis.

  5. Diagnosis, prognosis and classification of early arthritis: results of a systematic review informing the 2016 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Charlotte; Daien, Claire I; Combe, Bernard; Landewe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objective To update the evidence pertaining to the diagnosis, prognosis and classification of patients with early arthritis (EA), and to inform the 2016 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of patients with EA. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched up to October 2015. The first part of the systematic literature review (SLR) involved a search for studies investigating the recognition and referral of EA. The second part involved a search for studies to identify the place of laboratory and imaging tests in establishing a diagnosis and a prognosis in patients with EA. Results Regarding the issue of referral of patients with EA (1643 hits), 4 studies were included. These studies were in support of early referral for patients with EA. Regarding the issue of diagnosis and prognosis of patients with EA (11 435 hits), 88 studies were included, evaluating mainly the value of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated-peptide antibodies (ACPAs). Sensitivity of these antibodies for a RA diagnosis in patients with EA was moderate (40–80%). Specificity was higher, notably for ACPAs (frequently >80%). ACPAs also showed better prognostic performance than RF (negative predictive values around 80%). We confirmed that structural damage on baseline X-rays is predictive of further radiographic progression in patients with EA. Regarding other imaging modalities, data are sparse. Conclusions This SLR highlights the importance of early referral for patients with EA and confirms that RF and mainly ACPAs as well as a search for structural X-rays changes may help in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with EA. PMID:28155923

  6. [Significance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase assay in early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, J; Zhu, L; Zhang, X W; Li, Z G

    2016-12-18

    To explore the titer of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) for early diagnosis of the outpatient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in real life, and to analyze its relationship with disease activity. In the study, 1 051 patients with arthritis were collected in the group who had joints tender and swelling, and 90 cases of healthy people as a control group. ELISA method was used to detect the serum level of GPI, and according to clinical features and laboratory test, all the patients including 525 RA patients, the other patients including osteoarthritis (OA), 134 cases of seronegative spine joint disease (SpA), 104 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 31 cases of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), 24 cases of gout arthritis (GA), 22 cases of other connective tissue diseases (including polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, adult Still disease) and 46 cases of other diseases (including 165 cases of osteoporosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, traumatic osteomyelitis, bone and joint disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, tumor). The diagnostic values of GPI were assessed, and the differences between the GPI positive and negative groups of the RA patients in clinical characteristics, disease activity, severity and inflammatory index analyzed. The positive rate of serum GPI in the patients with RA was 55.4%, contrasting to other autoimmune diseases (14.3%) and healthy controls (7.78%)(P<0.001). Compared with the OA and SpA patients, the RA group was increased more significantly, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The diagnostic value of GPI alone for RA was 0.39 mg/L, the sensitivity was 54.2%, and specificity was 87.3%. The positive rate of GPI in RF negative patients was 36.1%; the positive rate of GPI in anti-CCP antibody negative patients was 34.2%; the positive rate of GPI in RF and anti-CCP antibody negative patients was 24.1%. The level of GPI had positive correlation (P<0.05) with ESR, RF, anti

  7. Early diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection: efficacy of macrophage migration inhibition test as an immunological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orita,Kunzo

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Three cases of acute rejection were detected by macrophage migration inhibition tests (MIT conducted directly on seven patients who had received renal allografts. The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF activity was positive in all cases 1-2 days before the appearance of acute rejection. 2. After the administration of a high dose of Solu-Medrol (1g/day for 3 days to suppress the acute rejection, MIF activity recovered to its normal level 3 days later. These findings seem to indicate that MIT yields immunologically useful criteria for the early detection of an acute rejection.

  8. AUTOANTIBODIES TO CIRTULLINATED ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND PREDICTION OF CLINICAL COURSE IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Belyaeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study the value of antibodies to cirtullinated antigens in diagnosis and their significance in prediction of erosion formation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, we examined serological status in 129 patients with early RA (ERA and 55 cases of undifferentiated arthritis, lasting less than 12 months. Another group consisted of 39 patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis, in whom the disease persisted for > 2 years. Control group included 39 patients with osteoarthrosis and 29 patients with reactive arthritis. The titers of rheumatoid factor (RF, antikeratin antibodies (AKA, antiperinuclear factor (APF and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP were studied during initial examination and 12 months later. Serial cryosections of rat esophagus and normal human buccal epithelial cells served as substrates for AKA and APF detection. AntiCCPs were revealed by means of DIASTAT technique (Axis Shield, UK.Upon initial observation of the patients with ERA, sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP was, resp., 63.5% and 97,8%, thus exceeding both parameters for RF (48,8% и 86,7%. Sensitivity of AKA and APF for the same group was 17% and 24 %, with specificity of 97.7%. In RF-seronegative cases of early RA, anti-CCP were detected in 37% with ERA and 42% long-standing RA. In patients with non-differentiated arthritis who developed RA within one year, RF and anti-CCP were found in 12,2% and 45,5%. Following a one-year observation, a statistically significant increase was found in incidence of RF and anti-CCP in ERA patients.Positivity for anti-citrulline antibodies (AKA, APF and anti-CCP in ERA patients were associated with higher levels of CRP, increased HAQ, DAS4, Sharp scores, as compared to the patients who were seronegative. In ERA patients positive for anti-citrulline antibodies, higher frequencies of synovitis and erosive arthritis were detected by means of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. In the patients with ERA

  9. Early diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in chronic cholestatic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Zhi Wu; Dan Chen; Lian-San Zhao; Xiao-Hui Yu; Mei Wei; Yan Zhao; Qing Fang; Qian Xu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the early diagnostic methods of bacterial and fungal infection in patients with chronic cholestatic hepatitis B.METHODS: One hundred and one adult in-patients with chronic hepatitis B were studied and divided into 3 groups:direct bilirubin (DBil)/total bilirubin (TBil)≥0.5, without bacterial and fungal infection (group A, n=38); DBil/TBil <0.5, without bacterial and fungal infection (group B, n=23);DBil/TBil≥0.5, with bacterial or fungal infection (group C,n=40). The serum biochemical index and pulse rate were analyzed.RESULTS: Level of TBil, DBil, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and DBil/ALP in group A increased compared with that in group B. The level of ALP in group C decreased compared with that in group A, whereas the level of TBil, DBil and DBil/ALP increased (ALP: 156±43, 199±68, respectively,P<0.05; TBil: 370±227, 220±206, respectively, P<0.01;DBil: 214±143, 146±136, respectively, P<0.01; DBil/ALP:1.65±1.05, 0.78±0.70, respectively, P<0.001). The level of DBil and infection affected DBil/ALP. Independent of the effect of DBil, infection caused DBil/ALP to rise (P<0.05).The pulse rate in group A decreased compared with that in group B (63.7±6.4, 77.7±11.4, respectively, P<0.001),and the pulse rate in group C increased compared with that in group A (81.2±12.2, 63.7±6.4, respectively, P<0.001).The equation (infection=0.218 pusle rate +1.064 DBil/ALP -16.361), with total accuracy of 85.5%, was obtained from stepwise logistic regression. Pulse rate (≥80/min) and DBil/ALP (≥1.0) were used to screen infection. The sensitivity was 62.5% and 64.7% respectively, and the specificity was 100% and 82.8% respectively.CONCLUSION: Bacterial and fungal infection deteriorate jaundice and increase pulse rate, decrease serum ALP and increase DBil/ALP. Pulse rate, DBil/ALP and the equation (infection=0.218 pusle rate+1.064 DBil/ALP-16.361) are helpful to early diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in patients with chronic

  10. Diagnosis value of serum ALP and osteocalcin in early prostate cancer bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Yong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the role and significance of the joint detection of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin in prostate cancer bone metastases.Methods:A total of 87 cases of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed by radionuclide bone imaging, and 51 cases of them were included in the bone metastases group, while the other 36 cases were selected as the non-metastases group. Serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin of all patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, likelihood ratio and the predictive value of patients in the two groups were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin and their expression levels in different bone metastases degrees were analyzed.Results:Serum ALP and osteocalcin levels of patients in metastases group were higher than those in non-metastases group and normal control group. In non-metastases group, the ALP level was higher than that in normal control group, while its osteocalcin level was lower than that in control group (P<0.05); The sensitivities of ALP and osteocalcin were 77.2% and 70.6%, respectively, and their specificities were 61.1% and 54.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity became 93.3% and 82.33% in combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin, which was significantly higher than the single detection (P<0.05). The expression levels of ALP and osteocalcin increased with the increase of the metastases degrees (P<0.05). Conclusions:Combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin can be used in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer with improved diagnostic efficiency.

  11. Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Scleroderma. Early Systemic Sclerosis: Definitions and diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Galasso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term scleroderma derives from the Greek words skleros, which means hard, and derma, which means skin. It refers to an acquired systemic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue –also known as systemic sclerosis (SSc– characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the skin and the internal organs that results in fibrosis. The typical vascular lesion in SSc leads to narrowing of the vessel lumen, intimal thickening, medial hypotrophy, and adventitial fibrosis of small muscular vessels, collagen deposition in the other matrix components of interstice, and the Raynaud phenomenon secondary to these widespread microvascular abnormalities. All these characteristics lead to a connective tissue re-modeling. Discussion: Several clinical studies utilize the American Rheumatology Association’s 1980 classification. However, these diagnostic criteria are unsatisfactory because they fail to take into consideration part of the disease spectrum. Early-phase SSc is characterized by the Raynaud phenomenon (in 90% of all patients, sclerodactyly, and positivity for SSc-specific autoantibodies (antinuclear antibodies, anti-topoisomerase I antibodies, anti-RNA polymerase I and III antibodies, anti-centromere antibodies, anti-fibrillarin antibodies, anti-PM-SCL antibodies.. It is necessary to reduce delays in the diagnosis of SSc. Conclusions: Patients with red-flag positivity (Raynaud phenomenon and digital edema require Phase I SSc screening, which consists in capillaroscopic assessment of possible microvascular abnormalities. The work-up will then focus on inflammatory indices, renal function tests, and internal organ involvement (echocardiography, high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide.

  12. Magnetic sifters and biochips for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with biomolecules or recognition moieties are finding wide applications in medicine. In this context, we are developing a micromachined magnetic sifter and magnetic nanoparticles aimed for sample preparation applications in early diagnosis of cancer. The microfabricated sifter consisting of arrays of micron sized slits etched through a silicon wafer. A magnetic film is deposited on the wafer, producing high magnetic field gradients, comparable in magnitude to gradients in planar flow devices. As the solution flows through the die, magnetic particles are captured by the magnetic material surrounding the slits. The large number of slits allows for processing of large volumes of liquid, much greater than that of planar microfluidic devices. The sifters can be simply attached to a syringe or tube, resulting in a portable and user-friendly tool for molecular biology. Separation efficiencies of ˜ 50% for one pass through the sifter have been achieved. We have also designed and fabricated several types of magnetic biochips consisting of arrays of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) spin valve detectors with appropriate dimensions, surface chemistry, and microfluidics. An advanced electronic test station has been set up as a demonstration vehicle for the integrated evaluation of our magnetic biochips with commercial and custom magnetic nanoparticle labels for DNA or protein biomarkers. The magnetic biochip is capable of detecting down to 1-30 nanotags. Real-time detection of DNA signatures and protein targets in buffer and serum samples has been successfully performed in our laboratories, suggesting that magnetic biochips hold great promises for molecular diagnostics of cancer and other diseases. In collaboration with Chris M. Earhart, Wei Hu, Robert J. Wilson, Sebastian J. Osterfeld, Robert L. White, Nader Pourmand, and Shan X. Wang @ Stanford University. This work was supported by grants from NIH (1U54CA119367-01) and DARPA/Navy (N00014-02-1-0807).

  13. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  14. Introducing a Clinical Practice Guideline Using Early CT in the Diagnosis of Scaphoid and Other Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pincus, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We developed and implemented clinical practice guideline (CPG using computerized tomography (CT as the initial imaging method in the emergency department management of scaphoid fractures. We hypothesized that this CPG would decrease unnecessary immobilization and lead to earlier return to work.Methods: This observational study evaluated implementation of our CPG, which incorporated early wrist CT in patients with “clinical scaphoid fracture”: a mechanism of injury consistent with scaphoid fracture, anatomical snuff box tenderness, and normal initial plain x-rays. Outcome measures were the final diagnosis as determined by orthopaedic review of the clinical and imaging data. Patient outcomes included time to return to work and patient satisfaction as determined by telephone interview at ten days.Results: Eighty patients completed the study protocol in a regional emergency department.In this patient population CT detected 28 fractures in 25 patients, including six scaphoid fractures, five triquetral fractures, four radius fractures, and 13 other related fractures. Fifty-three patients had normal CT. Eight of these patients had significant ongoing pain at follow up and had an MRI, with only two bone bruises identified. The patients with normal CTs avoided prolonged immobilization (mean time in plaster 2.7 days and had no or minimal time off work (mean 1.6 days. Patient satisfaction was an average 4.2/5.Conclusion: This CPG resulted in rapid and accurate management of patients with suspected occult scaphoid injury, minimized unnecessary immobilization and was acceptable to patients.[WestJEM. 2009;10(4:227-232.

  15. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is essential to prevent irreversible renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nicanor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The urofacial or Ochoa syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the presence of functional obstructive uropathy associated with peculiar facial features when patients attempt to smile or laugh. Unfortunately, many of these patients remain without proper diagnosis or adequate treatment due to lack of recognition of the disease. This can ultimately result in upper tract deterioration and eventual renal failure. We present our experience with this rare syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 3 patients who presented initially with acute renal failure, urinary tract infection (UTI and severe dysfunctional elimination. All patients were thoroughly evaluated, including screening for spinal cord anomalies, and were subsequently diagnosed with urofacial syndrome. RESULTS: At the outset, the two older patients (aged 4 and 9 years presented with the typical facial features when attempting to smile or laugh. One patient in the newborn period presented with urinary and fecal retention and septicemia and, to our knowledge, represents the youngest case of urofacial syndrome reported so far. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography, renal scan, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG and urodynamics. Findings included hydronephrosis and a thick-walled, trabeculated bladder with poor compliance and detrusor hypereflexia respectively in each patient. All were subsequently treated with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC, antibiotic prophylaxis and anticholinergic therapy. One patient required appendicovesicostomy for CIC due to discomfort secondary to a sensate urethra. CONCLUSIONS: Our series demonstrates that early recognition of this rare syndrome is necessary to adequately treat and prevent upper tract deterioration in these unique individuals. Although the urofacial is difficult to diagnose in infants, cognizance must be maintained in order to prevent severe subsequent sequalae.

  16. Application of magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric carcinoma is the second commonest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer in the stomach is important for improving the prognosis of gastric cancer. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the value of magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and early gastric cancer. Methods This study included 122 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer or precancerous gastric lesions by endoscopy. The patients underwent an examination with conventional endoscopy, magnifying NBI, and magnifying chromoendoscopy. Images resolution was evaluated, and the morphology, pit patterns and blood capillary forms of lesions were analyzed. The presence of gastric carcinoma and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy samples was considered as a positive pathological result, which is used to assess accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis. Results For image resolution, magnifying NBI and magnifying chromoendoscopy were significantly superior to magnifying conventional endoscopy in morphology, pit pattern and blood capillary form (P 1, and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 14 cases, 43 cases, and 17 cases in patients with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. V1 and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 9 cases and 39 cases in patients with early gastric cancer, respectively. The presence of irregular minute vessels and variation in the caliber of vessels was found in 109 cases. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate and false negative rate for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous gastric lesions were 68.9%, 95.1%, 63.1%, 24.5%, and 32.4% for conventional endoscopy, 93.6%, 92.7%, 94.5%, 5.7%, and 6.9% for magnifying NBI, and 91.3%, 88.6%, 93.2%, 13.2%, and 21.48% for magnifying chromoendoscopy, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that magnifying NBI is

  17. MicroRNA-486 as a Biomarker for Early Diagnosis and Recurrence of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanshuai; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Lili; Liu, Xiaoping; Dai, Yunhua; Xiao, Liang; Huang, Shuguang; Chen, Lu; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jim; Yuan, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Early diagnosis is essential for improvements of prognosis and survival of the patients. Currently, there is no effective biomarker available in clinical settings for early detection of lung cancer. Altered expressions in many cancer types including NSCLC and stable existence in plasma make microRNAs (miRNAs) a group of potentially useful biomarkers for clinical assessments of patients with NSCLC. To evaluate the potential values of miRNAs as blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis in NSCLC patients. Peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers and early-staged NSCLC patients before and after surgery were collected, and plasma was separated. Expression of ten miRNAs in the plasma and tumor sections of the patients was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MiRNA (miR)-486 and miR-150 were found to significantly distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy volunteers. Area under curve of miR-486 and miR-150 were 0.926 (sensitivity, 0.909; specificity, 0.818) and 0.752 (sensitivity, 0.818; specificity, 0.818), respectively. In response to therapy, patients with down-regulated miR-486 expression showed prolonged recurrence-free survival than those with un-reduced miR-486 expression (median, unreached vs. 19 months; hazard ratio, 0.1053; 95% confidence interval, 0.01045 to 1.060; P=0.056). The results suggest that miR-486 and miR-150 could be potential blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis of NSCLC. Monitoring change of miR-486 expression in plasma might be an effective and non-invasive method for recurrence prediction of early-staged NSCLC patients.

  18. Current situation of early diagnosis of breast cancer%乳腺癌早期诊断现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博

    2013-01-01

    The early diagnosis of breast cancer is very important to treatment and prognosis.With the progresses of breast cancer researches,various biomarkers have been introduced,meaningful for early detection of breast cancer and micrometastases.%早期诊断乳腺癌对合理选择治疗方案和改善预后意义重大.随着乳腺癌分子生物水平研究的不断进展,多种生物标志已引入临床,有助于早期发现乳腺癌和微转移.

  19. Union examination of AFP,AFU,AFPL3 and γ-GT in early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of union examination of blood serum liver cancer tracers in the early diagnosis of liver cancer. Methods We observed and compared the level of blood serum liver cancer tracers armor embryo protein (AFP),crag algae glycosidase (AFU),armor embryo protein heteroplasmon (AFPL3) and γ-Gu Anxian transferase (γ-GT) in early time for primary liver cancer patients and hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients who had liver cancer family history. R...

  20. 急性心肌梗死的早期诊断%Early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲燕; 乔宇; 李平; 邵彩凤

    2015-01-01

    通过对急性心肌梗死患者的早期诊断, 从而制定正确的治疗方法.本文就对患者的表述及临床症状、心电图检查诊断患者是否患有心肌梗死, 以提高诊断率, 减少急性心肌梗死患者死亡的风险.%Through the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction patients, correct treatment method was set. This paper provided myocardial infarction diagnosis by examination of patients' description, clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram, so as to improve diagnosis rate and reduce mortality risk in acute myocardial infarction patients.

  1. [Role of nerve stimulation at Erb point in early diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui-Di; Fu, Bin; Li, Cheng; Kuang, Guang-Tao; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Jiang, Jun

    2015-07-01

    To study the role of proximal nerve stimulation at Erb point in the early diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in children. Thirty-two children who were diagnosed with GBS between October 2013 and December 2014 received neurophysiological examination. Thirty healthy children were used as controls. Compound muscle action potentials and distal motor latency of the median and ulnar nerves were determined and analyzed after nerve stimulation at the wrist, elbow, and Erb point in the two groups. Moreover, F-wave latency of the median nerve and H-reflex latency of the tibial nerve were measured and analyzed in the two groups. The F-wave and H-reflex latencies were significantly longer in the patient group than in the control group (P0.05). The nerve stimulation at Erb point holds promise as a routine examination for the early diagnosis of GBS.

  2. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2014-06-01

    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  3. Child case of spinal epidural abscess with successful conservative treatment following early diagnosis by CT and /sup 67/Ga SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, T.; Tsuda, H.; Sumimoto, S.; Kasajima, Y.; Ojima, S.; Honda, M.; Kanao, K.; Hamamoto, T.

    1987-04-01

    Although early diagnosis and treatment of spinal epidural abscess are emphasized in children in view of its prognosis, these are very difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms of the disease. A 6-year-old boy complained of lumbar pain and difficulty in walking. Computed tomography, performed 6 days after the occurrence of complaints, revealed space occupying lesion in the spinal canal and epidural space at the level of L2-S1. Subsequent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Ga-67 clearly visualized active inflammation resulting from epidural abscess. The patient received intensive chemotherapy alone. Twenty-one days later, Ga-67 uptake disappeared on SPECT images. The finding indicates the usefulness of diagnostic imagings in the early diagnosis and treatment of spinal epidural abscess, thus avoiding surgery, the role of which has been under debate.

  4. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist for the early diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Takahiro; Mitobe, Michihiro; Mifune, Naoko; Takahashi, Motohiro [Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) is a major complication of long-term hemodialysis patients. The onset of arthropathy is frequently preceded by carpal tunnel syndrome, but the early non-invasive diagnosis of DRA remains unclear. {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin amyloid deposits in joint synovia and soft tissue precede radiological abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may play a more important role in the early diagnosis of DRA, because it allows direct visualization of synovitis and deposition of abnormal soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI of the wrist for the early diagnosis of DRA. The study included 72 patients (male 37, female 35) undergoing hemodialysis from initiation to 20 years. The patients were examined by MR images of synovitis, deposition of abnormal soft tissue and cystic bone lesions at the wrists. Normal MR images of synovia and soft tissue were defined in 6 control subjects (2 normal 4 non-dialysis patients). Synovitis of the carpal bones was found in 23% of the patients at the start of hemodialysis. Deposition of abnormal soft tissue in the carpal canal and cystic bone lesions were detected after 1 and 2 years of hemodialysis, respectively. All findings were increased significantly with an increasing duration of dialysis. Synovitis was present in 90% of the patients with deposition of abnormal soft tissue, and in 80% of the patients with cystic bone lesions. {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin value was significantly higher in patients with synovitis, deposition of abnormal soft tissue and cystic bone lesions than in patients without these findings. Our experience suggests that synovitis examined by MRI of the wrists is useful for the early diagnosis of DRA. Thereby, intensive follow-up and management of DRA are required in patients with synovitis at the start of hemodialysis. (author)

  5. Integrative Genomic Data Mining for Discovery of Potential Blood-Borne Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yongliang Yang; Pavel Pospisil; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; S. James Adelstein; Amin I. Kassis

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the arrival of the postgenomic era, there is increasing interest in the discovery of biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and early detection of cancer. Blood-borne cancer markers are favored by clinicians, because blood samples can be obtained and analyzed with relative ease. We have used a combined mining strategy based on an integrated cancer microarray platform, Oncomine, and the biomarker module of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) program to identify po...

  6. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer using free/total prostate specific antigen ratio: a population based screening data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingZhang; Guo-YIJi; Xiao-MengLi; Wei-HuaWang; Hong-WenGao; Yu-ZhuoPan; Hong-JunWang; KuwaharaMasaaki; Xue-JianZhao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of free/total prostate specific antig enratio (fPSA/tPSA ratio) in improving the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: The fPSA/tPSA ratio in the serum was analyzed in 187 men with tPSA ranging between 4.0 and 20.0μg/L. Allof them underwent ultrasound guided sextant prostatic biopsy.The results were calculated by SPSS 10.0 software.

  7. Value of joint detecion of multiple biomarkers on early diagnosis of acute kidney injury in critical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光银

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of joint detection of serum cysteine proteinase inhibitors C(sCys-C),urinary kidney injury molecule 1(uKIM-1),urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin(uNGAL)and urinary interleukin 18(uIL-18)for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury(AKI)in critically ill patients.Methods A total of256 adult patients who stayed in Intensive Care Unit for

  8. The Early Intervention Readiness Program (EIRP): A Post-ASD Diagnosis Family Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Rhiannon S.; Bruck, Susan; Kerslake, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A child's diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an extremely stressful time for families. Researchers suggest that the period immediately following ASD diagnosis is a key time for professionals to guide families by providing appropriate information about support options. This article describes a family support program, developed by…

  9. A novel Multiple-Marker Method for the Early Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ries

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melanoma associated antigens-A (MAGE-A expression is highly specific to cancer cells. Thus, they can be the most suitable targets for the diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of multiple MAGE-A expression analysis for the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.

  10. Application of a real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay for the early diagnosis of human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denipitiya, D T H; Chandrasekharan, N V; Abeyewickreme, W; Hartskeerl, C M; Hartskeerl, R A; Jiffrey, A M; Hapugoda, M D

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis has a major impact on health in Sri Lanka but is probably grossly under-recognized due to difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of diagnostic laboratory services. The objective of this study was to establish and evaluate a SYBR Green-based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) assay for early, rapid and definitive laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. The rt-PCR assay was established and analytical specificity and sensitivity were determined using reference DNA samples. Evaluation of the assay for diagnosis of clinical samples was performed using two panels of serum samples obtained from 111 clinically suspected adult patients. Patients were confirmed as leptospirosis (n = 65) and non-leptospirosis (n = 30) by the Patoc - MAT. Other 16 samples gave ambiguous results. The analytical sensitivity of the rt-PCR was approximately 60 genome copies and no cross-reactivity was observed with saprophytic Leptospira spp. and other pathogenic microorganisms. Based on confirmation with Patoc-MAT on paired samples this corresponds to a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 67.7% (44/65) and 90.0% (27/30), respectively. This study showed that rt-PCR has the potential to facilitate rapid and definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis during early phase of infection in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The significance of opthalmologic evaluation in the early diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism: the Cretan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM are far from the rare systemic diseases that mainly affect the neural tissue. There are very few written reports on ocular findings in subjects with IEM, thus it was interesting to study the frequency of ocular findings in the studied population and explore their contribution to the early diagnosis of IEM. Methods Our study involved the evaluation of IEM suspected cases, which had been identified in a rural population in Crete, Greece. Over a period of 3 years, 125 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this study, were examined. Analytical physical examination, detailed laboratory investigation as well as a thorough ocular examination were made. Results A diagnosis of IEM was established in 23 of the 125 patients (18.4%. Ten (43.5% of the diagnosed IEM had ocular findings, while 8 of them (34.8% had findings which were specific for the diagnosed diseases. One patient diagnosed with glycogenosis type 1b presented a rare finding. Of the 102 non-diagnosed patients, 53 (51.96 % presented various ophthalmic findings, some of which could be related to a metabolic disease and therefore may be very helpful in the future. Conclusions The ocular investigation can be extremely useful for raising the suspicion and the establishment of an early diagnosis of IEM. It could also add new findings related to these diseases. The early management of the ocular symptoms can improve the quality of life to these patients.

  12. Genetic Testing Confirmed the Early Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets in a 7-Month-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Siong Poon BSc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome (PHEX have been causally associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR. The early diagnosis of XLHR in infants is challenging when it is based solely on clinical features and biochemical findings. We report a 7-month-old boy with a family history of hypophosphatemic rickets., who demonstrated early clinical evidence of rickets, although serial biochemical findings could not definitively confirm rickets. A sequencing assay targeting the PHEX gene was first performed on the mother’s DNA to screen for mutations in the 5′UTR, 22 coding exons, and the exon-intron junctions. Targeted mutation analysis and mRNA studies were subsequently performed on the boys’ DNA to investigate the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Genetic screening of the PHEX gene revealed a novel mutation, c.1080-2A>C, at the splice acceptor site in intron 9. The detection of an aberrant mRNA transcript with skipped (loss of exon 10 establishes its pathogenicity and confirms the diagnosis of XLHR in this infant. Genetic testing of the PHEX gene resulted in early diagnosis of XLHR, thus enabling initiation of therapy and prevention of progressive rachitic changes in the infant.

  13. Homocysteine as a predictive biomarker in early diagnosis of renal failure susceptibility and prognostic diagnosis for end stages renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hatem K; El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb; Leheta, Ola F

    2016-09-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and/or creatinine are not accurate methods for renal failure prediction. This study tested homocysteine (Hcy) as a predictive and prognostic marker for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In total, 176 subjects were recruited and divided into: healthy normal group (108 subjects); mild-to-moderate impaired renal function group (21 patients); severe impaired renal function group (7 patients); and chronic renal failure group (40 patients) who were on regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were collected, and serum was separated for analysis of total Hcy, creatinine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, and calcium. Data showed that Hcy level was significantly increased from normal-to-mild impairment then significantly decreases from mild impairment until the patient reaches severe impairment while showing significant elevation in the last stage of chronic renal disease. Creatinine level was increased in all stages of kidney impairment in comparison with control. CRP level was showing significant elevation in the last stage. A significant decrease in both albumin and calcium was occurred in all stages of renal impairment. We conclude Hcy in combination with CRP, creatinine, albumin, and calcium can be used as a prognostic marker for ESRD and an early diagnostic marker for the risk of renal failure.

  14. How to improve the early diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: relationship between validated conventional diagnosis and quantitative DNA amplification in congenitally infected children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to the Chagas congenital transmission guides, the diagnosis of infants, born to Trypanosoma cruzi infected mothers, relies on the detection of parasites by INP micromethod, and/or the persistence of T. cruzi specific antibody titers at 10-12 months of age. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasitemia levels were quantified by PCR in T. cruzi-infected children, grouped according to the results of one-year follow-up diagnosis: A Neonates that were diagnosed in the first month after delivery by microscopic blood examination (INP micromethod (n = 19 had a median parasitemia of 1,700 Pe/mL (equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL; B Infants that required a second parasitological diagnosis at six months of age (n = 10 showed a median parasitemia of around 20 Pe/mL and 500 Pe/mL at 1 and 6 months old, respectively, and C babies with undetectable parasitemia by three blood microscopic observations but diagnosed by specific anti - T. cruzi serology at around 1 year old, (n = 22, exhibited a parasitemia of around 5 Pe/mL, 800 Pe/mL and 20 Pe/mL 1, 6 and 12 month after delivery, respectively. T. cruzi parasites were isolated by hemoculture from 19 congenitally infected children, 18 of which were genotypified as DTU TcV, (former lineage TcIId and only one as TcI. SIGNIFICANCE: This report is the first to quantify parasitemia levels in more than 50 children congenitally infected with T. cruzi, at three different diagnostic controls during one-year follow-up after delivery. Our results show that the parasite burden in some children (22 out of 51 is below the detection limit of the INP micromethod. As the current trypanocidal treatment proved to be very effective to cure T. cruzi - infected children, more sensitive parasitological methods should be developed to assure an early T. cruzi congenital diagnosis.

  15. Genetic Identification Is Critical for the Diagnosis of Parkinsonism: A Chinese Pedigree with Early Onset of Parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available A number of hereditary neurological diseases display indistinguishable features at the early disease stage. Parkinsonian symptoms can be found in numerous diseases, making it difficult to get a definitive early diagnosis of primary causes for patients with onset of parkinsonism. The accurate and early diagnosis of the causes of parkinsonian patients is important for effective treatments of these patients.We have identified a Chinese family (82 family members over four generations with 21 affected individuals that manifested the characterized symptoms of parkinsonism and was initially diagnosed as Parkinson's disease. We followed up with the family for two years, during which we carried out clinical observations, Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography neuroimaging analysis, and exome sequencing to correctly diagnose the case.During the two-year follow-up period, we performed comprehensive medical history collection, physical examination, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies of this Chinese family. We found that the patient exhibited progressive deteriorated parkinsonism with Parkinson disease-like neuropathology and also had a good response to the initial levodopa treatment. However, exome sequencing identified a missense mutation, N279K, in exon 10 of MAPT gene, verifying that the early parkinsonian symptoms in this family are caused by the genetic mutation for hereditary frontotemporal lobar dementia.For the inherited parkinsonian patients who even show the neuropathology similar to that in Parkinson's disease and have initial response to levodopa treatment, genetic identification of the molecular basis for the disease is still required for defining the early diagnosis and correct treatment.

  16. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  17. EARLY DIAGNOSIS AS DETERMINATING FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL, RATIONAL AND EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran AJDINSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of children with developmental difficulties is one of the most important segments in the process of rehabilitation. It is not only an assessment and evaluation of the functional conditions, but also and detection of the possibilities for treatment and it’s improvement.In our presentation we give the first noticing for diagnostics of children with developmental difficulties in the Republic of Macedonia, the present capacities, possibilities, needs and suggestions for it’s improvement and advancement. Speaking about that we stress the need of multidisciplinary and complete professional team in the present institutions and solving out a number of problems that exist on that plan. It especially relates to the unique terminology, the procedure and involvement of defectologists in the diagnostic process.Having in mind the bio-psycho and social aspects of the personality of children with developmental difficulties, together with the need of a complex diagnostic procedure, we have tried to give the professional activities of all the profiles of professionals that take part in the diagnostic process. So, we give a review of the work of:· physician-pediatrician who is involved in the diagnostics of all children· audiologist who is involved in the diagnostics of children with damaged hearing from a medical point of view.· the clinical psychologist who works in the institute for medical rehabilitation and whose task is to prepare and realize all the necessary tests for the personality of the child with developmental difficulties.· physiologist for children with somatic damages.· neuropsychiatrist for children with psychological difficulties· specialist for eye diseases giving his report about the child’s damaged eyesight etc.We consider that we shouldn’t neglect the role of the defectologist, his examinations on psycho-motor status, speech, i. e. the functions of the individual in relation to the social aspect in a close

  18. Clinical undernutrition in 2014; pathogenesis, early diagnosis and consequences; undernutrition and trophopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ulíbarri Pérez, José Ignacio

    2014-01-13

    amount of risks which could derive from an imbalanced nutritional status. The use of automated systems to predict and control the risk factors during the clinical phase makes it possible to have a more thorough control of the illness from its origins, allowing an early diagnosis and treatment of it.

  19. MAGNETIC-RESONANCE IMAGING FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF COXITIS IN PATIENTS WITH SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Georgievna Bochkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to define more precisely the potential of magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI in the early diagnosis of coxitis in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA. Material and methods. Hip (coxofemoral joint (HJ MRI (in T1 and T2Fat Sat; 1,5 T modes was performed in 60 patients with ankylosing spondilitis (AS and SpA: clinical signs of coxitis were present in 37 patients, while remaining 13 patients without coxitis were included into the control group while 10 healthy subjects without SpA made formed a healthy control group. The following parameters were monitored: pain intensity — by the numeric rating scale (NRS 0—10, distance between the ankles, radiographic changes (RCh by BASRI index, presence of intraar-ticular exudate by US-examination. Active coxitis was defined as pain (during active and/or passive movement and/or pain at rest in hip joint after exclusion of enthezitis-related pelvic or greater trochanteric pain. Results. Cases of AS and SpA aged younger than 20 y.o. predominated in the cohort patients with coxitis (55,2%. Bilateral coxitis was diagnosed in 81% patients. Median (Me of disease duration was 12 [25th; 75th percentiles — 1; 132] months. Pain intensity in hip joint measured by NRS was 3 [2; 5]. RC were not found (BASRI-hip=0 in 20 (29,8% affected joints, 47 joints met the criteria of I—III BASRI-hip stage. RCh were not present in patients without coxitis (BASRI-hip=1 in 9 (28,7% joints. The most prevalent inflammatory changes (ICh in patients with coxitis following MRI data were: exudation in the articular space >7 Ml (54%, bone marrow edema (BME in the acetabular region (39%, cysts of the acetabular roof (32%, capsule thickening (25,5%, BME of the femoral head (13,4%, cysts of the femoral head (10%. There was a significant correlation between pain intensity measured by NRS and prevalence of ICh (Spearman's rank correlation R=-0,29; t=-2,46; p=0,01. BME of the femoral head and/or of the acetabular roof were seen

  20. How to improve the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer%如何提高胰腺癌的早期诊断率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张太平; 展翰翔; 赵玉沛

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly malignant with a poor prognosis. The resectability and prognosis of early pancreatic cancer are much better than the advanced, so early diagnosis is crucial for saving patients' lives. Because the symptoms of pancreatic cancer are non-specific, most of the patients are misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary diseases. Early diagnosis rate of pancreatic cancer can be greatly improved by combined application of tumor marker detection, endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomo-graphy, and etc. Early screening of high-risk population has been advocated by the experts, and its value in early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer has been confirmed by relevant studies. The colaboration of multiple pancreatic surgery centers in conducting prospective studies and setting gnidlines for the pancreatic cancer diagnosis, and relevant fundamental reseaches should also be emphasized.

  1. Peripheral biomarkers in Autism: secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha as a probable key player in early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Antoinette R; Giunta, Brian N; Obregon, Demian; Nikolic, William V; Tian, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sutton, Danielle T; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impairments in socialization and communication. There is currently no single molecular marker or laboratory tool capable of diagnosing autism at an early age. The purpose of this study is to explore the plausible use of peripheral biomarkers in the early diagnosis of autism via a sensitive ELISA. Here, we measured plasma secreted amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPP-alpha) levels in autistic and aged-matched control blood samples and found a significantly increased level of sAPP-alpha in 60% of the known autistic children. We then tested 150 human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) samples and found significantly elevated levels of plasma sAPP-alpha in 10 of 150 samples. As an additional confirmatory measure, we performed Western blot analysis on these samples which consistently showed increased sAPP-alpha levels in autistic children and 10 of 150 HUCB samples; suggesting a group of autistic patients which could be identified in early childhood by levels of sAPP-alpha. While there is need for further studies of this concept, the measurement of sAPP-alpha levels in serum and human umbilical cord blood by ELISA is a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism.

  2. Union examination of AFP, AFU, AFPL3 andγ-GT in early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Shao; Zuo-ren Wang; Lei Shi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of union examination of blood serum liver cancer tracers in the early diagnosis of liver cancer. Methods We observed and compared the level of blood serum liver cancer tracers armor embryo protein (AFP), crag algae glycosidase (AFU), armor embryo protein heteroplasmon (AFPL3) andγ-Gu Anxian transferase (γ-GT) in early time for primary liver cancer patients and hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients who had liver cancer family history. Results Finally among the 30 patients in the early liver cancer group, 23 were positive with AFP, 20 with AFU, 15 with AFPL3 and 21 with γ-GT. Five were found positive with blood serum AFP, AFPL3, AFU and γ-GT at the same time; 5 with AFP, AFPL3 and γ-GT; 5 with AFP, AFU and AFPL3; 7 with AFP, AFU andγ-GT. By contrast, in the control group, among the 30 hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients with liver cancer family history, 11 were found positive with AFP, 3 with AFPL3, 12 with AFU and 14 with γ-GT. None of the patients were found positive with union examination of AFP, AFPL3, AFU and γ-GT in the blood serum at the same time. Conclusion The union examination of AFP, AFU, AFPL3 and γ-GT is significant to the early diagnosis of primary liver cancer.

  3. Information fusion diagnosis and early-warning method for monitoring the long-term service safety of high dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing LIU; Zhong-ru WU; Yang YANG; Jiang HU; Bo XU

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the service behavior of high dams and establishing early-warning systems for them have become increasingly important in ensuring their long-term service.Current analysis methods used to obtain safety monitoring data are suited only to single survey point data.Unreliable or even paradoxical results are inevitably obtained when processing large amounts of monitoring data,thereby causing difficulty in acquiring precise conclusions.Therefore,we have developed a new method based on multi-source information fusion for conducting a comprehensive analysis of prototype monitoring data of high dams.In addition,we propose the use of decision information entropy analysis for building a diagnosis and early-warning system for the long-term service of high dams.Data metrics reduction is achieved using information fusion at the data level.A Bayesian information fusion is then conducted at the decision level to obtain a comprehensive diagnosis.Early-warning outcomes can be released after sorting analysis results from multi-positions in the dam according to importance.A case study indicates that the new method can effectively handle large amounts of monitoring data from numerous survey points.It can likewise obtain precise real-time results and export comprehensive early-warning outcomes from multi-positions of high dams.

  4. Clinical whole-genome sequencing in severe early-onset epilepsy reveals new genes and improves molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hilary C; Kim, Grace E; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Murakami, Yoshiko; Carvill, Gemma L; Meyer, Esther; Copley, Richard R; Rimmer, Andrew; Barcia, Giulia; Fleming, Matthew R; Kronengold, Jack; Brown, Maile R; Hudspith, Karl A; Broxholme, John; Kanapin, Alexander; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Kinoshita, Taroh; Nabbout, Rima; Bentley, David; McVean, Gil; Heavin, Sinéad; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; McShane, Tony; Mefford, Heather C; Shears, Deborah; Stewart, Helen; Kurian, Manju A; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Blair, Edward; Donnelly, Peter; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Taylor, Jenny C

    2014-06-15

    In severe early-onset epilepsy, precise clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis is complex, as many metabolic and electro-physiological processes have been implicated in disease causation. The clinical phenotypes share many features such as complex seizure types and developmental delay. Molecular diagnosis has historically been confined to sequential testing of candidate genes known to be associated with specific sub-phenotypes, but the diagnostic yield of this approach can be low. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on six patients with severe early-onset epilepsy who had previously been refractory to molecular diagnosis, and their parents. Four of these patients had a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara Syndrome (OS) and two patients had severe non-syndromic early-onset epilepsy (NSEOE). In two OS cases, we found de novo non-synonymous mutations in the genes KCNQ2 and SCN2A. In a third OS case, WGS revealed paternal isodisomy for chromosome 9, leading to identification of the causal homozygous missense variant in KCNT1, which produced a substantial increase in potassium channel current. The fourth OS patient had a recessive mutation in PIGQ that led to exon skipping and defective glycophosphatidyl inositol biosynthesis. The two patients with NSEOE had likely pathogenic de novo mutations in CBL and CSNK1G1, respectively. Mutations in these genes were not found among 500 additional individuals with epilepsy. This work reveals two novel genes for OS, KCNT1 and PIGQ. It also uncovers unexpected genetic mechanisms and emphasizes the power of WGS as a clinical tool for making molecular diagnoses, particularly for highly heterogeneous disorders.

  5. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nuri Sener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A newborn baby girl developed seizures right after birth. On the fourth day, the baby was examined using diffusion sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diagnosed to have neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Laboratory findings confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first case of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD where diffusion MRI sequence helped in the diagnosis. We find association of NALD with seizures at birth is an extremely rare occurrence, and so far, only one case has been mentioned in the literature.

  6. The role of nailfold videocapillaroscopy in Raynaud’s phenomenon monitoring and early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alessandri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Several connective tissue diseases, in particular systemic sclerosis (SSc, have Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP as their first clinical manifestation. Primary RP represents a benign condition often observed in otherwise healthy subjects, especially women: it is due to an exaggerated response to the physiological cold-induced vasospasm, whereas the secondary form of RP is typically associated with connective tissue diseases, especially SSc. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC, particulary after the recent technological advances, is a safe and reliable method to observe the microvascular structure and its early changes, especially during the transition from primary to secondary RP. In case of SSc, by considering validated patterns and scoring systems, NVC is the main tool that rheumatologists can rely on, besides the presence of specific auto-antibodies, to perform a very early diagnosis of the disease. This implies the possibility of early treatment of SSc, with an eye of predicting and preventing its major clinical complications.

  7. Study of Vessel Conditions in Different Categories of Weight for Early-Stage of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hafizzatul ‘Izzah bt Mat Harun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the clinical experiment study is presented to diagnose the Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT. The diagnosis of DVT is commonly used by monitoring the blood velocity and the present of thrombus in vessel from B-mode ultrasound image associated with the application of Doppler ultrasound. However, the monitoring of those parameters will only be confirmed when someone had already suffered from DVT disease. Thus, this study is to diagnose the early stage of DVT. Since it is difficult to recognize the vessel condition at the early stage of DVT, the evaluation of vein mechanism based on different categories of weight at the early stage of DVT is proposed. The wall displacement and blood flow velocity is considered to be the important parameters to construct a clinical model of DVT risk factor, thereby constitutes an important contribution for predicting probability of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT.

  8. Cross-validation of biomarkers for the early differential diagnosis and prognosis of dementia in a clinical setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perani, Daniela [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy); Cerami, Chiara [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Hospital, Clinical Neuroscience Department, Milan (Italy); Caminiti, Silvia Paola [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Santangelo, Roberto; Coppi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Magnani, Giuseppe [San Raffaele Hospital, Department of Neurology, Milan (Italy); Pinto, Patrizia [Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Department of Neurology, Bergamo (Italy); Passerini, Gabriella [Servizio di Medicina di Laboratorio OSR, Milan (Italy); Falini, Andrea [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Hospital, CERMAC - Department of Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Iannaccone, Sandro [San Raffaele Hospital, Clinical Neuroscience Department, Milan (Italy); Cappa, Stefano Francesco [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); IUSS Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Comi, Giancarlo [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); San Raffaele Hospital, Department of Neurology, Milan (Italy); Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supportive role of molecular and structural biomarkers (CSF protein levels, FDG PET and MRI) in the early differential diagnosis of dementia in a large sample of patients with neurodegenerative dementia, and in determining the risk of disease progression in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the supportive role of CSF Aβ{sub 42}, t-Tau, p-Tau levels, conventional brain MRI and visual assessment of FDG PET SPM t-maps in the early diagnosis of dementia and the evaluation of MCI progression. Diagnosis based on molecular biomarkers showed the best fit with the final diagnosis at a long follow-up. FDG PET SPM t-maps had the highest diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease and in the differential diagnosis of non-Alzheimer's disease dementias. The p-tau/Aβ{sub 42} ratio was the only CSF biomarker providing a significant classification rate for Alzheimer's disease. An Alzheimer's disease-positive metabolic pattern as shown by FDG PET SPM in MCI was the best predictor of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. In this clinical setting, FDG PET SPM t-maps and the p-tau/Aβ{sub 42} ratio improved clinical diagnostic accuracy, supporting the importance of these biomarkers in the emerging diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease dementia. FDG PET using SPM t-maps had the highest predictive value by identifying hypometabolic patterns in different neurodegenerative dementias and normal brain metabolism in MCI, confirming its additional crucial exclusionary role. (orig.)

  9. Application of ThinPrep Bronchial Brushing Cytology in the Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoying; Wen, Zhongmei; Li, Yang; Peng, Liping

    2014-01-01

    The majority of lung cancer patients are diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of ThinPrep (TP) bronchial brushing cytology in lung cancer. A total of 595 patients with suspicious lung cancer were enrolled in this study. The bronchial brushing samples were prepared by TP. The data were then compared to histology of lung tissue samples. Histologically, 479 of these 595 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer, including 223 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 77 cases of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), and 152 cases of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The TP cytology revealed a total of 460 cases of lung cancer (including 232 SCCs, 91 ADCs, and 108 SCLCs). The TP cytological technique had 87.06% sensitivity and 62.93% specificity in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Specifically, TP cytology confirmed 195 of 223 SCCs, 47 of 77 ADCs, and 94 of 152 SCLCs. The TP cytology showed 87.44% sensitivity and 90.05% specificity for the diagnosis of SCC, with a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.820; while the sensitivity was reduced to 61.04% and the specificity was 90.93% for the diagnosis of ADC, with a MCC of 0.464. For the diagnosis of SCLC, the sensitivity was 61.84% and the specificity was 96.84%, with a MCC of 0.648. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of TP bronchial brushing cytology in the early diagnosis of lung cancer, especially the early stage of lung SCC. A prospective clinical trial will verify these data before being translated into the clinic. PMID:24759600

  10. Easy probability estimation of the diagnosis of early axial spondyloarthritis by summing up scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Rudwaleit, Martin; Zeidler, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Several sets of criteria for the diagnosis of axial SpA (including non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis) have been proposed in the literature in which scores were attributed to relevant findings and the diagnosis requests a minimal sum of these scores. To quantitatively estimate the probability of axial SpA, multiplying the likelihood ratios of all relevant findings was proposed by Rudwaleit et al. in 2004. The objective of our proposal is to combine the advantages of both, i.e. to estimate the probability by summing up scores instead of multiplying likelihood ratios. An easy way to estimate the probability of axial spondyloarthritis is to use the logarithms of the likelihood ratios as scores attributed to relevant findings and to use the sum of these scores for the probability estimation. A list of whole-numbered scores for relevant findings is presented, and also threshold sum values necessary for a definite and for a probable diagnosis of axial SpA as well as a threshold below which the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis can be excluded. In a diagram, the probability of axial spondyloarthritis is given for sum values between these thresholds. By the method proposed, the advantages of both, the easy summing up of scores and the quantitative calculation of the diagnosis probability, are combined. Our method also makes it easier to estimate which additional tests are necessary to come to a definite diagnosis.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging with a new contrast agent for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Biasutti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Used as contrast agents for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, markers for beta-amyloid deposits might allow early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic test, MRI+CLP (contrastophore-linker-pharmacophore, should it become clinically available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the cost-effectiveness of MRI+CLP to that of standard diagnosis using currently available cognition tests and of standard MRI, and investigated the impact of a hypothetical treatment efficient in early AD. The primary analysis was based on the current French context for 70-year-old patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. In alternative "screen and treat" scenarios, we analyzed the consequences of systematic screenings of over-60 individuals (either population-wide or restricted to the ApoE4 genotype population. We used a Markov model of AD progression; model parameters, as well as incurred costs and quality-of-life weights in France were taken from the literature. We performed univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. The base-case preferred strategy was the standard MRI diagnosis strategy. In the primary analysis however, MRI+CLP could become the preferred strategy under a wide array of scenarios involving lower cost and/or higher sensitivity or specificity. By contrast, in the "screen and treat" analyses, the probability of MRI+CLP becoming the preferred strategy remained lower than 5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is thought that anti-beta-amyloid compounds might halt the development of dementia in early stage patients. This study suggests that, even should such treatments become available, systematically screening the over-60 population for AD would only become cost-effective with highly specific tests able to diagnose early stages of the disease. However, offering a new diagnostic test based on beta-amyloid markers to elderly patients with MCI might prove

  12. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIVE METHODS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF OCCLUSAL CARIES LESIONS – in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile method,DIAGNOcam andDIAGNOdent. Then X-rays were taken and the dentists viewed them separately, without magnification.Fuchsine was applied for 30 sec. and then washed under running water for 20 min. Places where dye was present were registered. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS package of Windows. Results: The results showed high level of correspondence between the authors for all the diagnostic methods. Concerning different methods applied for caries diagnosis there was a correlation between the methods, but it was diverging for the different methods. No correlation between radiographic exam and data obtained with DIAGNOdent and dye staining was observed. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results we may conclude that the least sensitive method for fissure caries diagnosis was the dye staining, followed by the radiographic exam. The results, obtained by DIAGNOdent and DIAGNOcam were very close, but DIAGNOcams’ data was better correlating with the clinical results.DIAGNOcam procedure can be judged as equivalent in the detection of occlusal dentine lesions when compared to clinical results.

  13. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  14. Possible Patient Early Diagnosis by Ultrasonic Noninvasive Estimation of Thermal Gradients into Tissues Based on Spectral Changes Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bazan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a precise noninvasive temperature estimation, inside patient tissues, would open promising research fields, because its clinic results would provide early-diagnosis tools. In fact, detecting changes of thermal origin in ultrasonic echo spectra could be useful as an early complementary indicator of infections, inflammations, or cancer. But the effective clinic applications to diagnosis of thermometry ultrasonic techniques, proposed previously, require additional research. Before their implementations with ultrasonic probes and real-time electronic and processing systems, rigorous analyses must be still made over transient echotraces acquired from well-controlled biological and computational phantoms, to improve resolutions and evaluate clinic limitations. It must be based on computing improved signal-processing algorithms emulating tissues responses. Some related parameters in echo-traces reflected by semiregular scattering tissues must be carefully quantified to get a precise processing protocols definition. In this paper, approaches for non-invasive spectral ultrasonic detection are analyzed. Extensions of author's innovations for ultrasonic thermometry are shown and applied to computationally modeled echotraces from scattered biological phantoms, attaining high resolution (better than 0.1°C. Computer methods are provided for viability evaluation of thermal estimation from echoes with distinct noise levels, difficult to be interpreted, and its effectiveness is evaluated as possible diagnosis tool in scattered tissues like liver.

  15. Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Armah, Ernestina; Sarpong, Theresa; Quansah, Dan Yedu; Amankwaa, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) has been described as the leading cause of cancer deaths among women especially in the developing world including sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Delayed presentation and late diagnosis at health facilities are parts of the contributing factors of high BC mortality in Africa. This review aimed to appraise the contributing factors to delayed breast cancer presentation and diagnosis among SSA women. Methods Five databases encompassing medical and social sciences were systematically searched using predefined search terms linked with breast cancer presentation and diagnosis and sub Saharan Africa. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. Quality of quantitative and qualitative articles were assessed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality appraisal checklist. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the qualitative studies to integrate findings. Results Fourteen (14) quantitative studies, two (2) qualitative studies and one (1) mixed method study merited inclusion for analysis. This review identified low knowledge of breast cancer among SSA women. This review also found lack of awareness of early detection treatment, poor perception of BC, socio-cultural factors such as belief, traditions and fear as factors impacting African women’s health seeking behavior in relation to breast cancer. Conclusion Improving African women’s knowledge and understanding will improve behaviors related to breast cancer and facilitate early presentation and detection and enhance proper management and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:28192444

  16. Early postnatal diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis by combining light microscopy, acidified glycerol lysis test and eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Oliver; Eber, Stefan; Speer, Christian P

    2015-12-01

    Exact diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is widely considered unreliable around birth. However, early postnatal diagnosis at the beginning of congenital hemolysis may be essential for managing neonatal anemia and hemolytic icterus, identifying those at high risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia, irreversible kernicterus, or sudden need for red cell transfusion. We analyzed 37 blood samples from neonates or infants up to six weeks of life that had been collected in-house or shipped to our laboratory due to suspected red cell membrane disorder. By combining assessment of red cell morphology, acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT), and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding assay, we were able to clearly exclude HS in 22 and confirm HS in 10 patients, of which one had undergone red cell transfusion prior to blood sampling. Assessment of red cell morphology and normal test results allowed diagnosis of infantile pyknocytosis or Heinz body anemia in three neonates. Re-evaluation of five patients with inconsistent results of AGLT and EMA binding led to confirmation of HS in two cases. Automated analysis of hematologic parameters revealed elevated proportion of hyperdense cells to be a highly significant indicator for HS in neonatal infants. We showed that assessment of red cell morphology in combination with AGLT and EMA binding assay is a reliable basis for confirming or rejecting suspected diagnosis of HS even in neonates. Our data underline the necessity for blood sampling and laboratory exploration in suspected red cell membrane or enzyme defects at the earliest occasion.

  17. Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases - the long awaited Holy Grail and bottleneck of modern brain research - 19th HUPO BPP workshop: May 22-24, 2013, Dortmund, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-10-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Community-Based HIV-1 Early Diagnosis and Risk Behavior Analysis of Men Having Sex with Men in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianguo; Liu, Li; Cheung, Mandy; Lee, Man-Po; Wang, Haibo; Li, Chun-Ho; Chan, Chun-Chung; Nishiura, Kenji; Tang, Xian; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Cheung, Ka-Wai; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of HIV-1 among men having sex with men (MSM) calls for an investigation of HIV-1 prevalence and incidence in MSM by early diagnosis to assist with early preventive interventions in Hong Kong. The participants were recruited randomly from MSM communities within a one-year period. Rapid HIV Test (RHT) and real-time dried blood spot (DBS)-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (DBS-qPCR) were used for the early diagnosis of 474 participants. Risk behavior analysis was performed by studying information obtained from the participants during the study period. The HIV-1 prevalence and incident rates in the studied MSM population were 4.01% (19/474) and 1.47% (7/474), respectively. Three infected participants were found at the acute phase of infection by DBS-qPCR. Only 46.4% (220/474) MSM were using condoms regularly for anal sex. HIV infection significantly correlated with unprotected receptive anal sex and syphilis infection. An increased number of infections was found among foreign MSM in Hong Kong. This study is the first to use DBS-qPCR to identify acutely infected individuals in a community setting and to provide both the prevalence and incident rates of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Hong Kong. The risk analysis provided evidence that behavior intervention strengthening is necessary to fight against the increasing HIV-1 epidemic among MSM in Hong Kong and surrounding regions in Asia.

  19. [Anencephaly at 20 weeks gestation. What is the optimal gestational age for early diagnosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, M; Henrich, W; Schmider, A; Dudenhausen, J W

    2002-01-01

    Anencephaly is a lethal defect resulting from a disturbed closure of the neural tube. Prenatal diagnosis during first-trimester-scan is essential but implies pitfalls. Three findings of anencephaly at 20 weeks gestation are reported. Fetuses with anencephaly are correctly identified at 12 to 13 weeks gestation. Anencephaly occurs in absence of the cranial vault. Ultrasound findings can be normal until onset of ossification has definitely failed. A first trimester scan at 12 to 13 weeks allows reliable diagnosis and active management of anencephaly. At this gestational age fetal anatomy can be screened in detail by transvaginal ultrasound and nuchal translucency can be measured.

  20. Pilot Study on Clinical Effectiveness of Autofluorescence Imaging for Early Gastric Cancer Diagnosis by Less Experienced Endoscopists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and compare effectiveness of Autofluorescence imaging (AFI in diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC between experienced and less experienced endoscopists. Fifty selected images (20 neoplastic lesions and 30 benign lesions/areas of both white light endoscopy (WLE and AFI were blindly reviewed by two groups; first consisted of five experienced endoscopists and second included five less experienced endoscopists. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 70%, 78%, and 75%, respectively, for AFI and 81%, 76%, and 78%, respectively, for WLE in the experienced group. In the less experienced group, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 80%, 81% and 80%, respectively, for AFI and 65%, 77%, and 72%, respectively, for WLE. Interobserver variability for the less experienced group was better with AFI than WLE. AFI improved sensitivity of endoscopic diagnosis of neoplastic lesions by less experienced endoscopists, and its use could beneficially enhance the clinical effectiveness of EGC screening.

  1. Acute abdomen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Titos-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erithematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with multiorgan involvement caused principally by vasculitis of small vessels. The gastrointestinal tract is one of the most frequently affected by SLE, with abdominal pain as the most common symptom. An early diagnosis and treatment of lupus enteritis is essential to avoid complications like hemorrhage or perforation, with up to 50 % of mortality rate. However, differential diagnosis sometimes is difficult, especially with other types of gastrointestinal diseases as digestive involvement of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, moreover when both entities may coexist. We describe the case of a patient with both diseases that was diagnosed with lupus enteritis and treated with steroid therapy; the patient had an excellent response.

  2. 48. The value of CT scan and detection of telomerase activity in biopsy specimens for early diagnosis of lung carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of telomerase activity in the specimens of biopsy with bronchoscopy or cutting needle. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in the biopsy apecimens taken from 52 patients suspected of having early lung cancer by CT scan. The PCR based silver staining telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) was used for detection of telomerase activity in 22 patients with early lung cancer (T1N0M0). Control study was made on the specimens taken from 24 patients with benign disease (cyst 3, TB 6, pseudtumor 5, pneumonjia 10). Results: The positive rates of telomerase activity were 86.45% (19/22) and 4.2% (1/24) in early lung cancers and benign lesions respectively (P<0.01). It was significantly higher in early lung cancers than in benign disease. All cases were diagnosed with surgical pathology and following for 2 years. Conclusion: Detecting telomerase activity in preoperative bronchoscope and cutting needle biopsy specimens may contribute to diagnosis of early lung cancer.

  3. Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Children: A Guide to Early Diagnosis for the General Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Alobaidy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease (NP-C is a lysosomal storage disease in which impaired intracellular lipid transport leads to accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in various neurovisceral tissues. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The clinical spectrum is grouped by the age of onset and onset of neurological manifestation: pre/perinatal; early infantile; late infantile; and juvenile periods. The NP-C Suspicion Index (SI screening tool was developed to identify suspected patients with this disease. It is especially good at recognizing the disease in patients older than four years of age. Biochemical tests involving genetic markers and Filipin staining of skin fibroblast are being employed to assist diagnosis. Therapy is mostly supportive and since 2009, the first specific therapy approved for use was Miglustat (Zavesca aimed at stabilizing the rate of progression of neurological manifestation. The prognosis correlates with age at onset of neurological signs; patients with early onset form progress faster. The NP-C disease has heterogeneous neurovisceral manifestations. A SI is a screening tool that helps in diagnostic process. Filipin staining test is a specific biomarker diagnostic test. Miglustat is the first disease-specific therapy.

  4. How to Improve the Early Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Relationship between Validated Conventional Diagnosis and Quantitative DNA Amplification in Congenitally Infected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bua, Jacqueline; Volta, Bibiana J.; Perrone, Alina E.; Scollo, Karenina; Velázquez, Elsa B.; Ruiz, Andres M.; De Rissio, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Chagas congenital transmission guides, the diagnosis of infants, born to Trypanosoma cruzi infected mothers, relies on the detection of parasites by INP micromethod, and/or the persistence of T. cruzi specific antibody titers at 10–12 months of age. Methodology and Principal Findings Parasitemia levels were quantified by PCR in T. cruzi-infected children, grouped according to the results of one-year follow-up diagnosis: A) Neonates that were diagnosed in the first month after delivery by microscopic blood examination (INP micromethod) (n = 19) had a median parasitemia of 1,700 Pe/mL (equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL); B) Infants that required a second parasitological diagnosis at six months of age (n = 10) showed a median parasitemia of around 20 Pe/mL and 500 Pe/mL at 1 and 6 months old, respectively, and C) babies with undetectable parasitemia by three blood microscopic observations but diagnosed by specific anti - T. cruzi serology at around 1 year old, (n = 22), exhibited a parasitemia of around 5 Pe/mL, 800 Pe/mL and 20 Pe/mL 1, 6 and 12 month after delivery, respectively. T. cruzi parasites were isolated by hemoculture from 19 congenitally infected children, 18 of which were genotypified as DTU TcV, (former lineage TcIId) and only one as TcI. Significance This report is the first to quantify parasitemia levels in more than 50 children congenitally infected with T. cruzi, at three different diagnostic controls during one-year follow-up after delivery. Our results show that the parasite burden in some children (22 out of 51) is below the detection limit of the INP micromethod. As the current trypanocidal treatment proved to be very effective to cure T. cruzi - infected children, more sensitive parasitological methods should be developed to assure an early T. cruzi congenital diagnosis. PMID:24147166

  5. Systematic review of the use of dried blood spots for monitoring HIV viral load and for early infant diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W Smit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS have been used as alternative specimens to plasma to increase access to HIV viral load (VL monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID in remote settings. We systematically reviewed evidence on the performance of DBS compared to plasma for VL monitoring and EID. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirteen peer reviewed HIV VL publications and five HIV EID papers were included. Depending on the technology and the viral load distribution in the study population, the percentage of DBS samples that are within 0.5 log of VL in plasma ranged from 52-100%. Because the input sample volume is much smaller in a blood spot, there is a risk of false negatives with DBS. Sensitivity of DBS VL was found to be 78-100% compared to plasma at VL below 1000 copies/ml, but this increased to 100% at a threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Unlike a plasma VL test which measures only cell free HIV RNA, a DBS VL also measures proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA, potentially leading to false positive results when using DBS. The systematic review showed that specificity was close to 100% at DBS VL above 5000 copies/ml, and this threshold would be the most reliable for predicting true virologic failure using DBS. For early infant diagnosis, DBS has a sensitivity of 100% compared to fresh whole blood or plasma in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited data are available for EID, DBS offer a highly sensitive and specific sampling strategy to make viral load monitoring and early infant diagnosis more accessible in remote settings. A standardized approach for sampling, storing, and processing DBS samples would be essential to allow successful implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Registration #: CRD42013003621.

  6. Systematic Review of the Use of Dried Blood Spots for Monitoring HIV Viral Load and for Early Infant Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter W.; Sollis, Kimberly A.; Fiscus, Susan; Ford, Nathan; Vitoria, Marco; Essajee, Shaffiq; Barnett, David; Cheng, Ben; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Denny, Thomas; Landay, Alan; Stevens, Wendy; Habiyambere, Vincent; Perriens, Joseph H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) have been used as alternative specimens to plasma to increase access to HIV viral load (VL) monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in remote settings. We systematically reviewed evidence on the performance of DBS compared to plasma for VL monitoring and EID. Methods and Findings Thirteen peer reviewed HIV VL publications and five HIV EID papers were included. Depending on the technology and the viral load distribution in the study population, the percentage of DBS samples that are within 0.5 log of VL in plasma ranged from 52–100%. Because the input sample volume is much smaller in a blood spot, there is a risk of false negatives with DBS. Sensitivity of DBS VL was found to be 78–100% compared to plasma at VL below 1000 copies/ml, but this increased to 100% at a threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Unlike a plasma VL test which measures only cell free HIV RNA, a DBS VL also measures proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA, potentially leading to false positive results when using DBS. The systematic review showed that specificity was close to 100% at DBS VL above 5000 copies/ml, and this threshold would be the most reliable for predicting true virologic failure using DBS. For early infant diagnosis, DBS has a sensitivity of 100% compared to fresh whole blood or plasma in all studies. Conclusions Although limited data are available for EID, DBS offer a highly sensitive and specific sampling strategy to make viral load monitoring and early infant diagnosis more accessible in remote settings. A standardized approach for sampling, storing, and processing DBS samples would be essential to allow successful implementation. Trial Registration PROSPERO Registration #: CRD42013003621. PMID:24603442

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-beta Isoforms for Early and Differential Dementia Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyfs, Hanne; Van Broeck, Bianca; Timmers, Maarten; Fransen, Erik; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter P.; Streffer, Johannes R.; Mercken, Marc; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overlapping cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) levels between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD patients decrease differential diagnostic accuracy of the AD core CSF biomarkers. Amyloid-beta (A beta) isoforms might improve the AD versus non-AD differential diagnosis. Objective: To de

  8. The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…

  9. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and uri

  10. Early diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of occlusal caries--a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostek, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the clinical experiences and recommendations for use of the KaVo DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device and of air abrasion (Kinetic cavity preparation). A major diagnostic problem facing clinicians today is the difficulty of achieving accurate occlusal caries diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy is important because it determines the quality of the treatment decisions made, particularly with regard to the possibility of unnecessary operative intervention. The decrease in incidence of cavitated caries in Western countries, followed by the change in common presentation to non-cavitated caries, has made this accurate diagnosis more difficult. The deficiencies of using traditional methods of occlusal diagnosis are discussed and examined, along with the need for new, more accurate techniques. The use of the new technology of laser fluorescence is explained in detail with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of a commercial device: the KaVo DIAGNOdent. A minimal cavity outline philosophy is suggested for operative intervention, with particular emphasis on the advantages of using Kinetic cavity preparation (KCP) non-rotary method of tooth cutting. It should be noted that treatment options such as operative intervention should never precede adequate diagnosis and the use of preventive treatments such as sealants, should be utilized where indicated.

  11. A Single, Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovira, Alex; Swanton, Josephine; Tintore, Mar; Huerga, Elena; Barkhof, Fredrick; Filippi, Massimo; Frederiksen, Jette L.; Langkilde, Annika; Miszkiel, Katherine; Polman, Chris; Rovaris, Marco; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Miller, David; Montalban, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Background: A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in patients who present for the first time with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) can be established with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) if the MRI demonstrates demyelinating lesions with dissemination in space (DIS) and dissemination in time

  12. Early pack-off diagnosis in drilling using an adaptive observer and statistical change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    in the well. A model-based adaptive observer is used to estimate these friction parameters as well as flow rates. Detecting changes to these estimates can then be used for pack-off diagnosis, which due to measurement noise is done using statistical change detection. Isolation of incident type and location...

  13. The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…

  14. Non-Invasive Markers for Early Diagnosis and Determination of the Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Wijck, Kim; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Degraeuwe, Pieter L.; Mulder, Twan L.; Van der Zee, David C.; Brouwers, Hens A. A.; Verhoeven, Bas H.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Kramer, Boris W.; Buurman, Wim A.; Heineman, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. Methods:

  15. Non-invasive markers for early diagnosis and determination of the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, G.; Derikx, J.P.; Wijck, K. van; Zimmermann, L.J.; Degraeuwe, P.L.J.; Mulder, T.L.; Zee, D.C. van der; Brouwers, H.A.A.; Verhoeven, B.H.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Kramer, B.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Heineman, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. METHODS:

  16. Contribution of a Comparative Western Blot Method to Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Corvaglia, Luigi Tommaso; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Serology has a pivotal role in the diagnosis of congenital syphilis (CS), but problems arise because of the passive transfer of IgG antibodies across the placenta. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a comparative Western blot (WB) method finalized to match the IgG immunological profiles of mothers and their own babies at birth in order to differentiate between passively transmitted maternal antibodies and antibodies synthesized by the infants against Treponema pallidum Thirty infants born to mothers with unknown or inadequate treatment for syphilis were entered in a retrospective study, conducted at St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. All of the infants underwent clinical, instrumental, and laboratory examinations, including IgM WB testing. For the retrospective study, an IgG WB assay was performed by blotting T. pallidum antigens onto nitrocellulose sheets and incubating the strips with serum specimens from mother-child pairs. CS was diagnosed in 11 out of the 30 enrolled infants; 9/11 cases received the definitive diagnosis within the first week of life, whereas the remaining two were diagnosed later because of increasing serological test titers. The use of the comparative IgG WB testing performed with serum samples from mother-child pairs allowed a correct CS diagnosis in 10/11 cases. The CS diagnosis was improved by a strategy combining comparative IgG WB results with IgM WB results, leading to a sensitivity of 100%. The comparative IgG WB test is thus a welcome addition to the conventional laboratory methods used for CS diagnosis, allowing identification and adequate treatment of infected infants and avoiding unnecessary therapy of uninfected newborns. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Importance of radiologic early symptoms in diagnosis and therapy of necrosis of the head of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, C.; Kang, C.H.; Phlvers, E.; Haasters, J.; Thuemler, P. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.))

    1985-02-01

    Early roentgenographic signs of aseptic necrosis are changes after infarction without flattening of the femoral head or subchondral decalcification (crescent sign). 121 patients with femoral head necrosis, in 99 of idiopathic origin and in 22 after cortisone treatment, were examined. The first sign of infarction is represented by the intensification of the bright regions at the lateral and medial aspect of the femoral head with emphasis on the lateral aspect near to the femoral neck. Special radiographic changes after infarction are discussed. The diagnosis of bilateral involvement determines the prognosis of the disease and its treatment. A careful study of the anamnesis is most important for prognostic reasons.

  18. Early diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in Indian patients by nerve conduction studies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out for early confirmation of clinically diagnosed patients of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) by electro-diagnostic tests which included motor conduction, sensory conduction studies and F-wave studies. The aim of the study was early confirmation of clinically suspected patients of CTS by motor and sensory conduction studies of median and ulnar nerves. Eighty subjects of age group 30-50 years (40 clinically suspected patients of CTS, 40 as control group) were studie...

  19. Attach importance to the early diagnosis and treatment of acute coagulation dysfunction after major war trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie-Shou; You-sheng LI

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation dysfunction after major war trauma is conventionally attributed to consumption and dilution of coagulation factors. However, recent studies have identified an acute coagulation dysfunction at the early stage after trauma. This coagulation dysfunction due to endogenous coagulation disturbance at the early stage after trauma is called acute traumatic coagulation dysfunction (ATCD), and the patients with ATCD would have an increased complication rate and mortality. Standard coagulati...

  20. Lobar Collapse and Obliteration of Air Bronchogram Allowing Early Diagnosis of Endobronchial Aspergillus Infection following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial fungal infection (EBFI is notoriously difficult to diagnose early since it may present few systemic features and does not cause characteristic parenchymal lesions on lung CT scanning. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered extended neutropenia following graft failure after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT for severe aplastic anaemia. CT scan prior to retransplantation was normal despite persistent cough but lobar collapse was shown on repeat scan 16 days later. The probable diagnosis of EBFI (later proven on bronchoscopy was only suspected when subsequent chest X-ray (CXR demonstrated lack of an air bronchogram in the partially collapsed lung. Early radiological suspicion resulted in multiagent antifungal therapy followed by delayed lobectomy, and led to this being the first reported case of Aspergillus EBFI not to result in respiratory failure.

  1. A Statistical Index for Early Diagnosis of Ventricular Arrhythmia from the Trend Analysis of ECG Phase-portraits

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Grazia; Mazomenos, Evangelos B; Maharatna, Koushik; Koulaouzidis, George; Morgan, John; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel statistical index for the early diagnosis of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) using the time delay phase-space reconstruction (PSR) technique, from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Patients with two classes of fatal VA - with preceding ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and with no VPBs have been analysed using extensive simulations. Three subclasses of VA with VPBs viz. ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT followed by VF are analyzed using the proposed technique. Measures of descriptive statistics like mean ({\\mu}), standard deviation ({\\sigma}), coefficient of variation (CV = {\\sigma}/{\\mu}), skewness ({\\gamma}) and kurtosis (\\{beta}) in phase-space diagrams are studied for a sliding window of 10 beats of ECG signal using the box-counting technique. Subsequently, a hybrid prediction index which is composed of a weighted sum of CV and kurtosis has been proposed for predicting the impending arrhythmia before its actual occurrence. The early diagnos...

  2. Spontaneous Complete Uterine Rupture in a Nonlaboring, Early Third-trimester Uterus: Missed Diagnosis by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Dixon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Describe potential consequences and remedy for not intermittently auscultating fetal heart tones during travel to the imaging department and misdiagnosing a ruptured uterus on ultrasound as a synechiae. Study Design - Retrospective chart review of case. Results - Spontaneous uterine rupture in pregnancy is a rare and catastrophic event. Fetal monitoring is an important component for diagnosis, but fetal heart auscultation is usually discontinued while the patient is receiving imaging. We present a ruptured uterus at 28 weeks with delayed diagnosis secondary to interrupted fetal heart tone auscultation and a misdiagnosis of a rupture as a synechiae resulting in a seriously compromised newborn at delivery. Conclusion - Intermittent fetal heart tone auscultation is a possible method of monitoring when the patient is off continuous fetal monitoring.

  3. [Gallstone ileus as a cause of acute abdomen. Importance of early diagnosis for surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, Jesica; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Medina-Arana y, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon type of mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by an intraluminal gallstone, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult in the Emergency department. This study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation of 5 patients with gallstone ileus treated between 2000-2010. Clinical features, diagnostic testing, and surgical treatment were analyzed. Five patients were included: 2 cases showed bowel obstruction; 2 patients presented a recurrent gallstone ileus with prior surgical intervention; and one patient presented acute peritonitis due to perforation of an ileal diverticula. In all cases CT confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. In our experience, gallstone ileus may present with clinical features other than intestinal obstruction. In suspicious cases CT may be useful to decrease diagnostic delay, which is associated with more complications.

  4. Early Diagnosis of Penetrating Cardiac and Pleural Injury by Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, K. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Pandit, Vinay R.

    2016-01-01

    In India, stab injury is not uncommon, but identifying potential life threatening conditions in the emergency room (ER) and initiating prompt treatment are challenging. This is a case report of a young patient who presented to the ER with assault injury to the chest and shock; timely extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma helped to fast-track the patient to the operating room. A brief review of diagnosis and management of penetrating cardiac injury is presented herewith.

  5. Diagnosis of Late-Stage, Early-Onset, Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of this research is to 1) develop screening tools for simple diagnosis by using patient-report symptom questionnaire and standardized medical exams, 2...symptom questionnaire and a standardized examination for medical personnel. Subtasks: a) Administer/validate questionnaires /forms (Sept 2016- Mar...products; Nothing to Report Nothing to Report Nothing to Report Nothing to Report  software;  educational aids or curricula;  instruments

  6. Early diagnosis of mycotic keratitis : Predictive value of potassium hydroxide preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium hydroxide (KOH preparation is an underutilized modality in the diagnosis of mycotic keratitis. We have earlier shown its utility in the diagnosis of Nocardia and Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this study was (i to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of KOH preparation, and (ii to compare its efficacy with other methods of corneal scraping examination, for the diagnosis of mycotic keratitis. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, randomized corneal scrapings were examined by KOH, Gram′s stain, and lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB in 91 infectious keratitis subjects. In phase II, 53 corneal scrapings were stained with KOH and calcofluor white (CFW, and viewed with bright field (KOH and fluorescence (CFW microscopy. The KOH and CFW readings were recorded by an observer masked to the clinical findings and culture results. Nineteen scrapings were examined by two masked observers. In 22 culture positive fungal keratitis patients in phase I, the sensitivity of KOH, Gram′s stain, and LPCB methods was 100%, 86.4%, and 77.3%, respectively. In phase II, the specificities of KOH and CFW were identical (83.8%, while the sensitivities were 81.2% and 93.7%, respectively (p = 0.59, in 16 culture positive mycotic keratitis patients. There was no significant difference between the negative and positive predictive values of KOH and CFW. Furthermore, no significant interobserver variability was found in the specificity and sensitivity. The KOH method compares well with other microscopy methods in the diagnosis of keratomycosis and has a definite place in the armamentarium of diagnostic techniques.

  7. Role of the General Surgeon in the Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Charcot Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellés Dechent, Rafael; Rueda Alcárcel, Camilo; Primo Romaguera, Vicent; Martínez Caamaño, Asunción; Asencio Arana, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The Charcot foot (CF) consists of a progressive deterioration of the bones and joints, most common in diabetic patients with advanced neuropathy. The great problem is that can be confused with other processes, delaying the diagnosis and specific treatment. The aim is to analyze the cases of CF diagnosed in our hospital and especially to highlight the role of the general surgeon. Retrospective study of all registered cases diagnosed of CF between the diabetic population of our Department of Health. A review of the literature was performed. From 2008 to 2012, there 7 cases of CF were diagnosed (prevalence 1:710). Two of the patients were diagnosed erroneously of cellulitis. The average time of delay in the diagnosis was 10 weeks (minimum 1, maximum 24). The initial treatment was immobilization of the extremity. Once the edema was eliminated, an offload orthesis was placed according to Sanders's anatomical classification. Evolution was favorable in 5 patients, 1 patient needed amputation, and other one died of acute cardiac pathology. The CF is a more frequent pathology than we believe. The general surgeon is the fundamental prop in the diagnosis and initial treatment. Before the presence of inflammation and edema of the foot in a patient with diabetes and severe neuropathy, once cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and TVP are ruled out, Charcot neuroarthropathy should be considered. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-phase thin-slice CT in the diagnosis of small insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Hideki; Sata, Naohiro; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Lefor, Alan; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-31

    Insulinomas, which are generally smaller than 2 cm, may be difficult to detect by routine imaging modalities including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although preoperative detection of insulinomas is essential for operative planning, it is often challenging due to their small size. While arterial stimulation and venous sampling has been used in patients with insulinomas it has been largely supplanted by early-phase thin-slice computed tomography. We report three patients with insulinomas, which were not detected by routine computed tomography scan, but were successfully imaged using early-phase thin-slice computed tomography. Enucleation was performed in all patients based on preoperative imaging. All three patients had an unremarkable postoperative course. Early-phase thin-slice computed tomography is recommended for the preoperative identification of insulinomas. This non-invasive imaging technique should be considered before performing arterial stimulation and venous sampling.

  9. Fault Early Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearings Combining Wavelet Filtering and Degree of Cyclostationarity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Fu-chang; CHEN Jin; HE Jun; BI Guo; LI Fu-cai; ZHANG Gui-cai

    2005-01-01

    The vibration signals of rolling element bearing are produced by a combination of periodic and random processes due to the machine's rotation cycle and interaction with the real world. The combination of such components can give rise to signals, which have periodically time-varying ensemble statistical and are best considered as cyclostationary. When the early fault occurs, the background noise is very heavy, it is difficult to disclose the latent periodic components successfully using cyclostationary analysis alone. In this paper the degree of cyclostationarity is combined with wavelet filtering for detection of rolling element bearing early faults. Using the proposed entropy minimization rule. The parameters of the wavelet filter are optimized. This method is shown to be effective in detecting rolling element bearing early fault when cyclostationary analysis by itself fails.

  10. Neutrophil CD64 combined with PCT, CRP and WBC improves the sensitivity for the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-Ping; Liu, Jun; Yue, Lei-He; Wang, Hong-Qi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) combined with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) can increase the sensitivity and accuracy of neonatal sepsis diagnosis. The serum levels of nCD64, CRP, PCT and WBC were detected in 60 patients with neonatal sepsis and 60 patients with non-sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC), and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers on neonatal sepsis. Serum levels of nCD64, PCT, CRP and WBC were higher in the sepsis group than non-sepsis group (pneonatal sepsis were increased to 95.5%. Except for WBC, the birth weight and gestational age had no effects on the diagnostic value of these serum biomarkers. nCD64 and PCT are better diagnostic biomarkers for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis as compared to CRP. With the help of optimal cut-off value based on ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, the combination of these biomarkers could improve the sensitivity for the diagnosis of suspected late-onset neonatal sepsis based on common serum biomarkers.

  11. Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Tool in the Early Diagnosis of Aggressive Lymphomas Mimicking Life-Threatening Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos J. Tsagarakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive lymphomas can present with symptoms mimicking life-threatening infection. Flow cytometry (FC is usually recommended for the classification and staging of lymphomas in patients with organomegaly and atypical cells in effusions and blood, after the exclusion of other possible diagnoses. FC may also have a place in the initial diagnostic investigation of aggressive lymphoma. Three cases are presented here of highly aggressive lymphomas in young adults, which presented with the clinical picture of fever of unknown origin (FUO in patients severely ill. All followed a life-threatening clinical course, and two developed the hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS, but microbiological, immunological, and morphological evaluation and immunohistochemistry (IHC failed to substantiate an early diagnosis. FC was the technique that provided conclusive diagnostic evidence of lymphoma, subsequently verified by IHC. Our experience with these three cases highlights the potential role of FC as an adjunct methodology in the initial assessment of possible highly aggressive lymphoma presenting with the signs and symptoms of life-threatening infection, although the definitive diagnosis should be established by biopsy. In such cases, FC can contribute to the diagnosis of lymphoma, independently of the presence of HPS.

  12. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum [Dept. of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Chul [School of Architectural Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 4} PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit.

  13. Clinical validation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based immunoassays in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyangah; Wang, Rui; Lee, Sangyeop; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hong, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Young Ho; Lim, Dong Woo; deMello, Andrew J; Choo, Jaebum

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the clinical feasibility of conducting immunoassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An autoantibody against citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) was used as a biomarker, magnetic beads conjugated with CCP were used as substrates, and the SERS nanotags were comprised of anti-human IgG-conjugated hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs). We were able to determine the anti-CCP serum levels successfully by observing the distinctive Raman intensities corresponding to the SERS nanotags. At high concentrations of anti-CCP (>25 U/mL), the results obtained from the SERS assay confirmed those obtained via an ELISA-based assay. Nevertheless, quantitation via our SERS-based assay is significantly more accurate at low concentrations (25 U/mL) revealed a good correlation between the ELISA and SERS-based assays. However, in the anti-CCP-negative group (n = 43, <25 U/mL), the SERS-based assay was shown to be more reproducible. Accordingly, we suggest that SERS-based assays are novel and potentially useful tools in the early diagnosis of RA.

  14. Comparative study of immunochromatographic assay (IgM) and widal test for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Alam, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Hoque, S M; Yesmin, T; Habiba, U; Sarkar, S R; Maruf, M A; Halim, P I; Hoque, M R

    2012-10-01

    Typhoid fever is a severe systemic infection endemic in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Present study evaluated immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Widal test in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever cases. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July, 2010 and June, 2011, including 200 individuals of different age and sex. Of them, 150 were clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever and 50 age-sex matched controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases 106(70.7%) were positive for IgM of Salmonella typhi by ICT and 67(44.7%) were positive by Widal test. Whereas, among the 50 controls 4(8%) were positive by ICT and 6(12%) were positive by Widal test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the ICT was found as 83.3%, 92.00%, 91.9% and 83.6% respectively. On the other hand corresponding values for Widal test were of 44.4%, 88%, 80% and 59.5% respectively. Thus, The ICT (IgM) is better alternative to Widal test for early and accurate diagnosis of typhoid fever. The ICT (IgM) is rapid, easy to perform, applicable for field use and highly sensitive and specific for detection of antibodies in patients with typhoid fever.

  15. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo M; Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-06-30

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes.

  16. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27546934

  17. Breast Cancer: subgroups specific blood-biomarkers for early / predictive diagnosis and personalized treatment — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast-conserving lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy has been shown to be an alternative strategy, competitive to mastectomy, in preventing mortality caused by breast cancer. However, besides negative short-term effects (blood flow disturbances, painful erythema, etc.) breast irradiation causes severe long-term side-effects (leucopenia, anemia, breast edema, fibrosis, increase of angiosarcoma, leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes). Therefore, the identification of individual susceptibility to radiation and improved patient-specific radiotherapy planning are highly desirable for personalised treatment in breast cancer. Why early and predictive diagnosis is crucial for long-term outcomes of breast cancer? Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women with an average incidence rate of 10-12 per 100 women. In 2005, breast cancer led to 502,000 deaths worldwide. Advanced stages of breast cancer lead to the development of metastasis predominantly in the lymph nodes, bone, lung, skin, brain, and liver. Although breast-MRI is currently the most sensitive diagnostic tool for breast imaging, its specificity is limited resulting in a negative impact for surgical management in approximately 9 % of cases. Early diagnosis has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial, enabling significantly enhanced therapy efficiency and possibly full recovery.

  18. Charcot stage 0: A review and consideratons for making the correct diagnosis early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Crystal; Schmidt, Brian; Munson, Michael; Wrobel, James S

    2015-01-01

    Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy (CN) is a rare disease (NIDDK, NIH Summary Report Charcot Workshop, 2008) that causes significant morbidity and mortality for affected patients. The disease can result in severe deformities of the foot and ankle that contribute to the development of ulcerations and amputations. Medical advances have failed to find ways to stop the progression of the disease. However, it is known that early detection of the CN has a substantial impact on patient outcomes. CN in the earliest stage is very difficult to recognize and differentiate from other similar presenting diseases. We intend to outline clinical considerations practitioners can use when evaluating a patient with early stage suspected CN.

  19. [The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of early stages of cerebral blood flow insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Iu S; Girich, T I; Kuntsevich, G I; Sokov, E L; Malkova, E V; Borisova, N F; Nozdriukhina, N V; Shuvakhina, N A

    1998-01-01

    Biomicroscopy of bulbar conjuctiva as well as oencephalography were quite informative for discovery of subclinical manifestations of disorders of cerebral circulation (DCC). That conclusion resulted from the observation of 133 patients with early forms of vascular pathology of brain. Besides, to find the early signs, it was also worth while to perform some biochemical studies (coagulogram, studies of both rheologic properties and lipids of blood). In order to establish discirculatory encephalopathy it was also expedient to use ultrasonic dopplerography and electroencephalography. Efficiency of some medical-prophylactic measures (normalization of the diet, weight, muscular activity, administration of antiatherosclerotic drugs) that prevented the progression of aorta's stenosis was also demonstrated.

  20. Early diagnosis of Werner’s syndrome using exome-wide sequencing in a single, atypical patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor eRaffan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diagnosis of inherited metabolic disease is conventionally achieved through syndrome recognition and targeted gene sequencing, but many patients receive no specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing allied to capture of expressed sequences from genomic DNA now offers a powerful new diagnostic approach. Barriers to routine diagnostic use include cost, and the complexity of interpreting results arising from simultaneous identification of large numbers of variants. We applied exome-wide sequencing to an individual, 16 year old daughter of consanguineous parents with a novel syndrome of short stature, severe insulin resistance, ptosis and microcephaly. Pulldown of expressed sequences from genomic DNA followed by massively parallel sequencing was undertaken. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs were called using SAMtools prior to filtering based on sequence quality and existence in control genomes and exomes. Of 485 genetic variants predicted to alter protein sequence and absent from control data, 24 were homozygous in the patient. One mutation – the p.Arg732X mutation in the WRN gene – has previously been reported in Werner’s syndrome (WS. On re-evaluation of the patient several early features of WS were detected including loss of fat from the extremities and frontal hair thinning. Lymphoblastoid cells from the proband exhibited a defective decatenation checkpoint, consistent with loss of WRN activity. We have thus diagnosed WS some 15 years earlier than average, permitting aggressive prophylactic therapy and screening for WS complications, illustrating the potential of exome-wide sequencing to achieve early diagnosis and change management of rare autosomal recessive disease, even in individual patients of consanguineous parentage with apparently novel syndromes.

  1. The PredictAD project: development of novel biomarkers and analysis software for early diagnosis of the Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart; Laine, Jarmo; Massimini, Marcello; Rueckert, Daniel; Zubarev, Roman A; Orešič, Matej; van Gils, Mark; Mattila, Jussi; Hviid Simonsen, Anja; Waldemar, Gunhild; Soininen, Hilkka

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnesses such as AD will challenge the current healthcare systems and national economies. For these reasons AD has been identified as a health priority, and various methods for diagnosis and many candidates for therapies are under intense research. Even though there is currently no cure for AD, its effects can be managed. Today the significance of early and precise diagnosis of AD is emphasized in order to minimize its irreversible effects on the nervous system. When new drugs and therapies enter the market it is also vital to effectively identify the right candidates to benefit from these. The main objective of the PredictAD project was to find and integrate efficient biomarkers from heterogeneous patient data to make early diagnosis and to monitor the progress of AD in a more efficient, reliable and objective manner. The project focused on discovering biomarkers from biomolecular data, electrophysiological measurements of the brain and structural, functional and molecular brain images. We also designed and built a statistical model and a framework for exploiting these biomarkers with other available patient history and background data. We were able to discover several potential novel biomarker candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials.

  2. Early diagnosis and follow-up of aortitis with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, J.; Siefker, U.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Lehmann, K.; Conrad, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg August University, Robert Koch-Strasse 40, 37075, Goettingen (Germany); Strutz, F.; Scheel, A. [Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Georg August University, Goettingen (Germany); Vosshenrich, R. [Department of Radiology, Georg August University, Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with early aortitis, at the time of initial diagnosis and during immunosuppressive therapy. The study population consisted of 15 patients (nine females and six males; median age 62 years, range 26-76 years) who presented with fever of unknown origin or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or elevated C-reactive protein and who showed pathological aortic [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. Fourteen of these patients had features of early giant cell arteritis (GCA), while one had features of early Takayasu arteritis. During follow-up, seven PET scans were performed in six patients with GCA 4-30 months (median 19 months) after starting immunosuppressive medication. The results of [{sup 18}F]FDG imaging were compared with the results of MRI at initial evaluation and during follow-up and with the clinical findings. At baseline, abnormal [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake was present in 59/104 (56%) of the vascular regions studied in 15 patients. Seven follow-up PET studies were performed in six patients. Of 30 regions with initial pathological uptake in these patients, 24 (80%) showed normalisation of uptake during follow-up. Normalisation of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake correlated with clinical improvement and with normalisation of the laboratory findings. All except one of the patients with positive aortic [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were investigated with MRI and MRA. Thirteen of these 14 patients showed inflammation in at least one vascular region. Of 76 vascular regions studied, 41 (53%) showed vasculitis on MRI. Of 76 vascular regions studied with both PET and MRI, 47 were concordantly positive or negative on both modalities, 11 were positive on MRI only and 18 were positive on PET only. MRI was performed during follow-up in six patients: of 17 regions with inflammatory changes, 15 regions remained unchanged and two

  3. Prognostic characteristics of asthma diagnosis in early childhood in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever-Hess, J; Kouwenberg, JM; Duiverman, EJ; Hermans, J; Wever, AMJ

    A registration study from clinical practice was set up to assess the prognostic value of symptoms and laboratory data at first visit for doctor-diagnosed 'asthma' in early childhood. A total of 419 children aged 0-4 y, who were newly referred to the outpatient department of the Juliana Children's

  4. Sports and Marfan Syndrome: Awareness and Early Diagnosis Can Prevent Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Mubadda A.; Alpert, Bruce S.

    2001-01-01

    Physicians who work with athletes play an important role in preventing sudden death related to physical activity in people who have Marfan syndrome. Flagging those who have the physical stigmata and listening for certain cardiac auscultation sounds are early diagnostic keys that can help prevent deaths. People with Marfan syndrome should be…

  5. Prognostic characteristics of asthma diagnosis in early childhood in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever-Hess, J; Kouwenberg, JM; Duiverman, EJ; Hermans, J; Wever, AMJ

    1999-01-01

    A registration study from clinical practice was set up to assess the prognostic value of symptoms and laboratory data at first visit for doctor-diagnosed 'asthma' in early childhood. A total of 419 children aged 0-4 y, who were newly referred to the outpatient department of the Juliana Children's Ho

  6. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in three regions in Tanzania; successes and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, Mercy G.; Mmbando, Bruno M.; Theilgaard, Zarah P.;

    2013-01-01

    The study showed an increase in testing of HIV exposed infants within the three years, there is large variations of HIV prevalence among the regions. Challenges like; sample turnaround time and LTFU must be overcome before this can translate into the intended goal of early initiation of lifelong ...

  7. [Specific learning disabilities and psychopathological aspects: the importance of early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, M; Zoppello, M; Rossi, R; Scarabello, E M; Piazza, F

    2007-06-01

    The case of a couple of monozygotic twins, for whom the diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities was made when they were 14.5 years old, even if reading and writing difficulties had been present since the beginning of primary school, is described. The consultation had been required due to difficulties in relating with same age boys, with social withdrawal and depressive traits, leaving in second place school difficulties; clinical suspect has led to extend the evaluation to include the neuropsychological aspects and so to reach the diagnosis. The differences in terms of adaptive modalities facing the discomfort, probably based on temperament differences, and neuropsychological disorder (low grade dyslexia for one twin, dis-orthography and low-to-medium grade dyslexia for the other one) are discussed. The acquired awareness of being intelligent has permitted the boys to look back in a new way to the school failures they had collected through years; namely, understanding that their difficulties reflected a specific neuropsychological deficit has permitted to reconsider their own past history with a consequent modification of the ''beliefs'' about their abilities. This all has led as a consequence to an increase of life quality (with an improved school and relational adaptation), without cancelling but instead supporting the research of on individuality based on temperament differences. This was possible in spite of the evident delay in reaching the diagnosis and the consequent accumulation of frustration and inadequacy experiences for many years; it's therefore demonstrated the importance of a global evaluation of patients with anamnesis of difficulties in learning to read and write, also in order to treat the possible psychopathological aspects of the clinical picture, which can be the result of a sense of helplessness.

  8. Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, J. O.; Makarov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with a possibility of new types of photosensitizers application - Aluminum Phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in clinical practice for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases in dentistry and traumatology. It was detected that the aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) fluoresces in the nanoparticle form in the presence of pathologic microflora or inflammation process. It will make possible to detect the local accumulation of pathological microflora on the enamel surface and also for diagnostics and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Experimental studies of interaction of NP-AlPc with tooth enamel and with biological joint tissue at arthrosis are presented.

  9. DNA Hypermethylation Patterns Detected in Serum as a Tool for Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    renal [37], ovarian [38], colorectal [39], cervical 165 [40], lung [41–43], liver [44], and breast [32–34, 37, 38, 166 45]. Studies in lung cancer have...patterns of RASSF1A, p16 , and p15 172 (using DNA from 200 ll of serum) as much as 9 years 173 prior to diagnosis. 174 DNA methylation and breast cancer ...193) RARb2 CDH1 ESR1 BRCA1 CCND2 p16 TWIST 26% 80% 84% 41% 11% 14% 59% Not calculated (at least 84%) Cancer Causes Control 123 Journal : Large 10552

  10. Lung Cancer Early Diagnosis Using Some Data Mining Classification Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangaraju P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. Data mining is primarily used to this requirement thus finding its applications in diverse fields such as retail, financial, communication, marketing organizations and medicine. Data Mining plays an important role in healthcare organization because with the growth of population and dangerous deadly diseases like Cancer, SARS, Leprosy, HIV etc, Lung cancer is one of the most dangerous disease. This survey for appropriate medical image mining, Data Preprocessing, Feature Extraction, rule generation and classification, it provides basic framework for further improvement in medical diagnosis.

  11. Early pack-off diagnosis in drilling using an adaptive observer and statistical change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    in the well. A model-based adaptive observer is used to estimate these friction parameters as well as flow rates. Detecting changes to these estimates can then be used for pack-off diagnosis, which due to measurement noise is done using statistical change detection. Isolation of incident type and location...... is done using a multivariate generalized likelihood ratio test, determining the change direction of the estimated mean values. The method is tested on simulated data from the commercial high-fidelity multi-phase simulator OLGA, where three different pack-offs at different locations and with different...

  12. [Progress in the early diagnosis of cancer of the colon and rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, N; Roset, J; Boffi, A; Ferrara, J B; Galano, A; Albertengo, J C

    1978-09-01

    Our experience with the air contrast examination in the cancer of colon and rectum diagnoses is showed. The colaboration among radiologist, endoscopist, pathologist and surgeon is important. In the large bowel tumors diagnosis, the radiologic and endoscopic prodedures should be evaluated together. The double colonic contrast has showed in our experience, better results than with the barium enema. Over 31 patients with both studies, we obtained 13 false negatives (with barium enema, doing then the double colonic contrast became positive 12 (92.4%).

  13. Is There Such a Diagnosis as an Early Onset Unipolar Depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Kraepelin, melancholia was part of manic-depressive psychosis. In the 60s however, other authors (Angst, 1966; Perris, 1966; Winokur, 1967 questioned this concept by considering unipolar depression a clinical entity, separated from bipolar disorders. Using strict bipolar disorders criteria, some prospective studies have shown a diagnosis switch from unipolar to bipolar disorders in up to 50% of the cases (Caryell, 1995; Goldberg, 2001; Angst, 2005. The existence of unipolar depression as a clinical entity is discussed, taking in consideration the “minor” bipolar symptoms that occur during the course of affective disorders.

  14. Lung Cancer Early Diagnosis Using Some Data Mining Classification Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangaraju P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Data mining is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. Data mining is primarily used to this requirement thus finding its applications in diverse fields such as retail, financial, communication, marketing organizations and medicine. Data Mining plays an important role in healthcare organization because with the growth of population and dangerous deadly diseases like Cancer, SARS, Leprosy, HIV etc, Lung cancer is one of the most dangerous disease. This survey for appropriate medical image mining, Data Preprocessing, Feature Extraction, rule generation and classification, it provides basic framework for further improvement in medical diagnosis.

  15. Early diagnosis of testicular tumor using Tc-/sub 99m/ pertechnetate scrotal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, G.D.; Prezio, J.A.; Ricci, P.E.

    1983-12-01

    Two patients who originally presented with clinical symptoms of epididymo-orchitis, with compatible findings on the Tc-/sub 99m/ pertechnetate scrotal images, had temporary remission of their symptoms with antibiotic therapy. After two months, both patients had repeat scrotal images, because of persistent testicular enlargement. Both now demonstrated a ''cold spot'' in the otherwise increased activity on the affected side. Both patients underwent orchiectomy; patient 1 had a tissue diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor and patient 2 showed teratocarcinoma.

  16. EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA PREVENTS RELAPSES AND LIMITS VISUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Srinivas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO or devics disease was considered as a variant of Multiple sclerosis, w ith recent advances in investigations and with better understanding of etiopathogenesis, NMO is a distinct immune mediated, largely relapsing, inflammatory , demyelinating disease of central nervous system. NMO most commonly i nvolves the optic nerves and spinal cord. Relapsing and monophasic are two var iants of NMO , as relapsing NMO is a rapidly disabling disease, prompt diagnosis of the type from the monophasic, helps in the management as well as decreasing the motor and visual morbidity

  17. The role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Debata, Pradeep Kumar; Ranjan, Amitabh; Gaind, Rajani

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the role and reliability of rapid bedside diagnostic test in early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in children using reagent strips. This prospective, single blinded study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi in collaboration with the Department of Microbiology of VMMC & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, over a period of 15 mo (August 2009 to Nov 2010). Seventy-five children aged 3 mo to 12 y admitted in the pediatric ward with suspected diagnosis of acute meningitis were included. All enroled patients underwent lumbar puncture. CSF samples were taken and divided in 2 parts for laboratory evaluation and rapid strip analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive values of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were calculated. Accuracy of the reagent strips was established using kappa statistics. Latex agglutination for antigen detection and microbiological culture were also done. Highly significant association was observed between CSF examination in routine laboratory method and dipstick method. The number of laboratory values that correlated were- for cells 71(94.63%), for protein 68 (90.67%), for glucose 68(90.67%) out of total 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of reagent strip in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis were 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most common organism isolated (50%). Thus reagent strip analysis is a very rapid, reliable and effective method for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated.

  18. Significance of Cystatin C for Early Diagnosis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li; Yue, Rongzheng; You, Guiying; Zeng, Rui

    2016-08-22

    BACKGROUND Contrast-induced nephropathy is acute kidney injury caused by contrast medium exposure. Serum creatinine is the clinical diagnostic standard, but it does not yield quick results. The serum level of cystatin C is stable and it can reflect renal function sensitively. The study aimed to assess the usefulness of cystatin C for early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 300 patients who underwent CAG. According to the sCr at 48 h, patients were divided into 2 groups: CIN group and non-CIN group. Their demographics and basal renal function were recorded. Changes in sCr, Cys C, and e GFR were compared at the same time. ROC analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of Cys C in the early diagnosis of CIN. RESULTS Comparison of basal renal function and serum level of Cys C showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. Serum level of Cys C increased significantly at 24 h (p<0.001), and sCr increased significantly at 48 h. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of the change in Cys C between baseline and 24 h was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.879-0.992, p=0.000) and the optimum cut-off level was 0.26 mg/L (sensitivity=89.7% and specificity=95.6%). CONCLUSIONS The concentration change of Cys C is better than sCr as a biomarker in the early detection of CIN.

  19. Identification of Apo-A1 as a biomarker for early diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shixin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC is the fourth most frequent neoplasia in men, clinically characterized by high recurrent rates and poor prognosis. Availability of urinary tumor biomarkers represents a convenient alternative for early detection and disease surveillance because of its direct contact with the tumor and sample accessibility. Results We tested urine samples from healthy volunteers and patients with low malignant or aggressive BTCC to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BTCC by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS and bioinformatics analysis. We observed increased expression of five proteins, including fibrinogen (Fb, lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, clusterin (CLU and haptoglobin (Hp, which were increased in urine samples of patients with low malignant or aggressive bladder cancer. Further analysis of urine samples of aggressive BTCC showed significant increase in Apo-A1 expression compared to low malignant BTCC. Apo-A1 level was measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was suggested to provide diagnostic utility to distinguish patients with bladder cancer from controls at 18.22 ng/ml, and distinguish patients with low malignant BTCC from patients with aggressive BTCC in two-tie grading system at 29.86 ng/ml respectively. Further validation assay showed that Apo-A1 could be used as a biomarker to diagnosis BTCC with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.6% and 85.7% respectively, and classify BTCC in two-tie grading system with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.7% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest Apo-A1 could be a potential biomarker related with early diagnosis and classification in two-tie grading system for bladder cancer.

  20. Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devous, M.D. Sr. [Nuclear Medicine Center and Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This review considers the role of functional brain imaging techniques in the dementias. The substantial assistance that especially single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography can play in the initial diagnosis of dementia and in the differential diagnosis of the specific dementing disorder is discussed. These techniques alone essentially match the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses in distinguishing Alzheimer's dementia (AD) from age-matched controls, from frontal lobe dementia and vascular dementia, and even from Lewy body dementia. Newer analytic techniques such as voxel-based correlational analyses and discriminant function analyses enhance the power of such differential diagnoses. Functional brain imaging techniques can also significantly assist in patient screening for clinical trials. The correlation of the observed deficits with specific patterns of cognitive abnormalities permits enhanced patient management and treatment planning and improved longitudinal assessment of outcome. It is also noteworthy that the classic abnormalities of temporoparietal and posterior cingulate hypoperfusion or hypometabolism appear to be present prior to symptom onset. These abnormalities predict progression to AD in the presence of the earliest of symptoms, and are present even in cognitively normal but at-risk subjects, with a severity proportional to the risk status. Even greater predictive ability for progression to AD is obtained by combining measures of perfusion or metabolism with risk factors, tau protein levels, hippocampal N-Acetyl aspartate concentrations, or hippocampal volume measures. (orig.)

  1. Application of conditionally replicating adenoviruses in tumor early diagnosis technology, gene-radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun; Ou, Mengting; Wang, Guixue; Tang, Liling

    2016-10-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or known as replication-selective adenoviruses, were discovered as oncolytic gene vectors several years ago. They have a strong ability of scavenging tumor and lesser toxicity to normal tissue. CRAds not only have a tumor-killing ability but also can combine with gene therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy to induce tumor cell apoptosis. In this paper, we review the structure of CRAds and CRAd vectors and summarize the current application of CRAds in tumor detection as well as in radiotherapy and suicide gene-mediating chemotherapy. We also propose further research strategies that can improve the application value of CRAds, including enhancing tumor destruction effect, further reducing toxic effect, reducing immunogenicity, constructing CRAds that can target tumor stem cells, and trying to use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as the carriers for oncolytic adenoviruses. As their importance to cancer diagnosis, gene-radiation, and chemotherapy, CRAds may play a considerable role in clinical diagnosis and various cancer treatments in the future.

  2. Serological monitoring of antibodies for an early diagnosis ofaspergillosis in captive penguins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela L. Cabana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of detection of anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies in captive penguins by double radial agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID for the aspergillosis diagnosis. We included 134 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus in rehabilitation at the Center for Recovery of Marine Animals (CRAM / FURG. All of them were monitored by AGID weekly until its final destination (death or release, totalizing 660 serum samples studied. All animals were clinically accompanied and post-mortem examinations was performed in penguins that died during the studied period. A total of 28% (37/134 of the penguins died, 89.2% (33/37 due to aspergillosis, 11% (4/37 by other causes and 97 were released. From the 33 animals with proven aspergillosis, 21 presented anti- A. fumigatus antibodies by AGID, being the average interval between death and positive AGID 16.4 days. Twelve animals with negative serology died of aspergillosis. The sensitivity and specificity rates were 63.6% and 95% respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 80.7% and 88.9% respectively. These data demonstrate that the serological monitoring for detection of antibodies by AGID can be an important tool for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in penguins.

  3. Serum beta-2-Microglobulin level: A parameter for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezai A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring of renal transplant function, serum B2m was evaluated in 23 recipients. According to clinical diagnosis the patients were in four groups: 1 Successful renal transplant; the mean concentration of SB2m pretransplantation was 73.1±26.1 mg/L but decreased to nearly normal level (4.43±1.17 mg/L within 24-48h and then reached to 3.1 mg/L duting 20 days after transplantation. 2 Renal dysfunction (except rejection; the maximum changes of SB2m was 1.1 mg/L/day and no significant changes of SB2m were found between this group and group 1. 3 Accelerated and acute rejection; during immunological rejection crisis, SB2m level increased and after response to antirejection therapy decreased. The daily changes of SB2m allowed to diffrentiate renal dysfunction fom rejection in 84% of cases. Moreover according to SB2m fluctuation levels, SB2m had a prognostic pattern for acute rejection due to significant differences between the level of SB2m on the day of clinical diagnosis of rejection and 4 days previously (P<0.025, and also 2 days before rejection (P<0.025, while this pattern was not found for serum creatinin and BUN.

  4. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention of Children With Autism%儿童孤独症的早期诊断和早期干预探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析儿童孤独症患儿实施早期诊断和干预的效果。方法选择孤独症患儿32例作为观察组研究对象,同时选择30例未接受系统治疗干预的孤独症患儿作为对照组研究对象。对两组患者实施不同治疗方案后,观察两组患者治疗效果。结果观察组患儿治疗效果好于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。结论对儿童孤独症患儿进行早期诊断和干预,能够改善患儿预后,提高患儿治疗效果。%Objective To analyze the effect of early diagnosis and intervention on children with autism. Methods 32 children with autism were selected as the observation group, and 30 children with autism were selected as the control group, and the control group was selected as the control group. Two groups of patients after the implementation of the same treatment, the two groups of patients were observed in the treatment effect. Results The treatment effect of the observation group was significantly better than the control group, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Early diagnosis and intervention of children with autism can significantly improve the prognosis, improve the treatment effect of children with autism.

  5. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3(rd) ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2(nd) if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual's risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable

  6. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and body weight homeostasis; associated with acute myeloid leukemia . Col10 a1 XM_001053056...peptides or to cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Rhoa NM_057132 Ras homolog gene family, member A A small GTPase protein known to...transcripts involved in early osteogenic cell development, proliferation and differentiation (n =60 samples at three debridement points; NMRC; time frame

  7. Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Elisabeth Fernell,1 Mats Anders Eriksson,1,2 Christopher Gillberg11Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underly...

  8. Etiology and early pathogenesis of malignant testicular germ cell tumors: towards possibilities for preinvasive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga-Tinke, Jenny E; Dohle, Gert R; Looijenga, Leendert Hj

    2015-01-01

    Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers in Caucasian males (20-40 years) with an 70% increasing incidence the last 20 years, probably due to combined action of (epi)genetic and (micro)environmental factors. It is expected that TGCT have carcinoma in situ(CIS) as their common precursor, originating from an embryonic germ cell blocked in its maturation process. The overall cure rate of TGCT is more than 90%, however, men surviving TGCT can present long-term side effects of systemic cancer treatment. In contrast, men diagnosed and treated for CIS only continue to live without these long-term side effects. Therefore, early detection of CIS has great health benefits, which will require an informative screening method. This review described the etiology and early pathogenesis of TGCT, as well as the possibilities of early detection and future potential of screening men at risk for TGCT. For screening, a well-defined risk profile based on both genetic and environmental risk factors is needed. Since 2009, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been published, reporting on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant associations in or near the genes KITLG, SPRY4, BAK1, DMRT1, TERT, ATF7IP, HPGDS, MAD1L1, RFWD3, TEX14, and PPM1E, likely to be related to TGCT development. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors also influence the onset of CIS. A noninvasive early detection method for CIS would be highly beneficial in a clinical setting, for which specific miRNA detection in semen seems to be very promising. Further research is needed to develop a well-defined TGCT risk profile, based on gene-environment interactions, combined with noninvasive detection method for CIS.

  9. Emphysema early diagnosis using X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging at synchrotron light source

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Linan; Li, Jun; Jian, Wushuai; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Mingshu; Shi, Hongli; Luo, Shuqian

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and emphysema is a common component of COPD. Currently, it is very difficult to detect early stage emphysema using conventional radiographic imaging without contrast agents, because the change in X-ray attenuation is not detectable with absorption-based radiography. Compared with the absorption-based CT, phase contrast imaging has more advantages in soft tissue imaging, b...

  10. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  11. Early Fault Diagnosis of Bearings Using an Improved Spectral Kurtosis by Maximum Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Lei, Yaguo; Shan, Hongkai; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The early fault characteristics of rolling element bearings carried by vibration signals are quite weak because the signals are generally masked by heavy background noise. To extract the weak fault characteristics of bearings from the signals, an improved spectral kurtosis (SK) method is proposed based on maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD). The proposed method combines the ability of MCKD in indicating the periodic fault transients and the ability of SK in locating these transients in the frequency domain. A simulation signal overwhelmed by heavy noise is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that MCKD is beneficial to clarify the periodic impulse components of the bearing signals, and the method is able to detect the resonant frequency band of the signal and extract its fault characteristic frequency. Through analyzing actual vibration signals collected from wind turbines and hot strip rolling mills, we confirm that by using the proposed method, it is possible to extract fault characteristics and diagnose early faults of rolling element bearings. Based on the comparisons with the SK method, it is verified that the proposed method is more suitable to diagnose early faults of rolling element bearings. PMID:26610501

  12. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for early breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Farah J; Nasr, Rihab; Talhouk, Rabih

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects one in eight women worldwide. As such, detecting breast cancer at an early stage anticipates better disease outcome and prolonged patient survival. Extensive research has shown that microRNA (miRNA) are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer. miRNA are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression and are easily accessible and quantifiable. This review highlights miRNA as diagnostic, prognostic and therapy predictive biomarkers for early breast cancer with an emphasis on the latter. It also examines the challenges that lie ahead in their use as biomarkers. Noteworthy, this review addresses miRNAs reported in patients with early breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical procedures or distant metastasis (unless indicated otherwise). In this context, miRNA that are mentioned in this review were significantly modulated using more than one statistical test and/or validated by at least two studies. A standardized protocol for miRNA assessment is proposed starting from sample collection to data analysis that ensures comparative analysis of data and reproducibility of results.

  13. Diagnostic value of sTREM-1 and procalcitonin levels in the early diagnosis of sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksaray, Sebahat; Alagoz, Pinar; Inan, Asuman; Cevan, Simin; Ozgultekin, Asu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is still major cause of morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment in modern medicine. Therefore, laboratory examinations that provide correct and rapid results are needed to support the diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate value of immunological indicators procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in differential diagnosis of patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), as well as to assess their importance in determining prognosis of patients with sepsis. METHODS: Total of 90 patients, 38 with SIRS and 52 with sepsis, who were between the ages 20 to 92, were included in this prospectively planned study. Blood sample was collected from the patients during hospitalization and again in follow-up visit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MyBioSource, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was used to measure sTREM-1, and PCT was measured using mini VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S PCT assay (Biomerieux, S.A., Marcy-l’Étoile, France). In addition, patients were clinically assessed using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system. RESULTS: On day of intensive care unit admission, sTREM-1 and PCT levels, as well as APACHE II score were significantly higher in sepsis group than SIRS group (p=0.001, p=0.01, p=0.001, respectively). Values of sTREM-1 and APACHE II score were higher in the patients with positive blood cultures than those with negative culture results (p=0.002, p=0.006, respectively). PCT, C-reactive protein, and sTREM-1 levels were significantly higher in nonsurviving group. In differentiation of SIRS from sepsis, sTREM-1 cut-off value ≥133 pg/mL and PCT cut-off value of 1.57 ng/mL yielded sensitivity of 71.1% and 67.33%, and specificity of 73.3% and 65.79%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with suspected sepsis, sTREM-1 and PCT can be used as indicators, in addition to scoring systems such as APACHE II and

  14. Pathfast presepsin assay for early diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-song; Wang, Hua; Chen, Hao; Wu, Ling-feng; Lu, Lin-feng; He, Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is relatively difficult to diagnose bacterial sepsis in nephrolithiasis patients. The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic ability of presepsin in the differential diagnosis including SIRS, infection, or sepsis and to compare its diagnostic value with other markers, mainly as CRP, procalcitonin (PCT), and white blood cell (WBC) in patients of nephrolithiasis presenting with SIRS. 39 patients of nephrolithiasis who were diagnosed as SIRS were prospectively investigated. Plasma presepsin was detected by Pathfast presepsin assay system; CRP and PCT were measured as well. Additionally, 25 nephrolithiasis patients without SIRS were included. At all timing samples, patients were classified as SIRS or non-SIRS group. Median plasma presepsin levels were significantly increased in the SIRS group compared with non-SIRS group (452 pg/mL versus 178 ng/mL, P nephrolithiasis.

  15. Chest pain characteristics and gender in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Garima; Bittner, Vera

    2015-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease mortality in both men and women. Chest pain, which is often described as chest pressure, tightness, or a squeezing sensation, is the most frequent symptom in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Although the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is often based on typical changes on a surface electrocardiogram and on changes in cardiac biomarkers, there is a need to better recognize and understand the impact of sex on symptoms among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome or acute myocardial infarction. We briefly review the pathophysiology of ischemic symptoms, discuss potential mechanisms for variation in ischemic symptoms by sex, and summarize recent publications that have addressed sex differences in ischemic symptoms.

  16. Benefit of ELISpot in early diagnosis of tuberculous meningoencephalitis: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Blume

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis and meningoencephalitis are rare and dangerous complications of infections with mycobacteria-complex. Usually these are complications of systemic florid infection with Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis. They are most often seen in immune compromised patients. The confirmation of diagnosis can be elaborate and delayed due to long-term culture requirements for M. tuberculosis. We present a female patient, without history of immunosuppression, who was diagnosed with tuberculous meningoencephalitis using ELISpot to detect immune reactivity against mycobacterial antigens with lymphocytes from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. ELISpot with CSF derived lymphocytes seems to be an appropriate method to diagnose tuberculous meningitis and meningoencephalitis and to make therapeutic decisions easier and earlier in atypical cases of infection with M. tuberculosis.

  17. Early vs. Delayed Diagnosis of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: A Family Perspective Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice; Scalchunes, Christopher; Boyle, Marcia; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Infants affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are susceptible to severe and recurrent infections and do not survive unless provided with immune reconstituting treatments. In the absence of population-based newborn screening, infants with SCID who do not have an affected older relative are ascertained only after they have developed infections. However, only limited data are available from the perspective of patients and families to indicate what proportion of SCID cases might benefit from earlier detection by pre-symptomatic screening, whether adequate treatment facilities are available, and how screening could improve SCID treatment outcomes. A survey of parents of children with SCID evaluated family history, pre- and post-diagnosis events, outcomes, and impact of SCID on families. Affected infants diagnosed with SCID as neonates had better survival, demonstrating the potential benefit of universal newborn screening. PMID:21035402

  18. Early vs. delayed diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency: a family perspective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice; Scalchunes, Christopher; Boyle, Marcia; Puck, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    Infants affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are susceptible to severe and recurrent infections and do not survive unless provided with immune reconstituting treatments. In the absence of population-based newborn screening, infants with SCID who do not have an affected older relative are ascertained only after they have developed infections. However, only limited data are available from the perspective of patients and families to indicate what proportion of SCID cases might benefit from earlier detection by pre-symptomatic screening, whether adequate treatment facilities are available, and how screening could improve SCID treatment outcomes. A survey of parents of children with SCID evaluated family history, pre- and post-diagnosis events, outcomes, and impact of SCID on families. Affected infants diagnosed with SCID as neonates had better survival, demonstrating the potential benefit of universal newborn screening.

  19. Biomarkers for early diagnosis of type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a study based on an integrated biomarker system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Liang, Qionglin; Li, Ping; Xia, Jianfei; Wang, Yong; Hu, Ping; Jiang, Zhiting; He, Yongxin; Pang, Liqiong; Han, Lida; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a devastating disease that affects a growing number of diabetic patients. A complete cure is very hard to achieve once the disease has been diagnosed, therefore the diagnosis of early stages in diabetic nephropathy has become a hot area. Numbers of molecules have been proposed to be potential biomarkers for this purpose. However, some problems still remain, such as discovering effective biomarkers to diagnose the disease before obvious clinical evidence appears. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to find plasma biomarkers for early diagnosis of type 2 diabetic nephropathy stage 1 and stage 2, as well as separating them from diabetes. 182 subjects (Chinese) were recruited for this study, including 50 healthy controls, 33 type 2 diabetic patients and 99 type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients (33 of these were stage 3). Important clinical indicators including proteinuria, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen were measured and the glomerular filtration rate was estimated to assess kidney function; fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were measured to assess the blood glucose control. Key metabolites and genes in plasma samples were identified and determined using -omic and quantitative techniques. The potential biomarkers were then combined and carefully screened to determine the most informative ones for early diagnosis of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. An integrated biomarker system (IBS) incorporating 6 clinical indicators, 40 metabolites and 5 genes was established. Correlation analysis results revealed that most of the potential biomarkers significantly correlated with the 6 clinical indicators. Discriminant analysis results showed that the developed IBS gave the highest total predictive accuracy (98.9%). Significant test and receiver operating characteristic analysis results indicated that inosine had the highest sensitivity (0.889), specificity (1.000), positive predictive rate (1.000) and negative

  20. Roles of radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging, threedimensional computed tomography in early diagnosis of femoro-acetabular impingement in 17 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Gui-shan; ZHU Dong; WANG Gang; WANG Cheng-xue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the roles of radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) in early diagnosis of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) in 17 cases. Methods: Plain radiographs of the pelvis, 3-D CT, and MRI of the hip were made on 17 patients with groin pain, which was worse with prolonged sitting (i.e. hip flexion). There was no history of trauma or childhood hip disorders in the patients who did not complain of any other joint problems or neurologic symptoms. All patients had positive anterior or posterior impingement test. Plain radiographs included an antero-posterior (AP) view of the hip and a cross table lateral view with slight internal rotation of the hip. CT scan was performed with the Lightspeed 16 row spiral (General Electric Company, USA) at 1.25 mm slice reconstruction. MRI scan was performed on the Siemens Avanto (Siemens Company, Germany)1.5T supraconducfion magnetic resonance meter. The CT and MRI scans were taken from 1 cm above the acetabulum to the lesser trochanter in 5 series. Results: The plain radiographs of the pelvis showed that among the 17 patients, 12 (70.59%) had "Cam" change of the femoral head, 6 (35.29%) had positive "cross-over" sign, and 17 (100%) had positive "Pincer" change of the acetabulum. The 16 row spiral CT noncontrast enhanced scan and 3-D reconstruction could discover minus femoral offset and ossification and osteophyte of the acetabulum labrum in all the 17 cases (100%). The MRI noncontrast enhanced scan could discover more fluid in the hip joint in 15 cases (88.33%), subchondral ossification in 3 cases (17.6%), and labium tears in 3 cases (17.6%). Conclusions: Plain radiographs can provide the initial mainstay for the diagnosis of FAI, 3-D CT can tell us the femoral offset, while MRI can show labrum tears in the very early stage of FAI. Basically, X-ray examination is enough for the early diagnosis of FAI, but 3-D CT and MRI may be useful for the treatment.

  1. Early diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: comparison of digit 1 with wrist and distoproximal ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K R; Rotta, F; Romano, J; Ayyar, D R

    2001-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the median sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) from digit 1 to wrist with those of the distoproximal (D/P) ratio of the median SNCV from palm to digit 3/palm to wrist in the diagnosis of mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. To achieve this objective, we studied prospectively (January 1997-October 1998) 370 patients referred for CTS. One hundred forty-two patients (38.4%) with moderate to severe CTS and 15 patients (4.1%) with multiple (> or = 3) compressive neuropathies in upper limbs with subclinical peripheral neuropathy were excluded. The remaining 213 patients (302 hands with mild CTS; 167 women; mean age, 50 y +/- 12 y) and 38 controls (71 hands; 25 women; mean age, 47 y +/- 13 y) had median and ulnar nerve conduction studies. ROC curves were constructed for median SNCV digit 1 to wrist and median SNCV D/P ratio from the patients' and controls' data. The median SNCV at or = 1.12, corresponding to an optimal cutoff point on ROC curve, discriminated 67.2% of mild CTS from controls with specificity of 97.2%. Of the 10.3% (31/302) of hands in which digit 1 to wrist was within normal limits at the selected optimal cutoff value ( or = 1.12), and 3.3% (10/302) had a normal electrophysiologic examination. The likelihood ratio (true-positive ratio to false-positive ratio, assessing the discriminative power of a test) of the median SNCV digit 1 to wrist, at an optimal point on ROC curve (63.9), was higher than that of the median SNCV D/P ratio (23.9, chi2 = 36.9, P wrist is more sensitive than the median SNCV D/P ratio in the diagnosis of mild CTS.

  2. Significance of Bioindicators for Early Predictions on Diagnosis and Therapy of Irradiated Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Port, Matthias; Gulani, Jatinder; Chappell, Mark; Abend, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Decisions on whether to start a therapeutic intervention for management of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) should be made early after exposure, and it should be based on readily available clinical signs and laboratory parameters. Here, the authors use the minipig to assess if early prediction of the later developing clinical outcome and necessity of therapeutic interventions can be determined within the first 3 d after exposure and whether it is comparable to human data. Retrospective analysis of data accumulated in the period 2009-2012 was used. Male Göttingen minipigs (age 4-5 mo, weight 9-10 kg) were irradiated (or sham-irradiated) bilaterally with gamma-photons (Co, 0.5-0.6 Gy min) in the dose range of 1.6-12 Gy. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and clinical symptoms were collected up to 60 d after irradiation in untreated minipigs. Changes in these early parameters (up to 3 d after exposure) were correlated with later occurrence (10-60 d after irradiation) of (1) hematological severity scores, (2) severe thrombocytopenia, (3) severe neutropenia, as well as need for (4) therapeutic intervention, (5) administration of cytokines/antibiotics, or (6) thrombocyte transfusions. Binary endpoints were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Most predictive were decreased lymphocyte counts and increases in body temperature at 3 h after irradiation. These data corroborate earlier findings performed on human radiation victims suffering from severe hematological syndrome and provide further evidence for the suitability of the minipig model as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model.

  3. Diagnosis and authority in the early-twentieth-century medical practice of Richard C. Cabot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenner, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines diagnostic practices using the early twentieth-century medical literature and the patient correspondence and records from the clinic of Richard Cabot. What shaped medicine's rapidly growing persuasive authority in the twentieth century? Diagnostic expertise demonstrated the doctor's control over disease but offered a service of ambiguous value to patients. Cabot and his peers offered differing views on how new diagnostic techniques would influence their relationships to their patients. In his busy private clinic Cabot put into effect an exacting diagnostic process, modeled on his innovative Clinicopathological Conferences. The people who came to the clinic often sought his technical expertise but accepted his diagnostic practices and opinions sometimes only provisionally.

  4. The early-stage diagnosis of albinic embryos by applying optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Yen; Cai, Jyun-Jhang; Chang, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Albinism is a kind of congenital disease of abnormal metabolism. Poecilia reticulata (guppy fish) is chosen as the model to study the development of albinic embryos as it is albinic, ovoviviparous and with short life period. This study proposed an imaging method for penetrative embryo investigation using optical coherence tomography. By imaging through guppy mother’s reproduction purse, we found the embryo’s eyes were the early-developed albinism features. As human’s ocular albinism typically appear at about four weeks old, it is the time to determine if an embryo will grow into an albino.

  5. Early diagnosis of in utero and intrapartum HIV infection in infants prior to 6 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian, Rivka R; Kalk, Emma; Bhowan, Kapila; Berrie, Leigh; Carmona, Sergio; Technau, Karl; Sherman, Gayle G

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-related infant mortality. The early peak of pediatric HIV-related deaths in South Africa occurs at 3 months of age, coinciding with the earliest age at which treatment is initiated following PCR testing at 6 weeks of age. Earlier diagnosis is necessary to reduce infant mortality. The performances of the Amplicor DNA PCR, COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM), and Aptima assays for detecting early HIV infection (acquired in utero and intrapartum) up to 6 weeks of age were compared. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected at birth and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks from HIV-exposed infants enrolled in an observational cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. HIV status was determined at 6 weeks by DNA PCR on whole blood. Serial DBS samples from all HIV-infected infants and two HIV-uninfected, age-matched controls were tested with the 3 assays. Of 710 infants of known HIV status, 38 (5.4%) had in utero (n = 29) or intrapartum (n = 9) infections. By 14 weeks, when treatment should have been initiated, 13 (45%) in utero-infected and 2 (22%) intrapartum-infected infants had died or were lost to follow-up. The CAP/CTM and Aptima assays identified 76.3% of all infants with early HIV infections at birth and by 4 weeks were 96% sensitive. DNA PCR demonstrated lower sensitivities at birth and 4 weeks of 68.4% and 87.5%, respectively. All assays had the lowest sensitivity at 2 weeks of age. CAP/CTM was the only assay with 100% specificity at all ages. Testing at birth versus 6 weeks of age identifies a higher total number of HIV-infected infants, irrespective of the assay.

  6. A diagnosis model for early Tourette syndrome children based on brain structural network characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of action. The aim of our work is to select topological characteristics of structural network which were most efficient for estimating the classification models to identify early TS children. Here we employed the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to construct the structural networks of 44 TS children and 48 age and gender matched healthy children. We calculated four different connection matrices (fiber number, mean FA, averaged fiber length weighted and binary matrices) and then applied graph theoretical methods to extract the regional nodal characteristics of structural network. For each weighted or binary network, nodal degree, nodal efficiency and nodal betweenness were selected as features. Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Extraction (SVM-RFE) algorithm was used to estimate the best feature subset for classification. The accuracy of 88.26% evaluated by a nested cross validation was achieved on combing best feature subset of each network characteristic. The identified discriminative brain nodes mostly located in the basal ganglia and frontal cortico-cortical networks involved in TS children which was associated with tic severity. Our study holds promise for early identification and predicting prognosis of TS children.

  7. The role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of early lung cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Marco; Potenza, Rossella; Capozzi, Rosanna; Liparulo, Valeria; Puma, Francesco; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17% after diagnoses. Indeed many patients tend to have a very poor prognosis, due to being diagnosed at an advanced stage. Conversely patients who are diagnosed at an early stage have a 5-year survival >70%, indicating that early detection of lung cancer is crucial to improve survival. Although flexible bronchoscopy is a relatively non-invasive procedure for patients suspected of having lung cancer, only 29% of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 69% of microinvasive tumors were detectable using white light bronchoscopy (WLB) alone. As a result, in the past two decades, new bronchoscopic techniques have been developed to increase the yield and diagnostic accuracy, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), narrow band imaging (NBI) and high magnification bronchovideoscopy (HMB). However, due to the low specificity and the limitation to detect only proximal bronchial tree, new probe-based technologies have been introduced: radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS). To date, although tissue biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malignant/premalignant airway disease and some techniques are still investigational, bronchoscopic technologies can be considered the safest and most accurate tools to evaluate both central and distal airway mucosa.

  8. THE SCHISTOSOMULA TEGUMENT ANTIGEN AS A POTENTIAL CANDIDATE FOR THE EARLY SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Grenfell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available If Schistosoma mansoni infection could be detected in its early stages, especially before the egg deposition in the host tissues, the development of severe pathologic lesions could be efficiently prevented. We therefore developed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the detection of specific IgG against schistosomula antigens (ELISA-SmTeg. The assay was applied in sera samples from non-infected and infected mice collected seven and 15 days post-infection. The results were compared to the number of adult worms obtained by perfusion of the murine hepatic system 50 days post-infection. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-SmTeg were 100% (p = 0.0032 and 0.0048 respectively for seven and 15 days of infection with a cutoff value of 0.15 (p = 0.0002. Our findings show a novel low-cost serological assay using antigens which are easy to obtain, which was able to detect all the infected mice as early as seven days post-infection.

  9. Multiparameter phospho-flow analysis of lymphocytes in early rheumatoid arthritis: implications for diagnosis and monitoring drug therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole L Galligan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The precise mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA are not known. Early stages of RA often have non-specific symptoms, delaying diagnosis and therapy. Additionally, there are currently no established means to predict clinical responsiveness to therapy. Immune cell activation is a critical component therefore we examined the cellular activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in the early stages of RA, in order to develop a novel diagnostic modality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PBMCs were isolated from individuals diagnosed with early RA (ERA (n = 38, longstanding RA (n = 10, osteoarthritis (OA (n = 19 and from healthy individuals (n = 10. PBMCs were examined for activation of 15 signaling effectors, using phosphorylation status as a measure of activation in immunophenotyped cells, by flow cytometry (phospho-flow. CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD20+ cells isolated from patients with ERA, RA and OA exhibited activation of multiple phospho-epitopes. ERA patient PBMCs showed a bias towards phosphorylation-activation in the CD4+ and CD20+ compartments compared to OA PBMCs, where phospho-activation was primarily observed in CD8+ cells. The ratio of phospho (p-AKT/p-p38 was significantly elevated in patients with ERA and may have diagnostic potential. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI levels for p-AKT and p-H3 in CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ T cells correlated directly with physician global assessment scores (MDGA and DAS (disease activity score. Stratification by medications revealed that patients receiving leflunomide, systemic steroids or anti-TNF therapy had significant reductions in phospho-specific activation compared with patients not receiving these therapies. Correlative trends between medication-associated reductions in the levels of phosphorylation of specific signaling effectors and lower disease activity were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Phospho-flow analysis identified phosphorylation

  10. [Acute intussusception, a rare cause of small bowel obstruction in premature neonates: the advantages of early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubal, M; Jacquot, A; Baud, C; Allal, H; Cambonie, G; Picaud, J-C

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of intussusception in a premature neonate who presented with early signs of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Diagnosing acute intussusception in premature infants is difficult because of its infrequency relative to other neonatal abdominal problems and because the clinical symptomatology shows similarities with that of necrotizing enterocolitis. In the reported case, the diagnosis was made by sonography. Unlike full-term neonates, the presence of a pathological lead point is very infrequent. The intussusception is predominantly located in the small bowel and is most often associated with bowel compromise. This disease should be considered in all neonates with signs of intestinal obstruction to permit a better prognosis via prompt surgical intervention.

  11. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  12. Analysis of the depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps in colon mucosa for the early diagnosis of precancerous lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; de Cos-Pérez, Jesús; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Optical characterization of biological tissues by means of polarimetric techniques is an area of growing interest. Polarized light can be used for malignant neoplasms detection. To our knowledge, few studies have so far focused on lesions that are prone to result in cancer. In this work we present a polarimetric study of depolarization in prepathological tissues. Specifically, we will focus on premalignant lesions in human colon due to their clinical relevance. Colonic adenoma, the potential precursor of malignant adenocarcinoma, provokes significant structural modifications in colon mucosa that affect light depolarization. The depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps mucosa are compared. The average linear degree of polarization is shown to present a strong dependence with the precancerous state of the colonic tissue. This method has the potential to enable an early diagnosis of colon cancer.

  13. Fanconi Syndrome Secondary to Deferasirox in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia: Case Series and Recommendations for Early Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papneja, Koyelle; Bhatt, Mihir D; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Arora, Steven; Wiernikowski, John T; Athale, Uma H

    2016-08-01

    Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat patients with transfusion-related iron overload. We report, from two institutions, two children with Diamond-Blackfan anemia who developed Fanconi syndrome secondary to deferasirox administration, along with a review of the literature. The current recommendation for the laboratory monitoring of patients receiving deferasirox does not include serum electrolytes or urine analysis. Thus, despite routine clinic visits and bloodwork, these two patients presented with life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities requiring hospitalization. Hence, we propose the inclusion of serum electrolytes and urine analysis as part of routine monitoring to facilitate the early diagnosis of Fanconi syndrome in the context of high doses of deferasirox therapy.

  14. Early Diagnosis and Management of Acute Vertigo from Vestibular Migraine and Ménière's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemungal, Barry; Kaski, Diego; Lopez-Escamez, Jose Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Vestibular migraine is the most common cause of acute episodic vestibular symptoms after benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In contrast, Ménière's disease is an uncommon disorder. For both conditions, early and accurate diagnosis (or its exclusion) enables the correct management of patients with acute episodic vestibular symptoms. Long-term management of migraine requires changes in lifestyle to avoid triggers of migraine and/or prophylactic drugs if attacks become too frequent. The long-term management of Ménière's disease also involves lifestyle changes (low salt diet), medications (betahistine, steroids), and ablative therapy applied to the diseased ear (eg, intratympanic gentamicin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of mtDNA variant segregation during early human embryonic development: a tool for successful NARP preimplantation diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffann, J; Frydman, N; Gigarel, N; Burlet, P; Ray, P F; Fanchin, R; Feyereisen, E; Kerbrat, V; Tachdjian, G; Bonnefont, J‐P; Frydman, R; Munnich, A

    2006-01-01

    Background Diseases arising from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are usually serious pleiotropic disorders with maternal inheritance. Owing to the high recurrence risk in the progeny of carrier females, “at‐risk” couples often ask for prenatal diagnosis. However, reliability of such practices remains under debate. Preimplantation diagnosis (PGD), a theoretical alternative to conventional prenatal diagnosis, requires that the mutant load measured in a single cell from an eight cell embryo accurately reflects the overall heteroplasmy of the whole embryo, but this is not known to be the case. Objective To investigate the segregation of an mtDNA length polymorphism in blastomeres of 15 control embryos from four unrelated couples, the NARP mutation in blastomeres of three embryos from a carrier of this mutation. Results Variability of the mtDNA polymorphism heteroplasmy among blastomeres from each embryo was limited, ranging from zero to 19%, with a mean of 7%. PGD for the neurogenic ataxia retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) mtDNA mutation (8993T→G) was therefore carried out in the carrier mother of an affected child. One of three embryos was shown to carry 100% of mutant mtDNA species while the remaining two were mutation‐free. These two embryos were transferred, resulting in a singleton pregnancy with delivery of a healthy child. Conclusions This PGD, the first reported for a mtDNA mutation, illustrates the skewed meiotic segregation of the NARP mtDNA mutation in early human development. However, discrepancies between the segregation patterns of the NARP mutation and the HV2 polymorphism indicate that a particular mtDNA nucleotide variant might differentially influenced the mtDNA segregation, precluding any assumption on feasibility of PGD for other mtDNA mutations. PMID:16155197

  16. Metallomic profiling and linkage map analysis of early Parkinson's disease: a new insight to aluminum marker for the possible diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiek S S J Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (p<0.04. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA showed aluminium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm.

  17. Procalcitonin and quantitative C-reactive protein role in the early diagnosis of sepsis in patients with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neutropenia with fever is a common syndrome in patients with hematologic malignancies who have a high risk of infectious diseases. As early diagnosis of infection in such patients is really important, the aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP in the diagnosis of sepsis in febrile neutropenic patients in a referral malignant care center of Isfahan in 2010-2011. Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, all the febrile neutropenic patients who were admitted in the referral malignant care center in 2010-2011 were evaluated. The data from every individual, including sex, age, admission time, and duration of fever before taking antibiotics were collected. Sixty-four subjects were involved in the study. Blood samples of the subjects were obtained and the levels of PCT, CRP, Absolute neutrophil count (ANC, and white blood cell count were measured, and blood cultures were obtained. According to the test results, the 64 subjects were divided into two groups including patients with sepsis and without sepsis. Results: Mean value of PCT in the sepsis group was 28.65 ± 2.68 and in the non-sepsis group was 2.48 ± 0.66, with a P value of 0.000. In case of CRP, the sepsis group had a mean of 159.48 ± 9.73 and the non-sepsis group had a mean of 126.17 ± 10.63 (P = 0.015. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and were found to be 92.5% and 97.3%, respectively, for PCT and 70.5% and 42.1%, respectively, for CRP. Conclusion: PCT can be considered as a predictive factor and a diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of sepsis in febrile neutropenic patients.

  18. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  19. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eGarriga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD, and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyse the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. 105 patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS. Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p<0.01. Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on DaTScan.

  20. Contribution of cholescintigraphy to the early diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis in intensive-care-unit patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, N.; Granjon, D.; Dubois, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Nord, CHRU Saint-Etienne (France); Mariat, G.; Mahul, P.; Jospe, R.; Auboyer, C. [Department of Intensive Care, Hospital Nord, CHRU Saint-Etienne (France); Cuilleron, M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Nord, CHRU Saint-Etienne (France); Tiffet, O. [Department of Surgery, Hospital Nord, CHRU Saint-Etienne (France); De Filipis, J.-P. [Department of Nephrology, Hospital Nord, CHRU Saint-Etienne (France)

    1999-10-01

    Thirty-two intensive care unit patients (78% on long-term total parenteral nutrition) suspected of having acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) were studied prospectively. All of these patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography and cholescintigraphy with technetium-99m mebrofenin. Morphine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg) was administered only if the gallbladder was not visualised after 1 h (16 patients). The final diagnosis was reached after clinical improvement, or upon the discovery of another aetiology for the symptoms presented, or on the basis of histopathology following cholecystectomy (when this was performed). We analysed the contribution of individual cholescintigraphic findings (I: non-visualisation of the gallbladder during the first 60 min of the examination; II: persistent non-visualisation of the gallbladder 30 min following morphine administration; III: non-visualisation of the small bowel for at least 90 min) and their various combinations. We obtained a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity rate 100% using the interpretative criteria ''I and II or III''. Excluding obstructive syndrome (''I and II''), the sensitivity and specificity figures were 70% and 100% respectively (28 patients). We had no false-positive results in our patient population. Cholescintigraphy was found to complement ultrasonography, which had either good sensitivity (93%) and poor specificity (17%), when at least two of the three major signs were present (sludge, thickened wall, gallbladder distension), or poor sensitivity (36%) and good specificity (89%) when all three signs were present. We conclude that cholescintigraphy is a useful tool for early diagnosis of AAC in critically ill patients, in whom ultrasonography alone does not provide enough information to permit a sufficiently early decision regarding the use of surgery. (orig.)

  1. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  2. Knowledge and Practices of Nurses Working in an Education Hospital on Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervix Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ozdemir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research has aimed to determine knowledge and practice status of nurses about breast self-examination (BSE, clinical breast examination (CBE, mammography and Pap smear and about influencing status of some variables related to these examinations. METHOD: This descriptive study was conducted in an education hospital in Ankara between March 1st and May 30th, 2008. Three hundred-fifty nurses (82.7% have accepted to participate in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire form including questions about demographics, their knowledge and practice status about BSE, CBE, mammography and Pap smear. Chi-square test, numbers and percentages were used for evaluating the data. RESULTS: Overall, 46.9% of nurses had enough knowledge about early diagnosis of breast and cervix cancer. 60.2% of them can carry BSE, 18.8% can carry out CBE and 7.3% can carry out mammography. Pap smear is carried out by 23.7% of the nurses. Negligence, fear of cancer and thought of finding them unnecessary were determined as reasons for avoidance. Their knowledge and practice were significantly different (p<0.05 according to their age and service where they work. CONCLUSION: It has been concluded that although knowledge and practices of nurses on breast and cervix cancer are at a good level, this isn’t enough when importance of early diagnosis in breast and cervix cancer are taken into consideration, which are among common cancers in women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 605-612

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of primary health care nurses and midwives in breast cancer early diagnosis applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Aliye; Bulut, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this research was to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the nurses and midwives about the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out at 9 family medical centers (FMCs) and 1 community health center (CHC) in Bingol; the population of this research consisted of 25 midwives and 38 nurses. The protocol for this study was approved by the regional ethics committee of Bingol University. The study was performed in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The purpose of this study was explained to the nurses and midwives who participated, and their written and verbal permission was obtained; great care was taken to ensure that they understood participation was voluntary. A questionnaire of 41 questions was used for the data collection. Results When the age distribution of nurses and midwives was examined, it was found that 96.8% of them were aged ≤39 years. A total of 92.0% of midwives and 84.2% of nurses practiced breast self-examination (BSE). A total of 56% of the married women practiced family planning, and the most frequent method was using contraceptive pills. A total of 88.9% of the women had never had hormonal treatment for any reason. The BSE knowledge level of 65% of the women, who performed clinical breast examination, was complete. Among the women who had full knowledge of BSE, 38.5% of them performed examination once every 6 months, 23.0% of them once a year and 38.5% of them once every 3 years. Conclusion This research showed that the deficiencies for nurses and midwives regarding the early diagnosis methods of breast cancer have been identified, and supporting these deficiencies with training is recommended. PMID:28331367

  4. Identification of a DNA methylome profile of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and potential plasma epigenetic biomarkers for early diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism involved in key cellular processes. Its deregulation has been linked to many human cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. This study was designed to explore the whole methylation status of ESCC and to identify potential plasma biomarkers for early diagnosis. We used Infinium Methylation 450k array to analyze ESCC tissues (n = 4, paired normal surrounding tissues (n = 4 and normal mucosa from healthy individuals (n = 4, and combined these with gene expression data from the GEO database. One hundred and sixty eight genes had differentially methylated CpG sites in their promoter region and a gene expression pattern inverse to the direction of change in DNA methylation. These genes were involved in several cancer-related pathways. Three genes were validated in additional 42 ESCC tissues and paired normal surrounding tissues. The methylation frequency of EPB41L3, GPX3, and COL14A1 were higher in tumor tissues than in normal surrounding tissues (P < 0.017. The higher methylation frequency of EPB41l3 was correlated with large tumor size (P = 0.044 and advanced pT tumor stage (P = 0.001. The higher methylation frequency of GPX3 and COL14A1 were correlated with advanced pN tumor stage (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001. The methylation of EPB41L3, GPX3, and COL14A1 genes were only found in ESCC patients' plasma, but not in normal individuals upon testing 42 ESCC patients and 50 healthy individuals. Diagnostic sensitivity was increased when methylation of any of the 3 genes were counted (64.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These differentially methylated genes in plasma may be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of ESCC.

  5. Early molecular diagnosis of acute Chagas disease after transplantation with organs from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, C I; Lattes, R; Nagel, C; Gimenez, M J; Blanes, M; Calabuig, E; Iranzo, A; Barcan, L A; Anders, M; Schijman, A G

    2013-12-01

    Organ transplantation (TX) is a novel transmission modality of Chagas disease. The results of molecular diagnosis and characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection in naïve TX recipients transplanted with organs from infected deceased donors are reported. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the TX recipients of organs from infected donors were prospectively and sequentially studied for detection of T. cruzi by means of kinetoplastid DNA polymerase chain reaction (kDNA-PCR). In positive blood samples, a PCR algorithm for identification of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify parasitic loads were performed. Minicircle signatures of T. cruzi infecting populations were also analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR. Eight seronegative TX recipients from four infected donors were studied. In five, the infection was detected at 68.4 days post-TX (36-98 days). In one case, it was transmitted to two of three TX recipients. The comparison of the minicircle signatures revealed nearly identical RFLP-PCR profiles, confirming a common source of infection. The five cases were infected by DTU TcV. This report reveals the relevance of systematic monitoring of TX recipients using PCR strategies in order to provide an early diagnosis allowing timely anti-trypanosomal treatment.

  6. Kernel-based Joint Feature Selection and Max-Margin Classification for Early Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ehsan; Wu, Guorong; Saghafi, Behrouz; An, Le; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Feature selection methods usually select the most compact and relevant set of features based on their contribution to a linear regression model. Thus, these features might not be the best for a non-linear classifier. This is especially crucial for the tasks, in which the performance is heavily dependent on the feature selection techniques, like the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which progresses slowly while affects the quality of life dramatically. In this paper, we use the data acquired from multi-modal neuroimaging data to diagnose PD by investigating the brain regions, known to be affected at the early stages. We propose a joint kernel-based feature selection and classification framework. Unlike conventional feature selection techniques that select features based on their performance in the original input feature space, we select features that best benefit the classification scheme in the kernel space. We further propose kernel functions, specifically designed for our non-negative feature types. We use MRI and SPECT data of 538 subjects from the PPMI database, and obtain a diagnosis accuracy of 97.5%, which outperforms all baseline and state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Kernel-based Joint Feature Selection and Max-Margin Classification for Early Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ehsan; Wu, Guorong; Saghafi, Behrouz; An, Le; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Feature selection methods usually select the most compact and relevant set of features based on their contribution to a linear regression model. Thus, these features might not be the best for a non-linear classifier. This is especially crucial for the tasks, in which the performance is heavily dependent on the feature selection techniques, like the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which progresses slowly while affects the quality of life dramatically. In this paper, we use the data acquired from multi-modal neuroimaging data to diagnose PD by investigating the brain regions, known to be affected at the early stages. We propose a joint kernel-based feature selection and classification framework. Unlike conventional feature selection techniques that select features based on their performance in the original input feature space, we select features that best benefit the classification scheme in the kernel space. We further propose kernel functions, specifically designed for our non-negative feature types. We use MRI and SPECT data of 538 subjects from the PPMI database, and obtain a diagnosis accuracy of 97.5%, which outperforms all baseline and state-of-the-art methods. PMID:28120883

  8. Fatigue Fracture of the Calcaneus: From Early Diagnosis to Treatment: A Case Report of a Triathlon Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Simão; Figueiredo, Pedro; Páscoa Pinheiro, João

    2016-06-01

    Stress fractures are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated despite being common in sports. Early diagnosis is crucial; therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is required. Complementary examinations are essential for diagnosis and follow-up. The authors report a clinical case of a young adult triathlon athlete referring mechanical pain in the rear left foot, with 2 weeks' progression. An earlier increase in daily training intensity was recorded. Complementary examinations confirmed a calcaneal fatigue fracture. Immobilization and no weight bearing were introduced for an initial period of 4 weeks, and the rehabilitation process was started. Progressive weight bearing was introduced between fourth and eighth weeks. Sports activity started at the 12th week. Boundaries to sports activity were eliminated by the 24th week, without pain or functional limitation. Repetitive overload to the heel and intense axial weight bearing in association to repetitive concentric/eccentric gastrocnemius contraction are related to calcaneal stress fracture, the second most common stress fracture in the foot. Calcaneal stress fractures can be adequately treated with activity modification, without casting or surgical intervention. When in the presence of bilateral stress fractures, metabolic and nutritional issues must be considered. The case report highlights the importance of sports medicine examination for detecting intrinsic and extrinsic fatigue fracture risk factors.

  9. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya eGerasimova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and despite recent advances in the medical field, there are still some inherent limitations in the currently used screening techniques. The radiological interpretation of screening X-ray mammograms often leads to over-diagnosis and, as a consequence, to unnecessary traumatic and painful biopsies. Here we propose a computer-aided multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared (IR imaging as an efficient method for identifying women with risk of breast cancer. Using a wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature collected from a panel of patients with diagnosed breast cancer and some female volunteers with healthy breasts, we show that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts is lost in mammary glands with malignant tumor. Besides potential clinical impact, these results open new perspectives in the investigation of physiological changes that may precede anatomical alterations in breast cancer development.

  10. A new strategy for the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: a combined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, A; D'Agostino, D; Soriente, I; Amato, P; Piccoli, R; Sabatini, P

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis [RA] is one of the most common and severe autoimmune rheumatic diseases, diagnosed primarily according to clinical manifestations and radiological reports. For many years, laboratory diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis has relied on the detection of rheumatoid factor [RF], as established by the ACR criteria. A recent test to detect antibodies towards citrullinated peptides, called the anti-CCP assay, showed a similar sensitivity but a more elevated specificity than the RF test. Our intention was the recognition of an optimal diagnostic strategy that exhibits the highest sensitivity and specificity for RA detection. To this purpose, we examine the usefulness of autoantibodies in RA testing, evaluating the diagnostic performance of conventional and innovative assays for RF detection, and ELISA anti-CCP test, for anti-CCP antibodies detection, by a prospective study. Multiplex cytofluorimetric test appeared to be more sensitive and specific than nephelometric assay for RF detection. Hence, a novel combined approach, significantly increasing the diagnostic sensitivity for RA, was planned, employing the multiplex RF test in combination with the anti-CCP test.

  11. A case of calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis: the significance of an early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Kyoichi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Mori, Kazunori; Murata, Kiyotaka; Doi, Katsumi

    2013-02-01

    The clinical presentation of calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis, a rare entity, can mimic more serious disorders. We describe the case of a 35-year-old man who was referred to us for evaluation of a suspected retropharyngeal abscess. At presentation, the patient reported severe cervical pain and stiffness. He exhibited mild fever, torticollis, and a moderately elevated white blood count; no swelling of the retropharyngeal wall was observed. Based on the results of plain radiography and computed tomography (CT), we diagnosed the patient with calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis. He was treated with a 7-day course of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a 3-day course of a steroid, and he recovered well. We suggest that the true incidence of calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is actually higher than what is generally believed because this diagnosis is frequently missed. Contrast-enhanced CT can aid in diagnosing calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis. CT should be performed in patients who present with nonspecific symptoms such as severe neck pain, sore throat, odynophagia, and mild fever.

  12. Clostridium septicum Gas Gangrene in Colon Cancer: Importance of Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Nanjappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clostridia species are responsible for some of the deadliest diseases including gas gangrene, tetanus, and botulism. Clostridium septicum is a rare subgroup known to cause atraumatic myonecrosis and is associated with colonic malignancy or immunosuppression. It is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus found in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to direct, spontaneous infections of the bowel and peritoneal cavity. The anaerobic glycolysis of the tumor produces an acidic, hypoxic environment favoring germination of clostridial spores. Tumor-induced mucosal ulceration allows for translocation of sporulated bacteria from the bowel into the bloodstream, leading to fulminant sepsis. C. septicum bacteremia can have a variable presentation and is associated with greater than 60% mortality rate. The majority of deaths occur within the first 24 hours if diagnosis and appropriate treatment measures are not promptly started. We report a case of abdominal myonecrosis in a patient with newly diagnosed colon cancer. The aim of this study is to stress the importance of maintaining a high suspicion of C. septicum infection in patients with underlying colonic malignancy.

  13. Advanced Imaging for the Early Diagnosis of Local Recurrence Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Panebianco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the diagnosis of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa after radical prostatectomy (RT is based on the onset of biochemical failure which is defined by two consecutive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA higher than 0.2 ng/mL. The aim of this paper was to review the current roles of advanced imaging in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A nonsystematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of PET/CT in the restaging of PCa after RP; the second part is intended to provide the impact of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence. Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence, while the performance of PET/CT still remains unclear. Moreover Mp-MRI, thanks to functional techniques, allows to distinguish between residual glandular healthy tissue, scar/fibrotic tissue, granulation tissue, and tumour recurrence and it may also be able to assess the aggressiveness of nodule recurrence.

  14. Advanced imaging for the early diagnosis of local recurrence prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Barchetti, Flavio; Musio, Daniela; De Felice, Francesca; Proietti, Camilla; Indino, Elena Lucia; Megna, Valentina; Schillaci, Orazio; Catalano, Carlo; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Currently the diagnosis of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure which is defined by two consecutive values of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) higher than 0.2 ng/mL. The aim of this paper was to review the current roles of advanced imaging in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A nonsystematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of PET/CT in the restaging of PCa after RP; the second part is intended to provide the impact of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the depiction of locoregional recurrence. Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence, while the performance of PET/CT still remains unclear. Moreover Mp-MRI, thanks to functional techniques, allows to distinguish between residual glandular healthy tissue, scar/fibrotic tissue, granulation tissue, and tumour recurrence and it may also be able to assess the aggressiveness of nodule recurrence.

  15. (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT/CT as the one-stop imaging modality for the diagnosis of early setting of Kienbock's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Singh Dhull, V; Karunanithi, S; Kumar Parida, G; Sharma, A; Shamim, S A

    2015-01-01

    (99m)Tc-Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) triple phase bone scintigraphy (BS) has a role in early diagnosis of Kienbock's disease, especially when the X-ray is negative. Early diagnosis can result in prompt management of the patient since wrist pain in older individuals due to aging may go unnoticed or be due to other diagnoses with the production of greater damage and eventually a worse prognosis. Herein, we present a case report of a 29-year-old female with Kienbock's disease in whom the X-ray was negative and MRI incorrect. The (99m)Tc-MDP SPECT/CT BS helped the diagnosis of the disease in an early stage (stage 1) and had a clinical impact on the patient's management.

  16. Peritoneal microdialysis. Early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Qvist, N; Bisgaard, C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal microdialysis in early detection of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer. METHODS: In a series of 116 consecutive patients scheduled for low anterior resection...... for rectosigmoid cancer, a total of 50 patients consented to participate. Peritoneal microdialysis was performed by a 1 mm thin catheter anchored in close proximity to the anastomosis. Five patients were excluded due to catheter malfunction. Average microdialysis time in the remaining 45 patients was 177.6 (80......-252) hours. Samples were collected every 4-hours, and the concentration of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol was measured. RESULTS: Four patients developed symptomatic anastomotic leakage. Two patients developed non-abdominal sepsis. In 38 patients the postoperative course was uncomplicated...

  17. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha, E-mail: sudha.srivastava@jiit.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307,Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-13

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer’s method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  18. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in three regions in Tanzania; successes and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, Mercy G; Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra;

    2013-01-01

    By the end of 2009 an estimated 2.5 million children worldwide were living with HIV-1, mostly as a consequence of vertical transmission, and more than 90% of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended early initiation of Highly Active...... Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) to all HIV infected infants diagnosed within the first year of life, and since 2010, within the first two years of life, irrespective of CD4 count or WHO clinical stage. The study aims were to describe implementation of EID programs in three Tanzanian regions with differences...... in HIV prevalences and logistical set-up with regard to HIV DNA testing....

  19. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer's method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  20. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  1. Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Anticancer Drug-induced Cardiotoxicity: From Cardiac Imaging to "Omics" Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Rosalinda

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure due to antineoplastic therapy remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in oncological patients. These patients often have no prior manifestation of disease. There is therefore a need for accurate identification of individuals at risk of such events before the appearance of clinical manifestations. The present article aims to provide an overview of cardiac imaging as well as new "-omics" technologies, especially with regard to genomics and proteomics as promising tools for the early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity and individual responses to antineoplastic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Value of serum β-HCG, P, CA125, and color Doppler ultrasound in early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Li Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical value of serum β-HCG, P, CA125, and color Doppler ultrasound in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP). Methods:A total of 50 patients with EP who were admitted in our hospital from September, 2014 to September, 2015 were included in the study and served as the observation group, while 50 normal pregnant women were served as the control group. A volume of 5 mL of fasting elbow venous blood the day on admission in the two groups was extracted, and then was centrifuged for serum. The chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect the levels of serum β-HCG, P, and CA125. After 48h,β-HCG level was detected again. The vaginal color Doppler diasonograph was used to detect the changes of RI and PSV. The blood supply of LH was observed. Results:The levels of serumβ-HCG, P, and CA125 in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). When β-HCG<2 000 IU/L, after 48 h, β-HCG level was doubled in 3 cases (6.0%) in the observation group, while in 49 cases (98.0%) in the control group, and the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (P<0.05). RI in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PSV was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Blood supply in the observation group was in a half ring shape, accounting for 58.0%;in the control group was in a ring shape, accounting for 70.0%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions:Determination of the levels of serumβ-HCG, P, and CA125 in the pregnant women, in combined with the vaginal color Doppler ultrasound detection of RI and PSV, can contribute to distinguish the normal intrauterine pregnancy with EP and prevent the misdiagnosis, which can provide an accurate reference value for the early diagnosis and timely treatment of EP, and can be used as an ideal method for the diagnosis of EP.

  3. Serum inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 is an early marker of diagnosis and prediction of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Hang Zhu; Lin-Lin Jiang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine if serum inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an early marker of the diagnosis and prediction of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)within 24 h of onset of pain,and to compare the sensitivity,specificity and prognostic value of this test with those of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score and interleukin-6 (IL-6).METHODS:Patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) were divided into two groups according to the Ranson's criteria:mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) group and SAP group.Serum ICAM-1,APACHE Ⅱ and IL-6 levels were detected in all the patients.The sensitivity,specificity and prognostic value of the ICAM-1,APACHE Ⅱ score and IL-6 were evaluated.RESULTS:The ICAM-1 level in 36 patients with SAP within 24 h of onset of pain was increased and was significantly higher than that in the 50 patients with MAP and the 15 healthy volunteers (P < 0.01).The ICAM-1 level (25 ng/mL) was chosen as the optimum cutoff to distinguish SAP from MAP,and the sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value (NPV),positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 61.11%,71.42%,0.6111,0.7142,2.1382 and 0.5445,respectively.The area under the curve demonstrated that the prognostic accuracy of ICAM-1 (0.712) was similar to the APACHE-Ⅱ scoring system (0.770) and superior to IL-6 (0.508) in distinguishing SAP from MAP.CONCLUSION:ICAM-1 test is a simple,rapid and reliable method in clinical practice.It is an early marker of diagnosis and prediction of SAP within the first 24 h after onset of pain or on admission.As it has a relatively low NPV and does not allow it to be a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of AP,other conventional diagnostic tests are required.

  4. Glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes declines as early as two years after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt Katz, Lorraine E; Magge, Sheela Natesh; Hernandez, Marcia L; Murphy, Kathryn M; McKnight, Heather M; Lipman, Terri

    2011-01-01

    To determine the course of glycemic decline in a pediatric cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by defining longitudinal changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and insulin requirement. We also followed markers of insulin reserve (fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1) over time. Participants included two groups: (1) T2DM Nonacidotic (NA) (n = 46); and (2) T2DM diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 13). HbA1c, insulin dose, and fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1 were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 4 years. At baseline, Mann Whitney tests demonstrated that the diabetic ketoacidosis group had higher HbA1c (P = .002), required more insulin (P = .036), and had lower C-peptide (P = .003) than the NA group. Baseline insulin dose (Spearman r = -0.424, P = .009) and baseline IGFBP-1 (Spearman r = -0.349, P = .046) correlated negatively with C-peptide. Over time, HbA1c, insulin dose, and C-peptide changed significantly in a complex manner, with group differences. HbA1c reached a nadir at 6 to 12 months and began to rise after 1.5 years. Insulin requirements reached a nadir at 1 year and began to rise after 2 years. Unlike adults, children with T2DM require increasing insulin doses over a 4-year period, and diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis predicts greater β-cell decline over time. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911: the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17–22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG. On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI. Group 2 (n = 1923: sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml or negative (< 5 ng/ml. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters.The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01 and farrowing rate was higher (P < 0.01 in the ELISA-tested sows.

  6. Can Radiology Play a Role in Early Diagnosis of Dengue Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Shruti; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever causing severe morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the changing trends in radiological findings in DF, to find if ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of DF during an epidemic in absence of serological tests, and also to investigate the effects of DF in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 2013 comprising of 400 patients who were serologically positive for dengue. Out of these, radiological investigations were conducted for 107 patients who were analyzed. Results: Out of the 107 patients, 85 patients underwent ultrasound, 12 computed tomography (CT) scans of brain or paranasal sinuses, and 21 chest radiography. The maximum numbers of patients (79%) were in the age group of 20-50 years. The most common ultrasound finding was hepatomegaly that was seen in 62% of the patients. Other findings were splenomegaly (45%), gallbladder (GB) wall edema (45%), right-sided pleural effusion (37%), bilateral pleural effusion (22%), and ascites (36%). Out of 10 pregnant patients, 5 had oligohydramnios, 2 had intrauterine growth restriction, 2 had intrauterine fetal demise, and 5 had a normal antenatal ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound findings of hepatosplenomegaly, GB wall edema, right-sided or bilateral pleural effusion, and ascites in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of DF during an epidemic are virtually diagnostic of DF. There have been recent changing trends with hepatosplenomegaly being the more common manifestation, in comparison to ascites and GB wall edema. DF also has catastrophic effects in pregnancy such as oligohydramnios and intrauterine fetal demise. PMID:27042608

  7. Serum Based Diagnosis of Asthma Using Raman Spectroscopy: An Early Phase Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Dalal, Krishna; Naglot, Sarla; Aggarwal, Parveen; Murali Krishna, C.

    2013-01-01

    The currently prescribed tests for asthma diagnosis require compulsory patient compliance, and are usually not sensitive to mild asthma. Development of an objective test using minimally invasive samples for diagnosing and monitoring of the response of asthma may help better management of the disease. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in several biomedical applications, including pharmacology and forensics. In this study, we have explored the feasibility of detecting asthma and determining treatment response in asthma patients, through RS of serum. Serum samples from 44 asthma subjects of different grades (mild, moderate, treated severe and untreated severe) and from 15 reference subjects were subjected to Raman spectroscopic analysis and YKL-40 measurements. The force expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values were used as gold standard and the serum YKL-40 levels were used as an additional parameter for diagnosing the different grades of asthma. For spectral acquisition, serum was placed on a calcium fluoride (CaF2) window and spectra were recorded using Raman microprobe. Mean and difference spectra comparisons indicated significant differences between asthma and reference spectra. Differences like changes in protein structure, increase in DNA specific bands and increased glycosaminoglycans-like features were more prominent with increase in asthma severity. Multivariate tools using Principal-component-analysis (PCA) and Principal-component based-linear-discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) followed by Leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV), were employed for data analyses. PCA and PC-LDA results indicate separation of all asthma groups from the reference group, with minor overlap (19.4%) between reference and mild groups. No overlap was observed between the treated severe and untreated severe groups, indicating that patient response to treatment could be determined. Overall promising results were obtained, and a large scale validation study on

  8. Characterization of newborn's cries for the early diagnosis of various diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheddache, Yasmina

    The use of newborn cry signals in diagnosis is based on many theories proposed lately. The main objective in these researches is the cry signals modeling and spectrographic analysis. It has been shown that the newborn cry acoustics are linked to particular medical conditions. This thesis is motivated by improvement of the accuracy of pathological cries recognition. This can be performed by the combination of several acoustic parameters from spectrographic analysis and parameters that describe the configuration of vocal tract and vocal folds. Acoustic characteristics representing the vocal tract were widely applied to the classification of the cries. However the usefulness of vocal folds characteristics in the automatic recognition, as well as their effective techniques extraction have not been exploited deeply. In this context, we have performed a qualitative characterization of healthy and pathologic newborns cries using characteristics that have been defined in the literature and which describe vocal tract and vocal folds behavior during the cry. This step allowed us to identify the most relevant features in the differentiation of the studied pathological cries. For the extraction of selected characteristics, we have implemented effective measure methods that avoid the overestimation and underestimation of characteristics. The proposed and used approach for characteristics quantification facilitates the automatic analysis of cries and allows efficient use of these features in the diagnostic system. We also conducted experimental tests for the validation of all proposed approaches in this thesis. The results are suitable and show an improvement of the cry-based pathology recognition. The work presented in this thesis is a collection of three articles published/submitted in various journals. Two other papers published in conferences are presented in the annexes.

  9. Small-cell lung cancer-associated autoantibodies: potential applications to cancer diagnosis, early detection, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird-Offringa Ite A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is the most aggressive lung cancer subtype and lacks effective early detection methods and therapies. A number of rare paraneoplastic neurologic autoimmune diseases are strongly associated with SCLC. Most patients with such paraneoplastic syndromes harbor high titers of antibodies against neuronal proteins that are abnormally expressed in SCLC tumors. These autoantibodies may cross-react with the nervous system, possibly contributing to autoimmune disease development. Importantly, similar antibodies are present in many SCLC patients without autoimmune disease, albeit at lower titers. The timing of autoantibody development relative to cancer and the nature of the immune trigger remain to be elucidated. Here we review what is currently known about SCLC-associated autoantibodies, and describe a recently developed mouse model system of SCLC that appears to lend itself well to the study of the SCLC-associated immune response. We also discuss potential clinical applications for these autoantibodies, such as SCLC diagnosis, early detection, and therapy.

  10. Catecholamine release after physical exercise. A new provocative test for early diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telenius-Berg, M; Adolfsson, L; Berg, B; Hamberger, B; Nordenfelt, I; Tibblin, S; Welander, G

    1987-01-01

    A simple and practical provocative test is needed for early asymptomatic pheochromocytoma, which is a major risk for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2). We measured plasma catecholamines before and after submaximal exercise in 26 MEN-2 gene carriers, eight of whom with asymptomatic pheochromocytoma, nine with medullary thyroid carcinoma and 10 after uni- or bilateral adrenalectomy. Seventeen clinically healthy individuals and 11 patients with neurovegetative lability and symptoms mimicking pheochromocytoma served as controls. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine increased after exercise except for adrenaline after bilateral adrenalectomy. The post-exercise levels of adrenaline and the adrenaline/dopamine ratio were significantly higher in the pheochromocytoma patients compared to the healthy controls and the patients with neurovegetative lability, while the patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma represented an intermediate group with a high probability of developing adrenal tumors. The present method is a physiological test with a high sensitivity and specificity. It is practical and well suited for repeated examinations and seems to be of value for the detection of early pheochromocytoma in MEN-2 patients. Furthermore, the test could be used in the differential diagnosis between pheochromocytoma and neurovegetative lability.

  11. Early diagnosis of cerebral involvement in Sturge-Weber syndrome using high-resolution BOLD MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Fitzek, Clemens; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Dieckmann, Andrea; Brandl, Ulrich [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Neuropediatrics, Jena (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a vascular birthmark and neurological abnormalities. Typical imaging findings using MRI or CT are superficial cerebral calcification, atrophy and leptomeningeal enhancement. We present a neonate diagnosed with SWS because of a port-wine stain. In the absence of neurological symptoms the first MRI was performed when he was 4 months old, and follow-up MRI studies were performed after his first seizure at the age of 12 months. MRI was performed using standard sequences before and after administration of IV gadolinium. A high-resolution T2*-weighted, rf-spoiled 3D gradient-echo sequence with first-order flow compensation in all three directions was used for additional venographic imaging [blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) venography]. The initial conventional MRI sequences did not demonstrate any abnormality, but BOLD venography identified leptomeningeal internal veins. Follow-up MRI after the first onset of seizures demonstrated strong leptomeningeal enhancement, while BOLD venography revealed pathological medullary and subependymal veins as well as deep venous structures. At this time there were the first signs of atrophy and CT showed marginal calcifications. This report demonstrates that high-resolution BOLD MR venography allows early diagnosis of venous anomalies in SWS, making early therapeutic intervention possible. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness and efficiency of CT-colonography compared to conventional colonoscopy for the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiebinger, Cora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Colorectal cancer (CC is the second most common cancer and cause of cancer death for both men and women in Germany. Various methods for early detection of CC exist, including conventional coloscopy which is reimbursed within the scope of cancer screening, as well as computertomography-coloscopy (CTC which is currently not reimbursed. Scientific background: CTC is a mere diagnostic procedure which has a lower risk of perforation than conventional coloscopy. However, as it is an x-ray procedure, it exposes the patient to radiation. Conventional coloscopy is considered the gold standard due to its high sensitivity and specificity for locating adenomas. Furthermore, it offers the advantage that in addition to extended diagnostic measures therapeutic measures can be undertaken during the procedure. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CTC in comparison to conventional coloscopy in the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer and/or its precursors and which ethical and legal aspects have to be considered. Methods: The systematic literature search (27 international literature data bases yielded a total of 1,713 abstracts. After a two-step selection process 36 publications remained to be assessed. Results: The results regarding the effectivity of CTC in diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer and/or its precursors are partly promising, however, they are very heterogeneous. Therefore, regarding its sensitivity and specificity, CTC cannot be considered an equivalent alternative to conventional coloscopy for diagnosis and screening. The heterogeneity of results is due to technical (device type, settings, patient dependent (preparation and operator dependent (training factors. No economic results for a comparison of the procedures for diagnosis exist. Regarding the cost-effectiveness of a CTC-screening, international model calculations are available. According

  13. Application of the Duffing Chaotic Oscillator Model for Early Fault Diagnosis- Ⅰ.Basic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the well-known Duf fing equation and the nonlinear equation describing vibration of the human eardrum are introduced from elastic nonlinear system theory. According to the fact that the human ear can distinguish weak sound with smalldifference, the idea that the Duffing oscillator can be used to detect a weak signal and diagnose early fault of machinery is proposed. In order to obtain a model for weak signaldetection via the Duffing oscillator, the first step is to seek all forms of solutions of theDu f fing equation. The second step is to study global bifurcations of the Du f fing equationusing qualitative analysis theory of a dynamic system. That is to say, a series of bifurcations thresholds of the Duffing equation can be analyzed by the Melnikov function and asubharmonics Melnikov function. Then the three types of bifurcations thresholds varyingwith damping and external exciting amplitude are discussed. The analysis concludes thatthe bifurcation threshold corresponding to the maximum orbit of solutions outside the homoclinic orbit of the Duffing equation can be used to detect a weak signal. Finally, the implementing model of the Du ffing oscillator for weak signal detection is given.

  14. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the