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Sample records for early developing zebrafish

  1. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... secondary gonadogenesis. While the mechanisms of this phenomenon in zebrafish ovaries are not well addressed, here it can be seen in the context of an apoptotic regulation. Key words: Danio rerio, gonad, mitotic/meiotic transition, development, sex inversion. INTRODUCTION. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is ...

  2. Early Retinoic acid deprivation in developing zebrafish results in microphthalmia

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hong-Gam T.; Dowling, John E.; Cameron, D. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embr...

  3. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2007-09-01

    1. It has been proposed that Ca2+ signalling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern-forming events during early vertebrate development. 2. With reference to the embryo of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), herein we review the Ca2+ transients reported from the cleavage to segmentation periods. This time-window includes most of the major pattern-forming events of early development, which transform a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular embryo with established primary germ layers and body axes. 3. Data are presented to support our proposal that intracellular Ca2+ waves are an essential feature of embryonic cytokinesis and that propagating intercellular Ca2+ waves (both long and short range) may play a crucial role in: (i) the establishment of the embryonic periderm and the coordination of cell movements during epiboly, convergence and extension; (ii) the establishment of the basic embryonic axes and germ layers; and (iii) definition of the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen. 4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events.

  4. Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisenberg Carl-Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.

  5. Changes in Neurotransmitter Profiles during Early Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development and after Pesticide Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufi, Sara; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Legler, Juliette; Legradi, Jessica

    2016-03-15

    During early development, neurotransmitters are important stimulants for the development of the central nervous system. Although the development of different neuronal cell types during early zebrafish (Danio rerio) development is well-studied, little is known of the levels of neurotransmitters, their precursors and metabolites during development, and how these levels are affected by exposure to environmental contaminants. A method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time to zebrafish embryos and larvae to study five neurotransmitter systems in parallel, including the dopaminergic-andrenergic, glutaminergic-GABAnergic, serotoninergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic systems. Our method enables the quantification of neurotransmitters and their precursors and metabolites in whole zebrafish from the period of zygote to free-swimming larvae 6 days postfertilization (dpf). We observed a developmental stage-dependent pattern with clear differences between the first 2 days of development and the following days. Whereas the neurotransmitter levels steadily increased, the precursors showed a peak at 3 dpf. After exposure to several pesticides, significant differences in concentrations of neurotransmitters and precursors were observed. Our study revealed new insights about neurotransmitter systems during early zebrafish development and showed the usefulness of our approach for environmental neurotoxicity studies.

  6. Sufficient numbers of early germ cells are essential for female sex development in zebrafish.

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    Xiangyan Dai

    Full Text Available The sex determination for zebrafish is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The determination of sex in zebrafish has been suggested to rely on a mechanism that is affected by germ cell-derived signals. To begin our current study, a simplified and efficient germ cell-specific promoter of the dead end (dnd gene was identified. Utilizing the metrodinazole (MTZ/ bacterial nitroreductase (NTR system for inducible germ cell ablation, several stable Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP(-3'UTR and Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP(+3'UTR zebrafish lines were then generated with the identified promoter. A thorough comparison of the expression patterns and tissue distributions of endogenous dnd and ntr-egfp transcripts in vivo revealed that the identified 2032-bp zebrafish dnd promoter can recapitulate dnd expression faithfully in stable transgenic zebrafish. The correlation between the levels of the germ cell-derived signals and requirement for maintaining the female fate has been also explored with different durations of the MTZ treatments. Our results revealed the decreasing ratios of female presented in the treated transgenic group are fairly associated with the reducing levels of the early germ cell-derived signals. After the juvenile transgenic fish treated with 5 mM MTZ for 20 days, all MTZ-treated transgenic fish exclusively developed into males with subfertilities. Taken together, our results identified here a simplified and efficient dnd promoter, and provide clear evidence indicating that it was not the presence but the sufficiency of signals derived from germ cells that is essential for female sex development in zebrafish. Our model also provides a unique system for sex control in zebrafish studies.

  7. Early gonad development in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) | Okuthe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonadogenesis in zebrafish goes through an initial ovarian phase then subsequently into either ovarian or testicular phases. How germ cells choose to commit to an oogenic fate and enter meiosis or alternatively not enter meiosis and commit to a spermatogenetic fate remains a key question. This study investigated events ...

  8. Effects of quillaja saponin (Quillaja saponaria) on early embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif M; Moussa, Eid A; Abbott, Louise C

    2008-01-01

    Although much attention has focused on environmental contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls, potential deleterious effects of naturally occurring organic compounds have received much less consideration. Saponins, which are glycosides found in many plants, are important, environmentally ubiquitous organic compounds. Saponins have both beneficial and deleterious effects in adults, but little is known about how saponins effect early vertebrate embryonic development. The authors tested the toxicity of quillaja saponin using a zebrafish embryo assay. Quillaja saponin, extracted from bark of the tree, Quillaja saponaria, is a common foaming agent used in foods and beverages. At 6 h post fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed to five concentrations (0 [negative control], 1, 5, 10 or 20 micro g) of quillaja saponin per milliliter of medium. Zebrafish embryos exposed to 2% ethanol were positive controls (100% embryonic death). Embryos were assessed at 30, 54, and 72 h post fertilization for changes in embryonic development, mortality, time of hatching, and morphological deformities. Embryos exposed to 1 and 5 micro g saponin were healthy, showed no obvious deformities, but exhibited shrinkage of the chorion. Hatching time for zebrafish embryos exposed to 1 and 5 micro g/ml saponin decreased by 18 h compared to unexposed embryos. Zebrafish embryos treated with 5 micro g/ml saponin responded less to touch than embryos treated with 1 micro g/ml saponin or controls. Zebrafish embryos exposed to more than 5 micro g/ml saponin exhibited 100% embryonic mortality. These results indicate that exposure to 5 micro g/ml or less of quillaja saponin acts as a growth promoter, whereas concentrations of 10 micro g/ml or greater are lethal.

  9. Comparison of molecular marker expression in early zebrafish brain development following chronic ethanol or morpholino treatment.

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    Zhang, Chengjin; Boa-Amponsem, Oswald; Cole, Gregory J

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain whether defined markers of early zebrafish brain development are affected by chronic ethanol exposure or morpholino knockdown of agrin, sonic hedgehog, retinoic acid, and fibroblast growth factors, four signaling molecules that are suggested to be ethanol sensitive. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 2% ethanol from 6 to 24 hpf or injected with agrin, shha, aldh1a3, or fgf8a morpholinos. In situ hybridization was employed to analyze otx2, pax6a, epha4a, krx20, pax2a, fgf8a, wnt1, and eng2b expression during early brain development. Our results showed that pax6a mRNA expression was decreased in eye, forebrain, and hindbrain of both chronic ethanol exposed and select MO treatments. Epha4a expression in rhombomere R1 boundary was decreased in chronic ethanol exposure and aldh1a3 morphants, lost in fgf8a morphants, but largely unaffected in agrin and shha morphants. Ectopic pax6a and epha4a expression in midbrain was only found in fgf8a morphants. These results suggest that while chronic ethanol induces obvious morphological change in brain architecture, many molecular markers of these brain structures are relatively unaffected by ethanol exposure.

  10. Physiological roles of glucocorticoids during early embryonic development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K S; Matrone, G; Livingstone, D E W; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Mullins, J J; Tucker, C S; Hadoke, P W F; Kenyon, C J; Denvir, M A

    2013-12-15

    While glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to be present in the zebrafish embryo, little is known about their physiological roles at this stage. We hypothesised that GCs play key roles in stress response, hatching and swim activity during early development. To test this, whole embryo cortisol (WEC) and corticosteroid-related genes were measured in embryos from 6 to 120 h post fertilisation (hpf) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Stress response was assessed by change in WEC following stirring, hypoxia or brief electrical impulses applied to the bathing water. The impact of pharmacological and molecular GC manipulation on the stress response, spontaneous hatching and swim activity at different stages of development was also assessed. WEC levels demonstrated a biphasic pattern during development with a decrease from 0 to 36 hpf followed by a progressive increase towards 120 hpf. This was accompanied by a significant and sustained increase in the expression of genes encoding cyp11b1 (GC biosynthesis), hsd11b2 (GC metabolism) and gr (GC receptor) from 48 to 120 hpf. Metyrapone (Met), an inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by cyp11b1), and cyp11b1 morpholino (Mo) knockdown significantly reduced basal and stress-induced WEC levels at 72 and 120 hpf but not at 24 hpf. Spontaneous hatching and swim activity were significantly affected by manipulation of GC action from approximately 48 hpf onwards. We have identified a number of key roles of GCs in zebrafish embryos contributing to adaptive physiological responses under adverse conditions. The ability to alter GC action in the zebrafish embryo also highlights its potential value for GC research.

  11. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  12. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

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    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  13. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  14. Proteomic analysis of protein profiles during early development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

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    Tay, Tuan Leng; Lin, Qingsong; Seow, Teck Keong; Tan, Keng Hwa; Hew, Choy Leong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2006-05-01

    In the present study, profiles of protein expression were examined during early development of zebrafish, an increasingly popular experimental model in vertebrate development and human diseases. By 2-DE, an initial increase in protein spots from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 8-10 hpf was observed. There was no dramatic change in protein profiles up to 18 hpf, but significant changes occurred in subsequent stages. Interestingly, 49% of the proteins detected at 6 hpf remained detectable by 1 week of age. To map the protein expression patterns in 2-D gels, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was employed to identify selected protein spots from early embryos. 108 protein spots were found to match known proteins and they were derived from 55 distinct genes. Interestingly, 11 (20%) of them produced multiple protein isoforms or distinct cleavage products. Although deyolked embryos were used in the analysis, a large number of vitellogenin derivatives remained prominently present in the embryos. Other than these, most of the identified proteins are cytosolic, cytoskeletal and nuclear proteins, which are involved in diversified functions such as metabolism, cytoskeleton, translation, protein degradation, etc. Some of the proteins with interesting temporal expression profiles during development are further discussed.

  15. A role for GnRH in early brain regionalization and eye development in zebrafish.

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    Wu, Sheng; Page, Louise; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2006-09-26

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a highly conserved peptide that is expressed early in brain development in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we detected GnRH mRNA within 2h post fertilization by RT-PCR. To determine if GnRH is involved in development, we used gene knockdown techniques to block translation of gnrh2 or gnrh3 mRNA after which the expression patterns for gene markers were examined at 24h post fertilization with in situ hybridization. First, loss of either GnRH2 or GnRH3 affected regionalization of the brain as shown by a change in expression of fgf8 or pax2.1 genes in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary or diencephalon-midbrain boundary. Second, lack of GnRH2 and/or GnRH3 altered gene markers expressed in the formation of the eye cup (pax2.1, pax6.1, mab21l2 and meis1.1) or eye stalk (fgf8 and pax2.1). Third, knockdown of GnRH2 affected the size and shape of the midbrain and expression of gene markers therein. Results from assays with the TUNEL method and caspase-3 and -9 activity showed the brain and eye changes were unlikely to result from secondary apoptotic cell death before 24h post fertilization. These experiments suggest that GnRH loss-of-function affects early brain and eye formation during development.

  16. The zebrafish digital embryo: in toto reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development with digital scanned laser light sheet fluorescence microscopy

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    Keller, Philipp J.; Schmidt, Annette D.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2009-07-01

    The analysis of all cell movements and all cell interactions in a vertebrate during the entire period of embryonic development is a fundamental goal in biology. Using DSLM, we recorded the development of entire zebrafish embryos in vivo and with sub-cellular resolution. By imaging at a speed of 1.5 billion volume elements per minute, image data in the order of several terabytes were acquired for each embryo over the time course of an entire day, i.e. up to a stage, in which the embryo comprises 20,000 cells and major organs are in a functional state. By using automated image processing algorithms the image data of each embryo were converted into a digital representation of the embryo (the "digital embryo"), i.e. a database with comprehensive information about migratory tracks and divisions of the embryo's cells. The digital embryos permit to follow single cells as a function of time such that the "fate" as well as the origin of the cells can be reconstructed. By means of these analyses, developmental blueprints of tissues and organs can be determined in a whole-embryo context. Defects in embryonic development or disease models can now be analyzed and understood on a quantitative level.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-2 regulates early neural and cardiovascular system development in zebrafish embryos.

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    Hartnett, Lori; Glynn, Catherine; Nolan, Catherine M; Grealy, Maura; Byrnes, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family is essential for normal embryonic growth and development and it is highly conserved through vertebrate evolution. However, the roles that the individual members of the IGF family play in embryonic development have not been fully elucidated. This study focuses on the role of IGF-2 in zebrafish embryonic development. Two igf-2 genes, igf-2a and igf-2b, are present in the zebrafish genome. Antisense morpholinos were designed to knock down both igf-2 genes. The neural and cardiovascular defects in IGF-2 morphant embryos were then examined further using wholemount in situ hybridisation, TUNEL analysis and O-dianisidine staining. Knockdown of igf-2a or igf-2b resulted in ventralised embryos with reduced growth, reduced eyes, disrupted brain structures and a disrupted cardiovascular system, with igf-2b playing a more significant role in development. During gastrulation, igf-2a and igf-2b are required for development of anterior neural structures and for regulation of genes critical to dorsal-ventral patterning. As development proceeds, igf-2a and igf-2b play anti-apoptotic roles. Gene expression analysis demonstrates that igf-2a and igf-2b play overlapping roles in angiogenesis and cardiac outflow tract development. Igf-2b is specifically required for cardiac valve development and cardiac looping. Injection of a dominant negative IGF-1 receptor led to similar defects in angiogenesis and cardiac valve development, indicating IGF-2 signals through this receptor to regulate cardiovascular development. This is the first study describing two functional igf-2 genes in zebrafish. This work demonstrates that igf-2a and igf-2b are critical to neural and cardiovascular development in zebrafish embryos. The finding that igf-2a and igf-2b do not act exclusively in a redundant manner may explain why both genes have been stably maintained in the genome.

  18. Ca2+ signaling and early embryonic patterning during the blastula and gastrula periods of zebrafish and Xenopus development.

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    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that Ca(2+) signaling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern forming events during early vertebrate development [L.F. Jaffe, Organization of early development by calcium patterns, BioEssays 21 (1999) 657-667; M.J. Berridge, P. Lipp, M.D. Bootman, The versatility and universality of calcium signaling, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1 (2000) 11-21; S.E. Webb, A.L. Miller, Calcium signalling during embryonic development, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (2003) 539-551]. With reference to the embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the frog, Xenopus laevis, we review the Ca(2+) signals reported during the Blastula and Gastrula Periods. This developmental window encompasses the major pattern forming events of epiboly, involution, and convergent extension, which result in the establishment of the basic germ layers and body axes [C.B. Kimmel, W.W. Ballard, S.R. Kimmel, B. Ullmann, T.F. Schilling, Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish, Dev. Dyn. 203 (1995) 253-310]. Data will be presented to support the suggestion that propagating waves (both long and short range) of Ca(2+) release, followed by sequestration, may play a crucial role in: (1) Coordinating cell movements during these pattern forming events and (2) Contributing to the establishment of the basic embryonic axes, as well as (3) Helping to define the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen [E. Gilland, A.L. Miller, E. Karplus, R. Baker, S.E. Webb, Imaging of multicellular large-scale rhythmic calcium waves during zebrafish gastrulation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 157-161; J.B. Wallingford, A.J. Ewald, R.M. Harland, S.E. Fraser, Calcium signaling during convergent extension in Xenopus, Curr. Biol. 11 (2001) 652-661]. The various potential targets of these Ca(2+) transients will also be discussed, as well as how they might integrate with other known pattern forming

  19. Teratogenic, bioenergetic, and behavioral effects of exposure to total particulate matter on early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not mimicked by nicotine.

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    Massarsky, Andrey; Jayasundara, Nishad; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been associated with a number of pathologies; however, the mechanisms leading to developmental effects are yet to be fully understood. The zebrafish embryo is regarded as a 'bridge model'; however, not many studies examined its applicability to cigarette smoke toxicity. This study examined the effects of total particulate matter (TPM) from 3R4F reference cigarettes on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to two concentrations of TPM (0.4 and 1.4 μg/mL equi-nicotine units) or nicotine at equivalent doses. The exposures began at 2h post-fertilization (hpf) and lasted until 96 hpf. Several physiological parameters were assessed during or after the exposure. We show that TPM increased mortality, delayed hatching, and increased the incidence of deformities in zebrafish. TPM exposure also increased the incidence of hemorrhage and disrupted the angiogenesis of the major vessels in the brain. Moreover, TPM exposure reduced the larval body length, decreased the heart rate, and reduced the metabolic rate. Biomarkers of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress were also affected. TPM-exposed zebrafish also differed behaviorally: at 24 hpf the embryos had a higher frequency of spontaneous contractions and at 144 hpf the larvae displayed swimming hyperactivity. This study demonstrates that TPM disrupts several aspects of early development in zebrafish. The effects reported for TPM were not attributable to nicotine, since embryos treated with nicotine alone did not differ significantly from the control group. Collectively, our work illustrates the utility of zebrafish as an alternative model to evaluate the toxic effects of cigarette smoke constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 μg L -1 of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 μg L -1 of 233 U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 μg L -1 of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 μg L -1 upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for 233 U than DU exposure, while the presence of 233 U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments

  1. Acute salinity and temperature challenges during early development of zebrafish: Differential gene expression of PTHs, PTHrPs and their receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Jin; Zhaohui Lan; Gege Zhu; Weiqun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (pth), parathyroid hormone-related peptide (pthrp) and their receptors are involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in all vertebrates. To further understand the role of these genes in teleosts during development, we investigated the expression pattern of pth1, pth2, pthrp1, pthrp2, and their receptors pth1r, pth2r, pth3r, and their response to acute salinity and temperature challenge during early development of zebrafish, Danio rerio. The results revealed that pt...

  2. The miR-30 microRNA family targets smoothened to regulate hedgehog signalling in zebrafish early muscle development

    OpenAIRE

    Ketley, Ami; Warren, Anne; Holmes, Emily; Gering, Martin; Aboobaker, A. Aziz; Brook, J. David

    2013-01-01

    The importance of microRNAs in development is now widely accepted. However, identifying the specific targets of individual microRNAs and understanding their biological significance remains a major challenge. We have used the zebrafish model system to evaluate the expression and function of microRNAs potentially involved in muscle development and study their interaction with predicted target genes. We altered expression of the miR-30 microRNA family and generated phenotypes that mimicked misre...

  3. The miR-30 microRNA family targets smoothened to regulate hedgehog signalling in zebrafish early muscle development.

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    Ketley, Ami; Warren, Anne; Holmes, Emily; Gering, Martin; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Brook, J David

    2013-01-01

    The importance of microRNAs in development is now widely accepted. However, identifying the specific targets of individual microRNAs and understanding their biological significance remains a major challenge. We have used the zebrafish model system to evaluate the expression and function of microRNAs potentially involved in muscle development and study their interaction with predicted target genes. We altered expression of the miR-30 microRNA family and generated phenotypes that mimicked misregulation of the Hedgehog pathway. Inhibition of the miR-30 family increases activity of the pathway, resulting in elevated ptc1 expression and increased numbers of superficial slow-muscle fibres. We show that the transmembrane receptor smoothened is a target of this microRNA family. Our results indicate that fine coordination of smoothened activity by the miR-30 family allows the correct specification and differentiation of distinct muscle cell types during zebrafish embryonic development.

  4. The miR-30 microRNA family targets smoothened to regulate hedgehog signalling in zebrafish early muscle development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Ketley

    Full Text Available The importance of microRNAs in development is now widely accepted. However, identifying the specific targets of individual microRNAs and understanding their biological significance remains a major challenge. We have used the zebrafish model system to evaluate the expression and function of microRNAs potentially involved in muscle development and study their interaction with predicted target genes. We altered expression of the miR-30 microRNA family and generated phenotypes that mimicked misregulation of the Hedgehog pathway. Inhibition of the miR-30 family increases activity of the pathway, resulting in elevated ptc1 expression and increased numbers of superficial slow-muscle fibres. We show that the transmembrane receptor smoothened is a target of this microRNA family. Our results indicate that fine coordination of smoothened activity by the miR-30 family allows the correct specification and differentiation of distinct muscle cell types during zebrafish embryonic development.

  5. Early embryogenesis in zebrafish is affected by bisphenol A exposure

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    William K. F. Tse

    2013-03-01

    Exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs has been hypothesized to increase the propensity of an individual to develop a disease or dysfunction in his/her later life. Although it is important to understand the effects of EDCs on early development in animals, sufficient information about these effects is not available thus far. This is probably because of the technical difficulties in tracing the continuous developmental changes at different stages of mammalian embryos. The zebrafish, an excellent model currently used in developmental biology, provides new insights to the field of toxicological studies. We used the standard whole-mount in situ hybridization screening protocol to determine the early developmental defects in zebrafish embryos exposed to the ubiquitous pollutant, bisphenol A (BPA. Three stages (60–75% epiboly, 8–10 somite, and prim-5 were selected for in situ screening of different molecular markers, whereas BPA exposure altered early dorsoventral (DV patterning, segmentation, and brain development in zebrafish embryos within 24 hours of exposure.

  6. Methods for the analysis of early oogenesis in Zebrafish.

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    Elkouby, Yaniv M; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-10-15

    Oocyte differentiation is a highly dynamic and intricate developmental process whose mechanistic understanding advances female reproduction, fertility, and ovarian cancer biology. Despite the many attributes of the zebrafish model, it has yet to be fully exploited for the investigation of early oocyte differentiation and ovarian development. This is partly because the properties of the adult zebrafish ovary make it technically challenging to access early stage oocytes. As a result, characterization of these stages has been lacking and tools for their analysis have been insufficient. To overcome these technical hurdles, we took advantage of the juvenile zebrafish ovary, where early stage oocytes can readily be found in high numbers and progress in a predictable manner. We characterized the earliest stages of oocyte differentiation and ovarian development and defined accurate staging criteria. We further developed protocols for quantitative microscopy, live time-lapse imaging, ovarian culture, and isolation of stage-specific oocytes for biochemical analysis. These methods have recently provided us with an unprecedented view of early oogenesis, allowing us to study formation of the Balbiani body, a universal oocyte granule that is associated with oocyte survival in mice and required for oocyte and egg polarity in fish and frogs. Despite its tremendous developmental significance, the Bb has been little investigated and how it forms was unknown in any species for over two centuries. We were able to trace Balbiani body formation and oocyte symmetry breaking to the onset of meiosis. Through this investigation we revealed novel cytoskeletal structures in oocytes and the contribution of specialized cellular organization to differentiation. Overall, the juvenile zebrafish ovary arises as an exciting model for studies of cell and developmental biology. We review these and other recent advances in vertebrate oogenesis in an accompanying manuscript in this issue of

  7. Role of a novel zebrafish nup98 during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tsz-Kan; Chung, Martin I S; Liang, Raymond; Leung, Anskar Y H

    2010-11-01

    The nucleoporin NUP98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex that regulates nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. It has been characterized in acute myeloid leukemia as a fusion partner during chromosomal translocation. In this study, we identified a zebrafish nup98 gene and examined its role in embryonic development. Two expressed sequence tags with translated sequences homologous to human NUP98 were identified. The gene was cloned by polymerase chain reaction from complementary DNA of zebrafish embryos. Cellular functions of zebrafish NUP98 were investigated in HeLa cells. nup98 expression and developmental functions in zebrafish embryos were investigated by whole-mount in situ hybridization and morpholino knockdown. Protein sequence of zebrafish nup98 shared 65% identity with its human homolog. Ectopic expression of zebrafish nup98 rescued the defective messenger RNA export due to human NUP98 knockdown in HeLa cells. In zebrafish embryos, nup98 was expressed diffusely in eyes and the developing brain since 18 hours postfertilization. Knockdown of nup98 with morpholino upregulated pu.1 expression by 39% ± 15% (p = 0.0153) and scl expression by 36% ± 7.6% (p = 0.0017). Expression of genes associated with erythropoiesis was unchanged. The morphants also developed intracranial hemorrhage at 48 hours postfertilization due to defective blood vessel development. A novel zebrafish nup98 was identified and it serves a role in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking similar to human NUP98. During development, it modulates hematopoietic stem cell and early myeloid development and maintains the integrity of cranial vasculature in the developing central nervous system. Copyright © 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development

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    Evy Verbueken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP—a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes—in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR. The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  9. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbueken, Evy; Alsop, Derek; Saad, Moayad A; Pype, Casper; Van Peer, Els M; Casteleyn, Christophe R; Van Ginneken, Chris J; Wilson, Joanna; Van Cruchten, Steven J

    2017-01-22

    At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes-in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM) of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR). The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM) to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA) as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  10. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species.

  11. Early zebrafish embryogenesis is susceptible to developmental TDCPP exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Sean P; Cooper, Ellen M; Stapleton, Heather M; Volz, David C

    2012-11-01

    Chlorinated phosphate esters (CPEs) are widely used as additive flame retardants for low-density polyurethane foams and have frequently been detected at elevated concentrations within indoor environmental media. To begin characterizing the potential toxicity of CPEs on early vertebrate development, we examined the developmental toxicity of four CPEs used in polyurethane foam: tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyl tetrakis(2-chlorethyl) bis(phosphate) (V6). Using zebrafish as a model for vertebrate embryogenesis, we first screened the potential teratogenic effects of TDCPP, TCEP, TCPP, and V6 using a developmental toxicity assay. Based on these results, we focused on identification of susceptible windows of developmental TDCPP exposure as well as evaluation of uptake and elimination of TDCPP and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP, the primary metabolite) within whole embryos. Finally, because TDCPP-specific genotoxicity assays have, for the most part, been negative in vivo and because zygotic genome remethylation is a key biological event during cleavage, we investigated whether TDCPP altered the status of zygotic genome methylation during early zebrafish embryogenesis. Overall, our findings suggest that the cleavage period during zebrafish embryogenesis is susceptible to TDCPP-induced delays in remethylation of the zygotic genome, a mechanism that may be associated with enhanced developmental toxicity following initiation of TDCPP exposure at the start of cleavage. Our results suggest that further research is needed to better understand the effects of a widely used and detected CPE within susceptible windows of early vertebrate development.

  12. The transcriptomics of glucocorticoid receptor signaling in developing zebrafish.

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    Dinushan Nesan

    Full Text Available Cortisol is the primary corticosteroid in teleosts that is released in response to stressor activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis. The target tissue action of this hormone is primarily mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR, a ligand-bound transcription factor. In developing zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos, GR transcripts and cortisol are maternally deposited into the oocyte prior to fertilization and influence early embryogenesis. To better understand of the molecular mechanisms involved, we investigated changes in the developmental transcriptome prior to hatch, in response to morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of GR using the Agilent zebrafish microarray platform. A total of 1313 and 836 mRNA transcripts were significantly changed at 24 and 36 hours post fertilization (hpf, respectively. Functional analysis revealed numerous developmental processes under GR regulation, including neurogenesis, eye development, skeletal and cardiac muscle formation. Together, this study underscores a critical role for glucocorticoid signaling in programming molecular events essential for zebrafish development.

  13. Early Depletion of Primordial Germ Cells in Zebrafish Promotes Testis Formation

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    Keh-Weei Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As complete absence of germ cells leads to sterile males in zebrafish, we explored the relationship between primordial germ cell (PGC number and sexual development. Our results revealed dimorphic proliferation of PGCs in the early zebrafish larvae, marking the beginning of sexual differentiation. We applied morpholino-based gene knockdown and cell transplantation strategies to demonstrate that a threshold number of PGCs is required for the stability of ovarian fate. Using histology and transcriptomic analyses, we determined that zebrafish gonads are in a meiotic ovarian stage at 14 days postfertilization and identified signaling pathways supporting meiotic oocyte differentiation and eventual female fate. The development of PGC-depleted gonads appears to be restrained and delayed, suggesting that PGC number may directly regulate the variability and length of gonadal transformation and testicular differentiation in zebrafish. We propose that gonadal transformation may function as a developmental buffering mechanism to ensure the reproductive outcome.

  14. Vitamin E reduces endosulfan-induced toxic effects on morphology and behavior in early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K; Rasinger, J D; Thorstensen, K L; Penglase, S; Ellingsen, S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if vitamin E (α-TOC) modulates the developmental toxicity of the pesticide endosulfan (ESF), using a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed from 6 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) to either ESF (0.1-50 mg/L) or α-TOC (0.01-3 mM) alone or in combination. The effects of these exposures on embryonic morphology, larval behavior and antioxidant gene expression were analyzed. Phenotypic analysis at 48 hpf showed that ESF led to a dose-dependent increase in embryonic deformities, including axis malformations, pericardial edema and reduced pigmentation. Co-exposure of ESF with α-TOC (1-3 mM) significantly (p effect. The ESF-induced hyperactivity was ameliorated by α-TOC. Elevated ESF concentrations caused down-regulation of the antioxidant genes cuzn-sod, gpx1a and cat, suggesting that ESF promoted oxidative stress in the embryos. α-TOC did not prevent the ESF-induced dysregulation of these genes. These results demonstrate that α-TOC protects against phenotypic and behavioral effects caused by ESF but did not rescue ESF-induced aberrations in antioxidant gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular genetics of pituitary development in zebrafish.

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    Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    The pituitary gland of vertebrates consists of two major parts, the neurohypophysis (NH) and the adenohypophysis (AH). As a central part of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system (HHS), it constitutes a functional link between the nervous and the endocrine system to regulate basic body functions, such as growth, metabolism and reproduction. The development of the AH has been intensively studied in mouse, serving as a model for organogenesis and differential cell specification. However, given that the AH is a relatively recent evolutionary advance of the chordate phylum, it is also interesting to understand its development in lower chordate systems. In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful lower vertebrate system for developmental studies, being amenable for large-scale genetic approaches, embryological manipulations, and in vivo imaging. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge of the mechanisms and genetic control of pituitary formation during zebrafish development. First, we describe the components of the zebrafish HHS, and the different pituitary cell types and hormones, followed by a description of the different steps of normal pituitary development. The central part of the review deals with the genes found to be essential for zebrafish AH development, accompanied by a description of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. Finally, we discuss future directions, with particular focus on evolutionary aspects, and some novel functional aspects with growing medical and social relevance.

  16. Two dynamin-2 genes are required for normal zebrafish development.

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    Elizabeth M Gibbs

    Full Text Available Dynamin-2 (DNM2 is a large GTPase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and related trafficking pathways. Mutations in human DNM2 cause two distinct neuromuscular disorders: centronuclear myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Zebrafish have been shown to be an excellent animal model for many neurologic disorders, and this system has the potential to inform our understanding of DNM2-related disease. Currently, little is known about the endogenous zebrafish orthologs to human DNM2. In this study, we characterize two zebrafish dynamin-2 genes, dnm2 and dnm2-like. Both orthologs are structurally similar to human DNM2 at the gene and protein levels. They are expressed throughout early development and in all adult tissues examined. Knockdown of dnm2 and dnm2-like gene products resulted in extensive morphological abnormalities during development, and expression of human DNM2 RNA rescued these phenotypes. Our findings suggest that dnm2 and dnm2-like are orthologs to human DNM2, and that they are required for normal zebrafish development.

  17. Mapping protein phosphorylation in zebrafish development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemeer, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mapping protein phosphorylation in zebrafish development Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a key role in signaling processes that are vital for a cell and organism. It provides a rapid switch for protein activity as it often changes the conformation and function of a protein in the cell.

  18. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: a survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most toxic pesticides in aquatic ecosystem, but its toxicity mechanisms to fish are still not fully understood. This study examined the toxicity targets of CPF in early life stage of zebrafish on the endpoints at developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Firstly, CPF exposure decreased the body length, inhibited the hatchability and heart rate, and resulted in a number of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and pericardial edema (PE), in larval zebrafish. Secondly, the free swimming activities and the swimming behaviors of the larvae in response to the stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition were significantly influenced by the exposure to 100 and 300 μg/L CPF. In addition, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the transcription of some genes related to neurotoxicity were also influenced by CPF exposure. Thirdly, CPF exposure induced oxidative stress in the larval zebrafish. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased and the glutathione (GSH) contents decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner after the exposure to CPF for 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). CPF affected not only the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also the transcriptional levels of their respective genes. Finally, the mRNA levels of the main cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα), interferon (Ifn), interleukin-1 beta (Il-1β), interleukin 6 (Il6), complement factor 4 (C4) in the larvae increased significantly after the exposure to 100 or 300 μg/L CPF for 96 hpf, suggesting that the innate immune system disturbed by CPF in larvae. Taken together, our results suggested that CPF had the potential to cause developmental toxicity, behavior alterations, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Treatment of Glucocorticoids Inhibited Early Immune Responses and Impaired Cardiac Repair in Adult Zebrafish.

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    Wei-Chang Huang

    Full Text Available Myocardial injury, such as myocardial infarction (MI, can lead to drastic heart damage. Zebrafish have the extraordinary ability to regenerate their heart after a severe injury. Upon ventricle resection, fibrin clots seal the wound and serve as a matrix for recruiting myeloid-derived phagocytes. Accumulated neutrophils and macrophages not only reduce the risk of infection but also secrete cytokines and growth factors to promote tissue repair. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for how immune responses are regulated during the early stages of cardiac repair are still unclear. We investigated the role and programming of early immune responses during zebrafish heart regeneration. We found that zebrafish treated with an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid had significantly reduced heart regenerative capacities, consistent with findings in other higher vertebrates. Moreover, inhibiting the inflammatory response led to excessive collagen deposition. A microarray approach was used to assess the differential expression profiles between zebrafish hearts with normal or impaired healing. Combining cytokine profiling and immune-staining, our data revealed that impaired heart regeneration could be due to reduced phagocyte recruitment, leading to diminished angiogenesis and cell proliferation post-cardiac injury. Despite their robust regenerative ability, our study revealed that glucocorticoid treatment could effectively hinder cardiac repair in adult zebrafish by interfering with the inflammatory response. Our findings may help to clarify the initiation of cardiac repair, which could be used to develop a therapeutic intervention that may enhance cardiac repair in humans to compensate for the loss of cardiomyocytes after an MI.

  20. Smoc2 modulates embryonic myelopoiesis during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Hendrik; Esguerra, Camila V; Hartmann, Ursula; Luyten, Frank P; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2014-11-01

    SMOC2 is a member of the BM-40 (SPARC) family of matricellular proteins, reported to influence signaling in the extracellular compartment. In mice, Smoc2 is expressed in many different tissues and was shown to enhance the response to angiogenic growth factors, mediate cell adhesion, keratinocyte migration, and metastasis. Additionally, SMOC2 is associated with vitiligo and craniofacial and dental defects. The function of Smoc2 during early zebrafish development has not been determined to date. In pregastrula zebrafish embryos, smoc2 is expressed ubiquitously. As development progresses, the expression pattern becomes more anteriorly restricted. At the onset of blood cell circulation, smoc2 morphants presented a mild ventralization of posterior structures. Molecular analysis of the smoc2 morphants indicated myelopoietic defects in the rostral blood islands during segmentation stages. Hemangioblast development and further specification of the myeloid progenitor cells were shown to be impaired. Additional experiments indicated that Bmp target genes were down-regulated in smoc2 morphants. Our findings reveal that Smoc2 is an essential player in the development of myeloid cells of the anterior lateral plate mesoderm during embryonic zebrafish development. Furthermore, our data show that Smoc2 affects the transcription of Bmp target genes without affecting initial dorsoventral patterning or mesoderm development. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Zebrafish possess all of the classic sensory modalities: taste, tactile, smell, balance, vision, and hearing. For each sensory system, this article provides a brief overview of the system in the adult zebrafish followed by a more detailed overview of the development of the system. By far the majority of studies performed in each of the sensory systems of the zebrafish have involved some aspect of molecular biology or genetics. Although molecular biology and genetics are not major foci of the paper, brief discussions of some of the mutant strains of zebrafish that have developmental defects in each specific sensory system are included. The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease.

  2. The CK1 gene family: expression patterning in zebrafish development

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    AMELINA ALBORNOZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK1 is a ser/thr protein kinase family which has been identified in the cytosol cell fraction, associated with membranes as well as in the nucleus. Several isoforms of this gene family have been described in various organisms: CK1á, CK1ß, CK1δ, CK1å and CK1γ. Over the last decade, several members of this family have been involved in development processes related to wnt and sonic hedgehog signalling pathways. However, there is no detailed temporal information on the CK1 family in embryonic stages, even though orthologous genes have been described in several different vertebrate species. In this study, we describe for the first time the cloning and detailed expression pattern of five CK1 zebrafish genes. Sequence analysis revealed that zebrafish CK1 proteins are highly homologous to other vertebrate orthologues. Zebrafish CK1 genes are expressed throughout development in common and different territories. All the genes studied in development show maternal and zygotic expression with the exception of CK1å. This last gene presents only a zygotic component of expression. In early stages of development CK1 genes are ubiquitously expressed with the exception of CK1å. In later stages the five CK1 genes are expressed in the brain but not in the same way. This observation probably implicates the CK1 family genes in different and also in redundant functions. This is the first time that a detailed comparison of the expression of CK1 family genes is directly assessed in a vertebrate system throughout development

  3. Calcium signalling during zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S E; Miller, A L

    2000-02-01

    Calcium signals appear throughout the first 24 hours of zebrafish development. These begin at egg activation, then continue to be generated throughout the subsequent zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, and segmentation periods. They are thus associated with the major phases of pattern formation: cell proliferation, cell differentiation, axis determination, the generation of primary germ layers, the emergence of rudimentary organ systems, and therefore the establishment of the basic vertebrate body plan. When signals need to be transmitted across significant distances they take the form of waves, either intracellular waves when the cell size is large, or later in development when the cell size is reduced, intercellular waves. We will consider both types of calcium signals and their integration into signalling networks, and discuss their possible functions and developmental significance with regard to pattern formation. BioEssays 22:113-123, 2000. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Identification of estrogen target genes during zebrafish embryonic development through transcriptomic analysis.

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    Ruixin Hao

    Full Text Available Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 µM 17β-estradiol (E2 or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post fertilization (dpf, harvested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 dpf, and subjected to RNA extraction for transcriptome analysis using microarrays. Differentially expressed genes by E2-treatment were analyzed with hierarchical clustering followed by biological process and tissue enrichment analysis. Markedly distinct sets of genes were up and down-regulated by E2 at the four different time points. Among these genes, only the well-known estrogenic marker vtg1 was co-regulated at all time points. Despite this, the biological functional categories targeted by E2 were relatively similar throughout zebrafish development. According to knowledge-based tissue enrichment, estrogen responsive genes were clustered mainly in the liver, pancreas and brain. This was in line with the developmental dynamics of estrogen-target tissues that were visualized using transgenic zebrafish containing estrogen responsive elements driving the expression of GFP (Tg(5xERE:GFP. Finally, the identified embryonic estrogen-responsive genes were compared to already published estrogen-responsive genes identified in male adult zebrafish (Gene Expression Omnibus database. The expressions of a few genes were co-regulated by E2 in both embryonic and adult zebrafish. These could potentially be used as estrogenic biomarkers for exposure to estrogens or estrogenic endocrine disruptors in zebrafish. In conclusion, our data suggests that estrogen effects on early embryonic zebrafish development are stage- and tissue- specific.

  5. Metabolomics and transcriptomics reveal the toxicity of difenoconazole to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Miaomiao; Zhu, Wentao; Wang, Dezhen; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Yao; Yan, Jin; Dong, Kai; Zheng, Mingqi; Wang, Chengju

    2018-01-01

    Difenoconazole is widely used to inhibit the growth of fungi, but its residue in the water environment may threaten ecosystem and human health. Here, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and LC-MS/MS based metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches were used to assess the response of zebrafish to difenoconazole exposure. Early life stages of zebrafish were exposed to difenoconazole at environmentally relevant concentrations for 168h. Their comparison with the control group suggested an adverse development and disturbance of steroid hormones and VTG. KEGG pathway analysis identified five biological processes on the basis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), as well as altered metabolites and amino acids in zebrafish following difenoconazole exposure. These affected processes included energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and an immune-related pathway. Collectively, these results bring us closer to an incremental understanding of the toxic effects of difenoconazole on zebrafish in its early development, and lend support to the continued use of the early life stages of zebrafish as a classical model to evaluate underlying environmental risks of xenobiotics in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of severe hypoxic stress during development in zebrafish

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    I.G. Woods

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia causes critical cellular injury both in early human development and in adulthood, leading to cerebral palsy, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Interestingly, a remarkable phenomenon known as hypoxic preconditioning arises when a brief hypoxia exposure protects target organs against subsequent, severe hypoxia. Although hypoxic preconditioning has been demonstrated in several model organisms and tissues including the heart and brain, its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Accordingly, we used embryonic and larval zebrafish to develop a novel vertebrate model for hypoxic preconditioning, and used this model to identify conserved hypoxia-regulated transcripts for further functional study as published in Manchenkov et al. (2015 in G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics. In this Brief article, we provide extensive annotation for the most strongly hypoxia-regulated genes in zebrafish, including their human orthologs, and describe in detail the methods used to identify, filter, and annotate hypoxia-regulated transcripts for downstream functional and bioinformatic assays using the source data provided in Gene Expression Omnibus Accession GSE68473.

  7. Making sense of zebrafish neural development in the Minervois

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    Dambly-Chaudière Christine

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The meeting 'From sensory perception to motor output: genetic bases of behavior in the zebrafish embryo' was held at Minerve (South of France on March 16–18, 2007. The meeting site was beautifully situated in the heart of the Minervois wine country, and its remoteness promoted conversations and interaction over the course of the program. The meeting covered neurogenesis and eye development on day 1, ear and lateral line development on day 2, and brain connectivity and behavior on day 3. Underlying all sessions, however, ran the growing importance of live imaging, an approach that takes full advantage of the transparency of fish embryos and early larvae, as illustrated by several movies and links in this report.

  8. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  9. Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development

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    Stock David W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accessibility of the developing zebrafish pharyngeal dentition makes it an advantageous system in which to study many aspects of tooth development from early initiation to late morphogenesis. In mammals, hedgehog signaling is known to be essential for multiple stages of odontogenesis; however, potential roles for the pathway during initiation of tooth development or in later morphogenesis are incompletely understood. Results We have identified mRNA expression of the hedgehog ligands shha and the receptors ptc1 and ptc2 during zebrafish pharyngeal tooth development. We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development. Supporting this idea, we found that morphological and gene expression evidence of tooth initiation is eliminated in shha mutant embryos, and that morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of shha, but not shhb, function prevents mature tooth formation. Hedgehog pathway inhibition with the antagonist compound cyclopamine affected tooth formation at each stage in which we applied it: arresting development at early stages and disrupting mature tooth morphology when applied later. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required continuously during odontogenesis. In contrast, over-expression of shha had no effect on the developing dentition, possibly because shha is normally extensively expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal region. Conclusion We have identified previously unknown requirements for hedgehog signaling for early tooth initiation and later morphogenesis. The similarity of our results with data from mouse and other vertebrates suggests that despite gene duplication and changes in the location of where teeth form, the roles of hedgehog signaling in tooth development have been largely conserved during evolution.

  10. Studying Lipid Metabolism and Transport During Zebrafish Development.

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    Zeituni, Erin M; Farber, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish model facilitates the study of lipid metabolism and transport during development. Here, we outline methods to introduce traceable fluorescent or radiolabeled fatty acids into zebrafish embryos and larvae at various developmental stages. Labeled fatty acids can be injected into the large yolk cell prior to the development of digestive organs when the larvae is entirely dependent on the yolk for its nutrition (lecithotrophic state). Once zebrafish are able to consume exogenous food, labeled fatty acids can be incorporated into their food. Our group and others have demonstrated that the transport and processing of these injected or ingested fatty acid analogs can be followed through microscopy and/or biochemical analysis. These techniques can be easily combined with targeted antisense approaches, transgenics, or drug treatments (see Note 1 ), allowing studies of lipid cell biology and metabolism that are exceedingly difficult or impossible in mammals.

  11. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  12. Toxicity assessment of iron oxide nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio early life stages.

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    Xiaoshan Zhu

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ≥10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology.

  13. Toxicity Assessment of Carbon Nanomaterials in Zebrafish during Development

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    Marta d’Amora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs are increasingly employed in nanomedicine as carriers for intracellular transport of drugs, imaging probes, and therapeutics agents, thanks to their unique optical and physicochemical properties. However, a better understanding about the effects of CNMs on a vertebrate model at the whole animal level is required. In this study, we compare the toxicity of oxidized carbon nano-onions (oxi-CNOs, oxidized carbon nano-horns (oxi-CNHs and graphene oxide (GO in zebrafish (Danio rerio. We evaluate the possible effects of these nanomaterials on zebrafish development by assessing different end-points and exposure periods.

  14. Inhibition of signaling between human CXCR4 and zebrafish ligands by the small molecule IT1t impairs the formation of triple-negative breast cancer early metastases in a zebrafish xenograft model

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    Claudia Tulotta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a highly aggressive and recurrent type of breast carcinoma that is associated with poor patient prognosis. Because of the limited efficacy of current treatments, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. The CXCR4-CXCL12 chemokine signaling axis guides cell migration in physiological and pathological processes, including breast cancer metastasis. Although targeted therapies to inhibit the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis are under clinical experimentation, still no effective therapeutic approaches have been established to block CXCR4 in TNBC. To unravel the role of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in the formation of TNBC early metastases, we used the zebrafish xenograft model. Importantly, we demonstrate that cross-communication between the zebrafish and human ligands and receptors takes place and human tumor cells expressing CXCR4 initiate early metastatic events by sensing zebrafish cognate ligands at the metastatic site. Taking advantage of the conserved intercommunication between human tumor cells and the zebrafish host, we blocked TNBC early metastatic events by chemical and genetic inhibition of CXCR4 signaling. We used IT1t, a potent CXCR4 antagonist, and show for the first time its promising anti-tumor effects. In conclusion, we confirm the validity of the zebrafish as a xenotransplantation model and propose a pharmacological approach to target CXCR4 in TNBC.

  15. Kita driven expression of oncogenic HRAS leads to early onset and highly penetrant melanoma in zebrafish.

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    Cristina Santoriello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed.Using the combinatorial Gal4-UAS system, we have developed a zebrafish transgenic line that expresses oncogenic HRAS under the kita promoter. Already at 3 days transgenic kita-GFP-RAS larvae show a hyper-pigmentation phenotype as earliest evidence of abnormal melanocyte growth. By 2-4 weeks, masses of transformed melanocytes form in the tail stalk of the majority of kita-GFP-RAS transgenic fish. The adult tumors evident between 1-3 months of age faithfully reproduce the immunological, histological and molecular phenotypes of human melanoma, but on a condensed time-line. Furthermore, they show transplantability, dependence on mitfa expression and do not require additional mutations in tumor suppressors. In contrast to kita expressing melanocyte progenitors that efficiently develop melanoma, mitfa expressing progenitors in a second Gal4-driver line were 4 times less efficient in developing melanoma during the three months observation period.This indicates that zebrafish kita promoter is a powerful tool for driving oncogene expression in the right cells and at the right level to induce early onset melanoma in the presence of tumor suppressors. Thus our zebrafish model provides a link between kita expressing melanocyte progenitors and melanoma and offers the advantage of a larval phenotype suitable for large scale drug and genetic modifier screens.

  16. PhOTO zebrafish: a transgenic resource for in vivo lineage tracing during development and regeneration.

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    William P Dempsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidating the complex cell dynamics (divisions, movement, morphological changes, etc. underlying embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration requires an efficient means to track cells with high fidelity in space and time. To satisfy this criterion, we developed a transgenic zebrafish line, called PhOTO, that allows photoconvertible optical tracking of nuclear and membrane dynamics in vivo. METHODOLOGY: PhOTO zebrafish ubiquitously express targeted blue fluorescent protein (FP Cerulean and photoconvertible FP Dendra2 fusions, allowing for instantaneous, precise targeting and tracking of any number of cells using Dendra2 photoconversion while simultaneously monitoring global cell behavior and morphology. Expression persists through adulthood, making the PhOTO zebrafish an excellent tool for studying tissue regeneration: after tail fin amputation and photoconversion of a ∼100 µm stripe along the cut area, marked differences seen in how cells contribute to the new tissue give detailed insight into the dynamic process of regeneration. Photoconverted cells that contributed to the regenerate were separated into three distinct populations corresponding to the extent of cell division 7 days after amputation, and a subset of cells that divided the least were organized into an evenly spaced, linear orientation along the length of the newly regenerating fin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PhOTO zebrafish have wide applicability for lineage tracing at the systems-level in the early embryo as well as in the adult, making them ideal candidate tools for future research in development, traumatic injury and regeneration, cancer progression, and stem cell behavior.

  17. Maternal topoisomerase II alpha, not topoisomerase II beta, enables embryonic development of zebrafish top2a-/- mutants

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    Sapetto-Rebow Beata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic alterations in human topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A are linked to cancer susceptibility. TOP2A decatenates chromosomes and thus is necessary for multiple aspects of cell division including DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation. Topoisomerase II alpha is also required for embryonic development in mammals, as mouse Top2a knockouts result in embryonic lethality as early as the 4-8 cell stage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended developmental capability of zebrafish top2a mutants arises from maternal expression of top2a or compensation from its top2b paralogue. Results Here, we describe bloody minded (blm, a novel mutant of zebrafish top2a. In contrast to mouse Top2a nulls, zebrafish top2a mutants survive to larval stages (4-5 day post fertilization. Developmental analyses demonstrate abundant expression of maternal top2a but not top2b. Inhibition or poisoning of maternal topoisomerase II delays embryonic development by extending the cell cycle M-phase. Zygotic top2a and top2b are co-expressed in the zebrafish CNS, but endogenous or ectopic top2b RNA appear unable to prevent the blm phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that maternal top2a enables zebrafish development before the mid-zygotic transition (MZT and that zebrafish top2a and top2b are not functionally redundant during development after activation of the zygotic genome.

  18. Maternal topoisomerase II alpha, not topoisomerase II beta, enables embryonic development of zebrafish top2a-/- mutants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sapetto-Rebow, Beata

    2011-11-23

    Abstract Background Genetic alterations in human topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) are linked to cancer susceptibility. TOP2A decatenates chromosomes and thus is necessary for multiple aspects of cell division including DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation. Topoisomerase II alpha is also required for embryonic development in mammals, as mouse Top2a knockouts result in embryonic lethality as early as the 4-8 cell stage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended developmental capability of zebrafish top2a mutants arises from maternal expression of top2a or compensation from its top2b paralogue. Results Here, we describe bloody minded (blm), a novel mutant of zebrafish top2a. In contrast to mouse Top2a nulls, zebrafish top2a mutants survive to larval stages (4-5 day post fertilization). Developmental analyses demonstrate abundant expression of maternal top2a but not top2b. Inhibition or poisoning of maternal topoisomerase II delays embryonic development by extending the cell cycle M-phase. Zygotic top2a and top2b are co-expressed in the zebrafish CNS, but endogenous or ectopic top2b RNA appear unable to prevent the blm phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that maternal top2a enables zebrafish development before the mid-zygotic transition (MZT) and that zebrafish top2a and top2b are not functionally redundant during development after activation of the zygotic genome.

  19. Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Groh, Ksenia J; Zennegg, Markus; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Murk, Albertinka J; Eggen, Rik I L; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity resulting from the exposure to sublethal chemical concentrations is an increasing concern in environmental risk assessment. The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish provides a reliable prediction of acute toxicity in adult fish, but it cannot yet be applied to predict the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity. Identification of sublethal FET endpoints that can assist in predicting the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity would be advantageous. The present study characterized the occurrence of delayed toxicity in zebrafish larvae following early exposure to PCB126, previously described to cause delayed effects in the common sole. The first aim was to investigate the occurrence and temporal profiles of delayed toxicity during zebrafish larval development and compare them to those previously described for sole to evaluate the suitability of zebrafish as a model fish species for delayed toxicity assessment. The second aim was to examine the correlation between the sublethal endpoints assessed during embryonal and early larval development and the delayed effects observed during later larval development. After exposure to PCB126 (3-3000ng/L) until 5 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae were reared in clean water until 14 or 28 dpf. Mortality and sublethal morphological and behavioural endpoints were recorded daily, and growth was assessed at 28 dpf. Early life exposure to PCB126 caused delayed mortality (300 ng/L and 3000 ng/L) as well as growth impairment and delayed development (100 ng/L) during the clean water period. Effects on swim bladder inflation and cartilaginous tissues within 5 dpf were the most promising for predicting delayed mortality and sublethal effects, such as decreased standard length, delayed metamorphosis, reduced inflation of swim bladder and column malformations. The EC50 value for swim bladder inflation at 5 dpf (169 ng/L) was similar to the LC50 value at 8 dpf (188 and 202 ng/L in

  20. The microcephaly gene aspm is involved in brain development in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jung, Ju-Yeon; Ahn, Dae-Gwon; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Choi, Dong-Kug; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We identified a zebrafish aspm/mcph5 gene that is expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS during early development. → Embryos injected with the aspm MO consistently showed a reduced head and eye size but were otherwise grossly normal, closely mimicking the known phenotypes of human microcephaly patients. → Knock-down of aspm causes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death during early development. -- Abstract: MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. Homozygous mutation of the MCPH5 gene, also known as ASPM, is the most common cause of the MCPH phenotype. To elucidate the roles of ASPM during embryonic development, the zebrafish aspm was identified, which is specifically expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of aspm resulted in a significant reduction in head size. Furthermore, aspm-deficient embryos exhibited a mitotic arrest during early development. These findings suggest that the reduction in brain size in MCPH might be caused by lack of aspm function in the mitotic cell cycle and demonstrate that the zebrafish can provide a model system for congenital diseases of the human nervous system.

  1. The microcephaly gene aspm is involved in brain development in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jung-Hwa [Department of Biology and GRAST, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ju-Yeon [Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dae-Gwon [Department of Biology and GRAST, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang-Yeob [Department of Biotechnology, Division of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong-Kug, E-mail: choidk@kku.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol-Hee, E-mail: zebrakim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biology and GRAST, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} We identified a zebrafish aspm/mcph5 gene that is expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS during early development. {yields} Embryos injected with the aspm MO consistently showed a reduced head and eye size but were otherwise grossly normal, closely mimicking the known phenotypes of human microcephaly patients. {yields} Knock-down of aspm causes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death during early development. -- Abstract: MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. Homozygous mutation of the MCPH5 gene, also known as ASPM, is the most common cause of the MCPH phenotype. To elucidate the roles of ASPM during embryonic development, the zebrafish aspm was identified, which is specifically expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of aspm resulted in a significant reduction in head size. Furthermore, aspm-deficient embryos exhibited a mitotic arrest during early development. These findings suggest that the reduction in brain size in MCPH might be caused by lack of aspm function in the mitotic cell cycle and demonstrate that the zebrafish can provide a model system for congenital diseases of the human nervous system.

  2. Matrilin-1 Is Essential for Zebrafish Development by Facilitating Collagen II Secretion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Cristian Dan; Ko, Ya-Ping; Tagariello, Andreas; Røkenes Karlsen, Kristina; Neiss, Wolfram Friedrich; Paulsson, Mats; Wagener, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Matrilin-1 is the prototypical member of the matrilin protein family and is highly expressed in cartilage. However, gene targeting of matrilin-1 in mouse did not lead to pronounced phenotypes. Here we used the zebrafish as an alternative model to study matrilin function in vivo. Matrilin-1 displays a multiphasic expression during zebrafish development. In an early phase, with peak expression at about 15 h post-fertilization, matrilin-1 is present throughout the zebrafish embryo with exception of the notochord. Later, when the skeleton develops, matrilin-1 is expressed mainly in cartilage. Morpholino knockdown of matrilin-1 results both in overall growth defects and in disturbances in the formation of the craniofacial cartilage, most prominently loss of collagen II deposition. In fish with mild phenotypes, certain cartilage extracellular matrix components were present, but the tissue did not show features characteristic for cartilage. The cells showed endoplasmic reticulum aberrations but no activation of XBP-1, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum stress. In severe phenotypes nearly all chondrocytes died. During the early expression phase the matrilin-1 knockdown had no effects on cell morphology, but increased cell death was observed. In addition, the broad deposition of collagen II was largely abolished. Interestingly, the early phenotype could be rescued by the co-injection of mRNA coding for the von Willebrand factor C domain of collagen IIα1a, indicating that the functional loss of this domain occurs as a consequence of matrilin-1 deficiency. The results show that matrilin-1 is indispensible for zebrafish cartilage formation and plays a role in the early collagen II-dependent developmental events. PMID:24293366

  3. From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodiyar, Varsha K; Howe, Doug; Talmud, Philippa J; Breckenridge, Ross; Lovering, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfer's vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfer's vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of 'heart jogging' and the direction of 'heart looping'.  'Heart jogging' is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward 'jog'. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development.    We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging.  We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish 'heart jogging orthologs' are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging.    This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach.

  4. Tissue specific roles for the ribosome biogenesis factor Wdr43 in zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengtian; Andreeva, Viktoria; Gibert, Yann; LaBonty, Melissa; Lattanzi, Victoria; Prabhudesai, Shubhangi; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard; McCann, Kathleen L; Baserga, Susan; Yelick, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    During vertebrate craniofacial development, neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to most of the craniofacial pharyngeal skeleton. Defects in NCC specification, migration and differentiation resulting in malformations in the craniofacial complex are associated with human craniofacial disorders including Treacher-Collins Syndrome, caused by mutations in TCOF1. It has been hypothesized that perturbed ribosome biogenesis and resulting p53 mediated neuroepithelial apoptosis results in NCC hypoplasia in mouse Tcof1 mutants. However, the underlying mechanisms linking ribosome biogenesis and NCC development remain poorly understood. Here we report a new zebrafish mutant, fantome (fan), which harbors a point mutation and predicted premature stop codon in zebrafish wdr43, the ortholog to yeast UTP5. Although wdr43 mRNA is widely expressed during early zebrafish development, and its deficiency triggers early neural, eye, heart and pharyngeal arch defects, later defects appear fairly restricted to NCC derived craniofacial cartilages. Here we show that the C-terminus of Wdr43, which is absent in fan mutant protein, is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its nucleolar localization and protein interactions in metazoans. We demonstrate that Wdr43 functions in ribosome biogenesis, and that defects observed in fan mutants are mediated by a p53 dependent pathway. Finally, we show that proper localization of a variety of nucleolar proteins, including TCOF1, is dependent on that of WDR43. Together, our findings provide new insight into roles for Wdr43 in development, ribosome biogenesis, and also ribosomopathy-induced craniofacial phenotypes including Treacher-Collins Syndrome.

  5. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Translation repression by maternal RNA binding protein Zar1 is essential for early oogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Liyun; Yuan, Yue; Cheng, Feng; Fang, Junshun; Zhou, Fang; Ma, Weirui; Jiang, Yan; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Shan, Lingjuan; Chen, Dahua; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    A large amount of maternal RNA is deposited in oocytes and is reserved for later development. Control of maternal RNA translation during oocyte maturation has been extensively investigated and its regulatory mechanisms are well documented. However, translational regulation of maternal RNA in early oogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we generated zebrafish zar1 mutants that result in early oocyte apoptosis and fully penetrant male development. Loss of p53 suppresses the apoptosis in zar1 mutants and restores oocyte development. zar1 immature ovaries show upregulation of proteins implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). More importantly, loss of Zar1 causes marked upregulation of zona pellucida (ZP) family proteins, while overexpression of ZP proteins in oocytes causes upregulation of stress-related activating transcription factor 3 (atf3), arguing that tightly controlled translation of ZP proteins is essential for ER homeostasis during early oogenesis. Furthermore, Zar1 binds to ZP gene mRNAs and represses their translation. Together, our results indicate that regulation of translational repression and de-repression are essential for precisely controlling protein expression during early oogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Deletion of Pr130 Interrupts Cardiac Development in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B, alpha (PPP2R3A, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is a major serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates crucial function in development and growth. Previous research has implied that PPP2R3A was involved in heart failure, and PR130, the largest transcription of PPP2R3A, functioning in the calcium release of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, plays an important role in the excitation-contraction (EC coupling. To obtain a better understanding of PR130 functions in myocardium and cardiac development, two pr130-deletion zebrafish lines were generated using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas system. Pr130-knockout zebrafish exhibited cardiac looping defects and decreased cardiac function (decreased fractional area and fractional shortening. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining demonstrated reduced cardiomyocytes. Subsequent transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bright and dark bands were narrowed and blurred, the Z- and M-lines were fogged, and the gaps between longitudinal myocardial fibers were increased. Additionally, increased apoptosis was observed in cardiomyocyte in pr130-knockout zebrafish compared to wild-type (WT. Taken together, our results suggest that pr130 is required for normal myocardium formation and efficient cardiac contractile function.

  8. Grhl1 deficiency affects inner ear development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Yang, Fan; Wen, Danping; Xia, Wenjun; Hao, Lili; Hu, JiongJiong; Zong, Jie; Shen, Xiaofang; Ma, Jing; Jiang, Nan; Sun, Shaoyang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Xu; Ma, Zhaoxin; Ma, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Many genes that have been found to contribute to deafness are currently being studied. Some 87 non-syndromic hereditary deafness genes have been confirmed. Proteins associated with cochlear development have also been confirmed. Some of these proteins have important relationships with gap junctions (GJ) and tight junctions (TJ). However, the desmosome junction has received little attention due to controversy over whether it could be detected in the inner ear. GRHL1 is a conserved transcriptional regulator, and it is key to vertebrate desmosome formation. GRHL2 has been confirmed as a deafness gene at the DFNA28 locus. These two homologous proteins have similar sequences and functions. Here, a grhl1 down-regulated zebrafish model exhibited inner ear developmental malformations, including missing otoliths, disordered and abnormal numbers of hair cells in the inner ear and lateral line, and sound insensitivity. The mutant zebrafish swam in circles. Hair cell apoptosis was evident. Under electron microscopy, desmosomes in the otic sensory epithelium were found to be damaged. These defects were partially rescued by treatment with either GRHL1 or its target gene, DSG1. Collectively, these data are the first to indicate that grhl1 is important to the developing inner ear epithelia in zebrafish and that it acts via desmosome junction regulation.

  9. Amigo adhesion protein regulates development of neural circuits in zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Aho, Vilma; Peltola, Marjaana A; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti; Rauvala, Heikki

    2014-07-18

    The Amigo protein family consists of three transmembrane proteins characterized by six leucine-rich repeat domains and one immunoglobulin-like domain in their extracellular moieties. Previous in vitro studies have suggested a role as homophilic adhesion molecules in brain neurons, but the in vivo functions remain unknown. Here we have cloned all three zebrafish amigos and show that amigo1 is the predominant family member expressed during nervous system development in zebrafish. Knockdown of amigo1 expression using morpholino oligonucleotides impairs the formation of fasciculated tracts in early fiber scaffolds of brain. A similar defect in fiber tract development is caused by mRNA-mediated expression of the Amigo1 ectodomain that inhibits adhesion mediated by the full-length protein. Analysis of differentiated neural circuits reveals defects in the catecholaminergic system. At the behavioral level, the disturbed formation of neural circuitry is reflected in enhanced locomotor activity and in the inability of the larvae to perform normal escape responses. We suggest that Amigo1 is essential for the development of neural circuits of zebrafish, where its mechanism involves homophilic interactions within the developing fiber tracts and regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel to form functional neural circuitry that controls locomotion. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants elicits overt toxicity and alters behavior in early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishaw, Laura V; Hunter, Deborah L; Padnos, Beth; Padilla, Stephanie; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-12-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect the developing nervous system. This study evaluated the overt toxicity, uptake, and neurobehavioral effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP) in early life stage zebrafish. Chlorpyrifos was used as a positive control. For overt toxicity and neurobehavioral assessments, zebrafish were exposed from 0 to 5 days postfertilization (dpf). Hatching, death, or malformations were evaluated daily. Teratogenic effects were scored by visual examination on 6 dpf. To evaluate uptake and metabolism, zebrafish were exposed to 1 µM of each organophosphate (OP) flame retardant and collected on 1 and 5 dpf to monitor accumulation. Larval swimming activity was measured in 6 dpf larvae to evaluate neurobehavioral effects of exposures below the acute toxicity threshold. TDBPP elicited the greatest toxicity at >1 µM. TDCPP and chlorpyrifos were overtly toxic at concentrations ≥10 µM, TCEP, and TCPP were not overtly toxic at the doses tested. Tissue concentrations increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the parent chemical after 24 h exposures. TDCPP and TDBPP and their respective metabolites were detected in embryos on 5 dpf. For all chemicals tested, developmental exposures that were not overtly toxic significantly altered larval swimming activity. These data indicate that OPFRs adversely affect development of early life stage zebrafish. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Use of a highly transparent zebrafish mutant for investigations in the development of the vertebrate auditory system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniowiecki, Anna M.; Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Sangmin; Riley, Bruce; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-03-01

    Zebrafish, an auditory specialist among fish, offer analogous auditory structures to vertebrates and is a model for hearing and deafness in vertebrates, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain on the basic mechanics of the auditory pathway. Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography has been proven as valuable technique for functional vibrometric measurements in the murine ear. Such measurements are key to building a complete understanding of auditory mechanics. The application of such techniques in the zebrafish is impeded by the high level of pigmentation, which develops superior to the transverse plane and envelops the auditory system superficially. A zebrafish double mutant for nacre and roy (mitfa-/- ;roya-/- [casper]), which exhibits defects for neural-crest derived melanocytes and iridophores, at all stages of development, is pursued to improve image quality and sensitivity for functional imaging. So far our investigations with the casper mutants have enabled the identification of the specialized hearing organs, fluid-filled canal connecting the ears, and sub-structures of the semicircular canals. In our previous work with wild-type zebrafish, we were only able to identify and observe stimulated vibration of the largest structures, specifically the anterior swim bladder and tripus ossicle, even among small, larval specimen, with fully developed inner ears. In conclusion, this genetic mutant will enable the study of the dynamics of the zebrafish ear from the early larval stages all the way into adulthood.

  12. Kinetics of glucocorticoid exposure in developing zebrafish: A tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Peter Johannes; Bardine, Nabila; Sharif, Faiza

    2017-09-01

    In the current study the dynamics of glucocorticoid uptake by zebrafish chorionated embryos from the surrounding medium were studied, using 2.5 μM cortisol or dexamethasone solutions complemented with their tritiated variant. We measured the uptake of radioactive cortisol by embryos during a 1 h submersion. Interestingly, the signal in chorionated embryos was 85% (exposure: 1-2 hpf) or 78% (exposure: 48-49 hpf) of the signal present in an equal volume medium. By comparing embryos measured without chorion, we found that 18-20% of the radioactivity present in chorionated embryos is actually bound to the chorion or located in the perivitelline space. Consequently, embryonic tissue contains radioactivity levels of 60% of a similar volume of medium after 1 h incubation. During early developmental stages (1-48 hpf) exposure of more than 24 h in cortisol was needed to achieve radioactivity levels similar to an equal volume of medium within the embryonic tissue and more than 48 h for dexamethasone. In glucocorticoid-free medium, radioactivity dropped rapidly below 10% for both glucocorticoids, suggesting that the major portion of the embryonic radioactivity was a result of simple diffusion. During later developmental stages (48-96 hpf) initial uptake dynamics were similar, but showed a decrease of tissue radioactivity to 20% of an equal volume of medium after hatching, probably due to development and activation of the hypothalamic pituitary interrenal axis. Uptake is dependent on the developmental stage of the embryo. Furthermore, the presence of the chorion during exposure should be taken into account even when small lipophilic molecules are being tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Zebrafish-a new animal models of anterior segment embryonic development and diseases basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong-na; Wei, Rui-hua; Zhao, Shao-zhen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, zebrafish has become ideal animal models of human disease with its unique characteristics, such as small body, fecundity, fast development and growth, embryo transparency, and so on. Furthermore, the structure and gene of zebrafish eye are highly conservative with human eye, which make ophthalmologists to pay close attention to zebrafish. This review focus on the studies and applications on zebrafish embryonic development of anterior segment, including the morphogenesis of cornea, lens and anterior chamber, and diseases of anterior segment (corneal diseases, cataract, glaucoma).

  15. Total particulate matter from cigarette smoke disrupts vascular development in zebrafish brain (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarsky, Andrey; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have demonstrated zebrafish as a useful high-throughput in vivo model to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. It has been shown previously that exposure of zebrafish to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM) leads to several adverse physiological aberrations, including heart deformities and improper angiogenesis. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of TPM on cardiovascular development in zebrafish that were exposed to increasing concentrations of TPM based upon nicotine content from 6h post fertilization (hpf) up to 72hpf. We show that TPM exposure in wild-type embryos led to a dose-dependent increase in fluorescence, especially in the yolk and head regions, suggesting bioaccumulation of cyclic compounds in TPM, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similarly, the incidence of cranial hemorrhage, pericardial edema, and string heart was increased with TPM exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, TPM exposure in transgenic (Flk1:eGFP) zebrafish showed a decrease in vascular abundance in the brain, but the transcript abundance of key angiogenic genes Tie-2, Angpt1, Notch3, and Flk1 remained largely unchanged and that of Vegf actually increased with TPM. The study also investigated aspects of a proposed crosstalk between the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway and subsequent inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway, resulting in cardiac malformations. In an effort to reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular malformations, embryos/larvae were co-treated with CHIR99021 (CHIR), which should promote Wnt signaling. However, co-treatment with CHIR did not significantly affect the TPM-induced cardiovascular toxicity. Overall, results from this study demonstrate that exposure to TPM leads to several cardiovascular deformities and disrupted vascular development in the brain, and that these effects are associated with downregulation of Wnt signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  16. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Global analysis of phosphoproteome dynamics in embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Kwang; Kim, Sun Ju; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Jin Young; Peng, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhao, Yingming; Lee, Sangkyu

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular animal model used for studies on vertebrate development and organogenesis. Recent research has shown a similarity of approximately 70% between the human and zebrafish genomes and about 84% of human disease-causing genes have common ancestry with that of the zebrafish genes. Zebrafish embryos have a number of desirable features, including transparency, a large size, and rapid embryogenesis. Protein phosphorylation is a well-known PTM, which can carry out various biological functions. Recent MS developments have enabled the study of global phosphorylation patterns by using MS-based proteomics coupled with titanium dioxide phosphopeptide enrichment. In the present study, we identified 3500 nonredundant phosphorylation sites on 2166 phosphoproteins and quantified 1564 phosphoproteins in developing embryos of zebrafish. The distribution of Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation sites in zebrafish embryos was found to be 88.9, 10.2, and 0.9%, respectively. A potential kinase motif was predicted using Motif-X analysis, for 80% of the identified phosphorylation sites, with the proline-directed motif appearing most frequently, and 35 phosphorylation sites having the pSF motif. In addition, we created six phosphoprotein clusters based on their dynamic pattern during the development of zebrafish embryos. Here, we report the largest dataset of phosphoproteins in zebrafish embryos and our results can be used for further studies on phosphorylation sites or phosphoprotein dynamics in zebrafish embryos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Zebrafish: an exciting model for investigating the spatio-temporal pattern of enteric nervous system development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doodnath, Reshma

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Recently, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be an excellent model for human paediatric research. Advantages over other models include its small size, externally visually accessible development and ease of experimental manipulation. The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of neurons and enteric glia. Glial cells permit cell bodies and processes of neurons to be arranged and maintained in a proper spatial arrangement, and are essential in the maintenance of basic physiological functions of neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in astrocytes, but also expressed outside of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of GFAP expression in developing zebrafish ENS from 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), using transgenic fish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were collected from transgenic GFP Tg(GFAP:GFP)(mi2001) adult zebrafish from 24 to 120 hpf, fixed and processed for whole mount immunohistochemistry. Antibodies to Phox2b were used to identify enteric neurons. Specimens were mounted on slides and imaging was performed using a fluorescent laser confocal microscope. RESULTS: GFAP:GFP labelling outside the spinal cord was identified in embryos from 48 hpf. The patterning was intracellular and consisted of elongated profiles that appeared to migrate away from the spinal cord into the periphery. At 72 and 96 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed dorsally and ventrally to the intestinal tract. At 120 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed throughout the intestinal wall, and clusters of enteric neurons were identified using Phox2b immunofluorescence along the pathway of GFAP:GFP positive processes, indicative of a migratory pathway of ENS precursors from the spinal cord into the intestine. CONCLUSION: The pattern of migration of GFAP:GFP expressing cells outside the spinal cord suggests an organized, early developing migratory pathway to the ENS. This shows for the

  19. Insm1a Regulates Motor Neuron Development in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma-associated1a (insm1a is a zinc-finger transcription factor playing a series of functions in cell formation and differentiation of vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems and neuroendocrine system. However, its roles on the development of motor neuron have still remained uncovered. Here, we provided evidences that insm1a was a vital regulator of motor neuron development, and provided a mechanistic understanding of how it contributes to this process. Firstly, we showed the localization of insm1a in spinal cord, and primary motor neurons (PMNs of zebrafish embryos by in situ hybridization, and imaging analysis of transgenic reporter line Tg(insm1a: mCherryntu805. Then we demonstrated that the deficiency of insm1a in zebrafish larvae lead to the defects of PMNs development, including the reduction of caudal primary motor neurons (CaP, and middle primary motor neurons (MiP, the excessive branching of motor axons, and the disorganized distance between adjacent CaPs. Additionally, knockout of insm1 impaired motor neuron differentiation in the spinal cord. Locomotion analysis showed that swimming activity was significantly reduced in the insm1a-null zebrafish. Furthermore, we showed that the insm1a loss of function significantly decreased the transcript levels of both olig2 and nkx6.1. Microinjection of olig2 and nkx6.1 mRNA rescued the motor neuron defects in insm1a deficient embryos. Taken together, these data indicated that insm1a regulated the motor neuron development, at least in part, through modulation of the expressions of olig2 and nkx6.1.

  20. Early Zebrafish Embryogenesis Is Susceptible to Developmental TDCPP Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Sean P.; Cooper, Ellen M.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated phosphate esters (CPEs) are widely used as additive flame retardants for low-density polyurethane foams and have frequently been detected at elevated concentrations within indoor environmental media. Objectives: To begin characterizing the potential toxicity of CPEs on early vertebrate development, we examined the developmental toxicity of four CPEs used in polyurethane foam: tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-ch...

  1. Identification of Estrogen Target Genes during Zebrafish Embryonic Development through Transcriptomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 μM 17β-estradiol (E2) or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post...

  2. Effects of probiotic administration on zebrafish development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, O; Avella, M A; Gioacchini, G

    2013-07-01

    As the consumption of probiotics increases worldwide, scientists focus on identifying bacterial strains able to improve human life quality and evidence the biological pathways affected by probiotic treatment. In this review, some recent observations on the effects of changes of microbiota on zebrafish metabolism were discussed. In addition, the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - as a diet supplement on Danio rerio were presented. When administered chronically, L. rhamnosus may affect larval development and the physiology of reproductive system in the zebrafish model. It was hypothesized exogenous L. rhamnosus accelerates larval growth and backbone development by acting on insulin-like growth factors-I (igfI) and -II (igfII), peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-α and -β, (pparα,β) vitamin D receptor-α (vdrα) and retinoic acid receptor-γ (rarγ). Gonadal differentiation was anticipated at 6weeks together with a higher expression of gnrh3 at the larval stage when L. rhamnosus was administered throughout development. Moreover, brood stock alimented with a L. rhamnosus-supplemented diet showed better reproductive performances as per follicles development, ovulated oocytes quantification and embryos quality. A plausible involvement of factors such as leptin, and kiss1 and 2 in the improvements was concluded. The observations made on the physiology of female reproduction were correlated with the gene expression of a gigantic number of factors as the aromatase cytochrome p 19 (cyp19a), the vitellogenin (vtg) and the α isoform of the E2 receptor (erα), luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr), 20-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-hsd), membrane progesterone receptors α and β, cyclin B, activinβA1, smad2, transforming growth factor β1 (tgfβ1), growth differentiation factor9 (gdf9) and bone morphogenetic protein15 (bmp15.) A model in which the exogenous L. rhamnosus in the digestive tract of zebrafish from the

  3. Embryonic exposure to sodium arsenite perturbs vascular development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Catherine W; Hans, Charu; Shah, Shishir; Merchant, Fatima A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to arsenic in its inorganic form, arsenite, causes adverse effects to many different organs and tissues. Here, we have investigated arsenite-induced adverse effects on vascular tissues in the model organism zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to arsenite at different exposure windows and the susceptibility to vascular tissue damage was recorded at 72hours post fertilization (hpf). Intersegmental vessel sprouting and growth was most perturbed by exposure to arsenite during the 24-48hpf window, while disruption in the condensation of the caudal vein plexus was more often observed at the 48-72hpf exposure window, reflecting when these structures develop during normal embryogenesis. The vascular growth rate was decreased by arsenite exposure, and deviated from that of control embryos at around 24-26.5hpf. We further mapped changes in expression of key regulators of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1/fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vegfr1/flt1) expression was evident already at 24hpf, coinciding with the decreased vascular growth rate. At later time points, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9) expression was upregulated, suggesting that arsenite affects the composition of the extracellular matrix. In total, the expression of eight key factors involved in different aspects of vascularization was significantly altered by arsenic exposure. In conclusion, our results show that arsenite is a potent vascular disruptor in the developing zebrafish embryo, a finding that calls for an evaluation of arsenite as a developmental vascular toxicant in mammalian model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of zebrafish glypicans during embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Gupta

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPG are ubiquitous molecules with indispensable functions in various biological processes. Glypicans are a family of HSPG's, characterized by a Gpi-anchor which directs them to the cell surface and/or extracellular matrix where they regulate growth factor signaling during development and disease. We report the identification and expression pattern of glypican genes from zebrafish. The zebrafish genome contains 10 glypican homologs, as opposed to six in mammals, which are highly conserved and are phylogenetically related to the mammalian genes. Some of the fish glypicans like Gpc1a, Gpc3, Gpc4, Gpc6a and Gpc6b show conserved synteny with their mammalian cognate genes. Many glypicans are expressed during the gastrulation stage, but their expression becomes more tissue specific and defined during somitogenesis stages, particularly in the developing central nervous system. Existence of multiple glypican orthologs in fish with diverse expression pattern suggests highly specialized and/or redundant function of these genes during embryonic development.

  5. Tissue specific roles for the ribosome biogenesis factor Wdr43 in zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During vertebrate craniofacial development, neural crest cells (NCCs contribute to most of the craniofacial pharyngeal skeleton. Defects in NCC specification, migration and differentiation resulting in malformations in the craniofacial complex are associated with human craniofacial disorders including Treacher-Collins Syndrome, caused by mutations in TCOF1. It has been hypothesized that perturbed ribosome biogenesis and resulting p53 mediated neuroepithelial apoptosis results in NCC hypoplasia in mouse Tcof1 mutants. However, the underlying mechanisms linking ribosome biogenesis and NCC development remain poorly understood. Here we report a new zebrafish mutant, fantome (fan, which harbors a point mutation and predicted premature stop codon in zebrafish wdr43, the ortholog to yeast UTP5. Although wdr43 mRNA is widely expressed during early zebrafish development, and its deficiency triggers early neural, eye, heart and pharyngeal arch defects, later defects appear fairly restricted to NCC derived craniofacial cartilages. Here we show that the C-terminus of Wdr43, which is absent in fan mutant protein, is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its nucleolar localization and protein interactions in metazoans. We demonstrate that Wdr43 functions in ribosome biogenesis, and that defects observed in fan mutants are mediated by a p53 dependent pathway. Finally, we show that proper localization of a variety of nucleolar proteins, including TCOF1, is dependent on that of WDR43. Together, our findings provide new insight into roles for Wdr43 in development, ribosome biogenesis, and also ribosomopathy-induced craniofacial phenotypes including Treacher-Collins Syndrome.

  6. Effect of swim-training on caudal fin development in zebrafish larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analysis of the effects of swim-training on caudal fin development in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish were subjected to swim-training from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) until 10 dpf. Subsequently, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis on the caudal fins of control and

  7. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, S.; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated

  8. Venous-derived angioblasts generate organ-specific vessels during zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Nicenboim, Julian; Mayseless, Oded; Asaf, Lihee; Shin, Masahiro; Busolin, Giorgia; Hofi, Roy; Almog, Gabriella; Tiso, Natascia; Lawson, Nathan D; Yaniv, Karina

    2015-12-15

    Formation and remodeling of vascular beds are complex processes orchestrated by multiple signaling pathways. Although it is well accepted that vessels of a particular organ display specific features that enable them to fulfill distinct functions, the embryonic origins of tissue-specific vessels and the molecular mechanisms regulating their formation are poorly understood. The subintestinal plexus of the zebrafish embryo comprises vessels that vascularize the gut, liver and pancreas and, as such, represents an ideal model in which to investigate the early steps of organ-specific vessel formation. Here, we show that both arterial and venous components of the subintestinal plexus originate from a pool of specialized angioblasts residing in the floor of the posterior cardinal vein (PCV). Using live imaging of zebrafish embryos, in combination with photoconvertable transgenic reporters, we demonstrate that these angioblasts undergo two phases of migration and differentiation. Initially, a subintestinal vein forms and expands ventrally through a Bone Morphogenetic Protein-dependent step of collective migration. Concomitantly, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-dependent shift in the directionality of migration, coupled to the upregulation of arterial markers, is observed, which culminates with the generation of the supraintestinal artery. Together, our results establish the zebrafish subintestinal plexus as an advantageous model for the study of organ-specific vessel development and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling its formation. More broadly, our findings suggest that PCV-specialized angioblasts contribute not only to the formation of the early trunk vasculature, but also to the establishment of late-forming, tissue-specific vascular beds. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. The essential role of endogenous ghrelin in growth hormone expression during zebrafish adenohypophysis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; He, Jiangyan; Hu, Wei; Yin, Zhan

    2009-06-01

    Ghrelin, a multifunctional hormone, including potent GH stimulation activity, has been suggested to be important during embryonic development. Expression of ghrelin has been confirmed in the zebrafish pancreas during embryonic stages. Interfering with ghrelin function using two specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides causes defects during zebrafish embryonic development. In ghrelin morphants the expression of GH was abolished in zebrafish somatotropes, whereas the expression patterns of the other key molecules involved in hypothalamic-pituitary development and distinct pituitary hormones genes remain largely intact at the appropriate time during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Effective rescue of the ghrelin morphants with exogenous ghrelin mRNA showed that the correct gene had been targeted. Moreover, by analyzing the efficiencies of the ghrelin morphants rescue experiments with various forms of exogenous mutant ghrelin mRNAs, we also demonstrated the essentiality of the form acyl-ghrelin on GH stimulation during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Our in vivo experiments, for the first time, also provided evidence of the existence of functional obestatin in the C-terminal part of zebrafish proghrelin peptides. Our research here has demonstrated that zebrafish is a unique model for functional studies of endogenous ghrelin, especially during embryonic development.

  10. NUP98-HOXA9-transgenic zebrafish develop a myeloproliferative neoplasm and provide new insight into mechanisms of myeloid leukaemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, A Michael; Grabher, Clemens; McBride, Eileen R; Boyd, Ellen R; Vigerstad, Märta H; Edgar, Alexander; Kai, Fui-Boon; Da'as, Sahar I; Payne, Elspeth; Look, A Thomas; Berman, Jason N

    2011-10-01

    NUP98-HOXA9 [t(7;11) (p15;p15)] is associated with inferior prognosis in de novo and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and contributes to blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). We have engineered an inducible transgenic zebrafish harbouring human NUP98-HOXA9 under the zebrafish spi1(pu.1) promoter. NUP98-HOXA9 perturbed zebrafish embryonic haematopoiesis, with upregulated spi1 expression at the expense of gata1a. Markers associated with more differentiated myeloid cells, lcp1, lyz, and mpx were also elevated, but to a lesser extent than spi1, suggesting differentiation of early myeloid progenitors may be impaired by NUP98-HOXA9. Following irradiation, NUP98-HOXA9-expressing embryos showed increased numbers of cells in G2-M transition compared to controls and absence of a normal apoptotic response, which may result from an upregulation of bcl2. These data suggest NUP98-HOXA9-induced oncogenesis may result from a combination of defects in haematopoiesis and an aberrant response to DNA damage. Importantly, 23% of adult NUP98-HOXA9-transgenic fish developed a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) at 19-23 months of age. In summary, we have identified an embryonic haematopoietic phenotype in a transgenic zebrafish line that subsequently develops MPN. This tool provides a unique opportunity for high-throughput in vivo chemical modifier screens to identify novel therapeutic agents in high risk AML. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Slc39a7/zip7 plays a critical role in development and zinc homeostasis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Slc39a7/Zip7, also known as Ke4, is a member of solute carrier family 39 (Slc39a and plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and death. Because the function of Zip7 in vivo was unclear, the present study investigated the function of zip7 in vertebrate development and zinc metabolism using zebrafish as a model organism. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using real-time PCR to determine the gene expression pattern of zip7 during zebrafish development, we found that zip7 mRNA is expressed throughout embryonic development and into maturity. Interestingly, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that while zip7 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed until 12 hours post-fertilization (hpf; at 24 hpf and beyond, zip7 mRNA was specifically detected only in eyes. Morpholino-antisense (MO gene knockdown assay revealed that downregulation of zip7 expression resulted in several morphological defects in zebrafish including decreased head size, smaller eyes, shorter palates, and shorter and curved spinal cords. Analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF showed reduced concentrations of zinc in brain, eyes, and gills of zip7-MO-injected embryos. Furthermore, incubation of the zip7 knockdown embryos in a zinc-supplemented solution was able to rescue the MO-induced morphological defects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that zip7 is required for eye, brain, and skeleton formation during early embryonic development in zebrafish. Moreover, zinc supplementation can partially rescue defects resulting from zip7 gene knockdown. Taken together, our data provide critical insight into a novel function of zip7 in development and zinc homeostasis in vivo in zebrafish.

  12. A dominant negative zebrafish Ahr2 partially protects developing zebrafish from dioxin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Lanham

    Full Text Available The toxicity by 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is thought to be caused by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. However, our understanding of how AHR activation by TCDD leads to toxic effects is poor. Ideally we would like to manipulate AHR activity in specific tissues and at specific times. One route to this is expressing dominant negative AHRs (dnAHRs. This work describes the construction and characterization of dominant negative forms of the zebrafish Ahr2 in which the C-terminal transactivation domain was either removed, or replaced with the inhibitory domain from the Drosophila engrailed repressor protein. One of these dnAhr2s was selected for expression from the ubiquitously active e2fα promoter in transgenic zebrafish. We found that these transgenic zebrafish expressing dnAhr2 had reduced TCDD induction of the Ahr2 target gene cyp1a, as measured by 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Furthermore, the cardiotoxicity produced by TCDD, pericardial edema, heart malformation, and reduced blood flow, were all mitigated in the zebrafish expressing the dnAhr2. These results provide in vivo proof-of-principle results demonstrating the effectiveness of dnAHRs in manipulating AHR activity in vivo, and demonstrating that this approach can be a means for blocking TCDD toxicity.

  13. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  14. Minor class splicing shapes the zebrafish transcriptome during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markmiller, Sebastian; Cloonan, Nicole; Lardelli, Rea M; Doggett, Karen; Keightley, Maria-Cristina; Boglev, Yeliz; Trotter, Andrew J; Ng, Annie Y; Wilkins, Simon J; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Grimmond, Sean M; Lieschke, Graham J; Stainier, Didier Y R; Heath, Joan K

    2014-02-25

    Minor class or U12-type splicing is a highly conserved process required to remove a minute fraction of introns from human pre-mRNAs. Defects in this splicing pathway have recently been linked to human disease, including a severe developmental disorder encompassing brain and skeletal abnormalities known as Taybi-Linder syndrome or microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism 1, and a hereditary intestinal polyposis condition, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although a key mechanism for regulating gene expression, the impact of impaired U12-type splicing on the transcriptome is unknown. Here, we describe a unique zebrafish mutant, caliban (clbn), with arrested development of the digestive organs caused by an ethylnitrosourea-induced recessive lethal point mutation in the rnpc3 [RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3] gene. rnpc3 encodes the zebrafish ortholog of human RNPC3, also known as the U11/U12 di-snRNP 65-kDa protein, a unique component of the U12-type spliceosome. The biochemical impact of the mutation in clbn is the formation of aberrant U11- and U12-containing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that impair the efficiency of U12-type splicing. Using RNA sequencing and microarrays, we show that multiple genes involved in various steps of mRNA processing, including transcription, splicing, and nuclear export are disrupted in clbn, either through intron retention or differential gene expression. Thus, clbn provides a useful and specific model of aberrant U12-type splicing in vivo. Analysis of its transcriptome reveals efficient mRNA processing as a critical process for the growth and proliferation of cells during vertebrate development.

  15. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvik, Maria; Nieminen, Heikki J; Salmi, Ari; Panula, Pertti; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-09-04

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) at 2-14 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 1000 (n = 47) or 2000 seconds (n = 47). We compared the size and number of trunk neuromasts and otoliths in sonicated samples to controls (n = 94), and found no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). While mortality rate was lower in the control group (22.3%) compared to that in the 1000 s (34.0%) and 2000 s (42.6%) levitation groups, the differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The results suggest that acoustic levitation for less than 2000 sec does not interfere with the development of zebrafish embryos, but may affect mortality rate. Acoustic levitation could potentially be used as a non-contacting wall-less platform for characterizing and manipulating vertebrae embryos without causing major adverse effects to their development.

  16. The role of jab1, a putative downstream effector of the neurotrophic cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in zebrafish inner ear hair cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Loren J; Marcy, Hannah K; Shen, Yu-Chi; Tomkovich, Sarah E; Brooks, Kristina M; Hilk, Kelly E; Barald, Kate F

    2018-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a neurotrophic cytokine essential for inner ear hair cell (HC) development and statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurite outgrowth, and SAG survival in mouse, chick and zebrafish. Another neurotrophic cytokine, Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) is known to synergize with MIF; but MCP1 alone is insufficient to support mouse/chick SAG neurite outgrowth or neuronal survival. Because of the relatively short time over which the zebrafish inner ear develops (~30hpf), the living zebrafish embryo is an ideal system to examine mif and mcp1 cytokine pathways and interactions. We used a novel technique: direct delivery of antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos (MOs) into the embryonic zebrafish otocyst to discover downstream effectors of mif as well as to clarify the relationship between mif and mcp1 in inner ear development. MOs for mif, mcp1 and the presumptive mif and mcp1 effector, c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (jab1), were injected and then electroporated into the zebrafish otocyst 25-48hours post fertilization (hpf). We found that although mif is important at early stages (before 30hpf) for auditory macular HC development, jab1 is more critical for vestibular macular HC development before 30hpf. After 30hpf, mcp1 becomes important for HC development in both maculae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of cobalt on the development, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guiquan; Zhu, Junfeng; Shen, Chao; Cui, Yimin; Du, Jiulin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2012-12-01

    Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty has been performed with increasing frequency throughout the world, particularly in younger and more active patients, including women of childbearing age. The potential toxicity of cobalt exposure on fetus is concerned since cobalt ions generated by metal-on-metal bearings can traverse the placenta and be detected in fetal blood and amniotic fluid. This study examined the effects of cobalt exposure on early embryonic development and the mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range of cobalt concentrations (0-100 mg/L) between 1 and 144 h postfertilization. The survival and early development of embryos were not significantly affected by cobalt at concentrations 100 μg/L) displayed reduced survival rates and abnormal development, including delayed hatching, aberrant morphology, retarded growth, and bradycardia. Furthermore, this study examined oxidative stress and apoptosis in embryos exposed to cobalt at concentrations of 0-500 μg/L. Lipid peroxidation levels were increased in cobalt-treated embryos at concentrations of 100 and 500 μg/L. The mRNA levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase 2, p53, caspase-3, and caspase-9 genes were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays also revealed abnormal apoptotic signals in the brain, trunk, and tail when treated with 500 μg/L cobalt. These data suggest that oxidative stress and apoptosis are associated with cobalt toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

  18. Cug2 is essential for normal mitotic control and CNS development in zebrafish

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    Kim Nam-Soon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently identified a novel oncogene, Cancer-upregulated gene 2 (CUG2, which is essential for kinetochore formation and promotes tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. However, the in vivo function of CUG2 has not been studied in animal models. Results To study the function of CUG2 in vivo, we isolated a zebrafish homologue that is expressed specifically in the proliferating cells of the central nervous system (CNS. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of cug2 resulted in apoptosis throughout the CNS and the development of neurodegenerative phenotypes. In addition, cug2-deficient embryos contained mitotically arrested cells displaying abnormal spindle formation and chromosome misalignment in the neural plate. Conclusions Therefore, our findings suggest that Cug2 is required for normal mitosis during early neurogenesis and has functions in neuronal cell maintenance, thus demonstrating that the cug2 deficient embryos may provide a model system for human neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Resilience assessment of a biological early warning system based on the locomotor behavior of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Miguel; Amorim, João; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Teles, Luis Oliva

    2016-09-01

    With the development of new tools such as biological early warning systems, it becomes extremely important to test their reliability and detection capability. This work aimed at testing the sturdiness of a video tracking system by determining whether the detection capability does not deteriorate over time, after successive exposures of the zebrafish to three different toxicants, namely sodium hypochlorite, bisphenol A, and ethanol. Zebrafish were exposed to the three tested compounds separately (one fish, one toxicant) once a day, for 1 h and 30 m over 9 days, to 9 % of the 96 h LC50 of the respective toxicant. The behavior analysis was based on nine movement descriptor parameters of the fish, namely: angular velocity; linear velocity; spatial dispersion; linear acceleration; and angular acceleration. A statistical method was developed using self-organizing map (SOM), correspondence analysis, and linear and orthogonal multiple regression models. The results indicated that the system was able to successfully detect the three toxicants. With ethanol, the detection capability was maintained, but in the case of the sodium hypochlorite and bisphenol A, a deterioration of the detection capability occurred over the 9 days. This effect may be due to the induction of detoxification mechanisms and physiological acclimation, or due to the accumulation of adverse effects caused by the repeated exposure to the toxicants. Future works, especially those focusing on the application of similar early warning systems in real-world scenarios, should regularly exchange the sentinel organisms, to avoid degradation of the detection capability, as verified with two of the three tested compounds.

  20. Disruption of zebrafish cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK function impairs the expression of Notch-dependent genes during neurogenesis and causes defects in neuronal development

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    Szeto Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The J-domain-containing protein auxilin, a critical regulator in clathrin-mediated transport, has been implicated in Drosophila Notch signaling. To ask if this role of auxilin is conserved and whether auxilin has additional roles in development, we have investigated the functions of auxilin orthologs in zebrafish. Results Like mammals, zebrafish has two distinct auxilin-like molecules, auxilin and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK, differing in their domain structures and expression patterns. Both zebrafish auxilin and GAK can functionally substitute for the Drosophila auxilin, suggesting that they have overlapping molecular functions. Still, they are not completely redundant, as morpholino-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitously expressed GAK alone can increase the specification of neuronal cells, a known Notch-dependent process, and decrease the expression of Her4, a Notch target gene. Furthermore, inhibition of GAK function caused an elevated level of apoptosis in neural tissues, resulting in severe degeneration of neural structures. Conclusion In support of the notion that endocytosis plays important roles in Notch signaling, inhibition of zebrafish GAK function affects embryonic neuronal cell specification and Her4 expression. In addition, our analysis suggests that zebrafish GAK has at least two functions during the development of neural tissues: an early Notch-dependent role in neuronal patterning and a late role in maintaining the survival of neural cells.

  1. Data Integration for Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Gene Expression of Zebrafish development: the GEMS database

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    Belmamoune Mounia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gene Expression Management System (GEMS is a database system for patterns of gene expression. These patterns result from systematic whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization studies on zebrafish embryos. GEMS is an integrative platform that addresses one of the important challenges of developmental biology: how to integrate genetic data that underpin morphological changes during embryogenesis. Our motivation to build this system was by the need to be able to organize and compare multiple patterns of gene expression at tissue level. Integration with other developmental and biomolecular databases will further support our understanding of development. The GEMS operates in concert with a database containing a digital atlas of zebrafish embryo; this digital atlas of zebrafish development has been conceived prior to the expansion of the GEMS. The atlas contains 3D volume models of canonical stages of zebrafish development in which in each volume model element is annotated with an anatomical term. These terms are extracted from a formal anatomical ontology, i.e. the Developmental Anatomy Ontology of Zebrafish (DAOZ. In the GEMS, anatomical terms from this ontology together with terms from the Gene Ontology (GO are also used to annotate patterns of gene expression and in this manner providing mechanisms for integration and retrieval . The annotations are the glue for integration of patterns of gene expression in GEMS as well as in other biomolecular databases. At the one hand, zebrafish anatomy terminology allows gene expression data within GEMS to be integrated with phenotypical data in the 3D atlas of zebrafish development. At the other hand, GO terms extend GEMS expression patterns integration to a wide range of bioinformatics resources.

  2. Complexity of cis-regulatory organization of six3a during forebrain and eye development in zebrafish

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    Wang Horng-Dar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six3a belongs to the SIX family of homeodomain proteins and is expressed in the most anterior neural plate at the beginning of neurogenesis in various species. Though the function of Six3a as a crucial regulator of eye and forebrain development has been thoroughly investigated, the transcriptional regulation of six3a is not well understood. Results To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of six3a, we performed an in vivo reporter assay. Alignment of the 21-kb region surrounding the zebrafish six3a gene with the analogous region from different species identified several conserved non-coding modules. Transgenesis in zebrafish identified two enhancer elements and one suppressor. The D module drives the GFP reporter in the forebrain and eyes at an early stage, while the A module is responsible for the later expression. The A module also works as a repressor suppressing ectopic expression from the D module. Mutational analysis further minimized the A module to four highly conserved elements and the D module to three elements. Using electrophoresis mobility shift assays, we also provided evidence for the presence of DNA-binding proteins in embryonic nuclear extracts. The transcription factors that may occupy those highly conserved elements were also predicted. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive view of six3a transcription regulation during brain and eye development and offers an opportunity to establish the gene regulatory networks underlying neurogenesis in zebrafish.

  3. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

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    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  4. Zebrafish as a Model Organism for the Development of Drugs for Skin Cancer

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    Fatemeh Bootorabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer, which includes melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common type of cutaneous malignancy worldwide, and its incidence is expected to rise in the near future. This condition derives from acquired genetic dysregulation of signaling pathways involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of skin cells. The development of animal models has allowed a better understanding of these pathomechanisms, with the possibility of carrying out toxicological screening and drug development. In particular, the zebrafish (Danio rerio has been established as one of the most important model organisms for cancer research. This model is particularly suitable for live cell imaging and high-throughput drug screening in a large-scale fashion. Thanks to the recent advances in genome editing, such as the clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9 methodologies, the mechanisms associated with cancer development and progression, as well as drug resistance can be investigated and comprehended. With these unique tools, the zebrafish represents a powerful platform for skin cancer research in the development of target therapies. Here, we will review the advantages of using the zebrafish model for drug discovery and toxicological and phenotypical screening. We will focus in detail on the most recent progress in the field of zebrafish model generation for the study of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, including cancer cell injection and transgenic animal development. Moreover, we will report the latest compounds and small molecules under investigation in melanoma zebrafish models.

  5. Cell fate determination in zebrafish embryonic and adult muscle development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tee, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in how the genetic basis of muscle precursor cells determines the outcome of the muscle cell fate, and thus leading to disruption in muscle formation and maintenance. We utilized the zebrafish carrying mutations in both Axin1 and Apc1, resulting in overactivation of the

  6. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten.

  7. A novel transgenic zebrafish model for blood-brain and blood-retinal barrier development

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    Sugimoto Masahiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and maintenance of the blood-brain and blood-retinal barrier is critical for the homeostasis of brain and retinal tissue. Despite decades of research our knowledge of the formation and maintenance of the blood-brain (BBB and blood-retinal (BRB barrier is very limited. We have established an in vivo model to study the development and maintenance of these barriers by generating a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses a vitamin D-binding protein fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (DBP-EGFP in blood plasma, as an endogenous tracer. Results The temporal establishment of the BBB and BRB was examined using this transgenic line and the results were compared with that obtained by injection of fluorescent dyes into the sinus venosus of embryos at various stages of development. We also examined the expression of claudin-5, a component of tight junctions during the first 4 days of development. We observed that the BBB of zebrafish starts to develop by 3 dpf, with expression of claudin-5 in the central arteries preceding it at 2 dpf. The hyaloid vasculature in the zebrafish retina develops a barrier function at 3 dpf, which endows the zebrafish with unique advantages for studying the BRB. Conclusion Zebrafish embryos develop BBB and BRB function simultaneously by 3 dpf, which is regulated by tight junction proteins. The Tg(l-fabp:DBP-EGFP zebrafish will have great advantages in studying development and maintenance of the blood-neural barrier, which is a new application for the widely used vertebrate model.

  8. Identification and Expression Analysis of Zebrafish (Danio rerio E-Selectin during Embryonic Development

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    Guijin Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of E-selectin of zebrafish (Danio rerio, analyzed its expression pattern and preliminarily explored its biological function. Zebrafish E-selectin cDNA is 3146 bp and encodes a putative 871 amino acid protein. All structural domains involved in E-selectin function are conserved in the putative protein. Whole-mount in situ hybridization of zebrafish at 24 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf revealed E-selectin expression mainly in vascular/endothelial progenitor cells in the posterior trunk and blood cells in the intermediate cell mass and posterior cardinal vein regions. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis detected E-selectin expression at 0.2, 24 and 48 hpf and significantly decreased from 48 to 72 hpf. The expression of E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was significantly upregulated at 22 to 72 h after induction with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Thus, the structure of E-selectin protein is highly conserved among species, and E-selectin may be involved in embryonic development and essential for hematopoiesis and angiogenesis during embryonic development in zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence of inflammatory mediators inducing E-selectin expression in non-mammalian vertebrates, which suggests that zebrafish E-selectin may be involved in inflammation and probably has similar biological function to mammalian E-selectin.

  9. Expression of the G protein gammaT1 subunit during zebrafish development.

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    Chen, Hui; Leung, Tinchung; Giger, Kathryn E; Stauffer, Anna M; Humbert, Jasper E; Sinha, Soniya; Horstick, Eric J; Hansen, Carl A; Robishaw, Janet D

    2007-04-01

    Here, we report the identification and expression analysis of the zebrafish G protein gammaT1 subunit gene (gngT1) during development. Similar to its human and mouse homologs, we confirm zebrafish gngT1 is expressed in the developing retina, where its transcription overlaps with the photoreceptor cell-specific marker, rhodopsin (rho). Surprisingly, we also show zebrafish gngT1 is expressed in the dorsal diencephalon, where its transcription overlaps with the pineal specific markers, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (annat-2) and extra-ocular rhodopsin (exorh). Analysis of the proximal promoter sequence of the zebrafish gngT1 gene identifies several conserved binding sites for the cone-rod homeobox/orthodenticle (Crx/Otx) homeodomain family of transcription factors. Using a morpholino anti-sense approach in zebrafish, we show that targeted knockdown of otx5 potently suppresses gngT1 expression in the pineal gland, whereas knockdown of crx markedly reduces gngT1 expression in the retina. Taken together, these data indicate that pineal- and retinal-specific expression of the gngT1 gene are controlled by different transcription factors and exogenous signals.

  10. Galanin gene expression and effects of its knock-down on the development of the nervous system in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasz, P; Sallinen, V; Chen, Y-C; Kudo, H; Fedorowska, N; Panula, P

    2012-12-01

    Despite the known importance of galanin in the nervous system of vertebrates, the galanin gene structure and expression and the consequences of galanin deficiency in developing zebrafish are unknown. We cloned the galanin gene and analyzed its expression by using in situ hybridization, PCR, and immunocytochemistry throughout the early development of zebrafish until the end of the first week of life. The single zebrafish galanin gene encoded for a single amidated galanin peptide and a galanin message-associated peptide. Two forms resulting from alternative processing were identified. Galanin mRNA was maternally expressed and found in developing fish throughout early development. In situ hybridization showed the first positive neurons in three groups in the brain at 28 hours postfertilization. At 2 days postfertilization, three prosencephalic neuron groups were seen in the preoptic area and in rostral and caudal periventricular hypothalamus. In addition, two other groups of weakly stained neurons were visible, one in the midbrain and another in the hindbrain. Translation inhibition of galanin mRNA with morpholino oligonucleotides caused complete disappearance of galanin immunoreactivity in the brain until 7 dpf and did not induce known cascades of nonspecific pathways or morphological abnormalities. A minor disturbance of sensory ganglia was found. Galanin knockdown did not alter the expression of tyrosine hydroxylases 1 and 2, choline acetyltransferase, histidine decarboxylase, or orexin mRNA. The results suggest that galanin does not regulate the development of these key markers of specific neurons, although galanin-expressing fibers were in a close spatial proximity to several neurons of these neuronal populations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A System for Investigation of Biological Effects of Diagnostic Ultrasound on Development of Zebrafish Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Douglas L.; Zhou, Weibin

    2013-01-01

    A system for scanning zebrafish embryos with diagnostic ultrasound was developed for research into possible biological effects during development. Two troughs for holding embryos were formed from agarose in a rectangular dish and separated by an ultrasound absorber. A 4.9 MHz linear array ultrasound probe was positioned to uniformly scan all the embryos at the bottom of one trough, with the other used for controls. Zebrafish embryos were scanned continuously from 10–24 h post fertilization (h...

  12. Expression pattern of zebrafish rxfp2 homologue genes during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donizetti, Aldo; Fiengo, Marcella; Del Gaudio, Rosanna; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Aniello, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    RXFP2 is one of the 4 receptors for relaxin insulin-like peptides, in particular it binds with high affinity the INSL3 peptide. INSL3/RXFP2 pair is essential for testicular descent during placental mammalian development. The evolutionary history of this ligand/receptor pair has received much attention, since its function in vertebrate species lacking testicular descent, such as the fishes, remains elusive. Herein, we analyzed the expression pattern of three rxfp2 homologue genes in zebrafish embryonic development. For all the three rxfp2 genes (rxfp2a, rxfp2b, and rxfp2-like) we showed the presence of maternally derived transcripts. Later in the development, rxfp2a is only expressed at larval stage, whereas rxfp2b is expressed in all the analyzed stage with highest level in the larvae. The rxfp2-like gene is expressed in all the analyzed stage with a transcript level that increased starting at early pharyngula stage. The spatial localization analysis of rxfp2-like gene showed that it is expressed in many cell clusters in the developing brain. In addition, other rxfp2-like-expressing cells were identified in the retina and oral epithelium. This analysis provides new insights to elucidate the evolution of rxfp2 genes in vertebrate lineage and lays the foundations to study their role in vertebrate embryonic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. FishFace: interactive atlas of zebrafish craniofacial development at cellular resolution

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    2013-01-01

    Background The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton may exhibit anatomical complexity and diversity, but its genesis and evolution can be understood through careful dissection of developmental programs at cellular resolution. Resources are lacking that include introductory overviews of skeletal anatomy coupled with descriptions of craniofacial development at cellular resolution. In addition to providing analytical guidelines for other studies, such an atlas would suggest cellular mechanisms underlying development. Description We present the Fish Face Atlas, an online, 3D-interactive atlas of craniofacial development in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Alizarin red-stained skulls scanned by fluorescent optical projection tomography and segmented into individual elements provide a resource for understanding the 3D structure of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. These data provide the user an anatomical entry point to confocal images of Alizarin red-stained zebrafish with transgenically-labelled pharyngeal arch ectomesenchyme, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, which illustrate the appearance, morphogenesis, and growth of the mandibular and hyoid cartilages and bones, as viewed in live, anesthetized zebrafish during embryonic and larval development. Confocal image stacks at high magnification during the same stages provide cellular detail and suggest developmental and evolutionary hypotheses. Conclusion The FishFace Atlas is a novel learning tool for understanding craniofacial skeletal development, and can serve as a reference for a variety of studies, including comparative and mutational analyses. PMID:23714426

  14. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation

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    Ellen I. Hartig

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic early-life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on both larvae and adults. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and upregulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. In adulthood the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity.

  15. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  16. Direct non-cell autonomous Pax6 activity regulates eye development in the zebrafish

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    Prochiantz Alain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifications in Pax6 homeogene expression produce strong eye phenotypes. This suggested to us that eye development might be an appropriate model to verify if homeoprotein intercellular passage has important functions in early development. Similar to other homeoproteins, Pax6 has two domains that enable secretion and internalization by live cells and, thus, intercellular passage. In principle, a straightforward way to test the hypothesis would be to mutate one of the two sequences to produce a 'cell autonomous only' Pax6. However, this was not possible because these sequences are in the homeodomain and their modification would affect Pax6 transcriptional properties. We have thus developed an approach aimed at blocking Pax6 only in the extracellular milieu of developing zebrafish embryos. Results A first strategy was to inject a one-cell embryo with a mRNA encoding a secreted single-chain anti-Pax6 antibody. A second, complementary, strategy was to inject a Pax6 antibody in the blastula extracellular milieu. In both cases, 'dissymmetric eyes', 'one eye only' and 'no eye' phenotypes were produced. In most cases, lens phenotypes paralleled retina malformations. Although eye phenotypes were analyzed 30 hours post-fertilization, there was a strong correlation between early eye field asymmetry, early asymmetry in Pax6 expression and later-occurring eye malformations. Several controls were introduced, demonstrating that the effect is specific to Pax6 and cannot be explained by intracellular antibody activities. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that the Pax6 transcription factor is also a signaling molecule with direct non-cell autonomous activity.

  17. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Cavalié, I.; Pereira, S.; Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  18. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

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    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  19. Development of an automated imaging pipeline for the analysis of the zebrafish larval kidney.

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    Jens H Westhoff

    Full Text Available The analysis of kidney malformation caused by environmental influences during nephrogenesis or by hereditary nephropathies requires animal models allowing the in vivo observation of developmental processes. The zebrafish has emerged as a useful model system for the analysis of vertebrate organ development and function, and it is suitable for the identification of organotoxic or disease-modulating compounds on a larger scale. However, to fully exploit its potential in high content screening applications, dedicated protocols are required allowing the consistent visualization of inner organs such as the embryonic kidney. To this end, we developed a high content screening compatible pipeline for the automated imaging of standardized views of the developing pronephros in zebrafish larvae. Using a custom designed tool, cavities were generated in agarose coated microtiter plates allowing for accurate positioning and orientation of zebrafish larvae. This enabled the subsequent automated acquisition of stable and consistent dorsal views of pronephric kidneys. The established pipeline was applied in a pilot screen for the analysis of the impact of potentially nephrotoxic drugs on zebrafish pronephros development in the Tg(wt1b:EGFP transgenic line in which the developing pronephros is highlighted by GFP expression. The consistent image data that was acquired allowed for quantification of gross morphological pronephric phenotypes, revealing concentration dependent effects of several compounds on nephrogenesis. In addition, applicability of the imaging pipeline was further confirmed in a morpholino based model for cilia-associated human genetic disorders associated with different intraflagellar transport genes. The developed tools and pipeline can be used to study various aspects in zebrafish kidney research, and can be readily adapted for the analysis of other organ systems.

  20. Tdrd12 Is Essential for Germ Cell Development and Maintenance in Zebrafish

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    Xiangyan Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA biogenesis is crucial to germline development. Functioning as Piwi-interacting proteins, Tudor domain-related proteins (Tdrds have been demonstrated to be involved in spermatogenesis and the piRNA pathway. In this study, zebrafish tdrd12 was identified, and the maternal and germ cell-specific expression patterns of zebrafish tdrd12 were observed. Utilizing TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nuclease techniques, two independent tdrd12 mutant zebrafish lines were generated. Although no defects were found during the generation of the primordial germ cells (PGCs in the tdrd12-null fish progenies obtained from the heterozygous tdrd12 mutant parents, all Tdrd12-deficient fish developed into infertile males. The reduced numbers and eventually loss of the germ cells by 35 days post fertilization (dpf led to masculinization and infertility of the Tdrd12-deficient fish. Meiosis defects of the germ cells in the tdrd12 mutants during the gonad-transitioning period were observed, revealing the indispensable functions of Tdrd12 in gametogenesis. Our studies demonstrated that zebrafish Tdrd12 is essential for germ cell development and maintenance.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of zebrafish polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase Y-subfamily genes during embryonic development.

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    Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Naosuke; Kawai, Tamiko; Kaneda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Yui; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kurosaka, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mucin-type glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications of secretory and membrane proteins and has diverse physiological functions. The initial biosynthesis of mucin-type carbohydrates is catalyzed by UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) encoded by GALNT genes. Among these, GalNAc-T8, -T9, -T17, and -T18 form a characteristic subfamily called "Y-subfamily" and have no or very low in vitro transferase activities when assayed with typical mucin peptides as acceptor substrates. Although the Y-subfamily isozymes have been reported to be possibly involved in various diseases, their in vivo functions have not been reported. Here, we isolated zebrafish Y-subfamily galnt genes, and determined their spatial and temporal expressions during the early development of zebrafish. Our study demonstrated that all the Y-subfamily isozymes were well conserved in zebrafish with GalNAc-T18 having two orthologs, galnt18a and galnt18b, and with the other three isozymes each having a corresponding ortholog, galnt8, galnt9, and galnt17. The galnt8 was expressed in the cephalic mesoderm and hatching gland during early developmental stages, and differently expressed in the head, somatic muscles, and liver in the later stages. The other three orthologs also exhibited the characteristic expression patterns, although their expressions were generally strong in the nervous systems. In addition to the expression in the brain, galnt17 and galnt18a were expressed in the somitic muscles, and galnt18a and galnt18b in the notochord. These expression patterns may contribute to the functional analysis of the Y-subfamily, whose physiological roles still remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative analysis of glomerulus development in the pronephros of medaka and zebrafish.

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    Koichiro Ichimura

    Full Text Available The glomerulus of the vertebrate kidney links the vasculature to the excretory system and produces the primary urine. It is a component of every single nephron in the complex mammalian metanephros and also in the primitive pronephros of fish and amphibian larvae. This systematic work highlights the benefits of using teleost models to understand the pronephric glomerulus development. The morphological processes forming the pronephric glomerulus are astoundingly different between medaka and zebrafish. (1 The glomerular primordium of medaka - unlike the one of zebrafish - exhibits a C-shaped epithelial layer. (2 The C-shaped primordium contains a characteristic balloon-like capillary, which is subsequently divided into several smaller capillaries. (3 In zebrafish, the bilateral pair of pronephric glomeruli is fused at the midline to form a glomerulus, while in medaka the two parts remain unmerged due to the interposition of the interglomerular mesangium. (4 Throughout pronephric development the interglomerular mesangial cells exhibit numerous cytoplasmic granules, which are reminiscent of renin-producing (juxtaglomerular cells in the mammalian afferent arterioles. Our systematic analysis of medaka and zebrafish demonstrates that in fish, the morphogenesis of the pronephric glomerulus is not stereotypical. These differences need be taken into account in future analyses of medaka mutants with glomerulus defects.

  3. Developmental toxicity of endocrine disruptors in early life stages of zebrafish, a genetic and embryogenesis study.

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    Santos, Dércia; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are capable of interfering with the endocrine system and are increasingly widespread in the aquatic environments. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were used to assess how EDCs may interfere with embryogenesis. Therefore, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2: 0.4, 2, 4 and 20 ng/L), genistein (Gen: 2, 20, 200 and 2000 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad: 2, 10, 50 and 250 μg/L), between 2 and 144 h post-fertilization (hpf). Somite development, heartbeat, malformations, mortality and hatching rates were evaluated. In parallel, the expression patterns of hormone receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b and ar) and apoptotic pathways related genes (p53 and c-jun) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EE2, Gen and Fad caused a higher mortality and also malformations in larvae compared with control. A significant toxic effect was observed in the heartbeat rate, at 144 hpf, in larvae exposed to EE2 and Fad. QPCR revealed alterations in the expression levels of all the evaluated genes, at different time points. esr1 and c-jun genes were upregulated by EE2 and Gen exposure while the expression of esr2a, esr2b and ar genes was downregulated. Fad exposure decreased esr1, p53 and c-jun expression levels. This study shows a toxic effect of EE2, Gen and Fad to vertebrate embryogenesis and a relation between hormones action and apoptosis pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds. Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Lillemor; Hollert, Henner; Jonsson, Sofie; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2007-05-01

    Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at -20 degrees C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/ WG9 N8), using

  5. Estrogenic effects of several BPA analogs in the developing zebrafish brain

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    Joel eCano-Nicolau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA. The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4-day or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B, expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: 1 Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols ; 2 Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus; and 3 Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα. Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP did not show estrogenic activity in our model.

  6. Revisiting in vivo staining with alizarin red S--a valuable approach to analyse zebrafish skeletal mineralization during development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon-Brito, A; Cardeira, J; Dionísio, G; Huysseune, A; Cancela, M L; Witten, P E

    2016-01-19

    The correct evaluation of mineralization is fundamental for the study of skeletal development, maintenance, and regeneration. Current methods to visualize mineralized tissue in zebrafish rely on: 1) fixed specimens; 2) radiographic and μCT techniques, that are ultimately limited in resolution; or 3) vital stains with fluorochromes that are indistinguishable from the signal of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled cells. Alizarin compounds, either in the form of alizarin red S (ARS) or alizarin complexone (ALC), have long been used to stain the mineralized skeleton in fixed specimens from all vertebrate groups. Recent works have used ARS vital staining in zebrafish and medaka, yet not based on consistent protocols. There is a fundamental concern on whether ARS vital staining, achieved by adding ARS to the water, can affect bone formation in juvenile and adult zebrafish, as ARS has been shown to inhibit skeletal growth and mineralization in mammals. Here we present a protocol for vital staining of mineralized structures in zebrafish with a low ARS concentration that does not affect bone mineralization, even after repetitive ARS staining events, as confirmed by careful imaging under fluorescent light. Early and late stages of bone development are equally unaffected by this vital staining protocol. From all tested concentrations, 0.01% ARS yielded correct detection of bone calcium deposits without inducing additional stress to fish. The proposed ARS vital staining protocol can be combined with GFP fluorescence associated with skeletal tissues and thus represents a powerful tool for in vivo monitoring of mineralized structures. We provide examples from wild type and transgenic GFP-expressing zebrafish, for endoskeletal development and dermal fin ray regeneration.

  7. Zona pellucida domain-containing protein β-tectorin is crucial for zebrafish proper inner ear development.

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    Chung-Hsiang Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zona pellucida (ZP domain is part of many extracellular proteins with diverse functions from structural components to receptors. The mammalian β-tectorin is a protein of 336 amino acid residues containing a single ZP domain and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus of the protein. It is 1 component of a gel-like structure called the tectorial membrane which is involved in transforming sound waves into neuronal signals and is important for normal auditory function. β-Tectorin is specifically expressed in the mammalian and avian inner ear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified and cloned the gene encoding zebrafish β-tectorin. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that β-tectorin messenger RNA was expressed in the otic placode and specialized sensory patch of the inner ear during zebrafish embryonic stages. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish β-tectorin affected the position and number of otoliths in the ears of morphants. Finally, swimming behaviors of β-tectorin morphants were abnormal since the development of the inner ear was compromised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal that zebrafish β-tectorin is specifically expressed in the zebrafish inner ear, and is important for regulating the development of the zebrafish inner ear. Lack of zebrafish β-tectorin caused severe defects in inner ear formation of otoliths and function.

  8. Zona pellucida domain-containing protein β-tectorin is crucial for zebrafish proper inner ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Gen-Der; Liao, Wei-Hao; Chen, Yi-Chung; Huang, Kai-Yun; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is part of many extracellular proteins with diverse functions from structural components to receptors. The mammalian β-tectorin is a protein of 336 amino acid residues containing a single ZP domain and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus of the protein. It is 1 component of a gel-like structure called the tectorial membrane which is involved in transforming sound waves into neuronal signals and is important for normal auditory function. β-Tectorin is specifically expressed in the mammalian and avian inner ear. We identified and cloned the gene encoding zebrafish β-tectorin. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that β-tectorin messenger RNA was expressed in the otic placode and specialized sensory patch of the inner ear during zebrafish embryonic stages. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish β-tectorin affected the position and number of otoliths in the ears of morphants. Finally, swimming behaviors of β-tectorin morphants were abnormal since the development of the inner ear was compromised. Our results reveal that zebrafish β-tectorin is specifically expressed in the zebrafish inner ear, and is important for regulating the development of the zebrafish inner ear. Lack of zebrafish β-tectorin caused severe defects in inner ear formation of otoliths and function.

  9. Structural requirements for PACSIN/Syndapin operation during zebrafish embryonic notochord development.

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    Melissa A Edeling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PACSIN/Syndapin proteins are membrane-active scaffolds that participate in endocytosis. The structure of the Drosophila Syndapin N-terminal EFC domain reveals a crescent shaped antiparallel dimer with a high affinity for phosphoinositides and a unique membrane-inserting prong upon the concave surface. Combined structural, biochemical and reverse genetic approaches in zebrafish define an important role for Syndapin orthologue, Pacsin3, in the early formation of the notochord during embryonic development. In pacsin3-morphant embryos, midline convergence of notochord precursors is defective as axial mesodermal cells fail to polarize, migrate and differentiate properly. The pacsin3 morphant phenotype of a stunted body axis and contorted trunk is rescued by ectopic expression of Drosophila Syndapin, and depends critically on both the prong that protrudes from the surface of the bowed Syndapin EFC domain and the ability of the antiparallel dimer to bind tightly to phosphoinositides. Our data confirm linkage between directional migration, endocytosis and cell specification during embryonic morphogenesis and highlight a key role for Pacsin3 in this coupling in the notochord.

  10. Development of a transient expression assay for detecting environmental oestrogens in zebrafish and medaka embryos

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    Lee Okhyun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oestrogenic contaminants are widespread in the aquatic environment and have been shown to induce adverse effects in both wildlife (most notably in fish and humans, raising international concern. Available detecting and testing systems are limited in their capacity to elucidate oestrogen signalling pathways and physiological impacts. Here we developed a transient expression assay to investigate the effects of oestrogenic chemicals in fish early life stages and to identify target organs for oestrogenic effects. To enhance the response sensitivity to oestrogen, we adopted the use of multiple tandem oestrogen responsive elements (EREc38 in a Tol2 transposon mediated Gal4ff-UAS system. The plasmid constructed (pTol2_ERE-TATA-Gal4ff, contains three copies of oestrogen response elements (3ERE that on exposure to oestrogen induces expression of Gal4ff which this in turn binds Gal4-responsive Upstream Activated Sequence (UAS elements, driving the expression of a second reporter gene, EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein. Results The response of our construct to oestrogen exposure in zebrafish embryos was examined using a transient expression assay. The two plasmids were injected into 1–2 cell staged zebrafish embryos, and the embryos were exposed to various oestrogens including the natural steroid oestrogen 17ß-oestradiol (E2, the synthetic oestrogen 17α- ethinyloestradiol (EE2, and the relatively weak environmental oestrogen nonylphenol (NP, and GFP expression was examined in the subsequent embryos using fluorescent microscopy. There was no GFP expression detected in unexposed embryos, but specific and mosaic expression of GFP was detected in the liver, heart, somite muscle and some other tissue cells for exposures to steroid oestrogen treatments (EE2; 10 ng/L, E2; 100 ng/L, after 72 h exposures. For the NP exposures, GFP expression was observed at 10 μg NP/L after 72 h (100 μg NP/L was toxic to the fish. We

  11. The critical role of protein arginine methyltransferase prmt8 in zebrafish embryonic and neural development is non-redundant with its paralogue prmt1.

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    Yu-ling Lin

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT 1 is the most conserved and widely distributed PRMT in eukaryotes. PRMT8 is a vertebrate-restricted paralogue of PRMT1 with an extra N-terminal sequence and brain-specific expression. We use zebrafish (Danio rerio as a vertebrate model to study PRMT8 function and putative redundancy with PRMT1. The transcripts of zebrafish prmt8 were specifically expressed in adult zebrafish brain and ubiquitously expressed from zygotic to early segmentation stage before the neuronal development. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed ubiquitous prmt8 expression pattern during early embryonic stages, similar to that of prmt1. Knockdown of prmt8 with antisense morpholino oligonucleotide phenocopied prmt1-knockdown, with convergence/extension defects at gastrulation. Other abnormalities observed later include short body axis, curled tails, small and malformed brain and eyes. Catalytically inactive prmt8 failed to complement the morphants, indicating the importance of methyltransferase activity. Full-length prmt8 but not prmt1 cRNA can rescue the phenotypic changes. Nevertheless, cRNA encoding Prmt1 fused with the N-terminus of Prmt8 can rescue the prmt8 morphants. In contrast, N-terminus- deleted but not full-length prmt8 cRNA can rescue the prmt1 morphants as efficiently as prmt1 cRNA. Abnormal brain morphologies illustrated with brain markers and loss of fluorescent neurons in a transgenic fish upon prmt8 knockdown confirm the critical roles of prmt8 in neural development. In summery, our study is the first report showing the expression and function of prmt8 in early zebrafish embryogenesis. Our results indicate that prmt8 may play important roles non-overlapping with prmt1 in embryonic and neural development depending on its specific N-terminus.

  12. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

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    Raeker, Maide ?.; Russell, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish em...

  13. Myosin-1 inhibition by PClP affects membrane shape, cortical actin distribution and lipid droplet dynamics in early Zebrafish embryos.

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    Prabuddha Gupta

    Full Text Available Myosin-1 (Myo1 represents a mechanical link between the membrane and actin-cytoskeleton in animal cells. We have studied the effect of Myo1 inhibitor PClP in 1-8 cell Zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate a unique involvement of Myo1 in early development of Zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Myo1 (by PClP and Myo2 (by Blebbistatin lead to arrest in cell division. While Myo1 isoforms appears to be important for both the formation and the maintenance of cleavage furrows, Myo2 is required only for the formation of furrows. We found that the blastodisc of the embryo, which contains a thick actin cortex (~13 μm, is loaded with cortical Myo1. Myo1 appears to be crucial for maintaining the blastodisc morphology and the actin cortex thickness. In addition to cell division and furrow formation, inhibition of Myo1 has a drastic effect on the dynamics and distribution of lipid droplets (LDs in the blastodisc near the cleavage furrow. All these results above are effects of Myo1 inhibition exclusively; Myo2 inhibition by blebbistatin does not show such phenotypes. Therefore, our results demonstrate a potential role for Myo1 in the maintenance and formation of furrow, blastodisc morphology, cell-division and LD organization within the blastodisc during early embryogenesis.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 in the zebrafish: an eye on retinal and retinotectal development.

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    Els Janssens

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are members of the metzincin superfamily of proteinases that cleave structural elements of the extracellular matrix and many molecules involved in signal transduction. Although there is evidence that MMPs promote the proper development of retinotectal projections, the nature and working mechanisms of specific MMPs in retinal development remain to be elucidated. Here, we report a role for zebrafish Mmp14a, one of the two zebrafish paralogs of human MMP14, in retinal neurogenesis and retinotectal development.Whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical stainings for Mmp14a in developing zebrafish embryos reveal expression in the optic tectum, in the optic nerve and in defined retinal cell populations, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Furthermore, Mmp14a loss-of-function results in perturbed retinoblast cell cycle kinetics and consequently, in a delayed retinal neurogenesis, differentiation and lamination. These Mmp14a-dependent retinal defects lead to microphthalmia and a significantly reduced innervation of the optic tectum (OT by RGC axons. Mmp14b, on the contrary, does not appear to alter retinal neurogenesis or OT innervation. As mammalian MMP14 is known to act as an efficient MMP2-activator, we also explored and found a functional link and a possible co-involvement of Mmp2 and Mmp14a in zebrafish retinotectal development.Both the Mmp14a expression in the developing visual system and the Mmp14a loss-of-function phenotype illustrate a critical role for Mmp14a activity in retinal and retinotectal development.

  15. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo

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    Kwon, Hye-Joo, E-mail: hjkwon@pnu.edu.sa [Biology Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX77843-3258 (United States); Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-12

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in embryonic heart development. • Knockdown of vdrb, but not vdra, causes decreased heart rate in zebrafish embryo. • Loss of vdr results in cardiac laterality defects. • Loss of vdra/b alters atrioventricular boundary formation. • Loss of vdra/b causes abnormal cardiac looping.

  16. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in embryonic heart development. • Knockdown of vdrb, but not vdra, causes decreased heart rate in zebrafish embryo. • Loss of vdr results in cardiac laterality defects. • Loss of vdra/b alters atrioventricular boundary formation. • Loss of vdra/b causes abnormal cardiac looping.

  17. Kaempferol suppresses lipid accumulation by inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Seo, Min-Jung; Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid present in Kaempferia galanga and Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten. Recent studies have suggested that it has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we focused on the anti-adipogenic effects of kaempferol during adipocyte differentiation. The results showed that kaempferol inhibits lipid accumulation in adipocytes and zebrafish. Oil Red O and Nile Red staining showed that the number of intracellular lipid droplets decreased in adipocytes and zebrafish treated with kaempferol. LPAATθ (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase), lipin1, and DGAT1 (triglyceride synthetic enzymes) and FASN and SREBP-1C (fatty acid synthetic proteins) showed decreased expression levels in the presence of kaempferol. In addition, treatment of kaempferol showed an inhibitory activity on cell cycle progression. Kaempferol delayed cell cycle progression from the S to G2/M phase through the regulation of cyclins in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol blocked the phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway during the early stages of adipogenesis. In addition, kaempferol down-regulated pro-early adipogenic factors such as CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins β (C/EBPβ), and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) 4 and 5, while anti-early adipogenic factors, such as KLF2 and pref-1(preadipocyte factor-1), were upregulated. These kaempferol-mediated regulations of early adipogenic factors resulted in the attenuation of late adipogenic factors such as C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). These results were supported in zebrafish based on the decrease in lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic factors. Our results indicated that kaempferol might have an anti-obesity effect by regulating lipid metabolism.

  18. A system for investigation of biological effects of diagnostic ultrasound on development of zebrafish embryos.

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    Miller, Douglas L; Zhou, Weibin

    2013-12-01

    A system for scanning zebrafish embryos with diagnostic ultrasound was developed for research into possible biological effects during development. Two troughs for holding embryos were formed from agarose in a rectangular dish and separated by an ultrasound absorber. A 4.9 MHz linear array ultrasound probe was positioned to uniformly scan all the embryos at the bottom of one trough, with the other used for controls. Zebrafish embryos were scanned continuously from 10-24 h post fertilization (hpf) during the segmentation period and gross morphological parameters were measured at 30 hpf, including viability, length, number of visible axons, and the progression of the lateral line primordium (LLP). Our initial tests were encumbered by the thermal effects of probe self-heating, which resulted in accelerated development of the zebrafish embryos. After subsequent optimization, our test revealed a significant retardation of primary motor axons and the migration of the LLP in embryos scanned with ultrasound, which indicated a potential for nonthermal effects on neuronal development. This diagnostic ultrasound exposure system is suitable for further investigation of possible subtle bioeffects, such as perturbation of neuronal migration.

  19. Embryotoxicity of poorly soluble nanoparticles at various stages of Zebrafish development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaleva, Tamara; Morgalev, Yuri; Gosteva, Irina; Morgalev, Sergey; Nesterenya, Daria

    2017-11-01

    The biological effects of the poorly soluble nanoparticles (NPs) of different chemical nature and structural characteristics were evaluated. It was established that the Zebrafish test response to contamination of aqueous medium with nickel NPs (nNi), platinum (nPt), zinc oxide (nZnO) and cerium oxide (nCeO2) depends on the physicochemical properties of the NPs and embryo development stage. The concentrations of NPs not causing disruptions in embryonic development of Zebrafish were determined. The smallest impact on embryogenesis was exerted by nCeO2: coagulation of a small number of embryos was observed only at C = 20.0 mg/L. The same effect was observed when exposed to lower concentrations of nPt (C = 5.0 mg/L) and nNi (C = 0.1 mg/L). The greatest number of coagulated embryos was observed when grown in the DS nZnO: 37.5% of embryos died at the DS concentration of C = 0.1 mg/L. Zebrafish cultivation in the DS with low concentrations (C ≤ LC10) of nNi and nZnO caused distortions in the development of embryos: development of scoliosis, malformation of somites, inhibited mobility.

  20. Global analysis of the haematopoietic and endothelial transcriptome during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J E; Place, E S; Eve, A M J; Bradshaw, C R; Sesay, A; Morrell, N W; Smith, J C

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we use zebrafish embryos to characterise the transcriptome of the developing blood and endothelium, two cell types that are closely associated during development. High-throughput sequencing identified 754 genes whose transcripts are enriched threefold or more in blood and/or vascular endothelial cells compared with the rest of the embryo at 26-28 h post fertilisation. Of these genes, 388 were classified as novel to these cell types after cross-reference with PubMed and the zebrafish information network (ZFIN). Analysis by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation showed that 83% (n=41) of these novel genes are expressed in blood or vascular endothelium. Of 10 novel genes selected for knockdown by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, we confirmed that two, tmem88a and trim2a, are required for primitive erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis. Our results provide a catalogue of genes whose expression is enriched in the developing blood and endothelium in zebrafish, many of which will be required for the development of those cell types, both in fish and in mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endosulfan affects health variables in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces alterations in larvae development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.; Handy, R. D.; Sloman, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.16 or 0.48 mu g/L of the insecticide, endosulfan, for 28 days. Haematology, whole body ions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, organ histology and reproduction were assessed in adults. The resulting....... rerio, and effects on the development of their offspring. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  2. F-spondin/spon1b expression patterns in developing and adult zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Akle

    Full Text Available F-spondin, an extracellular matrix protein, is an important player in embryonic morphogenesis and CNS development, but its presence and role later in life remains largely unknown. We generated a transgenic zebrafish in which GFP is expressed under the control of the F-spondin (spon1b promoter, and used it in combination with complementary techniques to undertake a detailed characterization of the expression patterns of F-spondin in developing and adult brain and periphery. We found that F-spondin is often associated with structures forming long neuronal tracts, including retinal ganglion cells, the olfactory bulb, the habenula, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF. F-spondin expression coincides with zones of adult neurogenesis and is abundant in CSF-contacting secretory neurons, especially those in the hypothalamus. Use of this new transgenic model also revealed F-spondin expression patterns in the peripheral CNS, notably in enteric neurons, and in peripheral tissues involved in active patterning or proliferation in adults, including the endoskeleton of zebrafish fins and the continuously regenerating pharyngeal teeth. Moreover, patterning of the regenerating caudal fin following fin amputation in adult zebrafish was associated with F-spondin expression in the blastema, a proliferative region critical for tissue reconstitution. Together, these findings suggest major roles for F-spondin in the CNS and periphery of the developing and adult vertebrate.

  3. Assessment of Toxicological Perturbations and Variants of Pancreatic Islet Development in the Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karilyn E. Sant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic islets, largely comprised of insulin-producing beta cells, play a critical role in endocrine signaling and glucose homeostasis. Because they have low levels of antioxidant defenses and a high perfusion rate, the endocrine islets may be a highly susceptible target tissue of chemical exposures. However, this endpoint, as well as the integrity of the surrounding exocrine pancreas, is often overlooked in studies of developmental toxicology. Disruption of development by toxicants can alter cell fate and migration, resulting in structural alterations that are difficult to detect in mammalian embryo systems, but that are easily observed in the zebrafish embryo model (Danio rerio. Using endogenously expressed fluorescent protein markers for developing zebrafish beta cells and exocrine pancreas tissue, we documented differences in islet area and incidence rates of islet morphological variants in zebrafish embryos between 48 and 96 h post fertilization (hpf, raised under control conditions commonly used in embryotoxicity assays. We identified critical windows for chemical exposures during which increased incidences of endocrine pancreas abnormalities were observed following exposure to cyclopamine (2–12 hpf, Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP (3–48 hpf, and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS (3–48 hpf. Both islet area and length of the exocrine pancreas were sensitive to oxidative stress from exposure to the oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide during a highly proliferative critical window (72 hpf. Finally, pancreatic dysmorphogenesis following developmental exposures is discussed with respect to human disease.

  4. Effects of nitric oxide on neuromuscular properties of developing zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jay

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a bioactive signalling molecule that is known to affect a wide range of neurodevelopmental processes. However, its functional relevance to neuromuscular development is not fully understood. Here we have examined developmental roles of nitric oxide during formation and maturation of neuromuscular contacts in zebrafish. Using histochemical approaches we show that elevating nitric oxide levels reduces the number of neuromuscular synapses within the axial swimming muscles whilst inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis has the opposite effect. We further show that nitric oxide signalling does not change synapse density, suggesting that the observed effects are a consequence of previously reported changes in motor axon branch formation. Moreover, we have used in vivo patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of nitric oxide on physiological maturation of zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. We show that developmental exposure to nitric oxide affects the kinetics of spontaneous miniature end plate currents and impacts the neuromuscular drive for locomotion. Taken together, our findings implicate nitrergic signalling in the regulation of zebrafish neuromuscular development and locomotor maturation.

  5. Early Developments, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2002 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (FPG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the Winter 2002 issue highlight some current work at FPG on factors that enhance or inhibit social and…

  6. 17β-Estradiol inhibits chondrogenesis in the skull development of zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Shigeko; Wada, Naoyuki; Nohno, Tsutomu; Tomita, Masafumi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Sunami, Shigeo; Katsuyama, Hironobu

    2009-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) plays important roles in the development and differentiation of the gonad and central nervous systems, but little is known regarding the effects of exogenous E2 on chondrogenesis in skeletal development. In the present study, we found that treatment with E2 1-5 days post-fertilization (dpf) at concentrations above 1.5 x 10 -5 M increased the mortality rate in zebrafish embryos. Morphological analysis showed that treatment with E2 1-5 dpf caused abnormal cartilage formation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations above 5 x 10 -6 M. E2 1-5 dpf at 1.5 x 10 -5 M caused defects of the ethmoid plate, parallel cleft of the trabecular cartilage, and hypoplasia of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. The sensitivity of embryos to E2 depended on the developmental stage. In early chondrogenesis (1-2 dpf), the embryos were highly sensitive to E2, leading to hypoplasia of the cartilage. In situ hybridization studies showed that expression levels of patched1 (ptc1) and patched2 (ptc2) receptor mRNAs were markedly decreased by exposure to 2 x 10 -5 M E2 1-2 dpf. However, the expression levels of sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggywinkle hedgehog (twhh) mRNAs were constant in the E2-treated embryos. In addition, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 did not completely abolish the effects of E2, suggesting that E2 may not inhibit chondrogenesis through its nuclear estrogen receptor. These results suggest that exposure to exogenous E2 possibly inhibits chondrogenesis via inhibition of the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction system.

  7. The impact of ZnO nanoparticle aggregates on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Xiaoshan; Zhang Xuezhi; Chen Yongsheng [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Wang Jiangxin; Chang Yung [School of Life Sciences, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)], E-mail: yung.chang@asu.edu, E-mail: yschen@asu.edu

    2009-05-13

    With extensive use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications comes a higher potential of release into aquatic environments. NPs tend to form much larger aggregates in water, which are expected to settle down to the bottom of the water column and possibly get mixed with the sediments. However, little is known about the environmental impacts and biological effects of these aggregated NPs in the sediment column. In this study, we examined the sedimentation of nanoscale ZnO particles (nZnO) in zebrafish culture medium, and assessed the toxicity of settled nZnO aggregates on developing zebrafish embryos and larvae. Given the known dissolution of nZnO particles to release Zn{sup 2+}, we also assessed the toxic effect of soluble Zn{sup 2+} in this organism. We demonstrated that within 48 h, micron-sized nZnO aggregates were formed and settled out of the culture medium. These aggregates were found to exert dose-dependent toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae, reducing the hatching rate and causing pericardial edema. The observed toxicity of the nZnO aggregates was not likely a result solely of particle dissolution, as soluble Zn{sup 2+} alone caused much less toxicity to zebrafish embryos than nZnO. Instead, the combination of both nZnO and Zn{sup 2+} may contribute to the embryonic toxicity, possibly by increasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) and/or compromising the cellular oxidative stress response. Interestingly, we demonstrated that one type of formulated sediments could mitigate the toxicity of nZnO aggregates, highlighting a possible countermeasure to reduce the adverse impact of nZnO aggregates on the environment.

  8. The impact of ZnO nanoparticle aggregates on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaoshan; Zhang Xuezhi; Chen Yongsheng; Wang Jiangxin; Chang Yung

    2009-01-01

    With extensive use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications comes a higher potential of release into aquatic environments. NPs tend to form much larger aggregates in water, which are expected to settle down to the bottom of the water column and possibly get mixed with the sediments. However, little is known about the environmental impacts and biological effects of these aggregated NPs in the sediment column. In this study, we examined the sedimentation of nanoscale ZnO particles (nZnO) in zebrafish culture medium, and assessed the toxicity of settled nZnO aggregates on developing zebrafish embryos and larvae. Given the known dissolution of nZnO particles to release Zn 2+ , we also assessed the toxic effect of soluble Zn 2+ in this organism. We demonstrated that within 48 h, micron-sized nZnO aggregates were formed and settled out of the culture medium. These aggregates were found to exert dose-dependent toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae, reducing the hatching rate and causing pericardial edema. The observed toxicity of the nZnO aggregates was not likely a result solely of particle dissolution, as soluble Zn 2+ alone caused much less toxicity to zebrafish embryos than nZnO. Instead, the combination of both nZnO and Zn 2+ may contribute to the embryonic toxicity, possibly by increasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) and/or compromising the cellular oxidative stress response. Interestingly, we demonstrated that one type of formulated sediments could mitigate the toxicity of nZnO aggregates, highlighting a possible countermeasure to reduce the adverse impact of nZnO aggregates on the environment.

  9. Abnormal differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae impairs development of the motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Amanda R; McNeill, Matthew S; Lambert, Aaron M; Overton, Jeffrey D; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lorca, Ramón A; Johnson, Nicolas A; Brockerhoff, Susan E; Mohapatra, Durga P; MacArthur, Heather; Panula, Pertti; Masino, Mark A; Runnels, Loren W; Cornell, Robert A

    2014-02-15

    Transient receptor potential, melastatin-like 7 (Trpm7) is a combined ion channel and kinase implicated in the differentiation or function of many cell types. Early lethality in mice and frogs depleted of the corresponding gene impedes investigation of the functions of this protein particularly during later stages of development. By contrast, zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae undergo early morphogenesis normally and thus do not have this limitation. The mutant larvae are characterized by multiple defects including melanocyte cell death, transient paralysis, and an ion imbalance that leads to the development of kidney stones. Here we report a requirement for Trpm7 in differentiation or function of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. First, trpm7 mutant larvae are hypomotile and fail to make a dopamine-dependent developmental transition in swim-bout length. Both of these deficits are partially rescued by the application of levodopa or dopamine. Second, histological analysis reveals that in trpm7 mutants a significant fraction of dopaminergic neurons lack expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Third, trpm7 mutants are unusually sensitive to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, an oxidative stressor, and their motility is partially rescued by application of the iron chelator deferoxamine, an anti-oxidant. Finally, in SH-SY5Y cells, which model aspects of human dopaminergic neurons, forced expression of a channel-dead variant of TRPM7 causes cell death. In summary, a forward genetic screen in zebrafish has revealed that both melanocytes and dopaminergic neurons depend on the ion channel Trpm7. The mechanistic underpinning of this dependence requires further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of free calcium in zebrafish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creton, R; Speksnijder, JE; Jaffe, LF

    Direct knowledge of Ca2+ patterns in vertebrate development is largely restricted to early stages, in which they control fertilization, ooplasmic segregation and cleavage. To explore new roles of Ca2+ in vertebrate development, we injected the Ca2+ indicator aequorin into zebrafish eggs and imaged

  11. Two divergent leptin paralogues in zebrafish (Danio rerio) that originate early in teleostean evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, M.H.A.G.; Bernier, N.J.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Flik, G.; Huising, M.O.

    2009-01-01

    We describe duplicate leptin genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) that share merely 24% amino acid identity with each other and only 18% with human leptin. We were also able to retrieve a second leptin gene in medaka (Oryzias latipes). The presence of duplicate leptin genes in these two distantly

  12. Zebrafish as a cancer model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitsma, H.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    The zebrafish has developed into an important model organism for biomedical research over the last decades. Although the main focus of zebrafish research has traditionally been on developmental biology, keeping and observing zebrafish in the lab led to the identification of diseases similar to

  13. A Student Team in a University of Michigan Biomedical Engineering Design Course Constructs a Microfluidic Bioreactor for Studies of Zebrafish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-chi; Li, David; Al-Shoaibi, Ali; Bersano-Begey, Tom; Chen, Hao; Ali, Shahid; Flak, Betsy; Perrin, Catherine; Winslow, Max; Shah, Harsh; Ramamurthy, Poornapriya; Schmedlen, Rachael H.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish is a valuable model for teaching developmental, molecular, and cell biology; aquatic sciences; comparative anatomy; physiology; and genetics. Here we demonstrate that zebrafish provide an excellent model system to teach engineering principles. A seven-member undergraduate team in a biomedical engineering class designed, built, and tested a zebrafish microfluidic bioreactor applying microfluidics, an emerging engineering technology, to study zebrafish development. During the semester, students learned engineering and biology experimental design, chip microfabrication, mathematical modeling, zebrafish husbandry, principles of developmental biology, fluid dynamics, microscopy, and basic molecular biology theory and techniques. The team worked to maximize each person's contribution and presented weekly written and oral reports. Two postdoctoral fellows, a graduate student, and three faculty instructors coordinated and directed the team in an optimal blending of engineering, molecular, and developmental biology skill sets. The students presented two posters, including one at the Zebrafish meetings in Madison, Wisconsin (June 2008). PMID:19292670

  14. Overexpression of miR-19b Impairs Cardiac Development in Zebrafish by Targeting ctnnb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: MicroRNAs are broadly accepted as crucial regulators of cardiovascular development, and dysregulation of their expression has been linked to cardiac disease. MicroRNA cluster miR-17-92 has been implicated in cardiac development and function, yet its defined mechanisms of action in this context are uncertain. Here, we focused on miR-19b, a key component of the miR-17-92 cluster proven to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro. We aimed to identify the biological significance of miR-19b in cardiac development and its underlying molecular mechanism of action in vivo. Methods: We micro-injected zebrafish embryos with different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 μm of miR-19b mimics or a negative control, and assessed the embryo malformation rate, mortality rate, hatching rate and heart abnormalities at 72 hours post-fertilization (72 hpf. Results: We found that overexpression of miR-19b impacted left-right symmetry and cardiac development of zebrafish embryos, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and cardiac looping defects in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, several important signaling molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway were abnormally expressed, suggesting that overexpression of miR-19b induces the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway by directly targeting ctnnb1. Interestingly, the deformed cardiac phenotype was partially rescued by treatment with the GSK3β inhibitor lithium chloride. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that miR-19b regulates laterality development and heart looping in zebrafish embryos by targeting ctnnb1.

  15. Nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Ling; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Wu, Kenneth K

    2010-02-19

    Nestin is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPC) of developing brain. Despite its wide use as an NPC marker, the function of nestin in embryo development is unclear. As nestin is conserved in zebrafish and its predicted sequence is clustered with the mammalian nestin orthologue, we used zebrafish as a model to investigate its role in embryogenesis. Injection of nestin morpholino (MO) into fertilized eggs induced time- and dose-dependent brain and eye developmental defects. Nestin morphants exhibited characteristic morphological changes including small head, small eyes and hydrocephalus. Histological examinations show reduced hind- and mid-brain size, dilated ventricle, poorly organized retina and underdeveloped lens. Injection of control nestin MO did not induce brain or eye changes. Nestin MO injection reduced expression of ascl1b (achaete-scute complex-like 1b), a marker of NPCs, without affecting its distribution. Nestin MO did not influence Elavl3/4 (Embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 3/4) (a neuronal marker), or otx2 (a midbrain neuronal marker), but severely perturbed cranial motor nerve development and axon distribution. To determine whether the developmental defects are due to excessive NPC apoptosis and/or reduced NPC proliferation, we analyzed apoptosis by TUNEL assay and acridine orange staining and proliferation by BrdU incorporation, pcna and mcm5 expressions. Excessive apoptosis was noted in hindbrain and midbrain cells. Apoptotic signals were colocalized with ascl1b. Proliferation markers were not significantly altered by nestin MO. These results suggest that nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development probably through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

  16. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Laura J; Chernick, Melissa; Chen, Albert; Hinton, David E; Bailey, Jordan M; Kullman, Seth W; Levin, Edward D; Stapleton, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (e.g., hydroxylated BDEs [OH-BDEs]) are contaminants frequently detected together in human tissues and are structurally similar to thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones partially mediate metamorphic transitions between life stages in zebrafish, making this a critical developmental window that may be vulnerable to chemicals disrupting thyroid signaling. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 6-OH-BDE-47 (30 nM; 15 μg/L) alone, or to a low-dose (30 μg/L) or high-dose (600 μg/L) mixture of PentaBDEs, 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.5-6 μg/L), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (5-100 μg/L) during juvenile development (9-23 d postfertilization) and evaluated for developmental endpoints mediated by thyroid hormone signaling. Fish were sampled at 3 time points and examined for developmental and skeletal morphology, apical thyroid and skeletal gene markers, and modifications in swimming behavior (as adults). Exposure to the high-dose mixture resulted in >85% mortality within 1 wk of exposure, despite being below reported acute toxicity thresholds for individual congeners. The low-dose mixture and 6-OH-BDE-47 groups exhibited reductions in body length and delayed maturation, specifically relating to swim bladder, fin, and pigmentation development. Reduced skeletal ossification was also observed in 6-OH-BDE-47-treated fish. Assessment of thyroid and osteochondral gene regulatory networks demonstrated significantly increased expression of genes that regulate skeletal development and thyroid hormones. Overall, these results indicate that exposures to PBDE/OH-BDE mixtures adversely impact zebrafish maturation during metamorphosis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:36-48. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on developing zebrafish embryos and larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yan Sun, Gong Zhang, Zizi He, Yajie Wang, Jianlin Cui, Yuhao Li Department of Pathology, Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Neurovascular Regulation, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs are used for a variety of purposes in a wide range of commercially available products. Some CuO NPs probably end up in the aquatic systems, thus raising concerns about aqueous exposure toxicity, and the impact of CuO NPs on liver development and neuronal differentiation remains unclear. In this study, particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Zebrafish embryos were continuously exposed to CuO NPs from 4 hours postfertilization at concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, or 1 mg/L. The expression of gstp1 and cyp1a was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and superoxide dismutase 1 was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Liver development and retinal neurodifferentiation were analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization, hematoxylin–eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry, and a behavioral test was performed to track the movement of larvae. We show that exposure of CuO NPs at low doses has little effect on embryonic development. However, exposure to CuO NPs at concentrations of 12.5 mg/L or higher leads to abnormal phenotypes and induces an inflammatory response in a dose-dependent pattern. Moreover, exposure to CuO NPs at high doses results in an underdeveloped liver and a delay in retinal neurodifferentiation accompanied by reduced locomotor ability. Our data demonstrate that short-term exposure to CuO NPs at high doses shows hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticles

  18. Beta-Catenin and Plakoglobin Expression during Zebrafish Tooth Development and Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Verstraeten

    Full Text Available We analyzed the protein distribution of two cadherin-associated molecules, plakoglobin and β-catenin, during the different stages of tooth development and tooth replacement in zebrafish. Plakoglobin was detected at the plasma membrane already at the onset of tooth development in the epithelial cells of the tooth. This pattern remained unaltered during further tooth development. The mesenchymal cells only showed plakoglobin from cytodifferentiation onwards. Plakoglobin 1a morpholino-injected embryos showed normal tooth development with proper initiation and differentiation. Although plakoglobin is clearly present during normal odontogenesis, the loss of plakoglobin 1a does not influence tooth development. β-catenin was found at the cell borders of all cells of the successional lamina but also in the nuclei of surrounding mesenchymal cells. Only membranous, not nuclear, β-catenin, was found during morphogenesis stage. However, during cytodifferentiation stage, both nuclear and membrane-bound β-catenin was detected in the layers of the enamel organ as well as in the differentiating odontoblasts. Nuclear β-catenin is an indication of an activated Wnt pathway, therefore suggesting a possible role for Wnt signalling during zebrafish tooth development and replacement.

  19. Acute exposure to tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) affects growth and development of embryo-larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiran; Wu, Ding; Xu, Qinglong; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-10-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), is used as a flame retardant worldwide. It is an additive in materials and can be easily discharged into the surrounding environment. There is evidence linking TBOEP exposure to abnormal development and growth in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Here, using zebrafish embryo as a model, we investigated toxicological effects on developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) caused by TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 20, 200, 1000, 2000μg/L starting from 2h post-fertilization (hpf). Our findings revealed that TBOEP exposure caused developmental toxicity, such as malformation, growth delay and decreased heart rate in zebrafish larvae. Correlation analysis indicated that inhibition of growth was possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes related to the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Furthermore, exposure to TBOEP significantly increased thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in whole larvae. In addition, changed expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was observed, indicating that perturbation of HPT axis might be responsible for the developmental damage and growth delay induced by TBOEP. The present study provides a new set of evidence that exposure of embryo-larval zebrafish to TBOEP can cause perturbation of GH/IGF axis and HPT axis, which could result in developmental impairment and growth inhibition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-02-12

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of calcium uptake during hypoxia in developing zebrafish is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Tzaneva, Velislava; Azzi, Estelle; Hochhold, Nina; Robertson, Cayleih; Pelster, Bernd; Perry, Steve F

    2016-12-15

    The present study investigated the potential role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in calcium homeostasis in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). It was demonstrated that zebrafish raised in hypoxic water (30 mmHg; control, 155 mmHg P O 2 ) until 4 days post-fertilization exhibited a substantial reduction in whole-body Ca 2+ levels and Ca 2+ uptake. Ca 2+ uptake in hypoxia-treated fish did not return to pre-hypoxia (control) levels within 2 h of transfer back to normoxic water. Results from real-time PCR showed that hypoxia decreased the whole-body mRNA expression levels of the epithelial Ca 2+ channel (ecac), but not plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (pmca2) or Na + /Ca 2+ -exchanger (ncx1b). Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that the number of ecac-expressing ionocytes was reduced in fish raised in hypoxic water. These findings suggested that hypoxic treatment suppressed the expression of ecac, thereby reducing Ca 2+ influx. To further evaluate the potential mechanisms for the effects of hypoxia on Ca 2+ regulation, a functional gene knockdown approach was employed to prevent the expression of HIF-1αb during hypoxic treatment. Consistent with a role for HIF-1αb in regulating Ca 2+ balance during hypoxia, the results demonstrated that the reduction of Ca 2+ uptake associated with hypoxic exposure was not observed in fish experiencing HIF-1αb knockdown. Additionally, the effects of hypoxia on reducing the number of ecac-expressing ionocytes was less pronounced in HIF-1αb-deficient fish. Overall, the current study revealed that hypoxic exposure inhibited Ca 2+ uptake in developing zebrafish, probably owing to HIF-1αb-mediated suppression of ecac expression. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A novel role for MAPKAPK2 in morphogenesis during zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Holloway

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest morphogenetic processes in the development of many animals is epiboly. In the zebrafish, epiboly ensues when the animally localized blastoderm cells spread, thin over, and enclose the vegetally localized yolk. Only a few factors are known to function in this fundamental process. We identified a maternal-effect mutant, betty boop (bbp, which displays a novel defect in epiboly, wherein the blastoderm margin constricts dramatically, precisely when half of the yolk cell is covered by the blastoderm, causing the yolk cell to burst. Whole-blastoderm transplants and mRNA microinjection rescue demonstrate that Bbp functions in the yolk cell to regulate epiboly. We positionally cloned the maternal-effect bbp mutant gene and identified it as the zebrafish homolog of the serine-threonine kinase Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2, or MAPKAPK2, which was not previously known to function in embryonic development. We show that the regulation of MAPKAPK2 is conserved and p38 MAP kinase functions upstream of MAPKAPK2 in regulating epiboly in the zebrafish embryo. Dramatic alterations in calcium dynamics, together with the massive marginal constrictive force observed in bbp mutants, indicate precocious constriction of an F-actin network within the yolk cell, which first forms at 50% epiboly and regulates epiboly progression. We show that MAPKAPK2 activity and its regulator p38 MAPK function in the yolk cell to regulate the process of epiboly, identifying a new pathway regulating this cell movement process. We postulate that a p38 MAPKAPK2 kinase cascade modulates the activity of F-actin at the yolk cell margin circumference allowing the gradual closure of the blastopore as epiboly progresses.

  3. Aquatic surface respiration and swimming behaviour in adult and developing zebrafish exposed to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sara J; Thomas, Benjamin S; Jonz, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    Severe hypoxia elicits aquatic surface respiration (ASR) behaviour in many species of fish, where ventilation of the gills at the air-water interface improves O2 uptake and survival. ASR is an important adaptation that may have given rise to air breathing in vertebrates. The neural substrate of this behaviour, however, is not defined. We characterized ASR in developing and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ascertain a potential role for peripheral chemoreceptors in initiation or modulation of this response. Adult zebrafish exposed to acute, progressive hypoxia (PO2 from 158 to 15 mmHg) performed ASR with a threshold of 30 mmHg, and spent more time at the surface as PO2 decreased. Acclimation to hypoxia attenuated ASR responses. In larvae, ASR behaviour was observed between 5 and 21 days postfertilization with a threshold of 16 mmHg. Zebrafish decreased swimming behaviour (i.e. distance, velocity and acceleration) as PO2 was decreased, with a secondary increase in behaviour near or below threshold PO2 . In adults that underwent a 10-day intraperitoneal injection regime of 10 μg g(-1) serotonin (5-HT) or 20 μg g(-1) acetylcholine (ACh), an acute bout of hypoxia (15 mmHg) increased the time engaged in ASR by 5.5 and 4.9 times, respectively, compared with controls. Larvae previously immersed in 10 μmol l(-1) 5-HT or ACh also displayed an increased ASR response. Our results support the notion that ASR is a behavioural response that is reliant upon input from peripheral O2 chemoreceptors. We discuss implications for the role of chemoreceptors in the evolution of air breathing. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Autotaxin/ENPP2 Regulates Oligodendrocyte Differentiation in vivo in the Developing Zebrafish Hindbrain

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    Yuelling, Larra W.; Waggener, Christopher T.; Afshari, Fatemah S.; Lister, James A.; Fuss, Babette

    2012-01-01

    During development, progenitors that are committed to differentiate into oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are generated within discrete regions of the neuroepithelium. More specifically, within the developing spinal cord and hindbrain ventrally located progenitor cells that are characterized by the expression of the transcription factor olig2 give temporally rise to first motor neurons and then oligodendrocyte progenitors. The regulation of this temporal neuron-glial switch has been found complex and little is known about the extrinsic factors regulating it. Our studies described here identified a zebrafish ortholog to mammalian atx, which displays evolutionarily conserved expression pattern characteristics. Most interestingly, atx was found to be expressed by cells of the cephalic floor plate during a time period when ventrally-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors arise in the developing hindbrain of the zebrafish. Knock-down of atx expression resulted in a delay and/or inhibition of the timely appearance of oligodendrocyte progenitors and subsequent developmental stages of the oligodendrocyte lineage. This effect of atx knock-down was not accompanied by changes in the number of olig2-positive progenitor cells, the overall morphology of the axonal network or the number of somatic abducens motor neurons. Thus, our studies identified Atx as an extrinsic factor that is likely secreted by cells from the floor plate and that is involved in regulating specifically the progression of olig2-positive progenitor cells into lineage committed oligodendrocyte progenitors. PMID:22821873

  5. Smyd3 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish.

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    Tomoaki Fujii

    Full Text Available Modifications of histone tails are involved in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes including cell cycle, cell survival, cell division, and cell differentiation. Among the modifications, histone methylation plays a critical role in cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation. In our earlier studies, we found that SMYD3 has methyltransferase activity to histone H3 lysine 4, and that its up-regulation is involved in the tumorigenesis of human colon, liver, and breast. To clarify the role of Smyd3 in development, we have studied its expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using Smyd3-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. We here show that transcripts of smyd3 were expressed in zebrafish embryos at all developmental stages examined and that knockdown of smyd3 in embryos resulted in pericardial edema and defects in the trunk structure. In addition, these phenotypes were associated with abnormal expression of three heart-chamber markers including cmlc2, amhc and vmhc, and abnormal expression of myogenic regulatory factors including myod and myog. These data suggest that Smyd3 plays an important role in the development of heart and skeletal muscle.

  6. cables1 Is Required for Embryonic Neural Development: Molecular, Cellular, and Behavioral Evidence From the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROENEWEG, JOLIJN W.; WHITE, YVONNE A.R.; KOKEL, DAVID; PETERSON, RANDALL T.; ZUKERBERG, LAWRENCE R.; BERIN, INNA; RUEDA, BO R.; WOOD, ANTONY W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In vitro studies have suggested that the Cables1 gene regulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas other studies suggest a role in promoting neural differentiation. In efforts to clarify the functions of Cables1 in vivo, we conducted gain- and loss-of-function studies targeting its ortholog (cables1) in the zebrafish embryo. Similar to rodents, zebrafish cables1 mRNA expression is detected most robustly in embryonic neural tissues. Antisense knockdown of cables1 leads to increased numbers of apoptotic cells, particularly in brain tissue, in addition to a distinct behavioral phenotype, characterized by hyperactivity in response to stimulation. Apoptosis and the behavioral abnormality could be rescued by co-expression of a morpholino-resistant cables1 construct. Suppression of p53 expression in cables1 morphants partially rescued both apoptosis and the behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype of cables1 morphants is due in part to p53-dependent apoptosis. Alterations in the expression patterns of several neural transcription factors were observed in cables1 morphants during early neurulation, suggesting that cables1 is required for early neural differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of cables1 strongly disrupted embryonic morphogenesis, while overexpression of a cables1 mutant lacking the C-terminal cyclin box had little effect, suggesting functional importance of the cyclin box. Lastly, marked reductions in p35, but not Cdk5, were observed in cables1 morphants. Collectively, these data suggest that cables1 is important for neural differentiation during embryogenesis, in a mechanism that likely involves interactions with the Cdk5/p35 kinase pathway. PMID:21268180

  7. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Semina, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5) splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition) helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5) morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5) morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  8. Cep55 regulates embryonic growth and development by promoting Akt stability in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jessie; Neyt, Christine; Moore, Wade; Paterson, Scott; Bower, Neil I; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Verkade, Heather; Hogan, Benjamin M; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2015-05-01

    CEP55 was initially described as a centrosome- and midbody-associated protein and a key mediator of cytokinesis. More recently, it has been implicated in PI3K/AKT pathway activation via an interaction with the catalytic subunit of PI3K. However, its role in embryonic development is unknown. Here we describe a cep55 nonsense mutant zebrafish with which we can study the in vivo physiologic role of Cep55. Homozygous mutants underwent extensive apoptosis by 24 hours postfertilization (hpf) concomitant with cell cycle defects, and heterozygous carriers were indistinguishable from their wild-type siblings. A similar phenotype was also observed in zebrafish injected with a cep55 morpholino, suggesting the mutant is a cep55 loss-of-function model. Further analysis revealed that Akt was destabilized in the homozygous mutants, which partially phenocopied Akt1 and Akt2 knockdown. Expression of either constitutively activated PIK3CA or AKT1 could partially rescue the homozygous mutants. Consistent with a role for Cep55 in regulation of Akt stability, treatment with proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially rescued the homozygous mutants. Taken together, these results provide the first description of Cep55 in development and underline the importance of Cep55 in the regulation of Pi3k/Akt pathway and in particular Akt stability. © FASEB.

  9. Polymethoxy-1-alkenes from Aphanizomenon ovalisporum Inhibit Vertebrate Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio Embryo Model

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    John P. Berry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are recognized producers of a wide array of toxic or otherwise bioactive secondary metabolites. The present study utilized the zebrafish (Danio rerio embryo as an aquatic animal model of vertebrate development to identify, purify and characterize lipophilic inhibitors of development (i.e., developmental toxins from an isolate of the freshwater cyanobacterial species, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the purification, and subsequent chemical characterization, of an apparent homologous series of isotactic polymethoxy-1-alkenes (1–6, including three congeners (4–6 previously identified from the strain, and two variants previously identified from other species (2 and 3, as well as one apparently novel member of the series (1. Five of the PMAs in the series (1–5 were purified in sufficient quantity for comparative toxicological characterization, and toxicity in the zebrafish embryo model was found to generally correlate with relative chain length and/or methoxylation. Moreover, exposure of embryos to a combination of variants indicates an apparent synergistic interaction between the congeners. Although PMAs have been identified previously in cyanobacteria, this is the first report of their apparent toxicity. These results, along with the previously reported presence of the PMAs from several cyanobacterial species, suggest a possibly widespread distribution of the PMAs as toxic secondary metabolites and warrants further chemical and toxicological investigation.

  10. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  11. Intraspinal serotonergic neurons consist of two, temporally distinct populations in developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacob E; Wiggin, Timothy D; Rivera-Perez, Luis M; Lillesaar, Christina; Masino, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Zebrafish intraspinal serotonergic neuron (ISN) morphology and distribution have been examined in detail at different ages; however, some aspects of the development of these cells remain unclear. Although antibodies to serotonin (5-HT) have detected ISNs in the ventral spinal cord of embryos, larvae, and adults, the only tryptophan hydroxylase (tph) transcript that has been described in the spinal cord is tph1a. Paradoxically, spinal tph1a is only expressed transiently in embryos, which brings the source of 5-HT in the ISNs of larvae and adults into question. Because the pet1 and tph2 promoters drive transgene expression in the spinal cord, we hypothesized that tph2 is expressed in spinal cords of zebrafish larvae. We confirmed this hypothesis through in situ hybridization. Next, we used 5-HT antibody labeling and transgenic markers of tph2-expressing neurons to identify a transient population of ISNs in embryos that was distinct from ISNs that appeared later in development. The existence of separate ISN populations may not have been recognized previously due to their shared location in the ventral spinal cord. Finally, we used transgenic markers and immunohistochemical labeling to identify the transient ISN population as GABAergic Kolmer-Agduhr double-prime (KA″) neurons. Altogether, this study revealed a novel developmental paradigm in which KA″ neurons are transiently serotonergic before the appearance of a stable population of tph2-expressing ISNs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Mysiak, Karolina S; Scott, Angela L; Reimer, Michell M; Yang, Yujie; Becker, Catherina G; Becker, Thomas

    2015-11-03

    In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90%) by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consequences of Aberrant Hedgehog Signaling During Zebrafish Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway is controlling proliferation, patterning and differentiation during development of vertebrates and invertebrates. Aberrant Hedgehog activity has been shown to be one of the underlying causes of a number of congenital disorders and multiple types of cancer. We

  14. Dioxin inhibition of swim bladder development in zebrafish: is it secondary to heart failure?

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    Yue, Monica S; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2015-05-01

    The swim bladder is a gas-filled organ that is used for regulating buoyancy and is essential for survival in most teleost species. In zebrafish, swim bladder development begins during embryogenesis and inflation occurs within 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Embryos exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) before 96 h post fertilization (hpf) developed swim bladders normally until the growth/elongation phase, at which point growth was arrested. It is known that TCDD exposure causes heart malformations that lead to heart failure in zebrafish larvae, and that blood circulation is a key factor in normal development of the swim bladder. The adverse effects of TCDD exposure on the heart occur during the same period of time that swim bladder development and growth occurs. Based on this coincident timing, and the dependence of swim bladder development on proper circulatory development, we hypothesized that the adverse effects of TCDD on swim bladder development were secondary to heart failure. We compared swim bladder development in TCDD-exposed embryos to: (1) silent heart morphants, which lack cardiac contractility, and (2) transiently transgenic cmlc2:caAHR-2AtRFP embryos, which mimic TCDD-induced heart failure via heart-specific, constitutive activation of AHR signaling. Both of these treatment groups, which were not exposed to TCDD, developed hypoplastic swim bladders of comparable size and morphology to those found in TCDD-exposed embryos. Furthermore, in all treatment groups swim bladder development was arrested during the growth/elongation phase. Together, these findings support a potential role for heart failure in the inhibition of swim bladder development caused by TCDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis in the developing zebrafish embryo after compound exposure: Individual gene expression and pathway regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermsen, Sanne A.B., E-mail: Sanne.Hermsen@rivm.nl [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pronk, Tessa E. [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht (Netherlands); Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den [Centre for Environmental Quality, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Ven, Leo T.M. van der [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test is a promising alternative assay for developmental toxicity. Classically, morphological assessment of the embryos is applied to evaluate the effects of compound exposure. However, by applying differential gene expression analysis the sensitivity and predictability of the test may be increased. For defining gene expression signatures of developmental toxicity, we explored the possibility of using gene expression signatures of compound exposures based on commonly expressed individual genes as well as based on regulated gene pathways. Four developmental toxic compounds were tested in concentration-response design, caffeine, carbamazepine, retinoic acid and valproic acid, and two non-embryotoxic compounds, D-mannitol and saccharin, were included. With transcriptomic analyses we were able to identify commonly expressed genes, which were mostly development related, after exposure to the embryotoxicants. We also identified gene pathways regulated by the embryotoxicants, suggestive of their modes of action. Furthermore, whereas pathways may be regulated by all compounds, individual gene expression within these pathways can differ for each compound. Overall, the present study suggests that the use of individual gene expression signatures as well as pathway regulation may be useful starting points for defining gene biomarkers for predicting embryotoxicity. - Highlights: • The zebrafish embryotoxicity test in combination with transcriptomics was used. • We explored two approaches of defining gene biomarkers for developmental toxicity. • Four compounds in concentration-response design were tested. • We identified commonly expressed individual genes as well as regulated gene pathways. • Both approaches seem suitable starting points for defining gene biomarkers.

  16. Cadmium affects muscle type development and axon growth in zebrafish embryonic somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2003-05-01

    We have previously reported that exposure to cadmium during zebrafish embryonic development caused morphological malformations of organs and ectopic expression of genes involved in regulating developmental process. One of the most common developmental defects observed was altered axial curvature resulting from defects in the myotomes of the somites. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity in zebrafish somitogenesis. We showed that the critical period of exposure was the gastrulation period, which actually preceded the formation of the first morphologically distinct somites. The somites thus formed lost the typical chevron V-shape and are packed disorderly. The myogenic lineage commitment of the axial mesodermal cells was not affected, as the myogenic regulatory transcription factors were expressed normally. There were, however, losses of fast and slow muscle fibers in the myotomes. The innervation of the muscle blocks by spinal motoneurons is an important process of the somitogenesis. Both primary and secondary motoneurons appear to form normally while the axon growth is affected in cadmium-treated embryos. The notochord, which is essential in the patterning of the somites and the central nervous system, showed abnormal morphological features and failed to extend to the tail region. Taken together, it appears that cadmium exposure led to abnormal somite patterning of the muscle fibers and defects in axonogenesis.

  17. Impacts of chemical modification on the toxicity of diverse nanocellulose materials to developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Bryan J; Clendaniel, Alicea; Sinche, Federico; Way, Daniel; Hughes, Michael; Schardt, Jenna; Simonsen, John; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-06-01

    Cellulose is an abundant and renewable resource currently being investigated for utility in nanomaterial form for various promising applications ranging from medical and pharmaceutical uses to mechanical reinforcement and biofuels. The utility of nanocellulose and wide implementation ensures increasing exposure to humans and the environment as nanocellulose-based technologies advance. Here, we investigate how differences in aspect ratio and changes to surface chemistry, as well as synthesis methods, influence the biocompatibility of nanocellulose materials using the embryonic zebrafish. Investigations into the toxicity of neutral, cationic and anionic surface functionalities revealed that surface chemistry had a minimal influence on the overall toxicity of nanocellulose materials. Higher aspect ratio cellulose nanofibers produced by mechanical homogenization were, in some cases, more toxic than other cellulose-based nanofibers or nanocrystals produced by chemical synthesis methods. Using fluorescently labeled nanocellulose we were able to show that nanocellulose uptake did occur in embryonic zebrafish during development. We conclude that the benign nature of nanocellulose materials makes them an ideal platform to systematically investigate the inherent surface features driving nanomaterial toxicity in order to create safer design principles for engineered nanoparticles.

  18. Combinatorial effects of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Beaver

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency and chronic low level exposures to inorganic arsenic in drinking water are both significant public health concerns that affect millions of people including pregnant women. These two conditions can co-exist in the human population but little is known about their interaction, and in particular, whether zinc deficiency sensitizes individuals to arsenic exposure and toxicity, especially during critical windows of development. To address this, we utilized the Danio rerio (zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that parental zinc deficiency sensitizes the developing embryo to low-concentration arsenic toxicity, leading to altered developmental outcomes. Adult zebrafish were fed defined zinc deficient and zinc adequate diets and were spawned resulting in zinc adequate and zinc deficient embryos. The embryos were treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 50, and 500 ppb arsenic. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced the amount of zinc in the developing embryo by ~7%. The combination of zinc deficiency and low-level arsenic exposures did not sensitize the developing embryo to increased developmental malformations or mortality. The combination did cause a 40% decline in physical activity of the embryos, and this decline was significantly greater than what was observed with zinc deficiency or arsenic exposure alone. Significant changes in RNA expression of genes that regulate zinc homeostasis, response to oxidative stress and insulin production (including zip1, znt7, nrf2, ogg1, pax4, and insa were found in zinc deficient, or zinc deficiency and arsenic exposed embryos. Overall, the data suggests that the combination of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure has harmful effects on the developing embryo and may increase the risk for developing chronic diseases like diabetes.

  19. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

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    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  20. Teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs in the zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hak; Kang, Jung Won; Lin, Tao; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72 hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data.

  1. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Affects Early- and Late-Added Cardiac Precursors and Produces Long-Lasting Heart Chamber Defects in Zebrafish

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    Swapnalee Sarmah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drinking mothers expose their fetuses to ethanol, which produces birth defects: craniofacial defects, cognitive impairment, sensorimotor disabilities and organ deformities, collectively termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Various congenital heart defects (CHDs are present in FASD patients, but the mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiogenesis defects are not completely understood. This study utilized zebrafish embryos and older larvae to understand FASD-associated CHDs. Ethanol-induced cardiac chamber defects initiated during embryonic cardiogenesis persisted in later zebrafish life. In addition, myocardial damage was recognizable in the ventricle of the larvae that were exposed to ethanol during embryogenesis. Our studies of the pathogenesis revealed that ethanol exposure delayed differentiation of first and second heart fields and reduced the number of early- and late-added cardiomyocytes in the heart. Ethanol exposure also reduced the number of endocardial cells. Together, this study showed that ethanol-induced heart defects were present in late-stage zebrafish larvae. Reduced numbers of cardiomyocytes partly accounts for the ethanol-induced zebrafish heart defects.

  2. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Affects Early- and Late-Added Cardiac Precursors and Produces Long-Lasting Heart Chamber Defects in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2017-12-01

    Drinking mothers expose their fetuses to ethanol, which produces birth defects: craniofacial defects, cognitive impairment, sensorimotor disabilities and organ deformities, collectively termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Various congenital heart defects (CHDs) are present in FASD patients, but the mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiogenesis defects are not completely understood. This study utilized zebrafish embryos and older larvae to understand FASD-associated CHDs. Ethanol-induced cardiac chamber defects initiated during embryonic cardiogenesis persisted in later zebrafish life. In addition, myocardial damage was recognizable in the ventricle of the larvae that were exposed to ethanol during embryogenesis. Our studies of the pathogenesis revealed that ethanol exposure delayed differentiation of first and second heart fields and reduced the number of early- and late-added cardiomyocytes in the heart. Ethanol exposure also reduced the number of endocardial cells. Together, this study showed that ethanol-induced heart defects were present in late-stage zebrafish larvae. Reduced numbers of cardiomyocytes partly accounts for the ethanol-induced zebrafish heart defects.

  3. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development

  4. Investigation of the effects of estrogen on skeletal gene expression during zebrafish larval head development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Pashay Ahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of craniofacial skeletal structures requires well-orchestrated tissue interactions controlled by distinct molecular signals. Disruptions in normal function of these molecular signals have been associated with a wide range of craniofacial malformations. A pathway mediated by estrogens is one of those molecular signals that plays role in formation of bone and cartilage including craniofacial skeletogenesis. Studies in zebrafish have shown that while higher concentrations of 17-β estradiol (E2 cause severe craniofacial defects, treatment with lower concentrations result in subtle changes in head morphology characterized with shorter snouts and flatter faces. The molecular basis for these morphological changes, particularly the subtle skeletal effects mediated by lower E2 concentrations, remains unexplored. In the present study we address these effects at a molecular level by quantitative expression analysis of sets of candidate genes in developing heads of zebrafish larvae treated with two different E2 concentrations. To this end, we first validated three suitable reference genes, ppia2, rpl8 and tbp, to permit sensitive quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Next, we profiled the expression of 28 skeletogenesis-associated genes that potentially respond to estrogen signals and play role in craniofacial development. We found E2 mediated differential expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling, mmp2/9/13, sparc and timp2a, as well as components of skeletogenic pathways, bmp2a, erf, ptch1/2, rankl, rarab and sfrp1a. Furthermore, we identified a co-expressed network of genes, including cpn1, dnajc3, esr1, lman1, rrbp1a, ssr1 and tram1 with a stronger inductive response to a lower dose of E2 during larval head development.

  5. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwend Tyler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC. Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE, which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia 12. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1 for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1. Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to

  6. ESX-5-deficient Mycobacterium marinum is hypervirulent in adult zebrafish

    KAUST Repository

    Weerdenburg, Eveline M.

    2012-02-15

    ESX-5 is a mycobacterial type VII protein secretion system responsible for transport of numerous PE and PPE proteins. It is involved in the induction of host cell death and modulation of the cytokine response in vitro. In this work, we studied the effects of ESX-5 in embryonic and adult zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum. We found that ESX-5-deficient M.marinum was slightly attenuated in zebrafish embryos. Surprisingly, the same mutant showed highly increased virulence in adult zebrafish, characterized by increased bacterial loads and early onset of granuloma formation with rapid development of necrotic centres. This early onset of granuloma formation was accompanied by an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue remodelling genes in zebrafish infected with the ESX-5 mutant. Experiments using RAG-1-deficient zebrafish showed that the increased virulence of the ESX-5 mutant was not dependent on the adaptive immune system. Mixed infection experiments with wild-type and ESX-5 mutant bacteria showed that the latter had a specific advantage in adult zebrafish and outcompeted wild-type bacteria. Together our experiments indicate that ESX-5-mediated protein secretion is used by M.marinum to establish a moderate and persistent infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A reference growth curve for nutritional experiments in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and changes in whole body proteome during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Requeni, P; Conceição, L E C; Olderbakk Jordal, A-E; Rønnestad, I

    2010-12-01

    Zebrafish is one of the most used vertebrate model organisms in molecular and developmental biology, recently gaining popularity also in medical research. However, very little work has been done to assess zebrafish as a model species in nutritional studies in aquaculture in order to utilize the methodological toolbox that this species represents. As a starting point to acquire some baseline data for further nutritional studies, growth of a population of zebrafish was followed for 15 weeks. Furthermore, whole body proteome was screened during development by means of bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Fish were reared under best practice laboratory conditions from hatching until 103 days post-fertilization (dpf) and regularly fed ad libitum with Artemia nauplii from 12 dpf. A growth burst occurred within 9-51 dpf, reaching a plateau after 65 dpf. Fork length and body weight were significantly lower in males than in females from 58 dpf onwards. Proteomics analysis showed 28 spot proteins differently expressed through development and according to sex. Of these proteins, 20 were successfully identified revealing proteins involved in energy production, muscle development, eye lens differentiation, and sexual maturation. In summary, zebrafish exhibited a rapid growth until approximately 50 dpf, when most individuals started to allocate part of the dietary energy intake for sexual maturation. However, proteomic analysis revealed that some individuals reached sexual maturity earlier and already from 30 dpf onwards. Thus, in order to design nutritional studies with zebrafish fed Artemia nauplii, it is recommended to select a period between 20 and 40 dpf, when fish allocate most of the ingested energy for non-reproductive growth purposes.

  8. Transcriptomic and phenotypic profiling in developing zebrafish exposed to thyroid hormone receptor agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, Derik E.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2018-04-01

    There is a need to develop novel, high-throughput screening and prioritization methods to identify chemicals with adverse estrogen, androgen, and thyroid activity to protect human health and the environment and is of interest to the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The current aim is to explore the utility of zebrafish as a testing paradigm to classify endocrine activity using phenotypically anchored transcriptome profiling. Transcriptome analysis was conducted on embryos exposed to 25 estrogen-, androgen-, or thyroid-active chemicals at a concentration that elicited adverse malformations or mortality at 120 hours post-fertilization in 80% of the animals exposed. Analysis of the top 1000 significant differentially expressed transcripts across all treatments identified a unique transcriptional and phenotypic profile for thyroid hormone receptor agonists, which can be used as a biomarker screen for potential thyroid hormone agonists.

  9. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ZFIN serves as the zebrafish model organism database. It aims to: a) be the community database resource for the laboratory use of zebrafish, b) develop and support...

  10. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Involvement of COX2–thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Hiroki, E-mail: hteraoka@rakuno.ac.jp [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Peterson, Richard E. [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Kubota, Akira [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We establish a new indicator of pericardial edema in developing zebrafish (precardiac edema). • Property of precardiac edema by TCDD is similar to that for conventional pericardial edema. • COX2b (but not COX2a)–thromboxane pathway is involved in precardiac edema by TCDD. - Abstract: The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration–response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b

  13. Identifying small RNAs derived from maternal- and somatic-type rRNAs in zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Abdullah, Farah; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Spaink, Herman P; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2018-02-09

    rRNAs are non-coding RNAs present in all prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes there are four rRNAs: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, originating from a common precursor (45S), and 5S. We have recently discovered the existence of two distinct developmental types of rRNA: a maternal-type, present in eggs and a somatic-type, expressed in adult tissues. Lately, next-generation sequencing has allowed the discovery of new small-RNAs deriving from longer non-coding RNAs, including small-RNAs from rRNAs (srRNAs). Here, we systemically investigated srRNAs of maternal- or somatic-type 18S, 5.8S, 28S, with small-RNAseq from many zebrafish developmental stages. We identified new srRNAs for each rRNA. For 5.8S, we found srRNA consisting of the 5' or 3' halves, with only the latter having different sequence for the maternal- and somatic-types. For 18S, we discovered 21 nt srRNA from the 5' end of the 18S rRNA with a striking resemblance to microRNAs; as it is likely processed from a stem-loop precursor and present in human and mouse Argonaute-complexed small-RNA. For 28S, an abundant 80 nt srRNA from the 3' end of the 28S rRNA was found. The expression levels during embryogenesis of these srRNA indicate they are not generated from rRNA degradation and might have a role in the zebrafish development.

  14. Zebrafish neurofibromatosis type 1 genes have redundant functions in tumorigenesis and embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimann Shin

    2012-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a common, dominantly inherited genetic disorder that results from mutations in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1 gene. Affected individuals demonstrate abnormalities in neural-crest-derived tissues that include hyperpigmented skin lesions and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. NF1 patients also have a predisposition to malignancies including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML, optic glioma, glioblastoma, schwannoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs. In an effort to better define the molecular and cellular determinants of NF1 disease pathogenesis in vivo, we employed targeted mutagenesis strategies to generate zebrafish harboring stable germline mutations in nf1a and nf1b, orthologues of NF1. Animals homozygous for loss-of-function alleles of nf1a or nf1b alone are phenotypically normal and viable. Homozygous loss of both alleles in combination generates larval phenotypes that resemble aspects of the human disease and results in larval lethality between 7 and 10 days post fertilization. nf1-null larvae demonstrate significant central and peripheral nervous system defects. These include aberrant proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs, dysmorphic myelin sheaths and hyperplasia of Schwann cells. Loss of nf1 contributes to tumorigenesis as demonstrated by an accelerated onset and increased penetrance of high-grade gliomas and MPNSTs in adult nf1a+/−; nf1b−/−; p53e7/e7 animals. nf1-null larvae also demonstrate significant motor and learning defects. Importantly, we identify and quantitatively analyze a novel melanophore phenotype in nf1-null larvae, providing the first animal model of the pathognomonic pigmentation lesions of NF1. Together, these findings support a role for nf1a and nf1b as potent tumor suppressor genes that also function in the development of both central and peripheral glial cells as well as melanophores in zebrafish.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-inducedshank3bmutant zebrafish display autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xue; Li, Chun-Yang; Hu, Chun-Chun; Wang, Yi; Lin, Jia; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Li, Qiang; Xu, Xiu

    2018-01-01

    Human genetic and genomic studies have supported a strong causal role of SHANK3 deficiency in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying SHANK3 deficiency resulting in ASD is not fully understood. Recently, the zebrafish has become an attractive organism to model ASD because of its high efficiency of genetic manipulation and robust behavioral phenotypes. The orthologous gene to human SHANK3 is duplicated in the zebrafish genome and has two homologs, shank3a and shank3b . Previous studies have reported shank3 morphants in zebrafish using the morpholino method. Here, we report the generation and characterization of shank3b mutant zebrafish in larval and adult stages using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. CRISPR/Cas9 was applied to generate a shank3b loss-of-function mutation ( shank3b -/- ) in zebrafish. A series of morphological measurements, behavioral tests, and molecular analyses were performed to systematically characterize the behavioral and molecular changes in shank3b mutant zebrafish. shank3b -/- zebrafish exhibited abnormal morphology in early development. They showed reduced locomotor activity both as larvae and adults, reduced social interaction and time spent near conspecifics, and significant repetitive swimming behaviors. Additionally, the levels of both postsynaptic homer1 and presynaptic synaptophysin were significantly reduced in the adult brain of shank3b- deficient zebrafish. We generated the first inheritable shank3b mutant zebrafish model using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach. shank3b -/- zebrafish displayed robust autism-like behaviors and altered levels of the synaptic proteins homer1 and synaptophysin. The versatility of zebrafish as a model for studying neurodevelopment and conducting drug screening will likely have a significant contribution to future studies of human SHANK3 function and ASD.

  16. G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 is involved in brain development during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yanan; Liu, Xiaochun [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhu, Pei; Li, Jianzhen; Sham, Kathy W.Y. [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Shuk Han [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Cheng, Christopher H.K., E-mail: chkcheng@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Haoran, E-mail: lsslhr@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); College of Ocean, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, Hainan (China)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •The Gper expression was detected in the developing brain of zebrafish. •Gper morpholino knockdown induced apoptosis of brain cells. •Gper morpholino knockdown reduced expression in neuron markers. •Zebrafish Gper may be involved in neuronal development. -- Abstract: G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (Gper, formerly known as GPR30) is found to be a trophic and protective factor in mediating action of estrogen in adult brain, while its role in developing brain remains to be elucidated. Here we present the expression pattern of Gper and its functions during embryogenesis in zebrafish. Both the mRNA and protein of Gper were detected throughout embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) revealed a wide distribution of gper mRNAs in various regions of the developing brain. Gper knockdown by specific morpholinos resulted in growth retardation in embryos and morphological defects in the developing brain. In addition, induced apoptosis, decreased proliferation of the brain cells and maldevelopment of sensory and motor neurons were also found in the morphants. Our results provide novel insights into Gper functions in the developing brain, revealing that Gper can maintain the survival of the brain cells, and formation and/or differentiation of the sensory and motor neurons.

  17. Development and regeneration of the zebrafish maxillary barbel: a novel study system for vertebrate tissue growth and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E LeClair

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbels are integumentary sense organs found in fishes, reptiles and amphibians. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, develops paired nasal and maxillary barbels approximately one month post fertilization. Small in diameter and optically clear, these adult appendages offer a window on the development, maintenance and function of multiple cell types including skin cells, neural-crest derived pigment cells, circulatory vessels, taste buds and sensory nerves. Importantly, barbels in other otophysan fishes (e.g., catfish are known to regenerate; however, this capacity has not been tested in zebrafish.We describe the development of the maxillary barbel in a staged series of wild type and transgenic zebrafish using light microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. By imaging transgenic zebrafish containing fluorescently labeled endothelial cells (Tg(fli1a:EGFP, we demonstrate that the barbel contains a long ( approximately 2-3 mm closed-end vessel that we interpret as a large lymphatic. The identity of this vessel was further supported by live imaging of the barbel circulation, extending recent descriptions of the lymphatic system in zebrafish. The maxillary barbel can be induced to regenerate by proximal amputation. After more than 750 experimental surgeries in which approximately 85% of the barbel's length was removed, we find that wound healing is complete within hours, followed by blastema formation ( approximately 3 days, epithelial redifferentiation (3-5 days and appendage elongation. Maximum regrowth occurs within 2 weeks of injury. Although superficially normal, the regenerates are shorter and thicker than the contralateral controls, have abnormally organized mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix, and contain prominent connective tissue "stumps" at the plane of section--a mode of regeneration more typical of mammalian scarring than other zebrafish appendages. Finally, we show that the maxillary barbel can regenerate after repeated injury and

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers affect the reproduction and development, and alter the sex ratio of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, X.B.; Yuen, Karen W.Y.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as flame retardants and now become ubiquitous in the global environment. Using zebrafish as a model, we tested the hypothesis that PBDEs may affect the reproduction and development of fish. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (a congener of PBDE commonly found in the environment) throughout their whole life cycle, and the effects of DE-71 on gonadal development, gamete quality, fertilization success, hatching success, embryonic development and sex ratio were investigated. Despite gonadal development was enhanced, reductions in spawning, fertilization success, hatching success and larval survival rate were evident, while significant increases in malformation and percentage of male were also observed in the F1 generation. Our laboratory results suggest that PBDEs may pose a risk to reproductive success and alter the sex ratio of fish in environments highly contaminated with PBDEs. -- Highlights: •Zebrafish were exposed to PBDE from eggs to adults. •An increase in Gonadal-Somatic Index and enhanced gonadal development was enhanced. •Fertilization and hatching successes were reduced, while malformation was increased. •PBDE alters sex differentiation, leading to a male biased F1 population. •Environmental relevant concentrations of PBDE threaten natural fish populations. -- PBDE reduces fertilization and hatching successes, causes malformation and leads to a male biased F1 generation in fish

  19. Adaptive autoimmunity and Foxp3-based immunoregulation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Quintana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jawed vertebrates generate their immune-receptor repertoire by a recombinatorial mechanism that has the potential to produce harmful autoreactive lymphocytes. In mammals, peripheral tolerance to self-antigens is enforced by Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells. Recombinatorial mechanisms also operate in teleosts, but active immunoregulation is thought to be a late incorporation to the vertebrate lineage.Here we report the characterization of adaptive autoimmunity and Foxp3-based immunoregulation in the zebrafish. We found that zebrafish immunization with an homogenate of zebrafish central nervous system (zCNS triggered CNS inflammation and specific antibodies. We cloned the zebrafish ortholog for mammalian Foxp3 (zFoxp3 which induced a regulatory phenotype on mouse T cells and controlled IL-17 production in zebrafish embryos.Our findings demonstrate the acquisition of active mechanisms of self-tolerance early in vertebrate evolution, suggesting that active regulatory mechanisms accompany the development of the molecular potential for adaptive autoimmunity. Moreover, they identify the zebrafish as a tool to study the molecular pathways controlling adaptive immunity.

  20. Natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) suppress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining and hepatocyte proliferation in female zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraugerud, Marianne, E-mail: Marianne.Kraugerud@nvh.no [Dept. of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Doughty, Richard William, E-mail: vetrwdoughty@yahoo.co.uk [Sundveien 22, 2015 Leirsund (Norway); Lyche, Jan L., E-mail: Jan.Lyche@nvh.no [Dept. of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Berg, Vidar, E-mail: Vidar.Berg@nvh.no [Dept. of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Tremoen, Nina H., E-mail: Nina.Hardnes@nvh.no [Dept. of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Alestrom, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Alestrom@nvh.no [Dept. of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Aleksandersen, Mona, E-mail: Mona.Aleksandersen@nvh.no [Dept. of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Ropstad, Erik, E-mail: Erik.Ropstad@nvh.no [Dept. of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are present in high concentrations in livers of burbot (Lota lota) in Lake Mjosa, Norway. In order to assess effects of such pollutants on fish gonadal morphology, female zebrafish were exposed in two generations by food to mixtures of pollutants extracted from livers of burbot from Lake Mjosa (high and low dose) and Lake Losna, which represents background pollution, and compared to a control group. Ovarian follicle counts detected a significant decrease in late vitellogenic follicle stages in fish exposed to the Losna and the high concentrations of Mjosa mixtures in fish from the first generation. In addition, proliferation of granulosa cells, visualized by immunohistochemistry against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), was decreased in all exposure groups in either early or late vitellogenic follicle stages compared to control. This was accompanied by increased apoptosis of granulosa cells. There was a decrease in proliferation of liver hepatocytes with exposure to both Mjosa mixtures. In addition, immunopositivity for vitellogenin in the liver was significantly lower in the Mjosa high group than in the control group. When analysing effects of parental exposure, fish with parents exposed to Mjosa high mixture had significantly higher numbers of perinucleolar follicles than fish with control parents. We conclude that long-term exposure of a real-life mixture of pollutants containing high- and background levels of chemicals supress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining intensity and hepatocyte proliferation in the zebrafish model.

  1. Early experience and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Healthy brain development takes place within the context of individual experience. Here, we describe how certain early experiences are necessary for typical brain development. We present evidence from multiple studies showing that severe early life neglect leads to alterations in brain development, which compromises emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. We also show how early intervention can reverse some of the deleterious effects of neglect on brain development. We conclude by emphasizing that early interventions that start at the earliest possible point in human development are most likely to support maximal recovery from early adverse experiences. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1387. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of a quantitative morphological assessment of toxicant-treated zebrafish larvae using brightfield imaging and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Samantha; Wambaugh, John; Judson, Richard; Mosher, Shad; Radio, Nick; Houck, Keith; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    One of the rate-limiting procedures in a developmental zebrafish screen is the morphological assessment of each larva. Most researchers opt for a time-consuming, structured visual assessment by trained human observer(s). The present studies were designed to develop a more objective, accurate and rapid method for screening zebrafish for dysmorphology. Instead of the very detailed human assessment, we have developed the computational malformation index, which combines the use of high-content imaging with a very brief human visual assessment. Each larva was quickly assessed by a human observer (basic visual assessment), killed, fixed and assessed for dysmorphology with the Zebratox V4 BioApplication using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® V(TI) high-content image analysis platform. The basic visual assessment adds in-life parameters, and the high-content analysis assesses each individual larva for various features (total area, width, spine length, head-tail length, length-width ratio, perimeter-area ratio). In developing the computational malformation index, a training set of hundreds of embryos treated with hundreds of chemicals were visually assessed using the basic or detailed method. In the second phase, we assessed both the stability of these high-content measurements and its performance using a test set of zebrafish treated with a dose range of two reference chemicals (trans-retinoic acid or cadmium). We found the measures were stable for at least 1 week and comparison of these automated measures to detailed visual inspection of the larvae showed excellent congruence. Our computational malformation index provides an objective manner for rapid phenotypic brightfield assessment of individual larva in a developmental zebrafish assay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Carbendazim has the potential to induce oxidative stress, apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption during zebrafish larvae development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhua; Wu, Shenggan; Wang, Yanhua; An, Xuehua; Cai, Leiming; Zhao, Xueping; Wu, Changxing

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence have suggested deleterious effects of carbendazim on reproduction, apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption in mice and rats, however, the developmental toxicity of carbendazim to aquatic organisms remains obscure. In the present study, we utilized zebrafish as an environmental monitoring model to characterize the effects of carbendazim on expression of genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption during larval development. Different trends in gene expression were observed upon exposing the larvae to 4, 20, 100, and 500 μg/L carbendazim for 4 and 8d. The mRNA levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase (CAT, GPX, and Mn/SOD) were up-regulated after exposure to different concentrations of carbendazim for 4 or 8d. The up-regulation of p53, Apaf1, Cas8 and the down-regulation of Bcl2, Mdm2, Cas3 in the apoptosis pathway, as well as the increased expression of cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL-C1C, CCL1, IL-1b, IFN, IL-8, and TNFα, suggested carbendazim might trigger apoptosis and immune response during zebrafish larval development. In addition, the alteration of mRNA expression of VTG, ERα, ERβ1, ERβ2, TRα, TRβ, Dio1, and Dio2 indicated the potential of carbendazim to induce endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. These data suggested that carbendazim could simultaneously induce multiple responses during zebrafish larval development, and bidirectional interactions among oxidative stress, apoptosis pathway, immune and endocrine systems might be present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid disrupting effects of halogenated and next generation chemicals on the swim bladder development of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Amy; Hooser, Blair; Abdelmoneim, Ahmed; Horzmann, Katharine A; Freemanc, Jennifer L; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2017-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter thyroid function and adversely affect growth and development. Halogenated compounds, such as perfluorinated chemicals commonly used in food packaging, and brominated flame retardants used in a broad range of products from clothing to electronics, can act as thyroid disruptors. Due to the adverse effects of these compounds, there is a need for the development of safer next generation chemicals. The objective of this study was to test the thyroid disruption potential of old use and next generation halogenated chemicals. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to three old use compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and two next generation chemicals, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxdie (DOPO) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA). Sub-chronic (0-6days post fertilization (dpf)) and chronic (0-28dpf) exposures were conducted at 1% of the concentration known to kill 50% (LC 50 ) of the population. Changes in the surface area of the swim bladder as well as in expression levels of genes involved in the thyroid control of swim bladder inflation were measured. At 6dpf, zebrafish exposed to all halogenated chemicals, both old use and next generation, had smaller posterior swim bladder and increased expression in the gene encoding thyroid peroxidase, tpo and the genes encoding two swim bladder surfactant proteins, sp-a and sp-c. These results mirrored the effects of thyroid hormone-exposed positive controls. Fish exposed to a TPO inhibitor (methimazole, MMI) had a decrease in tpo expression levels at 28dpf. Effects on the anterior swim bladder at 28dpf, after exposure to MMI as well as both old and new halogenated chemicals, were the same, i.e., absence of SB in ∼50% of fish, which were also of smaller body size. Overall, our results suggest thyroid disruption by the halogenated compounds tested via the swim bladder surfactant system. However

  5. Zebrafish IGF genes: gene duplication, conservation and divergence, and novel roles in midline and notochord development.

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    Shuming Zou

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are key regulators of development, growth, and longevity. In most vertebrate species including humans, there is one IGF-1 gene and one IGF-2 gene. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of 4 distinct IGF genes (termed as igf-1a, -1b, -2a, and -2b in zebrafish. These genes encode 4 structurally distinct and functional IGF peptides. IGF-1a and IGF-2a mRNAs were detected in multiple tissues in adult fish. IGF-1b mRNA was detected only in the gonad and IGF-2b mRNA only in the liver. Functional analysis showed that all 4 IGFs caused similar developmental defects but with different potencies. Many of these embryos had fully or partially duplicated notochords, suggesting that an excess of IGF signaling causes defects in the midline formation and an expansion of the notochord. IGF-2a, the most potent IGF, was analyzed in depth. IGF-2a expression caused defects in the midline formation and expansion of the notochord but it did not alter the anterior neural patterning. These results not only provide new insights into the functional conservation and divergence of the multiple igf genes but also reveal a novel role of IGF signaling in midline formation and notochord development in a vertebrate model.

  6. Temporal and spatial requirements of unplugged/MuSK function during zebrafish neuromuscular development.

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    Lili Jing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest events in neuromuscular junction (NMJ development is the accumulation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR at the center of muscle cells. The unplugged/MuSK (muscle specific tyrosine kinase gene is essential to initiate AChR clustering but also to restrict approaching growth cones to the muscle center, thereby coordinating pre- and postsynaptic development. To determine how unplugged/MuSK signaling coordinates these two processes, we examined the temporal and spatial requirements of unplugged/MuSK in zebrafish embryos using heat-shock inducible transgenes. Here, we show that despite its expression in muscle cells from the time they differentiate, unplugged/MuSK activity is first required just prior to the appearance of AChR clusters to simultaneously induce AChR accumulation and to guide motor axons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of unplugged/MuSK throughout the muscle membrane results in wildtype-like AChR prepattern and neuromuscular synapses in the central region of muscle cells. We propose that AChR prepatterning and axonal guidance are spatio-temporally coordinated through common unplugged/MuSK signals, and that additional factor(s restrict unplugged/MuSK signaling to a central muscle zone critical for establishing mid-muscle synaptogenesis.

  7. Hhip regulates zebrafish muscle development by both sequestering Hedgehog and modulating localization of Smoothened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Haruki; Pearson, Bret J; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Westerfield, Monte

    2006-09-01

    Sharp borders between cells with different developmental fates are important for patterning of invertebrates, but are not well understood in vertebrates. Zebrafish slow muscle cells develop from adaxial cells, a one-cell-diameter-thick pseudo-epithelium immediately adjacent to the notochord. Hedgehog (Hh) signals from notochord specify adaxial cells to form slow muscle cells. Cells next to adaxial cells form fast muscle. This suggests that Hh signaling is locally regulated to produce a sharp border that separates slow and fast muscle precursors. To understand how Hh activity is locally regulated, we characterized the dynamic roles of Hhip, a protein that binds Hedgehog at the cell surface. Hhip is strongly expressed by adaxial cells and, together with Patched, the Hedgehog receptor, limits transduction of the Hedgehog signaling by Smoothened to adaxial cells. Hhip protein lacking its membrane associated domain still suppresses Hh activity but no longer acts synergistically with Patched. Hhip and Smoothened colocalize at the cell surface and, in response to Hedgehog, internalize together. Knockdown of Hhip blocks Smoothened internalization while increasing Hedgehog signaling and slow muscle formation. These data support a model in which Hhip regulates muscle development both by sequestering Hedgehog and by modulating localization of Smoothened.

  8. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on zebrafish embryos and developing retina

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    Ya-Jie Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on embryonic development and retinal neurogenesis. METHODS:The agglomeration and sedimentation of TiO2 NPs solutions at different dilutions were observed, and the ultraviolet-visible spectra of their supernatants were measured. Zebrafish embryos were experimentally exposed to TiO2 NPs until 72h postfertilization (hpf. The retinal neurogenesis and distribution of the microglia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and whole mount in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The1 mg/L was determined to be an appropriate exposure dose. Embryos exposed to TiO2 NPs had a normal phenotype. The neurogenesis was initiated on time, and ganglion cells, cones and rods were well differentiated at 72 hpf. The expression of fms mRNA and the 4C4 antibody, which were specific to microglia in the central nervous system (CNS, closely resembled their endogenous profile. CONCLUSION:These data demonstrate that short-term exposure to TiO2 NPs at a low dose does not lead to delayed embryonic development or retinal neurotoxicity.

  9. Family Influences on Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the literature concerning family influences on early childhood development. Implications of this literature for intervention planning with high risk children and families are suggested. Topics covered include the early parent-child relationship, disciplinary strategies, stimulation, parental instruction and expectations, the…

  10. Effects of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) on neuronal and muscular development in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vincent Wai Tsun; Tsui, Mei Po Mirabelle; Chen, Xueping; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Jin, Ling; Lam, Raymond H W; Yu, Richard Man Kit; Murphy, Margaret B; Cheng, Jinping; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2016-05-01

    The negative effects of overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in humans, including sunburn and light-induced cellular injury, are of increasing public concern. 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), an organic chemical UV filter, is an active ingredient in sunscreen products. To date, little information is available about its neurotoxicity during early vertebrate development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of 4-MBC in embryo medium for 3 days. In this study, a high concentration of 4-MBC, which is not being expected at the current environmental concentrations in the environment, was used for the purpose of phenotypic screening. Embryos exposed to 15 μM of 4-MBC displayed abnormal axial curvature and exhibited impaired motility. Exposure effects were found to be greatest during the segmentation period, when somite formation and innervation occur. Immunostaining of the muscle and axon markers F59, znp1, and zn5 revealed that 4-MBC exposure leads to a disorganized pattern of slow muscle fibers and axon pathfinding errors during the innervation of both primary and secondary motor neurons. Our results also showed reduction in AChE activity upon 4-MBC exposure both in vivo in the embryos (15 μM) and in vitro in mammalian Neuro-2A cells (0.1 μM), providing a possible mechanism for 4-MBC-induced muscular and neuronal defects. Taken together, our results have shown that 4-MBC is a teratogen and influences muscular and neuronal development, which may result in developmental defects.

  11. Notch-Regulated Oligodendrocyte Specification From Radial Glia in the Spinal Cord of Zebrafish Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho; Shin, Jimann; Kim, Suhyun; Poling, Justin; Park, Hae-Chul; Appel, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    During vertebrate neural development, many dividing neuroepithelial precursors adopt features of radial glia, which are now known to also serve as neural precursors. In mammals, most radial glia do not persist past early postnatal stages, whereas zebrafish maintain large numbers of radial glia into adulthood. The mechanisms that maintain and specify radial glia for different fates are still poorly understood. We investigated formation of radial glia in the spinal cord of zebrafish and the rol...

  12. Hypoxia-induced metastasis model in embryonic zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouhi, Pegah; Jensen, Lasse D.; Cao, Ziquan

    2010-01-01

    of the early events of tumor cell invasion and dissemination in living animals. We recently developed a zebrafish metastasis model to dissect the detailed events of hypoxia-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis in association with angiogenesis at the single-cell level. In this model, fluorescent Di...

  13. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

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    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  14. Differences in expression pattern and function between zebrafish hoxc13 orthologs: recruitment of Hoxc13b into an early embryonic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummel, Ryan; Li, Li; Tanase, Carmen; Sarras, Michael P; Godwin, Alan R

    2004-10-15

    Vertebrate Hox genes are generally believed to initiate expression at the primitive streak or early neural plate stages. The timing and spatial restrictions of the Hox expression patterns during these stages correlate well with their demonstrated role in axial patterning. Here we demonstrate that one zebrafish hoxc13 ortholog, hoxc13a, has an expression pattern in the developing tail bud that is consistent with the gene playing a role in axial patterning. However, the second hoxc13 ortholog, hoxc13b, is maternally expressed and is detectable in every cell of early cleavage embryos through gastrulae. In addition, both transcript and protein are detectable at these stages. At 19 h post fertilization (hpf), hoxc13b expression is up-regulated in the tail bud, becoming restricted to the tail bud by 24 hpf. Importantly, by 24 hpf, hoxc13b morphants show a specific developmental delay, which can be rescued by co-injecting synthetic capped hoxc13a or hoxc13b message. These data suggest some functional divergence due to altered expression patterns of the two hoxc13 orthologs after duplication. Further characterization of the hoxc13b morphant delay reveals that it is biphasic in nature, with the first phase of the delay occurring before gastrulation, suggesting a new role for vertebrate Hox genes before their conserved role in axial patterning. The extent of the delay does not change through 20 hpf; however, an additional delay emerges at this time. Notably, this second phase of the delay correlates with hoxc13b expression pattern becoming restricted to the tail bud.

  15. A zebrafish model of congenital disorders of glycosylation with phosphomannose isomerase deficiency reveals an early opportunity for corrective mannose supplementation

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    Jaime Chu

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG have recessive mutations in genes required for protein N-glycosylation, resulting in multi-systemic disease. Despite the well-characterized biochemical consequences in these individuals, the underlying cellular defects that contribute to CDG are not well understood. Synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO, which serves as the sugar donor for the N-glycosylation of secretory proteins, requires conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to mannose-6-phosphate via the phosphomannose isomerase (MPI enzyme. Individuals who are deficient in MPI present with bleeding, diarrhea, edema, gastrointestinal bleeding and liver fibrosis. MPI-CDG patients can be treated with oral mannose supplements, which is converted to mannose-6-phosphate through a minor complementary metabolic pathway, restoring protein glycosylation and ameliorating most symptoms, although liver disease continues to progress. Because Mpi deletion in mice causes early embryonic lethality and thus is difficult to study, we used zebrafish to establish a model of MPI-CDG. We used a morpholino to block mpi mRNA translation and established a concentration that consistently yielded 13% residual Mpi enzyme activity at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf, which is within the range of MPI activity detected in fibroblasts from MPI-CDG patients. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis detected decreased LLO and N-glycans in mpi morphants. These deficiencies resulted in 50% embryonic lethality by 4 dpf. Multi-systemic abnormalities, including small eyes, dysmorphic jaws, pericardial edema, a small liver and curled tails, occurred in 82% of the surviving larvae. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued with mannose supplementation. Thus, parallel processes in fish and humans contribute to the phenotypes caused by Mpi depletion. Interestingly, mannose was only effective if provided prior to 24 hpf. These data provide insight into treatment efficacy

  16. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  17. Spatiotemporal manipulation of retinoic acid activity in zebrafish hindbrain development via photo-isomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Feng, Zhiping; Sinha, Deepak; Ducos, Bertrand; Ebenstein, Yuval; Tadmor, Arbel D; Gauron, Carole; Le Saux, Thomas; Lin, Shuo; Weiss, Shimon; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    2012-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a key player in many developmental pathways. Most methods used to study its effects in development involve continuous all-trans RA activation by incubation in a solution of all-trans RA or by implanting all-trans RA-soaked beads at desired locations in the embryo. Here we show that the UV-driven photo-isomerization of 13-cis RA to the trans-isomer (and vice versa) can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively control the concentration of all-trans RA in a developing embryo in time and space. This facilitates the global or local perturbation of developmental pathways with a pulse of all-trans RA of known concentration or its inactivation by UV illumination. In zebrafish embryos in which endogenous synthesis of all-trans RA is impaired, incubation for as little as 5 minutes in 1 nM all-trans RA (a pulse) or 5 nM 13-cis RA followed by 1-minute UV illumination is sufficient to rescue the development of the hindbrain if performed no later than bud stage. However, if subsequent to this all-trans RA pulse the embryo is illuminated (no later than bud stage) for 1 minute with UV light (to isomerize, i.e. deactivate, all-trans RA), the rescue of hindbrain development is impaired. This suggests that all-trans RA is sequestered in embryos that have been transiently exposed to it. Using 13-cis RA isomerization with UV light, we further show that local illumination at bud stage of the head region (but not the tail) is sufficient to rescue hindbrain formation in embryos whose all-trans RA synthetic pathway has been impaired.

  18. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

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    Chris eMurgatroyd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood.To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.

  19. MicroRNA-200 family members are weakly expressed in the neurosensory epithelia of the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J T; Cao, H; Zhou, W; Chen, K T; Jiang, D; Tang, H C; Wang, X R; Zhang, X M; Jiang, H Y

    2014-06-09

    MicroRNA-200 family members are expressed in the developing mouse inner ear and in zebrafish (Danio rerio) olfactory epithelia, taste buds, and neuromasts, and have also been shown to be associated with differentiation of olfactory and taste buds. However, the role of the miR-200 family in the inner ear of zebrafish had not been studied. We investigated the expression and function of the miR-200 family in the zebrafish inner ear via in situ hybridization and loss-of-function methods. Expression of the miR-200 family was weak and dispersed throughout the developing zebrafish inner ear. After knockdown of miR-200 family members in the developing inner ear, no significant differences in development were observed compared to the controls. Otic vesicles, otoliths, and semicircular canals appeared normal. Compared with less differentiated olfactory filaments in olfactory epithelia, the development of hair cells and statoacoustic ganglion neurons were normal. The kinocilia and stereocilia of hair cells, the innervation of hair cells, and the formation of ribbon synapses were also unaffected. Overall, we conclude that the miR-200 family has a negligible role in the development of zebrafish inner ear; the functions of the miR- 200 family may be organ-specific.

  20. Cell adhesion in zebrafish embryos is modulated by March 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ha; Rebbert, Martha L; Ro, Hyunju; Won, Minho; Dawid, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    March 8 is a member of a family of transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases that have been studied mostly for their role in the immune system. We find that March 8 is expressed in the zebrafish egg and early embryo, suggesting a role in development. Both knock-down and overexpression of March 8 leads to abnormal development. The phenotype of zebrafish embryos and Xenopus animal explants overexpressing March 8 implicates impairment of cell adhesion as a cause of the effect. In zebrafish embryos and in cultured cells, overexpression of March 8 leads to a reduction in the surface levels of E-cadherin, a major cell-cell adhesion molecule. Experiments in cell culture further show that E-cadherin can be ubiquitinated by March 8. On the basis of these observations we suggest that March 8 functions in the embryo to modulate the strength of cell adhesion by regulating the localization of E-cadherin.

  1. Phenothiourea sensitizes zebrafish cranial neural crest and extraocular muscle development to changes in retinoic acid and IGF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bohnsack

    Full Text Available 1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM, PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF regulation of neural crest and mesodermal components of craniofacial development. Reduction of retinoic acid synthesis by the pan-aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor diethylbenzaldehyde, only when combined with 0.003% PTU, resulted in extraocular muscle disorganization. PTU also decreased retinoic acid-induced teratogenic effects on pharyngeal arch and jaw cartilage despite morphologically normal appearing PTU-treated controls. Furthermore, 0.003% PTU in combination with inhibition of IGF signaling through either morpholino knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor phosphorylation, disrupted jaw development and extraocular muscle organization. PTU in and of itself inhibited neural crest development at higher concentrations (0.03% and had the greatest inhibitory effect when added prior to 22 hours post fertilization (hpf. Addition of 0.003% PTU between 4 and 20 hpf decreased thyroxine (T4 in thyroid follicles in the nasopharynx of 96 hpf embryos. Treatment with exogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and T4 improved, but did not completely rescue, PTU-induced neural crest defects. Thus, PTU should be used with caution when studying zebrafish embryogenesis as it alters the threshold of different signaling pathways important during craniofacial development. The effects of PTU on neural crest development are partially caused by thyroid hormone signaling.

  2. Rotation and asymmetric development of the zebrafish heart requires directed migration of cardiac progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Kelly A.; Chocron, Sonja; von der Hardt, Sophia; de Pater, Emma; Soufan, Alexander; Bussmann, Jeroen; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    We have used high-resolution 4D imaging of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in zebrafish to investigate the earliest left-right asymmetric movements during cardiac morphogenesis. Differential migratory behavior within the heart field was observed, resulting in a rotation of the heart tube. The

  3. Zebrafish B Cell Development without a Pre-B Cell Stage, Revealed by CD79 Fluorescence Reporter Transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjun; Li, Yue-Sheng; Shinton, Susan A; Rhodes, Jennifer; Tang, Lingjuan; Feng, Hui; Jette, Cicely A; Look, A Thomas; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Hardy, Richard R

    2017-09-01

    CD79a and CD79b proteins associate with Ig receptors as integral signaling components of the B cell Ag receptor complex. To study B cell development in zebrafish, we isolated orthologs of these genes and performed in situ hybridization, finding that their expression colocalized with IgH-μ in the kidney, which is the site of B cell development. CD79 transgenic lines were made by linking the promoter and upstream regulatory segments of CD79a and CD79b to enhanced GFP to identify B cells, as demonstrated by PCR analysis of IgH-μ expression in sorted cells. We crossed these CD79-GFP lines to a recombination activating gene (Rag)2:mCherry transgenic line to identify B cell development stages in kidney marrow. Initiation of CD79:GFP expression in Rag2:mCherry + cells and the timing of Ig H and L chain expression revealed simultaneous expression of both IgH-μ- and IgL-κ-chains, without progressing through the stage of IgH-μ-chain alone. Rag2:mCherry + cells without CD79:GFP showed the highest Rag1 and Rag2 mRNAs compared with CD79a and CD79b:GFP + B cells, which showed strongly reduced Rag mRNAs. Thus, B cell development in zebrafish does not go through a Rag hi CD79 + IgH-μ + pre-B cell stage, different from mammals. After the generation of CD79:GFP + B cells, decreased CD79 expression occurred upon differentiation to Ig secretion, as detected by alteration from membrane to secreted IgH-μ exon usage, similar to in mammals. This confirmed a conserved role for CD79 in B cell development and differentiation, without the requirement of a pre-B cell stage in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  5. N-cadherin regulates primary motor axon growth and branching during zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusés, Juan L

    2011-06-15

    N-cadherin is a classical type I cadherin that contributes to the formation of neural circuits by regulating growth cone migration and the formation of synaptic contacts. This study analyzed the role of N-cadherin in primary motor axons growth during development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. After exiting the spinal cord, primary motor axons migrate ventrally through a common pathway and form the first neuromuscular junction with the muscle pioneer cells located at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a choice point for cell-type-specific pathway selection. Analysis of N-cadherin mutants (cdh2(hi3644Tg) ) and embryos injected with N-cadherin antisense morpholinos showed primary motor axons extending aberrant axonal branches at the choice point in ∼40% of the somitic hemisegments and an ∼150% increase in the number of branches per axon length within the ventral myotome. Analysis of individual axons trajectories showed that the caudal (CaP) and rostral (RoP) motor neurons axons formed aberrant branches at the choice point that abnormally extended in the rostrocaudal axis and ventrally to the horizontal myoseptum. Expression of a dominant-interfering N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain in primary motor neurons caused some axons to stall abnormally at the horizontal myoseptum and to impair their migration into the ventral myotome. However, in N-cadherin-depleted embryos, the majority of primary motor axons innervated their appropriate myotomal territories, indicating that N-cadherin regulates motor axon growth and branching without severely affecting the mechanisms that control axonal target selection. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. CERKL knockdown causes retinal degeneration in zebrafish.

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    Marina Riera

    Full Text Available The human CERKL gene is responsible for common and severe forms of retinal dystrophies. Despite intense in vitro studies at the molecular and cellular level and in vivo analyses of the retina of murine knockout models, CERKL function remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to approach the developmental and functional features of cerkl in Danio rerio within an Evo-Devo framework. We show that gene expression increases from early developmental stages until the formation of the retina in the optic cup. Unlike the high mRNA-CERKL isoform multiplicity shown in mammals, the moderate transcriptional complexity in fish facilitates phenotypic studies derived from gene silencing. Moreover, of relevance to pathogenicity, teleost CERKL shares the two main human protein isoforms. Morpholino injection has been used to generate a cerkl knockdown zebrafish model. The morphant phenotype results in abnormal eye development with lamination defects, failure to develop photoreceptor outer segments, increased apoptosis of retinal cells and small eyes. Our data support that zebrafish Cerkl does not interfere with proliferation and neural differentiation during early developmental stages but is relevant for survival and protection of the retinal tissue. Overall, we propose that this zebrafish model is a powerful tool to unveil CERKL contribution to human retinal degeneration.

  7. Disruption of the folate pathway in zebrafish causes developmental defects

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    Lee Marina S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and congenital heart defects. The biological mechanisms through which folate prevents birth defects are not well understood. We explore the use of zebrafish as a model system to investigate the role of folate metabolism during development. Results We first identified zebrafish orthologs of 12 human folate metabolic genes. RT-PCR and in situ analysis indicated maternal transcripts supply the embryo with mRNA so that the embryo has an intact folate pathway. To perturb folate metabolism we exposed zebrafish embryos to methotrexate (MTX, a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (Dhfr an essential enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. Embryos exposed to high doses of MTX exhibited developmental arrest prior to early segmentation. Lower doses of MTX resulted in embryos with a shortened anterior-posterior axis and cardiac defects: linear heart tubes or incomplete cardiac looping. Inhibition of dhfr mRNA with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in embryonic lethality. One function of the folate pathway is to provide essential one-carbon units for dTMP synthesis, a rate-limiting step of DNA synthesis. After 24 hours of exposure to high levels of MTX, mutant embryos continue to incorporate the thymidine analog BrdU. However, additional experiments indicate that these embryos have fewer mitotic cells, as assayed with phospho-histone H3 antibodies, and that treated embryos have perturbed cell cycles. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that human and zebrafish utilize similar one-carbon pathways. Our data indicate that folate metabolism is essential for early zebrafish development. Zebrafish studies of the folate pathway and its deficiencies could provide insight into the underlying etiology of human birth defects and the natural role of folate in development.

  8. Harmonin (Ush1c is required in zebrafish Müller glial cells for photoreceptor synaptic development and function

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    Jennifer B. Phillips

    2011-11-01

    Usher syndrome is the most prevalent cause of hereditary deaf-blindness, characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and progressive photoreceptor degeneration beginning in childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis and management of this disease are complex, and the molecular changes underlying sensory cell impairment remain poorly understood. Here we characterize two zebrafish models for a severe form of Usher syndrome, Usher syndrome type 1C (USH1C: one model is a mutant with a newly identified ush1c nonsense mutation, and the other is a morpholino knockdown of ush1c. Both have defects in hearing, balance and visual function from the first week of life. Histological analyses reveal specific defects in sensory cell structure that are consistent with these behavioral phenotypes and could implicate Müller glia in the retinal pathology of Usher syndrome. This study shows that visual defects associated with loss of ush1c function in zebrafish can be detected from the onset of vision, and thus could be applicable to early diagnosis for USH1C patients.

  9. Retinoic Acid Protects and Rescues the Development of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Photoreceptor Cells from Exposure to Paclobutrazol

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    Wen-Der Wang; Hwei-Jan Hsu; Yi-Fang Li; Chang-Yi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a widely used fungicide that shows toxicity to aquatic embryos, probably through rain-wash. Here, we specifically focus on its toxic effect on eye development in zebrafish, as well as the role of retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A that controls proliferation and differentiation of retinal photoreceptor cells, in this toxicity. Embryos were exposed to PBZ with or without RA from 2 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf), and PBZ-treated embryos (2?72 hpf) were expose...

  10. Natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) suppress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining and hepatocyte proliferation in female zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Doughty, Richard William; Lyche, Jan L.; Berg, Vidar; Tremoen, Nina H.; Alestrøm, Peter; Aleksandersen, Mona; Ropstad, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are present in high concentrations in livers of burbot (Lota lota) in Lake Mjøsa, Norway. In order to assess effects of such pollutants on fish gonadal morphology, female zebrafish were exposed in two generations by food to mixtures of pollutants extracted from livers of burbot from Lake Mjøsa (high and low dose) and Lake Losna, which represents background pollution, and compared to a control group. Ovarian follicle counts detected a significant decrease in late vitellogenic follicle stages in fish exposed to the Losna and the high concentrations of Mjøsa mixtures in fish from the first generation. In addition, proliferation of granulosa cells, visualized by immunohistochemistry against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), was decreased in all exposure groups in either early or late vitellogenic follicle stages compared to control. This was accompanied by increased apoptosis of granulosa cells. There was a decrease in proliferation of liver hepatocytes with exposure to both Mjøsa mixtures. In addition, immunopositivity for vitellogenin in the liver was significantly lower in the Mjøsa high group than in the control group. When analysing effects of parental exposure, fish with parents exposed to Mjøsa high mixture had significantly higher numbers of perinucleolar follicles than fish with control parents. We conclude that long-term exposure of a real-life mixture of pollutants containing high- and background levels of chemicals supress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining intensity and hepatocyte proliferation in the zebrafish model.

  11. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on lead bioconcentration and toxicity on thyroid endocrine system and neuronal development in zebrafish larvae.

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    Miao, Wei; Zhu, Biran; Xiao, Xiaohong; Li, Ying; Dirbaba, Niguse Bekele; Zhou, Bingsheng; Wu, Hongjuan

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention because of their wide range of applications. Interactions between heavy metals (e.g., Pb) and NPs in aquatic environments may modify the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of NPs (e.g., nano-TiO2) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Pb and its effects in the thyroid endocrine and nervous systems of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Zebrafish embryos (2-h post-fertilization) were exposed to five concentrations of Pb alone (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30μg/L) or in combination with nano-TiO2 (0.1mg/L) until 6 days post-fertilization. Results showed that the bioconcentration of Pb was significantly enhanced when combined with nano-TiO2 than when used alone. Zebrafish exposure to Pb alone at 30μg/L significantly decreased the thyroid hormone levels (T4 and T3), whereas nano-TiO2 treatment alone did not produce detectable changes. The levels of T4 and T3 were further decreased when Pb was combined with nano-TiO2 than when used alone. The transcription of the thyroid hormone-related factor tg gene was remarkably down-regulated by Pb treatment alone but up-regulated when Pb was combined with nano-TiO2. The significant up-regulation of tshβ gene and the down-regulation of TTR gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid were observed in Pb with or without nano-TiO2 treatment groups. In addition, the transcription of genes involved in central nervous system (CNS) development (α-tubulin, mbp, gfap and shha) were significantly down-regulated by Pb and nano-TiO2 co-exposure as compared with Pb exposure alone. The locomotion activity analyzes confirmed that nano-TiO2 might enhance the toxicity of Pb to CNS development. These results suggest that nano-TiO2 increase bioconcentration of lead, which lead to the disruption of thyroid endocrine and neuronal system in zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxic effects of {sup 56}Fe ion radiation on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development

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    Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Song, Jing’e [Hospital of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gan, Lu; Zhou, Xin; Di, Cuixia; Liu, Yang; Mao, Aihong; Zhao, Qiuyue; Wang, Yupei [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@impcas.ac.cn [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Wuwei Institute of Medical Sciences, Wuwei 733000 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Iron ion radiation induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • The mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes displayed more sensitivity than the developmental toxicity. • Iron ion radiation induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryos potentially due to DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. - Abstract: All living organisms and ecosystems are permanently exposed to ionizing radiation. Of all the types of ionizing radiation, heavy ions such as {sup 56}Fe have the potential to cause the most severe biological effects. We therefore examined the effects and potential mechanisms of iron ion irradiation on the induction of developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 4 h post-fertilization (hpf) were divided into five groups: a control group; and four groups irradiated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 Gy radiation, respectively. Mortality and teratogenesis were significantly increased, and spontaneous movement, heart rate, and swimming distance were decreased in the irradiated groups, accompanied by increased apoptosis. mRNA levels of genes involved in the apoptotic pathway, including p53, bax, bcl-2, and caspase-3, were significantly affected by radiation exposure. Moreover, protein expression levels of P53 and Bcl-2 changed in accordance with the corresponding mRNA expression levels. In addition, we detected the protein expression levels of γ-H2AX, which is a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, and found that γ-H2AX protein levels were significantly increased in the irradiated groups. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of the mechanisms of iron ion radiation-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis, potentially involving the induction of DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. The findings of this study may aid future impact assessment of environmental radioactivity in fish.

  13. Teratogenicity of Ochratoxin A and the Degradation Product, Ochratoxin α, in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio Embryo Model of Vertebrate Development

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    Mehreen Haq

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxins, and particularly ochratoxin A (OTA, are toxic fungal-derived contaminants of food and other agricultural products. Growing evidence supports the degradation of OTA by chemical, enzymatic and/or microbial means as a potential approach to remove this mycotoxin from food products. In particular, hydrolysis of OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα and phenylalanine is the presumptive product of degradation in most cases. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio embryo, as a model of vertebrate development to evaluate, the teratogenicity of OTA and OTα. These studies show that OTA is potently active in the zebrafish embryo toxicity assay (ZETA, and that toxicity is both concentration- and time-dependent with discernible and quantifiable developmental toxicity observed at nanomolar concentrations. On the other hand, OTα had no significant effect on embryo development at all concentrations tested supporting a decreased toxicity of this degradation product. Taken together, these results suggest that ZETA is a useful, and highly sensitive, tool for evaluating OTA toxicity, as well as its degradation products, toward development of effective detoxification strategies. Specifically, the results obtained with ZETA, in the present study, further demonstrate the toxicity of OTA, and support its degradation via hydrolysis to OTα as an effective means of detoxification.

  14. Zebrafish sox9b is crucial for hepatopancreatic duct development and pancreatic endocrine cell regeneration.

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    Manfroid, Isabelle; Ghaye, Aurélie; Naye, François; Detry, Nathalie; Palm, Sarah; Pan, Luyuan; Ma, Taylur P; Huang, Wei; Rovira, Meritxell; Martial, Joseph A; Parsons, Michael J; Moens, Cecilia B; Voz, Marianne L; Peers, Bernard

    2012-06-15

    Recent zebrafish studies have shown that the late appearing pancreatic endocrine cells are derived from pancreatic ducts but the regulatory factors involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the zebrafish sox9b gene is expressed in pancreatic ducts where it labels the pancreatic Notch-responsive cells previously shown to be progenitors. Inactivation of sox9b disturbs duct formation and impairs regeneration of beta cells from these ducts in larvae. sox9b expression in the midtrunk endoderm appears at the junction of the hepatic and ventral pancreatic buds and, by the end of embryogenesis, labels the hepatopancreatic ductal system as well as the intrapancreatic and intrahepatic ducts. Ductal morphogenesis and differentiation are specifically disrupted in sox9b mutants, with the dysmorphic hepatopancreatic ducts containing misdifferentiated hepatocyte-like and pancreatic-like cells. We also show that maintenance of sox9b expression in the extrapancreatic and intrapancreatic ducts requires FGF and Notch activity, respectively, both pathways known to prevent excessive endocrine differentiation in these ducts. Furthermore, beta cell recovery after specific ablation is severely compromised in sox9b mutant larvae. Our data position sox9b as a key player in the generation of secondary endocrine cells deriving from pancreatic ducts in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of cytochrome P450 1 genes and stress response genes in developing zebrafish exposed to ultraviolet radiation

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    Behrendt, Lars [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Joensson, Maria E. [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University (Sweden); Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damages cell molecules, and has been suggested to up-regulate mammalian cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) genes through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated mechanism. In this study, embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to UV to determine the effects on expression of CYP1 and stress response genes in vivo in these fish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed for varying times to UV on two consecutive days, with exposure beginning at 24 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf). Embryos exposed for 2, 4 or 6 h twice over 2 days to UVB (0.62 W/m{sup 2}; 8.9-26.7 kJ/m{sup 2}) plus UVA (2.05 W/m{sup 2}; 29.5-144.6 kJ/m{sup 2}) had moderately (2.4 {+-} 0.8-fold) but significantly up-regulated levels of CYP1A. UVA alone had no effect on CYP1A expression. Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) transcript levels were induced (2.1 {+-} 0.2 and 2.3 {+-} 0.5-fold, respectively) in embryos exposed to two 6-h pulses of 0.62 W/m{sup 2} UVB (26.8 kJ/m{sup 2}). CYP1A was induced also in embryos exposed to higher intensity UVB (0.93 W/m{sup 2}) for two 3-h or two 4-h pulses (20.1 or 26.8 kJ/m{sup 2}). CYP1B1, SOD1 and PCNA expression was induced by the two 3-h pulses of the higher intensity UVB, but not after two 4-h pulses of the higher intensity UVB, possibly due to impaired condition of surviving embryos, reflected in a mortality of 34% at that UVB dose. A single 8-h long exposure of zebrafish larvae (8 dpf) to UVB at 0.93 W/m{sup 2} (26.8 kJ/m{sup 2}) significantly induced CYP1A and CYP1B1 expression, but other CYP1 genes (CYP1C1, CYP1C2 and CYP1D1) showed no significant increase. The results show that UVB can induce expression of CYP1 genes as well stress response genes in developing zebrafish, and that UVB intensity and duration influence the responses.

  16. Identification and characterization of two zebrafish nectin-1 genes that are differentially expressed in the developing eye and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvik, Jon Vidar; Rødahl, Eyvind; Drivenes, Øyvind; Haarr, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Nectins are cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin type that play important roles in the development of the nervous system. We have characterized two paralogous zebrafish nectin-1 genes, nectin-1a and nectin-1b, that differ in expression. Nectin-1a expression is first found in the anterior neural keel and later in the optic cup. In the retina, nectin-1a appears in the outer part and extends inwards, while nectin-1b starts in the inner part and spreads outwards. Only nectin-1a was detected in the cornea, the lens, and in the region of photoreceptor cell differentiation in the retina. Both genes were expressed in ganglion cells and inner nuclear neurons. In the brain, nectin-1a was restricted to the epiphysis and a cluster of cells in the posterior hindbrain, whereas nectin-1b was found in several brain areas. Zebrafish may, therefore, be a useful model for identifying different functions of nectin-1 in the developing eye and nervous system. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Bioconcentration and metabolism of BDE-209 in the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and impact on the thyroid endocrine system and neuronal development in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangwei; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Peng; Li, Wenwen; Wang, Junxia; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Xianfeng; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between organic toxicants and nanoparticles (NPs) in the aquatic environment may modify toxicant bioavailability and consequently the toxicant's environmental fate and toxicity. Therefore, we investigated the influence of titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) on deca-BDE (BDE-209; a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener) bioconcentration, metabolism and its effects on the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of BDE-209 alone or in combination with nano-TiO2 (0.1 mg/L) until 7-day post-fertilization. Nano-TiO2 can adsorb BDE-209 and nano-TiO2 is taken up into developing zebrafish larvae. Chemical measurements showed that BDE-209 was bioconcentrated and metabolized in zebrafish larvae, and BDE-209 uptake was enhanced by nano-TiO2. Furthermore, increased BDE-209 metabolites were detected in larvae co-exposed with nano-TiO2. BDE-209 exposure significantly increased whole-body thyroid hormone contents (T3 and T4); T4 content significantly increased in the larvae co-exposed with nano-TiO2. Nano-TiO2 exposure alone did not induce generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidative oxidation, gene transcription or thyroid hormone levels. Upregulation of several gene transcriptions (tshβ, tg, dio2) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was also observed. Furthermore, co-exposure of nano-TiO2 and BDE-209 caused a decrease in locomotion activity and downregulation of specific genes and proteins involved in the central nervous system of developing zebrafish larvae (e.g. myelin basic protein and α1-tubulin). These results indicate nano-TiO2 enhances BDE-209 bioavailability and metabolism, leading to thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

  18. Calpain Inhibition Is Protective in Machado-Joseph Disease Zebrafish Due to Induction of Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchon, Maxinne; Yuan, Kristy C; Mackovski, Nick; Svahn, Adam J; Cole, Nicholas J; Goldsbury, Claire; Rinkwitz, Silke; Becker, Thomas S; Nicholson, Garth A; Laird, Angela S

    2017-08-09

    The neurodegenerative disease Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxin-3, affects neurons of the brain and spinal cord, disrupting control of the movement of muscles. We have successfully established the first transgenic zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) model of MJD by expressing human ataxin-3 protein containing either 23 glutamines (23Q, wild-type) or 84Q (MJD-causing) within neurons. Phenotypic characterization of the zebrafish (male and female) revealed that the ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish have decreased survival compared with ataxin-3-23Q and develop ataxin-3 neuropathology, ataxin-3 cleavage fragments and motor impairment. Ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish swim shorter distances than ataxin-3-23Q zebrafish as early as 6 days old, even if expression of the human ataxin-3 protein is limited to motor neurons. This swimming phenotype provides a valuable readout for drug treatment studies. Treating the EGFP-ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish with the calpain inhibitor compound calpeptin decreased levels of ataxin-3 cleavage fragments, but also removed all human ataxin-3 protein (confirmed by ELISA) and prevented the early MJD zebrafish motor phenotype. We identified that this clearance of ataxin-3 protein by calpeptin treatment resulted from an increase in autophagic flux (indicated by decreased p62 levels and increased LC3II). Cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine blocked the decrease in human ataxin-3 levels and the improved movement produced by calpeptin treatment. This study demonstrates that this first transgenic zebrafish model of MJD is a valuable tool for testing potential treatments for MJD. Calpeptin treatment is protective in this model of MJD and removal of human ataxin-3 through macro-autophagy plays an important role in this beneficial effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We have established the first transgenic zebrafish model of the neurodegenerative disease MJD, and identified relevant disease phenotypes, including impaired movement from an early

  19. Genomic and Functional Analysis of the Toxic Effect of Tachyplesin I on the Embryonic Development of Zebrafish

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    Hongya Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tachyplesin I (TP I is an antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab. With the developments of DNA microarray technology, the genetic analysis of the toxic effect of TP I on embryo was originally considered in our recent study. Based on our microarray data of the embryonic samples of zebrafish treated with the different doses of TP I, we performed a series of statistical data analyses to explore the toxic effect of TP I at the genomic level. In this paper, we first employed the hexaMplot to illustrate the continuous variation of the gene expressions of the embryonic cells treated with the different doses of TP I. The probabilistic model-based Hough transform was used to classify these differentially coexpressed genes of TP I on the zebrafish embryos. As a result, three line rays supported with the corresponding 174 genes were detected in our analysis. Some biological processes of the featured genes, such as antigen processing, nuclear chromatin, and structural constituent of eye lens, were significantly filtered with the smaller P values.

  20. Reprimo tissue-specific expression pattern is conserved between zebrafish and human.

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    Ricardo J Figueroa

    Full Text Available Reprimo (RPRM, a member of the RPRM gene family, is a tumor-suppressor gene involved in the regulation of the p53-mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M. RPRM has been associated with malignant tumor progression and proposed as a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. However, the expression and role of RPRM, as well as its family, are poorly understood and their physiology is as yet unstudied. In this scenario, a model system like the zebrafish could serve to dissect the role of the RPRM family members in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that RPRM and RPRML have been differentially retained by most species throughout vertebrate evolution, yet RPRM3 has been retained only in a small group of distantly related species, including zebrafish. Herein, we characterized the spatiotemporal expression of RPRM (present in zebrafish as an infraclass duplication rprma/rprmb, RPRML and RPRM3 in the zebrafish. By whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, we demonstrate that rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml show a similar spatiotemporal expression profile during zebrafish development. At early developmental stages rprmb is expressed in somites. After one day post-fertilization, rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml are expressed in the notochord, brain, blood vessels and digestive tube. On the other hand, rprm3 shows the most unique expression profile, being expressed only in the central nervous system (CNS. We assessed the expression patterns of RPRM gene transcripts in adult zebrafish and human RPRM protein product in tissue samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining, respectively. Strikingly, tissue-specific expression patterns of the RPRM transcripts and protein are conserved between zebrafish and humans. We propose the zebrafish as a powerful tool to elucidate the both physiological and pathological roles of the RPRM gene family.

  1. Differential maturation of rhythmic clock gene expression during early development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Ines H; Lahiri, Kajori; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Loosli, Felix; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Vallone, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    One key challenge for the field of chronobiology is to identify how circadian clock function emerges during early embryonic development. Teleosts such as the zebrafish are ideal models for studying circadian clock ontogeny since the entire process of development occurs ex utero in an optically transparent chorion. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) represents another powerful fish model for exploring early clock function with, like the zebrafish, many tools available for detailed genetic analysis. However, to date there have been no reports documenting circadian clock gene expression during medaka development. Here we have characterized the expression of key clock genes in various developmental stages and in adult tissues of medaka. As previously reported for other fish, light dark cycles are required for the emergence of clock gene expression rhythms in this species. While rhythmic expression of per and cry genes is detected very early during development and seems to be light driven, rhythmic clock and bmal expression appears much later around hatching time. Furthermore, the maturation of clock function seems to correlate with the appearance of rhythmic expression of these positive elements of the clock feedback loop. By accelerating development through elevated temperatures or by artificially removing the chorion, we show an earlier onset of rhythmicity in clock and bmal expression. Thus, differential maturation of key elements of the medaka clock mechanism depends on the developmental stage and the presence of the chorion.

  2. Mutagenesis Screen Identifies agtpbp1 and eps15L1 as Essential for T lymphocyte Development in Zebrafish.

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    Christoph Seiler

    Full Text Available Genetic screens are a powerful tool to discover genes that are important in immune cell development and function. The evolutionarily conserved development of lymphoid cells paired with the genetic tractability of zebrafish make this a powerful model system for this purpose. We used a Tol2-based gene-breaking transposon to induce mutations in the zebrafish (Danio rerio, AB strain genome, which served the dual purpose of fluorescently tagging cells and tissues that express the disrupted gene and provided a means of identifying the disrupted gene. We identified 12 lines in which hematopoietic tissues expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP during embryonic development, as detected by microscopy. Subsequent analysis of young adult fish, using a novel approach in which single cell suspensions of whole fish were analyzed by flow cytometry, revealed that 8 of these lines also exhibited GFP expression in young adult cells. An additional 15 lines that did not have embryonic GFP+ hematopoietic tissue by microscopy, nevertheless exhibited GFP+ cells in young adults. RT-PCR analysis of purified GFP+ populations for expression of T and B cell-specific markers identified 18 lines in which T and/or B cells were fluorescently tagged at 6 weeks of age. As transposon insertion is expected to cause gene disruption, these lines can be used to assess the requirement for the disrupted genes in immune cell development. Focusing on the lines with embryonic GFP+ hematopoietic tissue, we identified three lines in which homozygous mutants exhibited impaired T cell development at 6 days of age. In two of the lines we identified the disrupted genes, agtpbp1 and eps15L1. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of these genes mimicked the T cell defects in the corresponding mutant embryos, demonstrating the previously unrecognized, essential roles of agtpbp1 and eps15L1 in T cell development.

  3. Telomerase is required for zebrafish lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina M Henriques

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity is restricted in humans. Consequentially, telomeres shorten in most cells throughout our lives. Telomere dysfunction in vertebrates has been primarily studied in inbred mice strains with very long telomeres that fail to deplete telomeric repeats during their lifetime. It is, therefore, unclear how telomere shortening regulates tissue homeostasis in vertebrates with naturally short telomeres. Zebrafish have restricted telomerase expression and human-like telomere length. Here we show that first-generation tert(-/- zebrafish die prematurely with shorter telomeres. tert(-/- fish develop degenerative phenotypes, including premature infertility, gastrointestinal atrophy, and sarcopaenia. tert(-/- mutants have impaired cell proliferation, accumulation of DNA damage markers, and a p53 response leading to early apoptosis, followed by accumulation of senescent cells. Apoptosis is primarily observed in the proliferative niche and germ cells. Cell proliferation, but not apoptosis, is rescued in tp53(-/-tert(-/- mutants, underscoring p53 as mediator of telomerase deficiency and consequent telomere instability. Thus, telomerase is limiting for zebrafish lifespan, enabling the study of telomere shortening in naturally ageing individuals.

  4. RNA-seq liver transcriptome analysis reveals an activated MHC-I pathway and an inhibited MHC-II pathway at the early stage of vaccine immunization in zebrafish

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    Yang Dahai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (Danio rerio is a prominent vertebrate model of human development and pathogenic disease and has recently been utilized to study teleost immune responses to infectious agents threatening the aquaculture industry. In this work, to clarify the host immune mechanisms underlying the protective effects of a putative vaccine and improve its immunogenicity in the future efforts, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used to investigate the immunization-related gene expression patterns of zebrafish immunized with Edwardsiella tarda live attenuated vaccine. Results Average reads of 18.13 million and 14.27 million were obtained from livers of zebrafish immunized with phosphate buffered saline (mock and E. tarda vaccine (WED, respectively. The reads were annotated with the Ensembl zebrafish database before differential expressed genes sequencing (DESeq comparative analysis, which identified 4565 significantly differentially expressed genes (2186 up-regulated and 2379 down-regulated in WED; p Conclusion These data provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying zebrafish immune response to WED immunization and might aid future studies to develop a highly immunogenic vaccine against gram-negative bacteria in teleosts.

  5. A chemical screen in zebrafish embryonic cells establishes that Akt activation is required for neural crest development.

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    Ciarlo, Christie; Kaufman, Charles K; Kinikoglu, Beste; Michael, Jonathan; Yang, Song; D Amato, Christopher; Blokzijl-Franke, Sasja; den Hertog, Jeroen; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Zhou, Yi; Liao, Eric; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-08-23

    The neural crest is a dynamic progenitor cell population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. The inductive roles of FGF, Wnt, and BMP at the neural plate border are well established, but the signals required for subsequent neural crest development remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a screen in primary zebrafish embryo cultures for chemicals that disrupt neural crest development, as read out by crestin:EGFP expression. We found that the natural product caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) disrupts neural crest gene expression, migration, and melanocytic differentiation by reducing Sox10 activity. CAPE inhibits FGF-stimulated PI3K/Akt signaling, and neural crest defects in CAPE-treated embryos are suppressed by constitutively active Akt1. Inhibition of Akt activity by constitutively active PTEN similarly decreases crestin expression and Sox10 activity. Our study has identified Akt as a novel intracellular pathway required for neural crest differentiation.

  6. A stem cell proliferation burst forms new layers of P63 expressing suprabasal cells during zebrafish postembryonic epidermal development

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    Aida Guzman

    2013-09-01

    Organ growth during development is a highly regulated process with both temporal and spatial constraints. Epidermal stratification is essential for skin growth and development. Although the zebrafish has been well studied, it is not known when and how epidermal stratification occurs. This is because beyond the first five days of development our knowledge is currently limited. We found that epidermal stratification in zebrafish begins when the larvae reach a standard length (SL of 6 mm at approximately 25 days of age. Over the next four days (from a SL of 6 to 9 mm, epidermis thickness increases almost four-fold. This represents a sudden increase in organ size, since for the previous 20 days of development, the epidermis has been only two layers thick. This pattern is different from that observed in mammals that undergo continuous stratification from E14.5–E18.5. To study how stem cell proliferation gives rise to the new epidermal layers, we used a combination of markers: one for cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear-antigen PCNA and one for epidermal stem cells (P63 transcription factor. We identified, throughout the stratification process, two different waves of cell division. Initially, the most basal epidermal cells divided and generated a subset of suprabasal cells (possibly transient-amplifying cells; within the next several days, the basal cells stopped dividing, and the suprabasal cells began proliferation, giving rise to most of the cell types in the new layers. This part of the process is similar to what has been recently found during epidermal stratification in mammals.

  7. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  8. A method to quantify mechanobiologic forces during zebrafish cardiac development using 4-D light sheet imaging and computational modeling.

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    Vijay Vedula

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood flow and mechanical forces in the ventricle are implicated in cardiac development and trabeculation. However, the mechanisms of mechanotransduction remain elusive. This is due in part to the challenges associated with accurately quantifying mechanical forces in the developing heart. We present a novel computational framework to simulate cardiac hemodynamics in developing zebrafish embryos by coupling 4-D light sheet imaging with a stabilized finite element flow solver, and extract time-dependent mechanical stimuli data. We employ deformable image registration methods to segment the motion of the ventricle from high resolution 4-D light sheet image data. This results in a robust and efficient workflow, as segmentation need only be performed at one cardiac phase, while wall position in the other cardiac phases is found by image registration. Ventricular hemodynamics are then quantified by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the moving wall domain with our validated flow solver. We demonstrate the applicability of the workflow in wild type zebrafish and three treated fish types that disrupt trabeculation: (a chemical treatment using AG1478, an ErbB2 signaling inhibitor that inhibits proliferation and differentiation of cardiac trabeculation; (b injection of gata1a morpholino oligomer (gata1aMO suppressing hematopoiesis and resulting in attenuated trabeculation; (c weak-atriumm58 mutant (wea with inhibited atrial contraction leading to a highly undeveloped ventricle and poor cardiac function. Our simulations reveal elevated wall shear stress (WSS in wild type and AG1478 compared to gata1aMO and wea. High oscillatory shear index (OSI in the grooves between trabeculae, compared to lower values on the ridges, in the wild type suggest oscillatory forces as a possible regulatory mechanism of cardiac trabeculation development. The framework has broad applicability for future cardiac developmental studies focused on quantitatively

  9. Zebrafish swimming in the flow: a particle image velocimetry study

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaffo, Violet; Zhang, Peng; Romero Cruz, Sebastián; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice for the study of a number of biomechanics problems, including balance development, schooling, and neuromuscular transmission. The precise quantification of the flow physics around swimming zebrafish is critical toward a mechanistic understanding of the complex swimming style of this fresh-water species. Although previous studies have elucidated the vortical structures in the wake of zebrafish swimming in placid water, the flow physics of zebrafish ...

  10. Zebrafish models for human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, H R

    2013-05-01

    For decades, the advancement of cancer research has relied on in vivo models for examining key processes in cancer pathogenesis, including neoplastic transformation, progression, and response to therapy. These studies, which have traditionally relied on rodent models, have engendered a vast body of scientific literature. Recently, experimental cancer researchers have embraced many new and alternative model systems, including the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The general benefits of the zebrafish model for laboratory investigation, such as cost, size, fecundity, and generation time, were quickly superseded by the discovery that zebrafish are amenable to a wide range of investigative techniques, many of which are difficult or impossible to perform in mammalian models. These advantages, coupled with the finding that many aspects of carcinogenesis are conserved in zebrafish as compared with humans, have firmly established a unique niche for the zebrafish model in comparative cancer research. This article introduces methods for generating cancer models in zebrafish and reviews a range of models that have been developed for specific cancer types.

  11. Pten function in zebrafish : Anything but a fish story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpf, Miriam; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, J.

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish is an excellent model system for the analysis of gene function. We and others use zebrafish to investigate the function of the tumor suppressor, Pten, in tumorigenesis and embryonic development. Zebrafish have two pten genes, ptena and ptenb. The recently identified N-terminal extension of

  12. Pten function in zebrafish : Anything but a fish story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpf, Miriam; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish is an excellent model system for the analysis of gene function. We and others use zebrafish to investigate the function of the tumor suppressor, Pten, in tumorigenesis and embryonic development. Zebrafish have two pten genes, ptena and ptenb. The recently identified N-terminal extension of

  13. Zebrafish as a model system to study the physiological function of telomeric protein TPP1.

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    Yiying Xie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures at the end of chromosomes. Telomere dysfunction can lead to chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage responses, and even cancer. In mammalian cells, a six-protein complex (telosome/shelterin is assembled on the telomeres through the interactions between various domain structures of the six telomere proteins (POT1, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1, and functions in telomere maintenance and protection. Within the telosome, TPP1 interacts directly with POT1 and TIN2 and help to mediate telosome assembly. Mechanisms of telomere regulation have been extensively studied in a variety of model organisms. For example, the physiological roles of telomere-targeted proteins have been assessed in mice through homozygous inactivation. In these cases, early embryonic lethality has prevented further studies of these proteins in embryogenesis and development. As a model system, zebrafish offers unique advantages such as genetic similarities with human, rapid developmental cycles, and ease of manipulation of its embryos. In this report, we detailed the identification of zebrafish homologues of TPP1, POT1, and TIN2, and showed that the domain structures and interactions of these telosome components appeared intact in zebrafish. Importantly, knocking down TPP1 led to multiple abnormalities in zebrafish embryogenesis, including neural death, heart malformation, and caudal defect. And these embryos displayed extensive apoptosis. These results underline the importance of TPP1 in zebrafish embryogenesis, and highlight the feasibility and advantages of investigating the signaling pathways and physiological function of telomere proteins in zebrafish.

  14. TSH Receptor Function Is Required for Normal Thyroid Differentiation in Zebrafish

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    Opitz, Robert; Maquet, Emilie; Zoenen, Maxime; Dadhich, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    TSH is the primary physiological regulator of thyroid gland function. The effects of TSH on thyroid cells are mediated via activation of its membrane receptor [TSH receptor (TSHR)]. In this study, we examined functional thyroid differentiation in zebrafish and characterized the role of TSHR signaling during thyroid organogenesis. Cloning of a cDNA encoding zebrafish Tshr showed conservation of primary structure and functional properties between zebrafish and mammalian TSHR. In situ hybridization confirmed that the thyroid is the major site of tshr expression during zebrafish development. In addition, we identified tpo, iyd, duox, and duoxa as novel thyroid differentiation markers in zebrafish. Temporal analyses of differentiation marker expression demonstrated the induction of an early thyroid differentiation program along with thyroid budding, followed by a delayed onset of duox and duoxa expression coincident with thyroid hormone synthesis. Furthermore, comparative analyses in mouse and zebrafish revealed for the first time a thyroid-enriched expression of cell death regulators of the B-cell lymphoma 2 family during early thyroid morphogenesis. Knockdown of tshr function by morpholino microinjection into embryos did not affect early thyroid morphogenesis but caused defects in later functional differentiation. The thyroid phenotype observed in tshr morphants at later stages comprised a reduction in number and size of functional follicles, down-regulation of differentiation markers, as well as reduced thyroid transcription factor expression. A comparison of our results with phenotypes observed in mouse models of defective TSHR and cAMP signaling highlights the value of zebrafish as a model to enhance the understanding of functional differentiation in the vertebrate thyroid. PMID:21737742

  15. Zebrafish exposure to environmentally relevant concentration of depleted uranium impairs progeny development at the molecular and histological levels.

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    Olivier Armant

    Full Text Available Uranium is an actinide naturally found in the environment. Anthropogenic activities lead to the release of increasing amounts of uranium and depleted uranium (DU in the environment, posing potential risks to aquatic organisms due to radiological and chemical toxicity of this radionucleide. Although environmental contaminations with high levels of uranium have already been observed, chronic exposures of non-human species to levels close to the environmental quality standards remain scarcely characterized. The present study focused on the identification of the molecular pathways impacted by a chronic exposure of zebrafish to 20 μg/L of DU during 10 days. The transcriptomic effects were evaluated by the use of the mRNAseq analysis in three organs of adult zebrafish, the brain the testis and the ovaries, and two developmental stages of the adult fish progeny, two-cells embryo and four-days larvae. The results highlight generic effects on the cell adhesion process, but also specific transcriptomic responses depending on the organ or the developmental stage investigated. The analysis of the transgenerational effects of DU-exposure on the four-day zebrafish larvae demonstrate an induction of genes involved in oxidative response (cat, mpx, sod1 and sod2, a decrease of expression of the two hatching enzymes (he1a and he1b, the deregulation of the expression of gene coding for the ATPase complex and the induction of cellular stress. Electron microscopy analysis of skeletal muscles on the four-days larvae highlights significant histological impacts on the ultrastructure of both the mitochondria and the myofibres. In addition, the comparison with the transcriptomic data obtained for the acetylcholine esterase mutant reveals the induction of protein-chaperons in the skeletal muscles of the progeny of fish chronically exposed to DU, pointing towards long lasting effects of this chemical in the muscles. The results presented in this study support the

  16. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

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    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor, but not mineralocorticoid receptor, mediates cortisol regulation of epidermal ionocyte development and ion transport in zebrafish (danio rerio.

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    Shelly Abad Cruz

    Full Text Available Cortisol is the major endogenous glucocorticoid (GC both in human and fish, mediated by corticosteroid receptors. Due to the absence of aldosterone production in teleost fish, cortisol is also traditionally accepted to function as mineralocorticoid (MC; but whether it acts through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR remains a subject of debate. Here, we used loss-of-function and rescue assays to determine whether cortisol affects zebrafish epidermal ionocyte development and function via the GR and/or the MR. GR knockdown morphants displayed a significant decrease in the major ionocytes, namely Na(+-K(+-ATPase-rich cells (NaRCs and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, as well as other cells, including epidermal stem cells (ESCs, keratinocytes, and mucus cells; conversely, cell numbers were unaffected in MR knockdown morphants. In agreement, GR morphants, but not MR morphants, exhibited decreased NaRC-mediated Ca(2+ uptake and HRC-mediated H(+ secretion. Rescue via GR capped mRNA injection or exogenous cortisol incubation normalized the number of epidermal ionocytes in GR morphants. We also provide evidence for GR localization in epidermal cells. At the transcript level, GR mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in gill sections and present in both NaRCs and HRCs, supporting the knockdown and functional assay results in embryo. Altogether, we have provided solid molecular evidence that GR is indeed present on ionocytes, where it mediates the effects of cortisol on ionocyte development and function. Hence, cortisol-GR axis performs the roles of both GC and MC in zebrafish skin and gills.

  18. Dynamics of degeneration and regeneration in developing zebrafish peripheral axons reveals a requirement for extrinsic cell types

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    Villegas Rosario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the cellular mechanisms regulating axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for developing treatments for nerve injury and neurodegenerative disease. In neurons, axon degeneration is distinct from cell body death and often precedes or is associated with the onset of disease symptoms. In the peripheral nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates, after degeneration of detached fragments, axons can often regenerate to restore function. Many studies of axonal degeneration and regeneration have used in vitro approaches, but the influence of extrinsic cell types on these processes can only be fully addressed in live animals. Because of its simplicity and superficial location, the larval zebrafish posterior lateral line (pLL nerve is an ideal model system for live studies of axon degeneration and regeneration. Results We used laser axotomy and time-lapse imaging of pLL axons to characterize the roles of leukocytes, Schwann cells and target sensory hair cells in axon degeneration and regeneration in vivo. Immune cells were essential for efficient removal of axonal debris after axotomy. Schwann cells were required for proper fasciculation and pathfinding of regenerating axons to their target cells. Intact target hair cells were not themselves required for regeneration, but chemical ablation of neuromasts caused axons to transiently deviate from their normal paths. Conclusions Macrophages, Schwann cells, and target sensory organs are required for distinct aspects of pLL axon degeneration or regeneration in the zebrafish larva. Our work introduces a powerful vertebrate model for analyzing axonal degeneration and regeneration in the living animal and elucidating the role of extrinsic cell types in these processes.

  19. Evolution of the vertebrate pth2 (tip39) gene family and the regulation of PTH type-2 Receptor (pth2r) and its endogenous ligand pth2 by Hedgehog signaling in zebrafish development

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Yan, Yi Lin; Postlethwait, John; Rubin, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted by parathyroid glands, increases calcium levels in the blood from reservoirs in bone. While mammals have two PTH receptor genes, PTH1R and PTH2R, zebrafish has three, pth1r, pth2r and pth3r. PTH can activate all three zebrafish Pthrs while PTH2 (alias tuberoinfundibular peptide 39, TIP39) preferentially activates zebrafish and mammalian PTH2Rs. We know little about the roles of the PTH2/PTH2R system in the development of any animal. To determine...

  20. Automated Processing of Zebrafish Imaging Data: A Survey

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    Dickmeis, Thomas; Driever, Wolfgang; Geurts, Pierre; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Kausler, Bernhard X.; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J.; Marée, Raphaël; Mikula, Karol; Pantazis, Periklis; Ronneberger, Olaf; Santos, Andres; Stotzka, Rainer; Strähle, Uwe; Peyriéras, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Due to the relative transparency of its embryos and larvae, the zebrafish is an ideal model organism for bioimaging approaches in vertebrates. Novel microscope technologies allow the imaging of developmental processes in unprecedented detail, and they enable the use of complex image-based read-outs for high-throughput/high-content screening. Such applications can easily generate Terabytes of image data, the handling and analysis of which becomes a major bottleneck in extracting the targeted information. Here, we describe the current state of the art in computational image analysis in the zebrafish system. We discuss the challenges encountered when handling high-content image data, especially with regard to data quality, annotation, and storage. We survey methods for preprocessing image data for further analysis, and describe selected examples of automated image analysis, including the tracking of cells during embryogenesis, heartbeat detection, identification of dead embryos, recognition of tissues and anatomical landmarks, and quantification of behavioral patterns of adult fish. We review recent examples for applications using such methods, such as the comprehensive analysis of cell lineages during early development, the generation of a three-dimensional brain atlas of zebrafish larvae, and high-throughput drug screens based on movement patterns. Finally, we identify future challenges for the zebrafish image analysis community, notably those concerning the compatibility of algorithms and data formats for the assembly of modular analysis pipelines. PMID:23758125

  1. The zebrafish spi1 promoter drives myeloid-specific expression in stable transgenic fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, AC; McPhee, DO; Condron, MM; Varma, S; Cody, SH; Onnebo, SMN; Paw, BH; Zon, LI; Lieschke, GJ

    2003-01-01

    The spi1 (pu.1) gene has recently been identified as a useful marker of early myeloid cells in zebrafish. To enhance the versatility of this organism as a model for studying myeloid development, the promoter of this gene has been isolated and characterized. Transient transgenesis revealed that a 5.3

  2. Modeling intestinal disorders using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Pack, M

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish was initially developed as a model system to study embryonic development, it has gained increasing attention as an advantageous system to investigate human diseases, including intestinal disorders. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly, and their digestive system is fully functional and visible by 5days post fertilization. There is a large degree of homology between the intestine of zebrafish and higher vertebrate organisms in terms of its cellular composition and function as both a digestive and immune organ. Furthermore, molecular pathways regulating injury and immune responses are highly conserved. In this chapter, we provide an overview of studies addressing developmental and physiological processes relevant to human intestinal disease. These studies include those related to congenital disorders, host-microbiota interactions, inflammatory diseases, motility disorders, and intestinal cancer. We also highlight the utility of zebrafish to functionally validate candidate genes identified through mutational analyses and genome-wide association studies, and discuss methodologies to investigate the intestinal biology that are unique to zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodale, Britton C.; Tilton, Susan C.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn R.; Janszen, Derek B.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC–MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: • Defined global mRNA expression

  4. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

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    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  5. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

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    Myron S Ignatius

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382 mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382 mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382 mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382 defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  6. Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio: a review including the related basal body

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    Lessman Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to

  7. The Popeye domain containing 2 (popdc2) gene in zebrafish is required for heart and skeletal muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmaier, Bettina C.; Poon, Kar Lai; Schwerte, Thorsten; Huisken, Jan; Winkler, Christoph; Jungblut, Benno; Stainier, Didier Y.; Brand, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode a family of transmembrane proteins with an evolutionary conserved Popeye domain. These genes are abundantly expressed in striated muscle tissue, however their function is not well understood. In this study we have investigated the role of the popdc2 gene in zebrafish. Popdc2 transcripts were detected in the embryonic myocardium and transiently in the craniofacial and tail musculature. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of popdc2 resulted in aberrant development of skeletal muscle and heart. Muscle segments in the trunk were irregularly shaped and craniofacial muscles were severely reduced or even missing. In the heart, pericardial edema was prevalent in the morphants and heart chambers were elongated and looping was abnormal. These pathologies in muscle and heart were alleviated after reducing the morpholino concentration. However the heart still was abnormal displaying cardiac arrhythmia at later stages of development. Optical recordings of cardiac contractility revealed irregular ventricular contractions with a 2:1, or 3:1 atrial/ventricular conduction ratio, which caused a significant reduction in heart frequency. Recordings of calcium transients with high spatiotemporal resolution using a transgenic calcium indicator line (Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP)s878) and SPIM microscopy confirmed the presence of a severe arrhythmia phenotype. Our results identify popdc2 as a gene important for striated muscle differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. In addition it is required for the development of the cardiac conduction system. PMID:22290329

  8. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

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    Dae Seok Eom

    Full Text Available The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11. We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  9. sox2 and sox3 Play unique roles in development of hair cells and neurons in the zebrafish inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yunzi; Vemaraju, Shruti; Sweet, Elly M; Kwon, Hye-Joo; Riley, Bruce B

    2018-03-01

    Formation of neural and sensory progenitors in the inner ear requires Sox2 in mammals, and in other species is thought to rely on both Sox2 and Sox3. How Sox2 and/or Sox3 promote different fates is poorly understood. Our mutant analysis in zebrafish showed that sox2 is uniquely required for sensory development while sox3 is uniquely required for neurogenesis. Moderate misexpression of sox2 during placodal stages led to development of otic vesicles with expanded sensory and reduced neurogenic domains. However, high-level misexpression of sox2 or sox3 expanded both sensory and neurogenic domains to fill the medial and lateral halves of the otic vesicle, respectively. Disruption of medial factor pax2a eliminated the ability of sox2/3 misexpression to expand sensory but not neurogenic domains. Additionally, mild misexpression of fgf8 during placodal development was sufficient to specifically expand the zone of prosensory competence. Later, cross-repression between atoh1a and neurog1 helps maintain the sensory-neural boundary, but unlike mouse this does not require Notch activity. Together, these data show that sox2 and sox3 exhibit intrinsic differences in promoting sensory vs. neural competence, but at high levels these factors can mimic each other to enhance both states. Regional cofactors like pax2a and fgf8 also modify sox2/3 functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepassocin is required for hepatic outgrowth during zebrafish hepatogenesis

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    Gao, Ming [Tianjin University, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Yan, Hui [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850 (China); Yin, Rong-Hua [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang, Qiang [Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhan, Yi-Qun; Yu, Miao; Ge, Chang-Hui; Li, Chang-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Hui [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China); Ge, Zhi-Qiang [Tianjin University, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiaomingyang@sina.com [Tianjin University, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2015-07-31

    Background & aims: Hepassocin (HPS) is a hepatotrophic growth factor that specifically stimulates hepatocyte proliferation and promotes liver regeneration after liver damage. In this paper, zebrafish were used to investigate the role of HPS in liver development. Methods and results: During zebrafish development, HPS expression is enriched in liver throughout hepatogenesis. Knockdown of HPS using its specific morpholino leads to a smaller liver phenotype. Further results showed that the HPS knockdown has no effect on the expression of the early endoderm marker gata6 and early hepatic marker hhex. In addition, results showed that the smaller-liver phenotype in HPS morphants was caused by suppression of cell proliferation, not induction of cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Current findings indicated that HPS is essential to the later stages of development in vertebrate liver organogenesis. - Highlights: • HPS is enriched in zebrafish liver and has strong similarities with other species. • Knocking down HPS with MOs results in small liver phenotype. • HPS depletion regulates liver outgrowth but not liver specification and budding. • HPS depletion causes hepatocyte proliferation arrest but not apoptosis induction.

  11. Effects of fin fold mesenchyme ablation on fin development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Robert L; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of the tetrapod limb involved an expansion and elaboration of the endoskeletal elements, while the fish fin rays were lost. Loss of fin-specific genes, and regulatory changes in key appendicular patterning genes have been identified as mechanisms of limb evolution, however their contributions to cellular organization and tissue differences between fins and limbs remains poorly understood. During early larval fin development, hoxa13a/hoxd13a-expressing fin fold mesenchyme migrate through the median and pectoral fin along actinotrichia fibrils, non-calcified skeletal elements crucial for supporting the fin fold. Fin fold mesenchyme migration defects have previously been proposed as a mechanism of fin dermal bone loss during tetrapod evolution as it has been shown they contribute directly to the fin ray osteoblast population. Using the nitroreductase/metronidazole system, we genetically ablated a subset of hoxa13a/hoxd13a-expressing fin fold mesenchyme to assess its contributions to fin development. Following the ablation of fin fold mesenchyme in larvae, the actinotrichia are unable to remain rigid and the median and pectoral fin folds collapse, resulting in a reduced fin fold size. The remaining cells following ablation are unable to migrate and show decreased actinodin1 mesenchymal reporter activity. Actinodin proteins are crucial structural component of the actinotrichia. Additionally, we show a decrease in hoxa13a, hoxd13a, fgf10a and altered shha, and ptch2 expression during larval fin development. A continuous treatment of metronidazole leads to fin ray defects at 30dpf. Fewer rays are present compared to stage-matched control larvae, and these rays are shorter and less defined. These results suggest the targeted hoxa13a/hoxd13a-expressing mesenchyme contribute to their own successful migration through their contributions to actinotrichia. Furthermore, due to their fate as fin ray osteoblasts, we propose their initial ablation, and subsequent

  12. Genome editing in zebrafish: a practical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertori, Robert; Trengove, Monique; Basheer, Faiza; Ward, Alister C; Liongue, Clifford

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish is a powerful model for the study of vertebrate development, being amenable to a wide range of genetic and other manipulations to probe the molecular basis of development and its perturbation in disease. Over recent years, genome editing approaches have become increasingly used as an efficient and sophisticated approach to precisely engineer the zebrafish genome, which has further enhanced the utility of this organism. This review provides a practical overview of genome editing and its application in zebrafish research, including alternate strategies for introducing and screening for specific genetic changes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Electroporation-based methods for in vivo, whole mount and primary culture analysis of zebrafish brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuthasan Suresh

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroporation is a technique for the introduction of nucleic acids and other macromolecules into cells. In chick embryos it has been a particularly powerful technique for the spatial and temporal control of gene expression in developmental studies. Electroporation methods have also been reported for Xenopus, zebrafish, and mouse. Results We present a new protocol for zebrafish brain electroporation. Using a simple set-up with fixed spaced electrodes and microinjection equipment, it is possible to electroporate 50 to 100 embryos in 1 hour with no lethality and consistently high levels of transgene expression in numerous cells. Transfected cells in the zebrafish brain are amenable to in vivo time lapse imaging. Explants containing transfected neurons can be cultured for in vitro analysis. We also present a simple enzymatic method to isolate whole brains from fixed zebrafish for immunocytochemistry. Conclusion Building on previously described methods, we have optimized several parameters to allow for highly efficient unilateral or bilateral transgenesis of a large number of cells in the zebrafish brain. This method is simple and provides consistently high levels of transgenesis for large numbers of embryos.

  14. Electroporation-based methods for in vivo, whole mount and primary culture analysis of zebrafish brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Michael; Jesuthasan, Suresh

    2007-03-15

    Electroporation is a technique for the introduction of nucleic acids and other macromolecules into cells. In chick embryos it has been a particularly powerful technique for the spatial and temporal control of gene expression in developmental studies. Electroporation methods have also been reported for Xenopus, zebrafish, and mouse. We present a new protocol for zebrafish brain electroporation. Using a simple set-up with fixed spaced electrodes and microinjection equipment, it is possible to electroporate 50 to 100 embryos in 1 hour with no lethality and consistently high levels of transgene expression in numerous cells. Transfected cells in the zebrafish brain are amenable to in vivo time lapse imaging. Explants containing transfected neurons can be cultured for in vitro analysis. We also present a simple enzymatic method to isolate whole brains from fixed zebrafish for immunocytochemistry. Building on previously described methods, we have optimized several parameters to allow for highly efficient unilateral or bilateral transgenesis of a large number of cells in the zebrafish brain. This method is simple and provides consistently high levels of transgenesis for large numbers of embryos.

  15. Retinoic Acid Protects and Rescues the Development of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Photoreceptor Cells from Exposure to Paclobutrazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Der Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paclobutrazol (PBZ is a widely used fungicide that shows toxicity to aquatic embryos, probably through rain-wash. Here, we specifically focus on its toxic effect on eye development in zebrafish, as well as the role of retinoic acid (RA, a metabolite of vitamin A that controls proliferation and differentiation of retinal photoreceptor cells, in this toxicity. Embryos were exposed to PBZ with or without RA from 2 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf, and PBZ-treated embryos (2–72 hpf were exposed to RA for additional hours until 120 hpf. Eye size and histology were examined. Expression levels of gnat1 (rod photoreceptor marker, gnat2 (cone photoreceptor marker, aldehyde dehydrogenases (encoding key enzymes for RA synthesis, and phospho-histone H3 (an M-phase marker in the eyes of control and treated embryos were examined. PBZ exposure dramatically reduces photoreceptor proliferation, thus resulting in a thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer and leading to a small eye. Co-treatment of PBZ with RA, or post-treatment of PBZ-treated embryos with RA, partially rescues photoreceptor cells, revealed by expression levels of marker proteins and by retinal cell proliferation. PBZ has strong embryonic toxicity to retinal photoreceptors, probably via suppressing the production of RA, with effects including impaired retinal cell division.

  16. Effects of binary mixtures of xenoestrogens on gonadal development and reproduction in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leo L; Janz, David M

    2006-12-30

    Previous studies exposing fish to xenoestrogens have demonstrated vitellogenin (VTG) induction, delayed gametogenesis, altered sex ratio, and decreased reproductive performance, with a majority of those studies focusing on exposure to single chemicals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binary mixtures of a weak estrogen receptor agonist, nonylphenol (NP) and a potent estrogen receptor agonist, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on sex ratios, gametogenesis, VTG induction, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and reproductive capacity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were exposed from 2 to 60 days post-hatch (dph) to nominal concentrations of 10 or 100 microg/l NP (NP10 or NP100, respectively), 1 or 10 ng/l EE (EE1 or EE10, respectively), 1 ng/l EE+10 or 100 microg/l NP (EE1+NP10 or EE1+NP100, respectively), 10 ng/l EE+10 or 100 microg/l NP (EE10+NP10 or EE10+NP100, respectively) or solvent control (0.01% acetone, v/v) in a static-renewal system with replacement every 48 h. At 60 dph, fish from each treatment were euthanized for histological examination of gonads, and whole body VTG and HSP70 levels. Remaining fish were reared in clean water until adulthood (240 dph) for breeding studies. In all EE10 exposure groups (EE10, EE10+NP10 and EE10+NP100), increasing NP concentration acted antagonistically to the action of EE in terms of VTG induction at 60 dph. Similarly, non-additivity was observed with egg production, where EE1+NP100 exposure resulted in significantly more eggs produced per breeding trial than EE1 alone. Histological staging of oogenesis revealed suppressed gametogenesis in an additive fashion in females at 60 dph. There were no differences among treatment groups in whole body HSP70 expression in 60 dph fish or in gonadal HSP70 expression in adult fish. Although there was no statistical evidence of non-additivity, breeding trials in adults revealed significant reductions in egg viability, egg hatchability and/or F1 swim

  17. Pharmacologic modeling of primary mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, James; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Lightfoot, Richard; Tzeng, Michael; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Seiler, Christoph; Falk, Marni J

    2017-07-18

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease is a heterogeneous and highly morbid group of energy deficiency disorders for which no proven effective therapies exist. Robust vertebrate animal models of primary RC dysfunction are needed to explore the effects of variation in RC disease subtypes, tissue-specific manifestations, and major pathogenic factors contributing to each disorder, as well as their pre-clinical response to therapeutic candidates. We have developed a series of zebrafish (Danio rerio) models that inhibit, to variable degrees, distinct aspects of RC function, and enable quantification of animal development, survival, behaviors, and organ-level treatment effects as well as effects on mitochondrial biochemistry and physiology. Here, we characterize four pharmacologic inhibitor models of mitochondrial RC dysfunction in early larval zebrafish, including rotenone (complex I inhibitor), azide (complex IV inhibitor), oligomycin (complex V inhibitor), and chloramphenicol (mitochondrial translation inhibitor that leads to multiple RC complex dysfunction). A range of concentrations and exposure times of each RC inhibitor were systematically evaluated on early larval development, animal survival, integrated behaviors (touch and startle responses), organ physiology (brain death, neurologic tone, heart rate), and fluorescence-based analyses of mitochondrial physiology in zebrafish skeletal muscle. Pharmacologic RC inhibitor effects were validated by spectrophotometric analysis of Complex I, II and IV enzyme activities, or relative quantitation of ATP levels in larvae. Outcomes were prioritized that utilize in vivo animal imaging and quantitative behavioral assessments, as may optimally inform the translational potential of pre-clinical drug screens for future clinical study in human mitochondrial disease subjects. The RC complex inhibitors each delayed early embryo development, with short-term exposures of these three agents or chloramphenicol from 5 to 7 days

  18. Specification of the enveloping layer and lack of autoneuralization in zebrafish embryonic explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerström, Charles G; Gammill, Laura S; Veale, Robin; Sive, Hazel

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the roles of cell contact during determination of the outermost enveloping layer (EVL) and deeper neurectoderm in zebrafish embryos. Outer cells, but not deeper cells, are specified to express the EVL-specific marker, cyt1 by late blastula. EVL specification requires cell contact or close cell proximity, because cyt1 is not expressed after explant dissociation. The EVL may be homologous to the Xenopus epithelial layer, including the ventral larval epidermis. While Xenopus epidermal cytokeratin gene expression is activated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, zebrafish cyt1 is not responsive to BMPs. Zebrafish early gastrula ectodermal explants are specified to express the neural markers opl (zic1) and otx2, and this expression is prevented by BMP4. Dissociation of zebrafish explants prevents otx2 and opl expression, suggesting that neural specification in zebrafish requires cell contact or close cell proximity. This finding is in contrast to the case in Xenopus, where ectodermal dissociation leads to activation of neural gene expression, or autoneuralization. Our data suggest that distinct mechanisms direct development of homologous lineages in different vertebrates.

  19. Zebrafish kidney phagocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca+-dependent endocytic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens and consists of a variety of immune defense mechanisms including active endocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes. Endocytosis can be used as a reliable measure of selective and non-selective mechanisms of antigen uptake in the early phase of an immune response. Numerous assays have been developed to measure this response in a variety of mammalian and fish species. The small size of the zebrafish has prevented the large-scale collection of monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes for these endocytic assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled zebrafish kidney hematopoietic tissues were used as a source of phagocytic cells for flow-cytometry based endocytic assays. FITC-Dextran, Lucifer Yellow and FITC-Edwardsiella ictaluri were used to evaluate selective and non-selective mechanisms of uptake in zebrafish phagocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Zebrafish kidney phagocytes characterized as monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca(2+-dependant endocytosis mechanisms of antigen uptake. These cells do not appear to utilize a mannose receptor. Heat-killed Edwardsiella ictaluri induces cytoskeletal interactions for internalization in zebrafish kidney monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. The proposed method is easy to implement and should prove especially useful in immunological, toxicological and epidemiological research.

  20. [Vitamin A deficiency causes asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sha-Sha; Jia, Wen-Shuang; Zhao, Qing-Shun

    2012-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays essential roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. However, vertebrates cannot synthesize RA de novo. They synthesize it by two oxidative steps, first converting the precursor vitamin A into retinal by retinol dehydrogenase, and then oxidizing retinal into RA irreversibly by retinal dehydrogenase. It is known that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) causes Vitamin A Deficiency Syndrome in animals including quail, mouse, rat, and human. However, little is known about the effects of VAD on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we obtained zebrafish VAD embryos from the zebrafish fed a retinoids-free diet. By analyzing the VAD embryos, we found that VAD caused asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos. However, the phenotype of defected hindbrain in VAD embryos was not as severe as that in the embryos in which aldh1a2, the major gene that is responsible for RA synthesis in zebrafish early development, was knocked down, or the embryos treated with 10 mmol/L DEAB (diethylaminobenzaldehyde, inhibitor of retinal dehydrogenases). Our results indicated that the VAD embryos were short of but not free of vitamin A, and they might also have a RA generation pathway independent of retinal dehydrogenase.

  1. Novel Insights into the Genetic Controls of Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis from Zebrafish Models

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    Raman Sood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process where initiation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as their differentiation into erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors. Understanding the genetic controls of hematopoiesis is crucial as perturbations in hematopoiesis lead to diseases such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, or cancers, including leukemias and lymphomas. Animal models, particularly conventional and conditional knockout mice, have played major roles in our understanding of the genetic controls of hematopoiesis. However, knockout mice for most of the hematopoietic transcription factors are embryonic lethal, thus precluding the analysis of their roles during the transition from embryonic to adult hematopoiesis. Zebrafish are an ideal model organism to determine the function of a gene during embryonic-to-adult transition of hematopoiesis since bloodless zebrafish embryos can develop normally into early larval stage by obtaining oxygen through diffusion. In this review, we discuss the current status of the ontogeny and regulation of hematopoiesis in zebrafish. By providing specific examples of zebrafish morphants and mutants, we have highlighted the contributions of the zebrafish model to our overall understanding of the roles of transcription factors in regulation of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis.

  2. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1 Mutant Zebrafish.

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    Brian P Grone

    Full Text Available Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1, are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing "dark-flash" visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations.

  3. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  5. Zebrafish mutations in gart and paics identify crucial roles for de novo purine synthesis in vertebrate pigmentation and ocular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Anthony; Uribe, Rosa A; Yieh, Leah; Nuckels, Richard; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2009-08-01

    Although purines and purinergic signaling are crucial for numerous biochemical and cellular processes, their functions during vertebrate embryonic development have not been well characterized. We analyze two recessive zebrafish mutations that affect de novo purine synthesis, gart and paics. gart encodes phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase, a trifunctional enzyme that catalyzes steps 2, 3 and 5 of inosine monophosphate (IMP) synthesis. paics encodes phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes steps 6 and 7 of this process. Zygotic gart and paics mutants have pigmentation defects in which xanthophore and iridophore pigmentation is almost completely absent, and melanin-derived pigmentation is significantly decreased, even though pigment cells are present in normal amounts and distributions. Zygotic gart and paics mutants are also microphthalmic, resulting from defects in cell cycle exit of proliferative retinoblasts within the developing eye. Maternal-zygotic and maternal-effect mutants demonstrate a crucial requirement for maternally derived gart and paics; these mutants show more severe developmental defects than their zygotic counterparts. Pigmentation and eye growth phenotypes in zygotic gart and paics mutants can be ascribed to separable biosynthetic pathways: pigmentation defects and microphthalmia result from deficiencies in a GTP synthesis pathway and an ATP synthesis pathway, respectively. In the absence of ATP pathway activity, S phase of proliferative retinoblasts is prolonged and cell cycle exit is compromised, which results in microphthalmia. These results demonstrate crucial maternal and zygotic requirements for de novo purine synthesis during vertebrate embryonic development, and identify independent functions for ATP and GTP pathways in mediating eye growth and pigmentation

  6. The Importance of Zebrafish in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Bárbara Tavares dos; Lopes, Susana Santos

    2013-01-01

    FUNDING SOURCE - PTDC/SAU-OBD/103981/2008 and SFRH/BPD/772587/2011 Introduction: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Material and Methods: Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomed...

  7. R-spondin 3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by antagonizing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Rong

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3 is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3 domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.

  8. Differential modulation of expression of nuclear receptor mediated genes by tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zhiyuan_nju@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Yu, Yijun, E-mail: yjun.yu@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Tang, Song [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liu, Hongling, E-mail: hlliu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Su, Guanyong; Xie, Yuwei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hecker, Markus [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Yu, Hongxia [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of TBOEP on expression of genes of several nuclear hormone receptors and their relationship with adverse effect pathways in zebrafish. • TBOEP was neither an agonist nor antagonist of AR or AhR as determined by use of in vitro mammalian cell-based receptor transactivation assays. • Modulation of ER- and MR-dependent pathways allowed for development of feasible receptor-mediated, critical mechanisms of toxic action. - Abstract: As one substitute for phased-out brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is frequently detected in aquatic organisms. However, knowledge about endocrine disrupting mechanisms associated with nuclear receptors caused by TBOEP remained restricted to results from in vitro studies with mammalian cells. In the study, results of which are presented here, embryos/larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 μM TBOEP to investigate expression of genes under control of several nuclear hormone receptors (estrogen receptors (ERs), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and pregnane × receptor (P × R)) pathways at 120 hpf. Exposure to 0.5 μM TBOEP significantly (p < 0.05, one-way analysis of variance) up-regulated expression of estrogen receptors (ERs, er1, er2a, and er2b) genes and ER-associated genes (vtg4, vtg5, pgr, ncor, and ncoa3), indicating TBOEP modulates the ER pathway. In contrast, expression of most genes (mr, 11βhsd, ube2i,and adrb2b) associated with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, in vitro mammalian cell-based (MDA-kb2 and H4IIE-luc) receptor transactivation assays, were also conducted to investigate possible agonistic or antagonistic effects on AR- and AhR-mediated pathways. In mammalian cells, none of these pathways were

  9. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  10. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  11. Variability in early communicative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenson, L; Dale, P S; Reznick, J S; Bates, E; Thal, D J; Pethick, S J

    1994-01-01

    Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development.

  12. Zebrafish swimming in the flow: a particle image velocimetry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Mwaffo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice for the study of a number of biomechanics problems, including balance development, schooling, and neuromuscular transmission. The precise quantification of the flow physics around swimming zebrafish is critical toward a mechanistic understanding of the complex swimming style of this fresh-water species. Although previous studies have elucidated the vortical structures in the wake of zebrafish swimming in placid water, the flow physics of zebrafish swimming against a water current remains unexplored. In an effort to illuminate zebrafish swimming in a dynamic environment reminiscent of its natural habitat, we experimentally investigated the locomotion and hydrodynamics of a single zebrafish swimming in a miniature water tunnel using particle image velocimetry. Our results on zebrafish locomotion detail the role of flow speed on tail beat undulations, heading direction, and swimming speed. Our findings on zebrafish hydrodynamics offer a precise quantification of vortex shedding during zebrafish swimming and demonstrate that locomotory patterns play a central role on the flow physics. This knowledge may help clarify the evolutionary advantage of burst and cruise swimming movements in zebrafish.

  13. Loss of ribosomal protein L11 affects zebrafish embryonic development through a p53-dependent apoptotic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Ribosome is responsible for protein synthesis in all organisms and ribosomal proteins (RPs play important roles in the formation of a functional ribosome. L11 was recently shown to regulate p53 activity through a direct binding with MDM2 and abrogating the MDM2-induced p53 degradation in response to ribosomal stress. However, the studies were performed in cell lines and the significance of this tumor suppressor function of L11 has yet to be explored in animal models. To investigate the effects of the deletion of L11 and its physiological relevance to p53 activity, we knocked down the rpl11 gene in zebrafish and analyzed the p53 response. Contrary to the cell line-based results, our data indicate that an L11 deficiency in a model organism activates the p53 pathway. The L11-deficient embryos (morphants displayed developmental abnormalities primarily in the brain, leading to embryonic lethality within 6-7 days post fertilization. Extensive apoptosis was observed in the head region of the morphants, thus correlating the morphological defects with apparent cell death. A decrease in total abundance of genes involved in neural patterning of the brain was observed in the morphants, suggesting a reduction in neural progenitor cells. Upregulation of the genes involved in the p53 pathway were observed in the morphants. Simultaneous knockdown of the p53 gene rescued the developmental defects and apoptosis in the morphants. These results suggest that ribosomal dysfunction due to the loss of L11 activates a p53-dependent checkpoint response to prevent improper embryonic development.

  14. Histological Characterization of the Dicer1 Mutant Zebrafish Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DICER1, a multidomain RNase III endoribonuclease, plays a critical role in microRNA (miRNA and RNA-interference (RNAi functional pathways. Loss of Dicer1 affects different developmental processes. Dicer1 is essential for retinal development and maintenance. DICER1 was recently shown to have another function of silencing the toxicity of Alu RNAs in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration. In this study, we characterized a Dicer1 mutant fish line, which carries a nonsense mutation (W1457Ter induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis. Zebrafish DICER1 protein is highly conserved in the evolution. Zebrafish Dicer1 is expressed at the earliest stages of zebrafish development and persists into late developmental stages; it is widely expressed in adult tissues. Homozygous Dicer1 mutant fish (DICER1W1457Ter/W1457Ter have an arrest in early growth with significantly smaller eyes and are dead at 14–18 dpf. Heterozygous Dicer1 mutant fish have similar retinal structure to that of control fish; the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells are normal with no sign of degeneration at the age of 20 months.

  15. The Roles of RNA Polymerase I and III Subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in Craniofacial Development and in Zebrafish Models of Treacher Collins Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack Watt, Kristin E; Achilleos, Annita; Neben, Cynthia L; Merrill, Amy E; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a global process required for growth and proliferation of all cells, yet perturbation of ribosome biogenesis during human development often leads to tissue-specific defects termed ribosomopathies. Transcription of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) by RNA polymerases (Pol) I and III, is considered a rate limiting step of ribosome biogenesis and mutations in the genes coding for RNA Pol I and III subunits, POLR1C and POLR1D cause Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital craniofacial disorder. Our understanding of the functions of individual RNA polymerase subunits, however, remains poor. We discovered that polr1c and polr1d are dynamically expressed during zebrafish embryonic development, particularly in craniofacial tissues. Consistent with this pattern of activity, polr1c and polr1d homozygous mutant zebrafish exhibit cartilage hypoplasia and cranioskeletal anomalies characteristic of humans with Treacher Collins syndrome. Mechanistically, we discovered that polr1c and polr1d loss-of-function results in deficient ribosome biogenesis, Tp53-dependent neuroepithelial cell death and a deficiency of migrating neural crest cells, which are the primary progenitors of the craniofacial skeleton. More importantly, we show that genetic inhibition of tp53 can suppress neuroepithelial cell death and ameliorate the skeletal anomalies in polr1c and polr1d mutants, providing a potential avenue to prevent the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Our work therefore has uncovered tissue-specific roles for polr1c and polr1d in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and neural crest and craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we have established polr1c and polr1d mutant zebrafish as models of Treacher Collins syndrome together with a unifying mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and possible prevention.

  16. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  17. The zebrafish model system in cardiovascular research: A tiny fish with mighty prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Lai Poon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish Danio rerio, a tropical freshwater fish, belongs to the family of cyprinidae, which in the last 30 years has developed into a very popular model organism for studies of embryonic development and human diseases. Initially the zebrafish species has been selected on the basis of its small size of approximately 3-5 cm, its transparency during development and its high fertility, qualities first identified by George Stresinger, the founding father of zebrafish research [1]. The ability to house thousands of small fishes and the ease of screening mutations in the translucent embryos made it feasible to perform large-scale forward genetic screens in a vertebrate model organism. The abundance of eggs obtained, approximately 200 eggs per female per week, is ideal for genetic and statistical analysis. The mutagenesis screens performed in the early 1990s have led to the identification of genes important in vertebrate organogenesis in an unbiased fashion [2-3]. Many of the isolated mutants have now been fully characterized and the mutated genes mapped, as the zebrafish genome sequencing completes. The knowledge derived has led to a better understanding of the underlying genetic networks governing vertebrate development. More sophisticated phenotype-based screens have since been developed to screen for mutations in defined biological processes [4].

  18. Long-term hyperphagia and caloric restriction caused by low- or high-density husbandry have differential effects on zebrafish postembryonic development, somatic growth, fat accumulation and reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leibold

    Full Text Available In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of

  19. Effects of xenoestrogens on the expression of vitellogenin (vtg) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19a and b) genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Shi, Xiongjie; Du, Yongbin; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, expression levels of vitellogenin (vtg) and cytochrome P450 aromatase genes (cyp19a and cyp19b) in zebrafish larvae during the early stages of development were investigated by quantitative real time-PCR assay. The results indicated that vtg gene transcription was induced seven days after zebrafish larvae fertilization, whereas the expression of cyp19a and cyp19b genes was detected as early as 3 and 4 days post-fertilization (dpf). Investigations into the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on the expression of these genes showed that both vtg and cyp19b were upregulated by E2 in zebrafish larvae as early as four dpf, whereas no variation was observed in cyp19a gene expression. The estrogenic potential of pharmaceutical estrogen (DES), phenol estrogen (BPA) and the brominated flame retardants, TBBPA, DE-71 and 4-BP, were evaluated by analyzing the expression of these three genes in zebrafish larvae. The results demonstrated that natural estrogen, endocrine disrupting compounds and brominated flame retardants act as endocrine disrupters through different mechanisms. We have demonstrated for the first time that the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71, acts as an endocrine disrupter by upregulation of cyp19b gene expression at a relatively low concentration. These results indicate that analysis of vtg and cyp19b gene expression in zebrafish during early embryogenesis and organogenesis represents the basis of a sensitive and fast bioassay for the routine assessment of xenoestrogen effects.

  20. Human prokinetic drugs promote gastrointestinal motility in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Guo, S-Y; Zhang, Y; Li, C-Q

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and the development of effective and safe drug treatments for GI motility disorders has proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of the transparency of larval zebrafish, we developed a novel zebrafish GI motility model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 5 days postfertilization were fed 10 μg/L Nile red for 16 h, followed by drug treatment for 6 h. Tested drugs were delivered into the zebrafish by direct soaking. Drug effect on zebrafish GI motility was quantitatively assessed using GI tract fluorescent image-based morphometric analysis. During all the periods of the experiments, the zebrafish were not fed any food. All four human prokinetic drugs (domperidone, metoclopramide, mosapride, and magnesium sulfate) increased zebrafish GI motility, whereas two drugs that inhibit human GI movement (atropine and anisodamine) and two negative control drugs (glucose and vitamin C) did not show statistically significant effect on zebrafish GI motility. These results suggest that larval zebrafish motility model developed here is a useful tool for whole-animal in vivo GI transit studies and for assessing prokinetic drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  2. WNK1/HSN2 mutation in human peripheral neuropathy deregulates KCC2 expression and posterior lateral line development in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bercier

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 (HSNAII is a rare pathology characterized by an early onset of severe sensory loss (all modalities in the distal limbs. It is due to autosomal recessive mutations confined to exon "HSN2" of the WNK1 (with-no-lysine protein kinase 1 serine-threonine kinase. While this kinase is well studied in the kidneys, little is known about its role in the nervous system. We hypothesized that the truncating mutations present in the neural-specific HSN2 exon lead to a loss-of-function of the WNK1 kinase, impairing development of the peripheral sensory system. To investigate the mechanisms by which the loss of WNK1/HSN2 isoform function causes HSANII, we used the embryonic zebrafish model and observed strong expression of WNK1/HSN2 in neuromasts of the peripheral lateral line (PLL system by immunohistochemistry. Knocking down wnk1/hsn2 in embryos using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides led to improper PLL development. We then investigated the reported interaction between the WNK1 kinase and neuronal potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, as this transporter is a target of WNK1 phosphorylation. In situ hybridization revealed kcc2 expression in mature neuromasts of the PLL and semi-quantitative RT-PCR of wnk1/hsn2 knockdown embryos showed an increased expression of kcc2 mRNA. Furthermore, overexpression of human KCC2 mRNA in embryos replicated the wnk1/hsn2 knockdown phenotype. We validated these results by obtaining double knockdown embryos, both for wnk1/hsn2 and kcc2, which alleviated the PLL defects. Interestingly, overexpression of inactive mutant KCC2-C568A, which does not extrude ions, allowed a phenocopy of the PLL defects. These results suggest a pathway in which WNK1/HSN2 interacts with KCC2, producing a novel regulation of its transcription independent of KCC2's activation, where a loss-of-function mutation in WNK1 induces an overexpression of KCC2 and hinders proper peripheral sensory nerve

  3. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  4. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system. The m...... of the early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  5. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  6. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  7. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  8. Heads and tails of endoderm development and adult tissue homeostasis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, A.

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory signaling pathways crucial during embryonic development seem to play key roles in adult tissues homeostasis and are often deregulated in pathological conditions. The Wnt pathway plays a pivotal role in orchestrating cell fate decisions during embryonic development, organogenesis, and

  9. Gene Duplication of the zebrafish kit ligand and partitioning of melanocyte development functions to kit ligand a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hultman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The retention of particular genes after the whole genome duplication in zebrafish has given insights into how genes may evolve through partitioning of ancestral functions. We examine the partitioning of expression patterns and functions of two zebrafish kit ligands, kit ligand a (kitla and kit ligand b (kitlb, and discuss their possible coevolution with the duplicated zebrafish kit receptors (kita and kitb. In situ hybridizations show that kitla mRNA is expressed in the trunk adjacent to the notochord in the middle of each somite during stages of melanocyte migration and later expressed in the skin, when the receptor is required for melanocyte survival. kitla is also expressed in other regions complementary to kita receptor expression, including the pineal gland, tail bud, and ear. In contrast, kitlb mRNA is expressed in brain ventricles, ear, and cardinal vein plexus, in regions generally not complementary to either zebrafish kit receptor ortholog. However, like kitla, kitlb is expressed in the skin during stages consistent with melanocyte survival. Thus, it appears that kita and kitla have maintained congruent expression patterns, while kitb and kitlb have evolved divergent expression patterns. We demonstrate the interaction of kita and kitla by morpholino knockdown analysis. kitla morphants, but not kitlb morphants, phenocopy the null allele of kita, with defects for both melanocyte migration and survival. Furthermore, kitla morpholino, but not kitlb morpholino, interacts genetically with a sensitized allele of kita, confirming that kitla is the functional ligand to kita. Last, we examine kitla overexpression in embryos, which results in hyperpigmentation caused by an increase in the number and size of melanocytes. This hyperpigmentation is dependent on kita function. We conclude that following genome duplication, kita and kitla have maintained their receptor-ligand relationship, coevolved complementary expression patterns, and that

  10. Duplication and diversification of the hypoxia-inducible IGFBP-1 gene in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Kamei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is the primary force of new gene evolution. Deciphering whether a pair of duplicated genes has evolved divergent functions is often challenging. The zebrafish is uniquely positioned to provide insight into the process of functional gene evolution due to its amenability to genetic and experimental manipulation and because it possess a large number of duplicated genes.We report the identification and characterization of two hypoxia-inducible genes in zebrafish that are co-ortholgs of human IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1. IGFBP-1 is a secreted protein that binds to IGF and modulates IGF actions in somatic growth, development, and aging. Like their human and mouse counterparts, in adult zebrafish igfbp-1a and igfbp-1b are exclusively expressed in the liver. During embryogenesis, the two genes are expressed in overlapping spatial domains but with distinct temporal patterns. While zebrafish IGFBP-1a mRNA was easily detected throughout embryogenesis, IGFBP-1b mRNA was detectable only in advanced stages. Hypoxia induces igfbp-1a expression in early embryogenesis, but induces the igfbp-1b expression later in embryogenesis. Both IGFBP-1a and -b are capable of IGF binding, but IGFBP-1b has much lower affinities for IGF-I and -II because of greater dissociation rates. Overexpression of IGFBP-1a and -1b in zebrafish embryos caused significant decreases in growth and developmental rates. When tested in cultured zebrafish embryonic cells, IGFBP-1a and -1b both inhibited IGF-1-induced cell proliferation but the activity of IGFBP-1b was significantly weaker.These results indicate subfunction partitioning of the duplicated IGFBP-1 genes at the levels of gene expression, physiological regulation, protein structure, and biological actions. The duplicated IGFBP-1 may provide additional flexibility in fine-tuning IGF signaling activities under hypoxia and other catabolic conditions.

  11. Long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole, in a partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio): effects on growth, development, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Ye, Qiuxia; Liu, Jianchao

    2016-09-01

    A partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin (NOR) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A series of bio-endpoints correlated to the growth, development, and reproduction was assessed. The results showed that the body weight and the condition factor were depressed by SMX at 200 μg/L during the growth period. Meanwhile, the activities of metabolic enzyme (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) were stimulated in all cases. The consequences of parental exposure to antibiotics for the next generation were also examined. The egg production of parents were depressed by the 200 μg/L NOR and SMX alone or in combination. Similarly, decreased hatching, survival, and enhanced development abnormality of the next generation also occurred after parental exposure to SMX at the highest concentration. The heartbeat however was not altered in all cases. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the bio-endpoints between the combined and individual treatment in most cases, with the exception of lower EROD activity and egg production in the co-treatment. The results suggest that long-term exposure to NOR and SMX at environmentally relevant concentrations, individually and in a mixture, may not significantly pose a threat to the growth, development, and reproduction of zebrafish, and an adverse effect may be expected at high concentration.

  12. Molecular description of eye defects in the zebrafish Pax6b mutant, sunrise, reveals a Pax6b-dependent genetic network in the developing anterior chamber.

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    Masanari Takamiya

    Full Text Available The cornea is a central component of the camera eye of vertebrates and even slight corneal disturbances severely affect vision. The transcription factor PAX6 is required for normal eye development, namely the proper separation of the lens from the developing cornea and the formation of the iris and anterior chamber. Human PAX6 mutations are associated with severe ocular disorders such as aniridia, Peters anomaly and chronic limbal stem cell insufficiency. To develop the zebrafish as a model for corneal disease, we first performed transcriptome and in situ expression analysis to identify marker genes to characterise the cornea in normal and pathological conditions. We show that, at 7 days post fertilisation (dpf, the zebrafish cornea expresses the majority of marker genes (67/84 tested genes found also expressed in the cornea of juvenile and adult stages. We also characterised homozygous pax6b mutants. Mutant embryos have a thick cornea, iris hypoplasia, a shallow anterior chamber and a small lens. Ultrastructure analysis revealed a disrupted corneal endothelium. pax6b mutants show loss of corneal epithelial gene expression including regulatory genes (sox3, tfap2a, foxc1a and pitx2. In contrast, several genes (pitx2, ctnnb2, dcn and fabp7a were ectopically expressed in the malformed corneal endothelium. Lack of pax6b function leads to severe disturbance of the corneal gene regulatory programme.

  13. Role of IGF signaling in catch-up growth and accelerated temporal development in zebrafish embryos in response to oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Hiroyasu; Ding, Yonghe; Kajimura, Shingo; Wells, Michael; Chiang, Peter; Duan, Cunming

    2011-02-01

    Animals respond to adverse environments by slowing down or arresting growth and development. Upon returning to normal conditions, they often show compensatory acceleration in growth and developmental rate. This phenomenon, known as `catch-up' growth, is widely documented in the animal kingdom. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Using the zebrafish embryo as an experimental model system, we tested the hypothesis that changes in IGF signaling activities play an important role in the accelerated growth and temporal development resulting from re-oxygenation following hypoxia. We show that chronic hypoxia reduced, and re-oxygenation accelerated, embryonic growth and developmental rate. Whereas hypoxia repressed the Igf1 receptor and its downstream Erk1/2 and Akt signaling activities, re-oxygenation restored their activities. Specific inhibition of Igf1 receptor signaling during re-oxygenation by genetic and pharmacological approaches attenuated catch-up growth. Further analysis showed that whereas PI3K-Akt is required in both normal and catch-up growth, Mek1/2-Erk1/2 activation induced by elevated IGF signaling during re-oxygenation is particularly crucial for catch-up growth. These results suggest that the evolutionarily conserved IGF signaling pathway coordinates growth and temporal development in zebrafish embryos in response to oxygen availability.

  14. Expression and function of nr4a2, lmx1b, and pitx3 in zebrafish dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuronal development

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    Willaredt Marc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Dopaminergic neurons form in diverse areas of the vertebrate di- and mesencephalon to constitute several major neuromodulatory systems. While much is known about mammalian mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron development, little is known about the specification of the diencephalic dopaminergic groups. The transcription factors Pitx3 and Lmx1b play an important role in mammalian mesencephalic dopaminergic specification, and Nurr1/Nr4a2 has been shown to contribute to specification of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter phenotype. We use zebrafish to analyze potentially evolutionarily conserved roles of these transcription factors in a vertebrate brain that lacks a mesencephalic dopaminergic system, but has an ascending dopaminergic system in the ventral diencephalon. Results: We use a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether nr4a2, lmx1b, and pitx3 genes are expressed in mature dopaminergic neurons or in potential precursor populations. We identify a second nr4a2 paralogue, nr4a2a, and find it co-expressed with Tyrosine hydroxylase in preoptic, pretectal and retinal amacrine dopaminergic neurons, while nr4a2b is only expressed in preoptic and retinal dopaminergic neurons. Both zebrafish nr4a2 paralogues are not expressed in ventral diencephalic dopaminergic neurons with ascending projections. Combined morpholino antisense oligo mediated knock-down of both nr4a2a and nr4a2b transcripts reveals that all zebrafish dopaminergic neurons expressing nr4a2a depend on Nr4a2 activity for tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression. Zebrafish lmx1b.1 is expressed in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus and medulla oblongata, but knock-down reveals that it is specifically required for tyrosine hydroxylase expression only in the medulla oblongata area postrema noradrenergic neurons. Both lmx1b genes and pitx3 are not expressed in dopaminergic neurons, but in a

  15. Evaluation of visible implant elastomer tags in zebrafish (Danio rerio

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    Claudia Hohn

    2013-11-01

    The use of the visible implant elastomer (VIE tagging system in zebrafish (Danio rerio was examined. Two tag orientations (horizontal and vertical at the dorsal fin base were tested for tag retention, tag fragmentation and whether VIE tags affected growth and survival of juvenile zebrafish (1–4 month post hatch. Six tag locations (abdomen, anal fin base, caudal peduncle, dorsal fin base, pectoral fin base, isthmus and 5 tag colors (yellow, red, pink, orange, blue were evaluated for ease of VIE tag application and tag visibility in adult zebrafish. Long-term retention (1 year and multiple tagging sites (right and left of dorsal fin and pectoral fin base were examined in adult zebrafish. Lastly, survival of recombination activation gene 1−/− (rag1−/− zebrafish was evaluated after VIE tagging. The best tag location was the dorsal fin base, and the most visible tag color was pink. Growth rate of juvenile zebrafish was not affected by VIE tagging. Horizontal tagging is recommended in early stages of fish growth (1–2 months post hatch. VIE tags were retained for 1 year and tagging did not interfere with long-term growth and survival. There was no mortality associated with VIE tagging in rag1−/− zebrafish. The VIE tagging system is highly suitable for small-sized zebrafish. When familiar with the procedure, 120 adult zebrafish can be tagged in one hour. It does not increase mortality in adult zebrafish or interfere with growth in juvenile or adult zebrafish.

  16. GLUT12 deficiency during early development results in heart failure and a diabetic phenotype in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bakkers, Jeroen; Spaink, Herman P.; Marín-Juez, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies-associated metabolic pathologies (e.g., type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance) are a leading cause of mortality. It is known that the association between these pathologies works in both directions, for which heart failure can lead to metabolic derangements such as insulin

  17. GLUT12 deficiency during early development results in heart failure and a diabetic phenotype in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bakkers, Jeroen; Spaink, Herman P; Marín-Juez, Rubén

    Cardiomyopathies-associated metabolic pathologies (e.g., type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance) are a leading cause of mortality. It is known that the association between these pathologies works in both directions, for which heart failure can lead to metabolic derangements such as insulin

  18. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Genomic Organization of Zebrafish microRNAs

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    Paydar Ima

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small (~22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate cell movement, specification, and development. Expression of miRNAs is highly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Based on direct cloning, sequence conservation, and predicted secondary structures, a large number of miRNAs have been identified in higher eukaryotic genomes but whether these RNAs are simply a subset of a much larger number of noncoding RNA families is unknown. This is especially true in zebrafish where genome sequencing and annotation is not yet complete. Results We analyzed the zebrafish genome to identify the number and location of proven and predicted miRNAs resulting in the identification of 35 new miRNAs. We then grouped all 415 zebrafish miRNAs into families based on seed sequence identity as a means to identify possible functional redundancy. Based on genomic location and expression analysis, we also identified those miRNAs that are likely to be encoded as part of polycistronic transcripts. Lastly, as a resource, we compiled existing zebrafish miRNA expression data and, where possible, listed all experimentally proven mRNA targets. Conclusion Current analysis indicates the zebrafish genome encodes 415 miRNAs which can be grouped into 44 families. The largest of these families (the miR-430 family contains 72 members largely clustered in two main locations along chromosome 4. Thus far, most zebrafish miRNAs exhibit tissue specific patterns of expression.

  20. Zebrafish with mutations in mismatch repair genes develop neurofibromas and other tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitsma, H.; Kuiper, R.V.; Korving, J.; Nijman, I.J.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Defective mismatch repair (MMR) in humans causes hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This genetic predisposition to colon cancer is linked to heterozygous familial mutations, and loss-of-heterozygosity is necessary for tumor development. In contrast, the rare cases with biallelic MMR

  1. Knockdown of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (mct8) disturbs brain development and locomotion in zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, E. de; Wiel, S.M. van de; Zethof, J; Flik, G.; Klaren, P.H.M.; Arjona, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is an inherited disorder of brain development characterized by severe psychomotor retardation. This X-linked disease is caused by mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), an important thyroid hormone transporter in brain neurons. MCT8-knockout mice

  2. Dietary β-glucan enhances the contents of complement component 3 and factor B in eggs of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengyan; Wang, Peng; Li, Mengyang; Liu, Shousheng; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-12-01

    β-glucan has been shown to increase non-specific immunity and resistance against infections or pathogenic bacteria in several fish species, but no information is available regarding its trans-generational effects to date. Here we clearly demonstrated that β-glucan enhanced the contents of immune-relevant molecules C3 and Bf in eggs of zebrafish, and the embryos derived from β-1,3 glucan-treated zebrafish were more resistant to bacterial challenge than control embryos. Moreover, the transferred C3 and Bf were directly associated with the antimicrobial defense of early embryos. In addition, feeding female zebrafish with β-glucan had little detrimental effects on the number of spawned eggs and their embryonic development. Collectively, these data show for the first time that β-glucan can be safely used to promote the non-specific immunity in offspring of fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse effects of parental zinc deficiency on metal homeostasis and embryonic development in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Laura M; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M; Truong, Lisa; Barton, Carrie L; Knecht, Andrea L; Gonnerman, Greg D; Wong, Carmen P; Tanguay, Robert L; Ho, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The high prevalence of zinc deficiency is a global public health concern, and suboptimal maternal zinc consumption has been associated with adverse effects ranging from impaired glucose tolerance to low birthweights. The mechanisms that contribute to altered development and poor health in zinc deficient offspring are not completely understood. To address this gap, we utilized the Danio rerio model and investigated the impact of dietary zinc deficiency on adults and their developing progeny. Zinc deficient adult fish were significantly smaller in size, and had decreases in learning and fitness. We hypothesized that parental zinc deficiency would have an impact on their offspring's mineral homeostasis and embryonic development. Results from mineral analysis showed that parental zinc deficiency caused their progeny to be zinc deficient. Furthermore, parental dietary zinc deficiency had adverse consequences for their offspring including a significant increase in mortality and decreased physical activity. Zinc deficient embryos had altered expression of genes that regulate metal homeostasis including several zinc transporters (ZnT8, ZnT9) and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). Zinc deficiency was also associated with decreased expression of genes related to diabetes and pancreatic development in the embryo (Insa, Pax4, Pdx1). Decreased expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt4, Dnmt6) was also found in zinc deficient offspring, which suggests that zinc deficiency in parents may cause altered epigenetic profiles for their progeny. These data should inform future studies regarding zinc deficiency and pregnancy and suggest that supplementation of zinc deficient mothers prior to pregnancy may be beneficial. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  5. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  6. Early Childhood Development: Trends and Likely Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    The following trends have been in motion in the field of early childhood development (ECD) for some time: (1) the concept of ECD is increasingly taking on additional connotations; (2) in Europe children are becoming a minority group and other age groups, such as the elderly, see them as competitors for the same limited resources; (3) the downward…

  7. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-05

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma in an orthotopic zebrafish tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jian; Cao, Ziquan; Hosaka, Kayoko; Jensen, Lasse; Yang, Huasheng; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly invasive malignant tumor that often invades the brain and metastasizes to distal organs through the blood stream. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma can occur at the early stage of tumor development. However, an optimal preclinical model to study retinoblastoma invasiveness and metastasis in relation to drug treatment has not been developed. Here, we developed an orthotopic zebrafish model in which retinoblastoma invasion and metastasis can be monitored at a single cell level. We took the advantages of immune privilege and transparent nature of developing zebrafish embryos. Intravitreal implantation of color-coded retinoblastoma cells allowed us to kinetically monitor tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Further, interactions between retinoblastoma cells and surrounding microvasculatures were studied using a transgenic zebrafish that exhibited green fluorescent signals in blood vessels. We discovered that tumor cells invaded neighboring tissues and blood stream when primary tumors were at the microscopic sizes. These findings demonstrate that retinoblastoma metastasis occurs at the early stage and antiangiogenic drugs such as Vegf morpholino and sunitinib could potentially interfere with tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Thus, this orthotopic retinoblastoma model offers a new and unique opportunity to study the early events of tumor invasion, metastasis and drug responses. PMID:26169357

  9. Expression of a linker histone-like gene in the primordial germ cells in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Katja; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Raz, Erez

    2002-01-01

    Similar to many other organisms, specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in zebraftsh occurs during early development and depends on inheritance of 'germ plasm' determinants. Following their specification, the PGCs exhibit characteristic transcriptional profile and cell behaviour. Here we describe the cloning, expression pattern and sub-cellular localization of the zebrafish H I type linker histone, HIM, which is specifically expressed in the PGCs in the second phase of their developmen...

  10. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thuy Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V.; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chr...

  11. A Zebrafish Model of Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Reveals That pitx2 Regulation by Retinoic Acid Is Essential for Ocular and Craniofacial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, Brenda L.; Kasprick, Daniel S.; Kish, Phillip E.; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The homeobox transcription factor PITX2 is a known regulator of mammalian ocular development, and human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS). However, the treatment of patients with ARS remains mostly supportive and palliative. Methods. The authors used molecular genetic, pharmacologic, and embryologic techniques to study the biology of ARS in a zebrafish model that uses transgenes to mark neural crest and muscle cells in the head. Results. The authors demonstrated in vivo that pitx2 is a key downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) in craniofacial development, and this pathway is required for coordinating neural crest, mesoderm, and ocular development. pitx2a knockdown using morpholino oligonucleotides disrupts jaw and pharyngeal arch formation and recapitulates ocular characteristics of ARS, including corneal and iris stroma maldevelopment. These phenotypes could be rescued with human PITX2A mRNA, demonstrating the specificity of the knockdown and evolutionary conservation of pitx2a function. Expression of the ARS dominant negative human PITX2A K50E allele also caused ARS-like phenotypes. Similarly, inhibition of RA synthesis in the developing eye (genetic or pharmacologic) disrupted craniofacial and ocular development, and human PITX2A mRNA partially rescued these defects. Conclusions. RA regulation of pitx2 is essential for coordinating interactions among neural crest, mesoderm, and developing eye. The marked evolutionary conservation of Pitx2 function in eye and craniofacial development makes zebrafish a potentially powerful model of ARS, amenable to in vivo experimentation and development of potential therapies. PMID:22125274

  12. Wild-type Zebrafish subjected to swim-training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analysis of the effects of swim-training on zebrafish larval development. Zebrafish were subjected to swim-training from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) until 10 dpf. Subsequently, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of trained and control fish at 10 dpf. The goal

  13. In Vivo Quantitative Study of Sized-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Desai, Tanvi; Cherukui, Pavan K.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties (e.g., small sizes, high surface area-to-volume ratios) and promise a wide variety of applications, ranging from design of high quality consumer products to effective disease diagnosis and therapy. These properties can lead to toxic effects, potentially hindering advance in nanotechnology. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized purified and stable (non-aggregation) silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 41.6±9.1 nm in average diameters), and utilized early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos (critical aquatic and eco- species) as in vivo model organisms to probe diffusion and toxicity of Ag NPs. We found that single Ag NPs (30–72 nm diameters) passively diffused into the embryos through chorionic pores via random Brownian motion and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf). Dose and size dependent toxic effects of the NPs on embryonic development were observed, showing the possibility of tuning biocompatibility and toxicity of the NPs. At lower concentrations of the NPs (≤ 0.02 nM), 75–91% of embryos developed to normal zebrafish. At the higher concentrations of NPs (≥ 0.20 nM), 100% of embryos became dead. At the concentrations in between (0.02–0.2 nM), embryos developed to various deformed zebrafish. Number and sizes of individual Ag NPs embedded in tissues of normal and deformed zebrafish at 120 hpf were quantitatively analyzed, showing deformed zebrafish with higher number of larger NPs than normal zebrafish, and size-dependent nanotoxicity. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm), the results further demonstrate striking size-dependent nanotoxicity that, at the same molar concentration, the larger Ag NPs (41.6±9.1 nm) are more toxic than the smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm). PMID:22486336

  14. Modeling Myeloid Malignancies Using Zebrafish

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    Kathryn S. Potts

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human myeloid malignancies represent a substantial disease burden to individuals, with significant morbidity and death. The genetic underpinnings of disease formation and progression remain incompletely understood. Large-scale human population studies have identified a high frequency of potential driver mutations in spliceosomal and epigenetic regulators that contribute to malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and leukemias. The high conservation of cell types and genes between humans and model organisms permits the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of leukemic development and potential therapeutic testing in genetically pliable pre-clinical systems. Due to the many technical advantages, such as large-scale screening, lineage-tracing studies, tumor transplantation, and high-throughput drug screening approaches, zebrafish is emerging as a model system for myeloid malignancies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in MDS and leukemia using the zebrafish model.

  15. Evolution of the osteoblast: skeletogenesis in gar and zebrafish

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    Eames B Frank

    2012-03-01

    surprising finding that the "chondrogenic" transcription factor sox9 is expressed in developing osteoblasts of both zebrafish and gar can help explain the expression of chondrocyte genes in osteoblasts of ray-finned fish. More broadly, our data suggest that the molecular fingerprint of the osteoblast, which largely is constrained among land animals, was not fixed during early vertebrate evolution.

  16. In Vivo Testing of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Knockdown in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Un San Leong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio has become an attractive model for human disease modeling as there are a large number of orthologous genes that encode similar proteins to those found in humans. The number of tools available to manipulate the zebrafish genome is limited and many currently used techniques are only effective during early development (such as morpholino-based antisense technology or it is phenotypically driven and does not offer targeted gene knockdown (such as chemical mutagenesis. The use of RNA interference has been met with controversy as off-target effects can make interpreting phenotypic outcomes difficult; however, this has been resolved by creating zebrafish lines that contain stably integrated miRNA constructs that target the desired gene of interest. In this study, we show that a commercially available miRNA vector system with a mouse-derived miRNA backbone is functional in zebrafish and is effective in causing eGFP knockdown in a transient in vivo eGFP sensor assay system. We chose to apply this system to the knockdown of transcripts that are implicated in the human cardiac disorder, Long QT syndrome.

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals positive selection on the divergent between topmouth culter and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Tan, Xing-Jun; Xiong, Ya-Feng; Xu, Kang; Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Liu, Yun; Hong, Yun-Han; Liu, Shao-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis) is a predatory cyprinid fish that distributes widely in the East Asia. Here we report the liver transcriptome in this organism as a model of predatory fish. Sequencing of 5 Gb raw reads led to 27,741 unigenes and produced 11,131 annotatable genes. A total of 7093 (63.7%) genes were found to have putative functions by gene ontology analysis. Importantly, a blast search revealed 4033 culter genes that were orthologous to the zebrafish. Extracted from 38 candidate positive selection genes, 4 genes exhibit strong positive selection based on the ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous substitutions (Ks). In addition, the four genes also indicated the strong positive selection by comparing them between blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and zebrafish. These genes were involved in activator of gene expression, metabolic processes and development. The transcriptome variation may be reflective of natural selection in the early life history of Cyprinidae. Based on Ks ratios, date of the separation between topmouth culter and zebrafish is approximately 64 million years ago. We conclude that natural selection acts in diversifying the genomes between topmouth culter and zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Macrophage–Microbe Interactions: Lessons from the Zebrafish Model

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    Nagisa Yoshida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages provide front line defense against infections. The study of macrophage–microbe interplay is thus crucial for understanding pathogenesis and infection control. Zebrafish (Danio rerio larvae provide a unique platform to study macrophage–microbe interactions in vivo, from the level of the single cell to the whole organism. Studies using zebrafish allow non-invasive, real-time visualization of macrophage recruitment and phagocytosis. Furthermore, the chemical and genetic tractability of zebrafish has been central to decipher the complex role of macrophages during infection. Here, we discuss the latest developments using zebrafish models of bacterial and fungal infection. We also review novel aspects of macrophage biology revealed by zebrafish, which can potentiate development of new therapeutic strategies for humans.

  20. Early development and regression in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y L; Leonard, H; Piek, J P; Downs, J

    2013-12-01

    This study utilized developmental profiling to examine symptoms in 14 girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and whose families were participating in the Australian Rett syndrome or InterRett database. Regression was mostly characterized by loss of hand and/or communication skills (13/14) except one girl demonstrated slowing of skill development. Social withdrawal and inconsolable crying often developed simultaneously (9/14), with social withdrawal for shorter duration than inconsolable crying. Previously acquired gross motor skills declined in just over half of the sample (8/14), mostly observed as a loss of balance. Early abnormalities such as vomiting and strabismus were also seen. Our findings provide additional insight into the early clinical profile of Rett syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. FishNet: an online database of zebrafish anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Abigail J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. Results To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet http://www.fishnet.org.au, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. Conclusion FishNet contains more than 36 000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1 500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.

  2. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM. This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  3. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  4. The Toolbox for Conditional Zebrafish Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Marie; Mione, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the conditional zebrafish cancer toolbox, which allows for fine control of the expression of oncogenes or downregulation of tumor suppressors at the spatial and temporal level. Methods such as the Gal4/UAS or the Cre/lox systems paved the way to the development of elegant tumor models, which are now being used to study cancer cell biology, clonal evolution, identification of cancer stem cells and anti-cancer drug screening. Combination of these tools, as well as novel developments such as the promising genome editing system through CRISPR/Cas9 and clever application of light reactive proteins will enable the development of even more sophisticated zebrafish cancer models. Here, we introduce this growing toolbox of conditional transgenic approaches, discuss its current application in zebrafish cancer models and provide an outlook on future perspectives.

  5. Ahr2-dependance of PCB126 effects on the swimbladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swimbladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swimbladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swimbladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swimbladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swimbladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swimbladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swimbladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swimbladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos2 failed to inflate the swimbladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swimbladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swimbladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swimbladder cells. PMID:23036320

  6. Alterations in locomotor activity of feeding zebrafish larvae as a consequence of exposure to different environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopp, Renate; Legler, Juliette; Legradi, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral studies are important tools for understanding the development and pathology of neurological diseases. Zebrafish are an emerging alternative model in behavioral and neurological studies as the behavioral repertoire of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is similar to humans, and nervous system

  7. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  8. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahoo, K A

    1986-01-01

    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  9. Early life factors that affect allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.

  10. Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Genri; Serafini, Peter R.; Myers, Jennifer A.; Alexander, Matthew S.; Kunkel, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb). → The dysferlin expression was detected in skeletal muscle, heart and eye. → Injection of antisense morpholinos to dysferlin caused marked muscle disorganization. → Zebrafish dysferlin expression may be involved in stabilizing muscle structures. -- Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11 h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, β-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.

  11. Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Genri; Serafini, Peter R.; Myers, Jennifer A. [Division of Genetics, Program in Genomics, Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States); Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, MA (United States); The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States); Alexander, Matthew S. [Division of Genetics, Program in Genomics, Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States); Kunkel, Louis M., E-mail: kunkel@enders.tch.harvard.edu [Division of Genetics, Program in Genomics, Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States); Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, MA (United States); The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb). {yields} The dysferlin expression was detected in skeletal muscle, heart and eye. {yields} Injection of antisense morpholinos to dysferlin caused marked muscle disorganization. {yields} Zebrafish dysferlin expression may be involved in stabilizing muscle structures. -- Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11 h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, {beta}-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.

  12. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  13. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  14. Development of a convenient in vivo hepatotoxin assay using a transgenic zebrafish line with liver-specific DsRed expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Previously we have developed a transgenic zebrafish line (LiPan with liver-specific red fluorescent protein (DsRed expression under the fabp10a promoter. Since red fluorescence in the liver greatly facilitates the observation of liver in live LiPan fry, we envision that the LiPan zebrafish may provide a useful tool in analyses of hepatotoxicity based on changes of liver red fluorescence intensity and size. In this study, we first tested four well-established hepatotoxins (acetaminophen, aspirin, isoniazid and phenylbutazone in LiPan fry and demonstrated that these hepatotoxins could significantly reduce both liver red fluorescence and liver size in a dosage-dependent manner, thus the two measurable parameters could be used as indicators of hepatotoxicity. We then tested the LiPan fry with nine other chemicals including environmental toxicants and human drugs. Three (mefenamic acid, lindane, and arsenate behave like hepatotoxins in reduction of liver red fluorescence, while three others (17β-estradiol, TCDD [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin] and NDMA [N-nitrosodimethylamine] caused increase of liver red fluorescence and the liver size. Ethanol and two other chemicals, amoxicillin (antibiotics and chlorphenamine (pain killer did not resulted in significant changes of liver red fluorescence and liver size. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we found that the changes of red fluorescence intensity caused by different chemicals correlated to the changes of endogenous fabp10a RNA expression, indicating that the measured hepatotoxicity was related to fatty acid transportation and metabolism. Finally we tested a mixture of four hepatotoxins and observed a significant reduction of red fluorescence in the liver at concentrations below the lowest effective concentrations of individual hepatotoxins, suggesting that the transgenic zebrafish assay is capable of reporting compound hepatotoxicity effect from chemical mixtures. Thus, the LiPan transgenic fry

  15. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO 4 , dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study

  16. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ningbo Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology (China)

    2014-07-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO{sub 4}, dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study.

  17. Uncoupling nicotine mediated motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors and muscle degeneration in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, Lillian; Tanguay, Robert L.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos offer a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms by which nicotine exposure impacts early vertebrate development. Embryos exposed to nicotine become functionally paralyzed by 42 hpf suggesting that the neuromuscular system is compromised in exposed embryos. We previously demonstrated that secondary spinal motoneurons in nicotine-exposed embryos were delayed in development and that their axons made pathfinding errors (Svoboda, K.R., Vijayaraghaven, S., Tanguay, R.L., 2002. Nicotinic receptors mediate changes in spinal motoneuron development and axonal pathfinding in embryonic zebrafish exposed to nicotine. J. Neurosci. 22, 10731-10741). In that study, we did not consider the potential role that altered skeletal muscle development caused by nicotine exposure could play in contributing to the errors in spinal motoneuron axon pathfinding. In this study, we show that an alteration in skeletal muscle development occurs in tandem with alterations in spinal motoneuron development upon exposure to nicotine. The alteration in the muscle involves the binding of nicotine to the muscle-specific AChRs. The nicotine-induced alteration in muscle development does not occur in the zebrafish mutant (sofa potato, [sop]), which lacks muscle-specific AChRs. Even though muscle development is unaffected by nicotine exposure in sop mutants, motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors still occur in these mutants, indicating a direct effect of nicotine exposure on nervous system development.

  18. Development of the sympatho-vagal balance in the cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) characterized by power spectrum and classical signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerte, Thorsten; Prem, Caroline; Mairösl, Anita; Pelster, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    The development of sympatho-vagal control of cardiac activity was analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae from 2 to 15 days post fertilization (d.p.f.) by pharmacological studies as well as by assessing short term heart rate variability. Changes in heart rate in response to cholinergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation or inhibition were investigated using in situ preparations and digital video-microscopic techniques. The data revealed that the heart responded to adrenergic stimulation starting at 4 d.p.f. and to cholinergic stimulation starting at 5 d.p.f. Atropine application resulted in an increase in heart rate beyond 12 d.p.f., while the inhibitory effect of cholinergic stimulation ceased at this time of development. Adrenergic inhibition (propranolol) reduced heart rate for the first time at 5 d.p.f., but the reduction was only very small (3.8%). Between 5 and 12 d.p.f. propranolol application always resulted in a minor reduction in heart rate, but because the effect was so small it was not always significant. Because the presence of an adrenergic or cholinergic tone may influence the stability of heart rate, we analyzed short-term heart rate variability (HRV). The frequency band width of heart rate variability revealed that HRV increased between 4 d.p.f. and 15 d.p.f. From 13 to 15 d.p.f. atropine reduced the frequency band width of HRV, whereas the combination of atropine and propranolol effectively reduced the frequency band width between 11 and 15 d.p.f. Classical power spectrum analysis using electrocardiograms is not possible in tiny zebrafish larvae and juveniles. It was therefore performed using optical methods, recording cardiac movement and cardiotachograms calculated from these measurements. Whereas heart movements contained frequency components characterizing HRV, the cardiotachogram did not show typical frequency spectra as known from other species.

  19. Signaling in Early Maize Kernel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Nicolas M; Depège-Fargeix, Nathalie; Rogowsky, Peter M; Widiez, Thomas

    2017-03-06

    Developing the next plant generation within the seed requires the coordination of complex programs driving pattern formation, growth, and differentiation of the three main seed compartments: the embryo (future plant), the endosperm (storage compartment), representing the two filial tissues, and the surrounding maternal tissues. This review focuses on the signaling pathways and molecular players involved in early maize kernel development. In the 2 weeks following pollination, functional tissues are shaped from single cells, readying the kernel for filling with storage compounds. Although the overall picture of the signaling pathways regulating embryo and endosperm development remains fragmentary, several types of molecular actors, such as hormones, sugars, or peptides, have been shown to be involved in particular aspects of these developmental processes. These molecular actors are likely to be components of signaling pathways that lead to transcriptional programming mediated by transcriptional factors. Through the integrated action of these components, multiple types of information received by cells or tissues lead to the correct differentiation and patterning of kernel compartments. In this review, recent advances regarding the four types of molecular actors (hormones, sugars, peptides/receptors, and transcription factors) involved in early maize development are presented. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) modulates early developmental rate in zebrafish independent of its proteolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Sørensen, Kasper; Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kamei, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a large metalloproteinase specifically cleaving IGF binding proteins, causing increased IGF bioavailability and hence local regulation of IGF receptor activation. We have identified two highly conserved zebrafish homologs of the human PAPP-A gene...... phenotype of papp-a knockdown is not a consequence of lacking Papp-a proteolytic activity. We conclude that Papp-a possesses biological functions independent of its proteolytic activity. Our data represent the first evidence for a non-proteolytic function of PAPP-A....

  1. The myopathy-causing mutation DNM2-S619L leads to defective tubulation in vitro and in developing zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Gibbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNM2 is a ubiquitously expressed GTPase that regulates multiple subcellular processes. Mutations in DNM2 are a common cause of centronuclear myopathy, a severe disorder characterized by altered skeletal muscle structure and function. The precise mechanisms underlying disease-associated DNM2 mutations are unresolved. We examined the common DNM2-S619L mutation using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Expression of DNM2-S619L in zebrafish led to the accumulation of aberrant vesicular structures and to defective excitation-contraction coupling. Expression of DNM2-S619L in COS7 cells resulted in defective BIN1-dependent tubule formation. These data suggest that DNM2-S619L causes disease, in part, by interfering with membrane tubulation.

  2. A zebrafish model of Roberts syndrome reveals that Esco2 depletion interferes with development by disrupting the cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Mönnich

    Full Text Available The human developmental diseases Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS and Roberts Syndrome (RBS are both caused by mutations in proteins responsible for sister chromatid cohesion. Cohesion is mediated by a multi-subunit complex called cohesin, which is loaded onto chromosomes by NIPBL. Once on chromosomes, cohesin binding is stabilized in S phase upon acetylation by ESCO2. CdLS is caused by heterozygous mutations in NIPBL or cohesin subunits SMC1A and SMC3, and RBS is caused by homozygous mutations in ESCO2. The genetic cause of both CdLS and RBS reside within the chromosome cohesion apparatus, and therefore they are collectively known as "cohesinopathies". However, the two syndromes have distinct phenotypes, with differences not explained by their shared ontology. In this study, we have used the zebrafish model to distinguish between developmental pathways downstream of cohesin itself, or its acetylase ESCO2. Esco2 depleted zebrafish embryos exhibit features that resemble RBS, including mitotic defects, craniofacial abnormalities and limb truncations. A microarray analysis of Esco2-depleted embryos revealed that different subsets of genes are regulated downstream of Esco2 when compared with cohesin subunit Rad21. Genes downstream of Rad21 showed significant enrichment for transcriptional regulators, while Esco2-regulated genes were more likely to be involved the cell cycle or apoptosis. RNA in situ hybridization showed that runx1, which is spatiotemporally regulated by cohesin, is expressed normally in Esco2-depleted embryos. Furthermore, myca, which is downregulated in rad21 mutants, is upregulated in Esco2-depleted embryos. High levels of cell death contributed to the morphology of Esco2-depleted embryos without affecting specific developmental pathways. We propose that cell proliferation defects and apoptosis could be the primary cause of the features of RBS. Our results show that mutations in different elements of the cohesion apparatus have

  3. Overexpression of DYRK1A, a Down Syndrome Candidate gene, Impairs Primordial Germ Cells Maintenance and Migration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Lin, Ziyuan; Liu, Mingfeng; Wang, He; Sun, Huaqin

    2017-11-10

    DYRK1A, located on chromosome 21, is a major candidate gene of Down syndrome (DS, trisomy21), and its overexpression is associated with abnormal phenotype of Down syndrome patients. The defects of gonads and germ cells in Down Syndrome suggest that overexpression of DYRK1A has potential effect on primordial germ cells (PGCs) development. Human and zebrafish DYRK1A protein sequence possess 75.6% similarity and same function domains, suggesting the evolutional conservation. Here, we used zebrafish model to detect the definite role of excessive expression of DYRK1A in PGCs development during embryogenesis. We injected DYRK1A mRNA into embryos and detected the PGCs marker gene vasa and nanos1. Results showed depletion in numbers and disordering migration of PGCs in human or zebrafish DYRK1A overexpressed zebrafish embryos. Quantitative proteome analysis indicated that embryonic proteins were significantly altered in DYRK1A overexpressed embryos. Of note, ca15b and piwil1, two identified critical factors for PGCs development, showed ectopic expression induced by overexpressed DYRK1A. In brief, we demonstrate that overexpression of DYRK1A, a candidate gene of Down's syndrome, impairs PGCs development during early embryogenesis by altering key factors in embryos. Importantly, our work may provide a conceivable mechanism for the gonads and germ cells defects of Down syndrome patients.

  4. Tributyltin and Zebrafish: Swimming in Dangerous Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemilson Berto-Júnior

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish has been established as a reliable biological model with important insertion in academy (morphologic, biochemical, and pathophysiological studies and pharmaceutical industry (toxicology and drug development due to its molecular complexity and similar systems biology that recapitulate those from other organisms. Considering the toxicological aspects, many efforts using zebrafish models are being done in order to elucidate the effects of endocrine disruptors, and some of them are focused on tributyltin (TBT and its mechanism of action. TBT is an antifouling agent applied in ship’s hull that is constantly released into the water and absorbed by marine organisms, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effects. Thus, several findings of malformations and changes in the normal biochemical and physiologic aspects of these marine animals have been related to TBT contamination. In the present review, we have compiled the most significant studies related to TBT effects in zebrafish, also taking into consideration the effects found in other study models.

  5. A Zebrafish Heart Failure Model for Assessing Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Si-Qi; Guo, Sheng-Ya; Yang, Hua; Xia, Bo; Li, Ping; Li, Chun-Qi

    2018-03-20

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 2 dpf (days postfertilization) were treated with verapamil at a concentration of 200 μM for 30 min, which were determined as optimum conditions for model development. Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection. After treatment, zebrafish were randomly selected and subjected to either visual observation and image acquisition or record videos under a Zebralab Blood Flow System. The therapeutic effects of drugs on zebrafish heart failure were quantified by calculating the efficiency of heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, and blood flow dynamics. All 8 human heart failure therapeutic drugs (LCZ696, digoxin, irbesartan, metoprolol, qiliqiangxin capsule, enalapril, shenmai injection, and hydrochlorothiazide) showed significant preventive and therapeutic effects on zebrafish heart failure (p failure model developed and validated in this study could be used for in vivo heart failure studies and for rapid screening and efficacy assessment of preventive and therapeutic drugs.

  6. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  7. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  8. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell–cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species. (paper)

  9. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2016-02-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women's underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression.

  10. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  11. Dynamic Assembly of Brambleberry Mediates Nuclear Envelope Fusion during Early Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L.; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, a mitotic intermediate wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope, which then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. brambleberry is a previously unannotated gene homolo...

  12. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  13. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hu, Ping [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China); Zhang, Hongchang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang, E-mail: yindq@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Qingshun, E-mail: qingshun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Ministry of Education, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  14. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Ping; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Hongchang; Yin, Daqiang; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  15. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  16. Genetic determinants of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyde David R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The retinal vasculature is a capillary network of blood vessels that nourishes the inner retina of most mammals. Developmental abnormalities or microvascular complications in the retinal vasculature result in severe human eye diseases that lead to blindness. To exploit the advantages of zebrafish for genetic, developmental and pharmacological studies of retinal vasculature, we characterised the intraocular vasculature in zebrafish. Results We show a detailed morphological and developmental analysis of the retinal blood supply in zebrafish. Similar to the transient hyaloid vasculature in mammalian embryos, vessels are first found attached to the zebrafish lens at 2.5 days post fertilisation. These vessels progressively lose contact with the lens and by 30 days post fertilisation adhere to the inner limiting membrane of the juvenile retina. Ultrastructure analysis shows these vessels to exhibit distinctive hallmarks of mammalian retinal vasculature. For example, smooth muscle actin-expressing pericytes are ensheathed by the basal lamina of the blood vessel, and vesicle vacuolar organelles (VVO, subcellular mediators of vessel-retinal nourishment, are present. Finally, we identify 9 genes with cell membrane, extracellular matrix and unknown identity that are necessary for zebrafish hyaloid and retinal vasculature development. Conclusion Zebrafish have a retinal blood supply with a characteristic developmental and adult morphology. Abnormalities of these intraocular vessels are easily observed, enabling application of genetic and chemical approaches in zebrafish to identify molecular regulators of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in development and disease.

  17. Transcriptome data on maternal RNA of 24 individual zebrafish eggs from five sibling mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna F.B. Pagano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mRNA that is present in the mature oocyte plays an important role in the proper development of the early embryo. To elucidate the role of the maternal transcriptome we recently reported a microarray study on individual zebrafish eggs from five different clutches from sibling mothers and showed differences in maternal RNA abundance between and within clutches, “Mother-specific signature in the maternal transcriptome composition of mature, unfertilized Eggs” [1]. Here we provide in detail the applied preprocessing method as well as the R-code to identify expressed and non-expressed genes in the associated transcriptome dataset. Additionally, we provide a website that allows a researcher to search for the expression of their gene of interest in this experiment. Keywords: Zebrafish, Danio rerio, Egg transcriptome, Single egg

  18. The zebrafish model system in cardiovascular research: A tiny fish with mighty prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Kar Lai; Brand, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio, a tropical freshwater fish, belongs to the family of cyprinidae, which in the last 30 years has developed into a very popular model organism for studies of embryonic development and human diseases. Initially the zebrafish species has been selected on the basis of its small size of approximately 3-5 cm, its transparency during development and its high fertility, qualities first identified by George Stresinger, the founding father of zebrafish research [1]. The abilit...

  19. The Hippo pathway controls a switch between retinal progenitor cell proliferation and photoreceptor cell differentiation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Asaoka

    Full Text Available The precise regulation of numbers and types of neurons through control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation is an essential aspect of neurogenesis. The Hippo signaling pathway has recently been identified as playing a crucial role in promoting cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in multiple types of stem cells, including in retinal progenitor cells. When Hippo signaling is activated, the core Mst1/2 kinases activate the Lats1/2 kinases, which in turn phosphorylate and inhibit the transcriptional cofactor Yap. During mouse retinogenesis, overexpression of Yap prolongs progenitor cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of Yap decreases this proliferation and promotes retinal cell differentiation. However, to date, it remains unknown how the Hippo pathway affects the differentiation of distinct neuronal cell types such as photoreceptor cells. In this study, we investigated whether Hippo signaling regulates retinogenesis during early zebrafish development. Knockdown of zebrafish mst2 induced early embryonic defects, including altered retinal pigmentation and morphogenesis. Similar abnormal retinal phenotypes were observed in zebrafish embryos injected with a constitutively active form of yap [(yap (5SA]. Loss of Yap's TEAD-binding domain, two WW domains, or transcription activation domain attenuated the retinal abnormalities induced by yap (5SA, indicating that all of these domains contribute to normal retinal development. Remarkably, yap (5SA-expressing zebrafish embryos displayed decreased expression of transcription factors such as otx5 and crx, which orchestrate photoreceptor cell differentiation by activating the expression of rhodopsin and other photoreceptor cell genes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Rx1 is a novel interacting partner of Yap that regulates photoreceptor cell differentiation. Our results suggest that Yap suppresses the differentiation of photoreceptor cells from retinal progenitor cells by

  20. Solute Carrier Family 26 Member a2 (slc26a2 Regulates Otic Development and Hair Cell Survival in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent human birth defects. Genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of deafness. It is estimated that one-third of deafness genes have already been identified. The current work is an attempt to find novel genes relevant to hearing loss using guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association bioinformatics analyses of approximately 80 known non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (NSHL genes. Among the 300 newly identified candidate deafness genes, slc26a2 were selected for functional studies in zebrafish. The slc26a2 gene was knocked down using an antisense morpholino (MO, and significant defects were observed in otolith patterns, semicircular canal morphology, and lateral neuromast distributions in morphants. Loss-of-function defects are caused primarily by apoptosis, and morphants are insensitive to sound stimulation and imbalanced swimming behaviours. Morphant defects were found to be partially rescued by co-injection of human SLC26A2 mRNA. All the results suggest that bioinformatics is capable of predicting new deafness genes and this showed slc26a2 is to be a critical otic gene whose dysfunction may induce hearing impairment.

  1. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  2. Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in a Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mercatali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary culture of bone metastasis derived from a 67-year-old patient with breast cancer was cultured and then injected into zebrafish (ZF embryos to study its metastatic potential. In vivo behavior and results of gene expression analyses of the primary culture were compared with those of cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. The MCF7 cell line, which has the same hormonal receptor status as the bone metastasis primary culture, did not survive in the in vivo model. Conversely, MDA-MB-231 disseminated and colonized different parts of the ZF, including caudal hematopoietic tissues (CHT, revealing a migratory phenotype. Primary culture cells disseminated and in later stages extravasated from the vessels, engrafting into ZF tissues and reaching the CHT. Primary cell behavior reflected the clinical course of the patient’s medical history. Our results underline the potential for using PDX models in bone metastasis research and outline new methods for the clinical application of this in vivo model.

  3. Subcellular distribution of calcium during spermatogenesis of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Amin; Pšenička, Martin; Niksirat, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    Calcium plays a variety of vital regulatory functions in many physiological and biochemical events in the cell. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural distribution of calcium during different developmental stages of spermatogenesis in a model organism, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate technique. Samples were treated by potassium oxalate and potassium pyroantimonate during two fixation stages and examined using transmission electron microscopy to detect electron dense intracellular calcium. The subcellular distribution of intracellular calcium was characterized in spermatogonium, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoon stages. The area which is covered by intracellular calcium in different stages was quantified and compared using software. Isolated calcium deposits were mainly detectable in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the spermatogonium and spermatocyte. In the spermatid, calcium was partially localized in the cytoplasm as isolated deposits. However, most calcium was transformed from isolated deposits into an unbound pool (free calcium) within the nucleus of the spermatid and the spermatozoon. Interestingly, in the spermatozoon, calcium was mainly localized in a form of an unbound pool which was detectable as an electron-dense mass within the nucleus. Also, sporadic calcium deposits were scattered in the midpiece and flagellum. The proportional area which was covered by intracellular calcium increased significantly from early to late stages of spermatogenesis. The extent of the area which was covered by intracellular calcium in the spermatozoon was the highest compared to earlier stages. Calcium deposits were also observed in the somatic cells (Sertoli, myoid, Leydig) of zebrafish testis. The notable changes in the distribution of intracellular calcium of germ cells during different developmental stages of zebrafish spermatogenesis suggest its different homeostasis and physiological functions during the

  4. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  5. The Relationship between Estrogen and Nitric Oxide in the Prevention of Cardiac and Vascular Anomalies in the Developing Zebrafish (Danio Rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G. Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that both estrogen (E2 and nitric oxide (NO are critical for proper cardiovascular system (CVS function. It has also been demonstrated that E2 acts as an upstream effector in the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Results from this study indicate that the use of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor (NOSI which targets specifically neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1, proadifen hydrochloride, caused a significant depression of fish heart rates (HR accompanied by increased arrhythmic behavior. However, none of these phenotypes were evident with either the inhibition of endothelial NOS (eNOS or inducible NOS (iNOS isoforms. These cardiac arrhythmias could also be mimicked by inhibition of E2 synthesis with the aromatase inhibitor (AI, 4-OH-A, in a manner similar to that of nNOSI. In both scenarios, by using an NO donor (DETA-NO in either NO + nNOSI or E2 + AI co-treatments, fish could be significantly rescued from decreased HR and increased arrhythmias. However, the addition of an NOS inhibitor (L-NAME to the E2 + AI co-treatment fish prevented the rescue of low heart rates and arrhythmias, which strongly implicates the NO pathway as a downstream E2 targeted molecule for the maintenance of healthy cardiomyocyte contractile conditions in the developing zebrafish. Cardiac arrhythmias could be mimicked by the S-nitrosylation pathway inhibitor DTT (1,4-dithiothreitol but not by ODQ (1H-[1–3]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, the inhibitor of the NO receptor molecule sGC in the cGMP-dependent pathway. In both the nNOSI and AI-induced arrhythmic conditions, 100% of the fish expressed the phenotype, but could be rapidly rescued with maximum survival by a washout with dantrolene, a ryanodine Ca2+ channel receptor blocker, compared to the time it took for rescue using a control salt solution. In addition, of the three NOS isoforms, eNOS was the one most implicated in the maintenance of an intact developing fish vascular system. In conclusion, results

  6. The mechanism for primordial germ-cell migration is conserved between Japanese eel and zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiju Saito

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are segregated and specified from somatic cells during early development. These cells arise elsewhere and have to migrate across the embryo to reach developing gonadal precursors. Several molecules associated with PGC migration (i.e. dead-end, nanos1, and cxcr4 are highly conserved across phylum boundaries. However, since cell migration is a complicated process that is regulated spatially and temporally by multiple adaptors and signal effectors, the process is unlikely to be explained by these known genes only. Indeed, it has been shown that there are variations in PGC migration pattern during development among teleost species. However, it is still unclear whether the actual mechanism of PGC migration is conserved among species. In this study, we studied the migration of PGCs in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica embryos and tested the migration mechanism between Japanese eel and zebrafish (Danio rerio for conservation, by transplanting eel PGCs into zebrafish embryos. The experiments showed that eel PGCs can migrate toward the gonadal region of zebrafish embryos along with endogenous PGCs, even though the migration patterns, behaviors, and settlements of PGCs are somewhat different between these species. Our results demonstrate that the migration mechanism of PGCs during embryonic development is highly conserved between these two distantly related species (belonging to different teleost orders.

  7. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ying Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  8. Towards a comprehensive catalog of zebrafish behavior 1.0 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Gebhardt, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Cachat, Jonathan M; Brimmer, Mallorie; Chawla, Jonathan S; Craddock, Cassandra; Kyzar, Evan J; Roth, Andrew; Landsman, Samuel; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Robinson, Kyle; Baatrup, Erik; Tierney, Keith; Shamchuk, Angela; Norton, William; Miller, Noam; Nicolson, Teresa; Braubach, Oliver; Gilman, Charles P; Pittman, Julian; Rosemberg, Denis B; Gerlai, Robert; Echevarria, David; Lamb, Elisabeth; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Weng, Wei; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Schneider, Henning

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly gaining popularity in translational neuroscience and behavioral research. Physiological similarity to mammals, ease of genetic manipulations, sensitivity to pharmacological and genetic factors, robust behavior, low cost, and potential for high-throughput screening contribute to the growing utility of zebrafish models in this field. Understanding zebrafish behavioral phenotypes provides important insights into neural pathways, physiological biomarkers, and genetic underpinnings of normal and pathological brain function. Novel zebrafish paradigms continue to appear with an encouraging pace, thus necessitating a consistent terminology and improved understanding of the behavioral repertoire. What can zebrafish 'do', and how does their altered brain function translate into behavioral actions? To help address these questions, we have developed a detailed catalog of zebrafish behaviors (Zebrafish Behavior Catalog, ZBC) that covers both larval and adult models. Representing a beginning of creating a more comprehensive ethogram of zebrafish behavior, this effort will improve interpretation of published findings, foster cross-species behavioral modeling, and encourage new groups to apply zebrafish neurobehavioral paradigms in their research. In addition, this glossary creates a framework for developing a zebrafish neurobehavioral ontology, ultimately to become part of a unified animal neurobehavioral ontology, which collectively will contribute to better integration of biological data within and across species.

  9. Velocity storage mechanism in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Bockisch, Christopher J; Bertolini, Giovanni; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik; Ying-Yu Huang, Melody

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The optokinetic reflex (OKR) and the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) complement each other to stabilize images on the retina despite self- or world motion, a joint mechanism that is critical for effective vision. It is currently hypothesized that signals from both systems integrate, in a mathematical sense, in a network of neurons operating as a velocity storage mechanism (VSM). When exposed to a rotating visual surround, subjects display the OKR, slow following eye movements frequently interrupted by fast resetting eye movements. Subsequent to light-off during optokinetic stimulation, eye movements do not stop abruptly, but decay slowly, a phenomenon referred to as the optokinetic after-response (OKAR). The OKAR is most likely generated by the VSM. In this study, we observed the OKAR in developing larval zebrafish before the horizontal aVOR emerged. Our results suggest that the VSM develops prior to and without the need for a functional aVOR. It may be critical to ocular motor control in early development as it increases the efficiency of the OKR. PMID:24218543

  10. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  11. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Apoc2 loss-of-function zebrafish mutant as a genetic model of hyperlipidemia

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    Chao Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2 is an obligatory activator of lipoprotein lipase. Human patients with APOC2 deficiency display severe hypertriglyceridemia while consuming a normal diet, often manifesting xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and pancreatitis. Hypertriglyceridemia is also an important risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Animal models to study hypertriglyceridemia are limited, with no Apoc2-knockout mouse reported. To develop a genetic model of hypertriglyceridemia, we generated an apoc2 mutant zebrafish characterized by the loss of Apoc2 function. apoc2 mutants show decreased plasma lipase activity and display chylomicronemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia, which closely resemble the phenotype observed in human patients with APOC2 deficiency. The hypertriglyceridemia in apoc2 mutants is rescued by injection of plasma from wild-type zebrafish or by injection of a human APOC2 mimetic peptide. Consistent with a previous report of a transient apoc2 knockdown, apoc2 mutant larvae have a minor delay in yolk consumption and angiogenesis. Furthermore, apoc2 mutants fed a normal diet accumulate lipid and lipid-laden macrophages in the vasculature, which resemble early events in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, apoc2 mutant embryos show ectopic overgrowth of pancreas. Taken together, our data suggest that the apoc2 mutant zebrafish is a robust and versatile animal model to study hypertriglyceridemia and the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of associated human diseases.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a zebrafish novel zinc finger protein gene rnf141

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    Wenqian Deng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ZNF230 is a novel zinc finger gene cloned by our laboratory. In order to understand the potential functions of this gene in vertebrate development, we cloned the zebrafish orthologue of human ZNF230, named rnf141. The cDNA fragment of rnf141 was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The open reading frame (ORF encodes a polypeptide of 222 amino acids which shares 75.65% identity with the human ZNF230. RT-PCR analysis in zebrafish embryo and adult tissues revealed that rnf141 transcripts are maternally derived and that rnf141 mRNA has a broad distribution. Zygotic rnf141 message is strongly localized in the central nervous system, as shown by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown and over expression of rnf141 can induce abnormal phenotypes, including abnormal development of brain, as well as yolk sac and axis extendsion. Marker gene analysis showed that rnf141 may play a role in normal dorsoventral patterning of zebrafish embryos, suggesting that rnf141 may have a broad function during early development of vertebrates.

  14. Dynamic nucleosome organization at hox promoters during zebrafish embryogenesis.

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    Steven E Weicksel

    Full Text Available Nucleosome organization at promoter regions plays an important role in regulating gene activity. Genome-wide studies in yeast, flies, worms, mammalian embryonic stem cells and transformed cell lines have found well-positioned nucleosomes flanking a nucleosome depleted region (NDR at transcription start sites. This nucleosome arrangement depends on DNA sequence (cis-elements as well as DNA binding factors and ATP-dependent chromatin modifiers (trans-factors. However, little is understood about how the nascent embryonic genome positions nucleosomes during development. This is particularly intriguing since the embryonic genome must undergo a broad reprogramming event upon fusion of sperm and oocyte. Using four stages of early embryonic zebrafish development, we map nucleosome positions at the promoter region of 37 zebrafish hox genes. We find that nucleosome arrangement at the hox promoters is a progressive process that takes place over several stages. At stages immediately after fertilization, nucleosomes appear to be largely disordered at hox promoter regions. At stages after activation of the embryonic genome, nucleosomes are detectable at hox promoters, with positions becoming more uniform and more highly occupied. Since the genomic sequence is invariant during embryogenesis, this progressive change in nucleosome arrangement suggests that trans-factors play an important role in organizing nucleosomes during embryogenesis. Separating hox genes into expressed and non-expressed groups shows that expressed promoters have better positioned and occupied nucleosomes, as well as distinct NDRs, than non-expressed promoters. Finally, by blocking the retinoic acid-signaling pathway, we disrupt early hox gene transcription, but observe no effect on nucleosome positions, suggesting that active hox transcription is not a driving force behind the arrangement of nucleosomes at the promoters of hox genes during early development.

  15. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C

    2012-08-03

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric

  17. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  18. Zebrafish eda and edar mutants reveal conserved and ancestral roles of ectodysplasin signaling in vertebrates.

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    Matthew P Harris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of the development and variation of adult form of vertebrates is not well understood. To address this problem, we performed a mutant screen to identify genes essential for the formation of adult skeletal structures of the zebrafish. Here, we describe the phenotypic and molecular characterization of a set of mutants showing loss of adult structures of the dermal skeleton, such as the rays of the fins and the scales, as well as the pharyngeal teeth. The mutations represent adult-viable, loss of function alleles in the ectodysplasin (eda and ectodysplasin receptor (edar genes. These genes are frequently mutated in the human hereditary disease hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED; OMIM 224900, 305100 that affects the development of integumentary appendages such as hair and teeth. We find mutations in zebrafish edar that affect similar residues as mutated in human cases of HED and show similar phenotypic consequences. eda and edar are not required for early zebrafish development, but are rather specific for the development of adult skeletal and dental structures. We find that the defects of the fins and scales are due to the role of Eda signaling in organizing epidermal cells into discrete signaling centers of the scale epidermal placode and fin fold. Our genetic analysis demonstrates dose-sensitive and organ-specific response to alteration in levels of Eda signaling. In addition, we show substantial buffering of the effect of loss of edar function in different genetic backgrounds, suggesting canalization of this developmental system. We uncover a previously unknown role of Eda signaling in teleosts and show conservation of the developmental mechanisms involved in the formation and variation of both integumentary appendages and limbs. Lastly, our findings point to the utility of adult genetic screens in the zebrafish in identifying essential developmental processes involved in human disease and in morphological evolution.

  19. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lifeng [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zhou, Yong [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yu, Shanhe [Shanghai Institute of Hematology, RuiJin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ji, Guixiang [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences/Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042 (China); Wang, Lei [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Aihua, E-mail: aihuagu@njmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes and nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.

  20. The emergence of functional architecture during early brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J.N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Early human brain development constitutes a sequence of intricate processes resulting in the ontogeny of functionally operative neural circuits. Developmental trajectories of early brain network formation are genetically programmed and can be modified by epigenetic and environmental influences. Such

  1. Tracking Nemo: Help Scientists Understand Zebrafish Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Tyrone J; Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2018-02-22

    The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers. Researchers can upload their videos that require human intervention for correcting and validating the data. Citizen scientists can monitor their contributions through a leaderboard system, which is designed to strengthen participant retention and contribution by tapping into intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Tracking Nemo is expected to help scientists improve data accuracy through the involvement of citizen scientists, who, in turn, engage in an authentic research activity and learn more about the behavior of zebrafish.

  2. Morphological effects of G-quadruplex stabilization using a small molecule in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tani; Lalwani, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Santosh; Roy, Saumya; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Maiti, Souvik

    2014-02-25

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos are transparent and advantageous for studying early developmental changes due to ex utero development, making them an appropriate model for studying gene expression changes as a result of molecular targeting. Zebrafish embryos were injected with a previously reported G-quadruplex selective ligand, and the phenotypic changes were recorded. We report marked discrepancies in the development of intersegmental vessels. In silico analysis determined that the putative G-quadruplex motif occur in the upstream promoter region of the Cdh5 (N-cadherin) gene. A real-time polymerase chain reaction-based investigation indicated that in zebrafish, CDH-2 (ZN-cad) was significantly downregulated in the ligand-treated embryos. Biophysical characterization of the interaction of the ligand with the G-quadruplex motif found in this promoter yielded strong binding and stabilization of the G-quadruplex with this ligand. Hence, we report for the first time the phenotypic impact of G-quadruplex targeting with a ligand in a vertebrate organism. This study has unveiled not only G-quadruplex targeting in non-human animal species but also the potential that G-quadruplexes can provide a ready tool for understanding the phenotypic effects of targeting certain important genes involved in differentiation and developmental processes in a living eukaryotic organism.

  3. Use of zebrafish and knockdown technology to define proprotein convertase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitramuthu, Babykumari P; Bennett, Hugh P J

    2011-01-01

    The Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful and well-established tool used extensively for the study of early vertebrate development and as a model of human diseases. Zebrafish genes orthologous to their mammalian counterparts generally share conserved biological function. Protein knockdown or overexpression can be effectively achieved by microinjection of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MOs) or mRNA, respectively, into developing embryos at the one- to two-cell stage. Correlating gene expression patterns with the characterizing of phenotypes resulting from over- or underexpression can reveal the function of a particular protein. The microinjection technique is simple and results are reproducible. We defined the expression pattern of the proprotein convertase PCSK5 within the lateral line neuromasts and various organs including the liver, gut and otic vesicle by whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluorescence (IF). MO-mediated knockdown of zebrafish PCSK5 expression generated embryos that display abnormal neuromast deposition within the lateral line system resulting in uncoordinated patterns of swimming.

  4. Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1998-03-01

    The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

  5. Clinically approved iron chelators influence zebrafish mortality, hatching morphology and cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine L Hamilton

    Full Text Available Iron chelation therapy using iron (III specific chelators such as desferrioxamine (DFO, Desferal, deferasirox (Exjade or ICL-670, and deferiprone (Ferriprox or L1 are the current standard of care for the treatment of iron overload. Although each chelator is capable of promoting some degree of iron excretion, these chelators are also associated with a wide range of well documented toxicities. However, there is currently very limited data available on their effects in developing embryos. In this study, we took advantage of the rapid development and transparency of the zebrafish embryo, Danio rerio to assess and compare the toxicity of iron chelators. All three iron chelators described above were delivered to zebrafish embryos by direct soaking and their effects on mortality, hatching and developmental morphology were monitored for 96 hpf. To determine whether toxicity was specific to embryos, we examined the effects of chelator exposure via intra peritoneal injection on the cardiac function and gene expression in adult zebrafish. Chelators varied significantly in their effects on embryo mortality, hatching and morphology. While none of the embryos or adults exposed to DFO were negatively affected, ICL -treated embryos and adults differed significantly from controls, and L1 exerted toxic effects in embryos alone. ICL-670 significantly increased the mortality of embryos treated with doses of 0.25 mM or higher and also affected embryo morphology, causing curvature of larvae treated with concentrations above 0.5 mM. ICL-670 exposure (10 µL of 0.1 mM injection also significantly increased the heart rate and cardiac output of adult zebrafish. While L1 exposure did not cause toxicity in adults, it did cause morphological defects in embryos at 0.5 mM. This study provides first evidence on iron chelator toxicity in early development and will help to guide our approach on better understanding the mechanism of iron chelator toxicity.

  6. Differential Roles of Transcriptional Mediator Complex Subunits Crsp34/Med27, Crsp150/Med14 and Trap100/Med24 During Zebrafish Retinal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Katrin; Holzschuh, Jochen; Filippi, Alida; Ettl, Anne-Kathrin; Ryu, Soojin; Shepherd, Iain T.; Driever, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The transcriptional mediator complex has emerged as an important component of transcriptional regulation, yet it is largely unknown whether its subunits have differential functions in development. We demonstrate that the zebrafish mutation m885 disrupts a subunit of the mediator complex, Crsp34/Med27. To explore the role of the mediator in the control of retinal differentiation, we employed two additional mutations disrupting the mediator subunits Trap100/Med24 and Crsp150/Med14. Our analysis shows that loss of Crsp34/Med27 decreases amacrine cell number, but increases the number of rod photoreceptor cells. In contrast, loss of Trap100/Med24 decreases rod photoreceptor cells. Loss of Crsp150/Med14, on the other hand, only slightly reduces dopaminergic amacrine cells, which are absent from both crsp34m885 and trap100lessen mutant embryos. Our data provide evidence for differential requirements for Crsp34/Med27 in developmental processes. In addition, our data point to divergent functions of the mediator subunits Crsp34/Med27, Trap100/Med24, and Crsp150/Med14 and, thus, suggest that subunit composition of the mediator contributes to the control of differentiation in the vertebrate CNS. PMID:16582438

  7. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is required for epithelial morphogenesis and integrity during zebrafish epiboly and skin development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Slanchev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aberrant expression of the transmembrane protein EpCAM is associated with tumor progression, affecting different cellular processes such as cell-cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, signaling, and invasion. However, the in vivo function of EpCAM still remains elusive due to the lack of genetic loss-of-function studies. Here, we describe epcam (tacstd null mutants in zebrafish. Maternal-zygotic mutants display compromised basal protrusive activity and epithelial morphogenesis in cells of the enveloping layer (EVL during epiboly. In partial redundancy with E-cadherin (Ecad, EpCAM made by EVL cells is further required for cell-cell adhesion within the EVL and, possibly, for proper attachment of underlying deep cells to the inner surface of the EVL, thereby also affecting deep cell epiboly movements. During later development, EpCAM per se becomes indispensable for epithelial integrity within the periderm of the skin, secondarily leading to disrupted morphology of the underlying basal epidermis and moderate hyper-proliferation of skin cells. On the molecular level, EVL cells of epcam mutant embryos display reduced levels of membranous Ecad, accompanied by an enrichment of tight junction proteins and a basal extension of apical junction complexes (AJCs. Our data suggest that EpCAM acts as a partner of E-cadherin to control adhesiveness and integrity as well as plasticity and morphogenesis within simple epithelia. In addition, EpCAM is required for the interaction of the epithelia with underlying cell layers.

  8. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is required for epithelial morphogenesis and integrity during zebrafish epiboly and skin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanchev, Krasimir; Carney, Thomas J; Stemmler, Marc P; Koschorz, Birgit; Amsterdam, Adam; Schwarz, Heinz; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    The aberrant expression of the transmembrane protein EpCAM is associated with tumor progression, affecting different cellular processes such as cell-cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, signaling, and invasion. However, the in vivo function of EpCAM still remains elusive due to the lack of genetic loss-of-function studies. Here, we describe epcam (tacstd) null mutants in zebrafish. Maternal-zygotic mutants display compromised basal protrusive activity and epithelial morphogenesis in cells of the enveloping layer (EVL) during epiboly. In partial redundancy with E-cadherin (Ecad), EpCAM made by EVL cells is further required for cell-cell adhesion within the EVL and, possibly, for proper attachment of underlying deep cells to the inner surface of the EVL, thereby also affecting deep cell epiboly movements. During later development, EpCAM per se becomes indispensable for epithelial integrity within the periderm of the skin, secondarily leading to disrupted morphology of the underlying basal epidermis and moderate hyper-proliferation of skin cells. On the molecular level, EVL cells of epcam mutant embryos display reduced levels of membranous Ecad, accompanied by an enrichment of tight junction proteins and a basal extension of apical junction complexes (AJCs). Our data suggest that EpCAM acts as a partner of E-cadherin to control adhesiveness and integrity as well as plasticity and morphogenesis within simple epithelia. In addition, EpCAM is required for the interaction of the epithelia with underlying cell layers.

  9. Transcriptional changes and developmental abnormalities in a zebrafish model of myotonic dystrophy type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is a multi-system, autosomal dominant disorder caused by expansion of a CTG repeat sequence in the 3′UTR of the DMPK gene. The size of the repeat sequence correlates with age at onset and disease severity, with large repeats leading to congenital forms of DM1 associated with hypotonia and intellectual disability. In models of adult DM1, expanded CUG repeats lead to an RNA toxic gain of function, mediated at least in part by sequestering specific RNA splicing proteins, most notably muscleblind-related (MBNL proteins. However, the impact of CUG RNA repeat expression on early developmental processes is not well understood. To better understand early developmental processes in DM1, we utilized the zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model system. Direct injection of (CUG91 repeat-containing mRNA into single-cell embryos induces toxicity in the nervous system and muscle during early development. These effects manifest as abnormal morphology, behavioral abnormalities and broad transcriptional changes, as shown by cDNA microarray analysis. Co-injection of zebrafish mbnl2 RNA suppresses (CUG91 RNA toxicity and reverses the associated behavioral and transcriptional abnormalities. Taken together, these findings suggest that early expression of exogenously transcribed CUG repeat RNA can disrupt normal muscle and nervous system development and provides a new model for DM1 research that is amenable to small-molecule therapeutic development.

  10. Pdlim7 is required for maintenance of the mesenchymal/epidermal Fgf signaling feedback loop during zebrafish pectoral fin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosowiak Julian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate limb development involves a reciprocal feedback loop between limb mesenchyme and the overlying apical ectodermal ridge (AER. Several gene pathways participate in this feedback loop, including Fgf signaling. In the forelimb lateral plate mesenchyme, Tbx5 activates Fgf10 expression, which in turn initiates and maintains the mesenchyme/AER Fgf signaling loop. Recent findings have revealed that Tbx5 transcriptional activity is regulated by dynamic nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and interaction with Pdlim7, a PDZ-LIM protein family member, along actin filaments. This Tbx5 regulation is critical in heart formation, but the coexpression of both proteins in other developing tissues suggests a broader functional role. Results Knock-down of Pdlim7 function leads to decreased pectoral fin cell proliferation resulting in a severely stunted fin phenotype. While early gene induction and patterning in the presumptive fin field appear normal, the pectoral fin precursor cells display compaction and migration defects between 18 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf. During fin growth fgf24 is sequentially expressed in the mesenchyme and then in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER. However, in pdlim7 antisense morpholino-treated embryos this switch of expression is prevented and fgf24 remains ectopically active in the mesenchymal cells. Along with the lack of fgf24 in the AER, other critical factors including fgf8 are reduced, suggesting signaling problems to the underlying mesenchyme. As a consequence of perturbed AER function in the absence of Pdlim7, pathway components in the fin mesenchyme are misregulated or absent, indicating a breakdown of the Fgf signaling feedback loop, which is ultimately responsible for the loss of fin outgrowth. Conclusion This work provides the first evidence for the involvement of Pdlim7 in pectoral fin development. Proper fin outgrowth requires fgf24 downregulation in the fin mesenchyme with subsequent

  11. REVIEW: Zebrafish: A Renewed Model System For Functional Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the post genome era, a major goal in molecular biology is to determine the function of the many thousands of genes present in the vertebrate genome. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an almost ideal genetic model to identify the biological roles of these novel genes, in part because their embryos are transparent and develop rapidly. The zebrafish has many advantages over mouse for genome-wide mutagenesis studies, allowing for easier, cheaper and faster functional characterization of novel genes in the vertebrate genome. Many molecular research tools such as chemical mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene trapping, gene knockdown, TILLING, gene targeting, RNAi and chemical genetic screen are now available in zebrafish. Combining all the forward, reverse, and chemical genetic tools, it is expected that zebrafish will make invaluable contribution to vertebrate functional genomics in functional annotation of the genes, modeling human diseases and drug discoveries.

  12. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Jeanray

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  13. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanray, Nathalie; Marée, Raphaël; Pruvot, Benoist; Stern, Olivier; Geurts, Pierre; Wehenkel, Louis; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  14. Botulinum Toxin Induces Muscle Paralysis and Inhibits Bone Regeneration in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recidoro, Anthony M.; Roof, Amanda C.; Schmitt, Michael; Worton, Leah E.; Petrie, Timothy; Strand, Nicholas; Ausk, Brandon J.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Moon, Randall T.; Gardiner, Edith M.; Kaminsky, Werner; Bain, Steven D.; Allan, Christopher H.; Gross, Ted S.; Kwon, Ronald Y.

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular administration of Botulinum toxin (BTx) has been associated with impaired osteogenesis in diverse conditions of bone formation (e.g., development, growth, and healing), yet the mechanisms of neuromuscular-bone crosstalk underlying these deficits have yet to be identified. Motivated by the emerging utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a rapid, genetically tractable, and optically transparent model for human pathologies (as well as the potential to interrogate neuromuscular-mediated bone disorders in a simple model that bridges in vitro and more complex in vivo model systems), in this study we developed a model of BTx-induced muscle paralysis in adult zebrafish, and examined its effects on intramembranous ossification during tail fin regeneration. BTx administration induced rapid muscle paralysis in adult zebrafish in a manner that was dose-dependent, transient, and focal, mirroring the paralytic phenotype observed in animal and human studies. During fin regeneration, BTx impaired continued bone ray outgrowth, morphology, and patterning, indicating defects in early osteogenesis. Further, BTx significantly decreased mineralizing activity and crystalline mineral accumulation, suggesting delayed late-stage osteoblast differentiation and/or altered secondary bone apposition. Bone ray transection proximal to the amputation site focally inhibited bone outgrowth in the affected ray, implicating intra- and/or inter-ray nerves in this process. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential to interrogate pathological features of BTx-induced osteoanabolic dysfunction in the regenerating zebrafish fin, define the technological toolbox for detecting bone growth and mineralization deficits in this process, and suggest that pathways mediating neuromuscular regulation of osteogenesis may be conserved beyond established mammalian models of bone anabolic disorders. PMID:24806738

  15. Female reproductive impacts of dietary methylmercury in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBofsky, Abigail R; Klingler, Rebekah H; Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Walz, Marcus; Shepherd, Brian; Larson, Jeremy K; Anderson, David; Yang, Luobin; Goetz, Frederick; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Tonellato, Peter; Armstrong, Brandon M; Murphy, Cheryl; Carvan, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant dietary MeHg exposures on adult female yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian development and reproduction. Yellow perch were used in the study for their socioeconomic and ecological importance within the Great Lakes basin, and the use of zebrafish allowed for a detailed analysis of the molecular effects of MeHg following a whole life-cycle exposure. Chronic whole life dietary exposure of F 1 zebrafish to MeHg mimics realistic wildlife exposure scenarios, and the twenty-week adult yellow perch exposure (where whole life-cycle exposures are difficult) captures early seasonal ovarian development. For both species, target dietary accumulation values were achieved prior to analyses. In zebrafish, several genes involved in reproductive processes were shown to be dysregulated by RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), but no significant phenotypic changes were observed regarding ovarian staging, fecundity, or embryo mortality. Yellow perch were exposed to dietary MeHg for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. In this species, a set of eight genes were assessed by QPCR in the pituitary, liver, and ovary, and no exposure-related changes were observed. The lack of genomic resources in yellow perch hinders the characterization of subtle molecular impacts. The ovarian somatic index, circulating estradiol and testosterone, and ovarian staging were not significantly altered by MeHg exposure in yellow perch. These results suggest that environmentally relevant MeHg exposures do not drastically reduce the reproductively important endpoints in these fish, but to capture realistic exposure scenarios, whole life-cycle yellow perch exposures are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Liver-Enriched Gene 1, a Glycosylated Secretory Protein, Binds to FGFR and Mediates an Anti-stress Pathway to Protect Liver Development in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike mammals and birds, teleost fish undergo external embryogenesis, and therefore their embryos are constantly challenged by stresses from their living environment. These stresses, when becoming too harsh, will cause arrest of cell proliferation, abnormal cell death or senescence. Such organisms have to evolve a sophisticated anti-stress mechanism to protect the process of embryogenesis/organogenesis. However, very few signaling molecule(s mediating such activity have been identified. liver-enriched gene 1 (leg1 is an uncharacterized gene that encodes a novel secretory protein containing a single domain DUF781 (domain of unknown function 781 that is well conserved in vertebrates. In the zebrafish genome, there are two copies of leg1, namely leg1a and leg1b. leg1a and leg1b are closely linked on chromosome 20 and share high homology, but are differentially expressed. In this report, we generated two leg1a mutant alleles using the TALEN technique, then characterized liver development in the mutants. We show that a leg1a mutant exhibits a stress-dependent small liver phenotype that can be prevented by chemicals blocking the production of reactive oxygen species. Further studies reveal that Leg1a binds to FGFR3 and mediates a novel anti-stress pathway to protect liver development through enhancing Erk activity. More importantly, we show that the binding of Leg1a to FGFR relies on the glycosylation at the 70th asparagine (Asn(70 or N(70, and mutating the Asn(70 to Ala(70 compromised Leg1's function in liver development. Therefore, Leg1 plays a unique role in protecting liver development under different stress conditions by serving as a secreted signaling molecule/modulator.

  17. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  18. Clonal origins of cells in the pigmented retina of the zebrafish eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streisinger, G.; Coale, F.; Taggart, C.; Walker, C.; Grunwald, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Mosaic analysis has been used to study the clonal basis of the development of the pigmented retina of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio. Zebrafish embryos heterozygous for a recessive mutation at the gol-1 locus were exposed to gamma-irradiation at various developmental stages to create mosaic individuals consisting of wild-type pigmented cells and a clone of pigmentless (golden) cells in the eye. The contribution of individual embryonic cells to the pigmented retina was measured and the total number of cells in the embryo that contributed descendants to this tissue was determined. Until the 32-cell stage, almost every blastomere has some descendants that participate in the formation of the pigmented retina of the zebrafish. During subsequent cell divisions, up to the several thousand-cell stage, the number of ancestral cells is constant: approximately 40 cells are present that will give rise to progeny in the pigmented retina. Analysis of the size of clones in the pigmented retina indicates that the cells of this tissue do not arise through a rigid series of cell divisions originating in the early embryo. The findings that each cleavage stage cell contributes to the pigmented retina and yet the contribution of such cells is highly variable are consistent with the interpretation that clonal descendants of different blastomeres normally intermix extensively prior to formation of the pigmented retina

  19. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  20. Rescue of neural crest-derived phenotypes in a zebrafish CHARGE model by Sox10 downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Zainab; Pandey, Aditi; Babu, Aswini; Sun, Yuhan; Shevade, Kaivalya; Kapoor, Shruti; Ullah, Ikram; Ranjan, Shashi; Scaria, Vinod; Bajpai, Ruchi; Sachidanandan, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    CHD7 mutations are implicated in a majority of cases of the congenital disorder, CHARGE syndrome. CHARGE, an autosomal dominant syndrome, is known to affect multiple tissues including eye, heart, ear, craniofacial nerves and skeleton and genital organs. Using a morpholino-antisense-oligonucleotide-based zebrafish model for CHARGE syndrome, we uncover a complex spectrum of abnormalities in the neural crest and the crest-derived cell types. We report for the first time, defects in myelinating Schwann cells, enteric neurons and pigment cells in a CHARGE model. We also observe defects in the specification of peripheral neurons and the craniofacial skeleton as previously reported. Chd7 morphants have impaired migration of neural crest cells and deregulation of sox10 expression from the early stages. Knocking down Sox10 in the zebrafish CHARGE model rescued the defects in Schwann cells and craniofacial cartilage. Our zebrafish CHARGE model thus reveals important regulatory roles for Chd7 at multiple points of neural crest development viz., migration, fate choice and differentiation and we suggest that sox10 deregulation is an important driver of the neural crest-derived aspects of Chd7 dependent CHARGE syndrome. PMID:27418670

  1. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  2. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  3. Fli+ etsrp+ hemato-vascular progenitor cells proliferate at the lateral plate mesoderm during vasculogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zoon Chun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from precursor cells is critical for a developing embryo. However, the signals and events that dictate the formation of primary axial vessels remain poorly understood.In this study, we use ets-related protein-1 (etsrp, which is essential for vascular development, to analyze the early stages of vasculogenesis in zebrafish. We found etsrp(+ cells of the head, trunk and tail follow distinct developmental sequences. Using a combination of genetic, molecular and chemical approaches, we demonstrate that fli(+etsrp(+ hemato-vascular progenitors (FEVPs are proliferating at the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. The Shh-VEGF-Notch-Hey2 signaling pathway controls the proliferation process, and experimental modulation of single components of this pathway alters etsrp(+ cell numbers at the LPM.This study for the first time defines factors controlling proliferation, and cell numbers of pre-migratory FEVPs in zebrafish.

  4. Early Pregnancy Development and Obstetric Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.F. van Oppenraaij

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The following research objectives were defined: 1. To determine an unambiguous Dutch terminology to describe events in early pregnancy (Chapter 1.2) 2. To explore whether determining the due date by the last period is influenced by preference for certain dates,

  5. Retina regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin; Goldman, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish are able to regenerate a damaged retina. Key to this regenerative response are Müller glia that respond to retinal injury by undergoing a reprogramming event that allows them to divide and generate a retinal progenitor that is multipotent and responsible for regenerating all major retinal neuron types. The fish and mammalian retina are composed of similar cell types with conserved function. Because of this it is anticipated that studies of retina regeneration in fish may suggest strategies for stimulating Müller glia reprogramming and retina regeneration in mammals. In this review we describe recent advances and future directions in retina regeneration research using zebrafish as a model system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  7. Endocrine-disrupting effect of the ultraviolet filter benzophenone-3 in zebrafish, Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte I.; Albrektsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    of BP-3 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the Fish Sexual Development Test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development TG 234) and a 12 day adult male zebrafish study. In TG 234, exposure from 0 to 60 d posthatch caused a monotone dose-dependent skewing of the phenotypic sex ratio towards less...

  8. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  9. Thyroid endocrine disruption and external body morphology of Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects thyroid-active compounds during early development on body morphology of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Three-day postfertilization (dpf) larvae were exposed to goitrogen [methimazole (MZ, 0.15 mM)], combination of MZ (0.15 mM) and thyroxine (T4, 2 nM), T4 (2 nM), or control (reconstituted water) treatments until 33 dpf and subsequently maintained in reconstituted water until 45 dpf. Samples were taken at 33 and 45 dpf for multivariate analysis of geometric distances between selected homologous landmarks placed on digital images of fish, and for histological assessment of thyrocytes. Body mass, standard length, and pectoral fin length were separately measured on remaining fish at 45 dpf. Histological analysis confirmed the hypothyroid effect (increased thyrocyte height) of MZ and rescue effect of T4 co-administration. Geometric distance analysis showed that pectoral and pelvic fins shifted backward along the rostrocaudal axis under hypothyroid conditions at 45 dpf and that T4 co-treatment prevented this shift. Pectoral fin length at 45 dpf was reduced by exposure to MZ and rescued by co-administration of T4, but it was not associated with standard length. Methimazole caused a reduction in body mass and length at 45 dpf that could not be rescued by T4 co-administration, and non-thyroidal effects of MZ on body shape were also recognized at 33 and 45 dpf. Alterations in the length and position of paired fins caused by exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals during early development, as shown here for Zebrafish, could affect physical aspects of locomotion and consequently other important organismal functions such as foraging, predator avoidance, and ultimately survival and recruitment into the adult population. Results of this study also suggest the need to include rescue treatments in endocrine disruption studies that rely on goitrogens as reference for thyroid-mediated effects.

  10. Contextual Fear Conditioning in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Justin W.; Scott, Ian C.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Frankland, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development…

  11. Specificity in Early Development and Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    This paper presents observational and research evidence to refute two widely held beliefs about psychological development: the belief in predetermined development and the belief in the simultaneous development of all behavioral systems. Studies suggesting the plasticity of development through environmental deprivation and intervention are…

  12. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  13. Effects of embryonic ethanol exposure at low doses on neuronal development, voluntary ethanol consumption and related behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish: Role of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, M.E.; Chang, G.-Q.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, S.Y.; Leibowitz, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic exposure to ethanol is known to affect neurochemical systems in rodents and increase alcohol drinking and related behaviors in humans and rodents. With zebrafish emerging as a powerful tool for uncovering neural mechanisms of numerous diseases and exhibiting similarities to rodents, the present report building on our rat studies examined in zebrafish the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on hypothalamic neurogenesis, expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, and voluntary ethanol consumption and locomotor behaviors in larval and adult zebrafish, and also effects of central neuropeptide injections on these behaviors affected by ethanol. At 24 h post-fertilization, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 2 h to ethanol, at low concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5%, in the tank water. Embryonic ethanol compared to control dose-dependently increased hypothalamic neurogenesis and the proliferation and expression of the orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), in the anterior hypothalamus. These changes in hypothalamic peptide neurons were accompanied by an increase in voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin and in novelty-induced locomotor and exploratory behavior in adult zebrafish and locomotor activity in larvae. After intracerebroventricular injection, these peptides compared to vehicle had specific effects on these behaviors altered by ethanol, with GAL stimulating consumption of 10% ethanol-gelatin more than plain gelatin food and OX stimulating novelty-induced locomotor behavior while increasing intake of food and ethanol equally. These results, similar to those obtained in rats, suggest that the ethanol-induced increase in genesis and expression of these hypothalamic peptide neurons contribute to the behavioral changes induced by embryonic exposure to ethanol. PMID:26778786

  14. Targeted Mutagenesis of the Hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio Reveals No Effects on Reproductive Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Smith Spicer

    Full Text Available Gnrh is the major neuropeptide regulator of vertebrate reproduction, triggering a cascade of events in the pituitary-gonadal axis that result in reproductive competence. Previous research in mice and humans has demonstrated that Gnrh/GNRH null mutations result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. The goal of this study was to eliminate gnrh3 (the hypophysiotropic Gnrh form function in zebrafish (Danio rerio to determine how ontogeny and reproductive performance are affected, as well as factors downstream of Gnrh3 along the reproductive axis. Using the TALEN technology, we developed a gnrh3-/- zebrafish line that harbors a 62 bp deletion in the gnrh3 gene. Our gnrh3-/- zebrafish line represents the first targeted and heritable mutation of a Gnrh isoform in any organism. Using immunohistochemistry, we verified that gnrh3-/- fish do not possess Gnrh3 peptide in any regions of the brain. However, other than changes in mRNA levels of pituitary gonadotropin genes (fshb, lhb, and cga during early development, which are corrected by adulthood, there were no changes in ontogeny and reproduction in gnrh3-/- fish. The gnrh3-/- zebrafish are fertile, displaying normal gametogenesis and reproductive performance in males and females. Together with our previous results that Gnrh3 cell ablation causes infertility, these results indicate that a compensatory mechanism is being activated, which is probably primed early on upon Gnrh3 neuron differentiation and possibly confined to Gnrh3 neurons. Potential compensation factors and sensitive windows of time for compensation during development and puberty should be explored.

  15. Toxicomorphomics and toxicokinetics of quinalphos on embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its binding affinity towards hatching enzyme, ZHE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashwanth, Bomma; Pamanji, Rajesh; Rao, J Venkateswara

    2016-11-01

    This study outlines the toxic effects of Quinalphos (QP), an organophosphrous insecticide on the development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, with special emphasis on toxicomorphomics and toxicokinetics of target enzyme, AChE. A range of concentrations was used to elucidate the median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of Quinalphos. Furthermore, embryos were exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations LC 10 (0.66mg/L) and LC 20 (1.12mg/L) along with a median lethal concentration (3.0mg/L) for 96h. Several morphological aberrations like lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, heart edema, breaks in the neuronal tube and underdeveloped facial parts were noticed, which were of concentration and time dependent. The QP has adequately hindered hatching process during the course of exposure which was upheld by the in silico docking studies with hatching enzyme, ZHE1. The length of hatchlings at 96h in LC 50 concentration was significantly reduced to 47% compared to control. A significant pericardial effusion (5 to 16 fold) was observed in >90% of LC 50 treated groups. Morphological changes in heart lead to the bradycardia, which ultimately leading to heart failure in some cases. The swimming behavior was significantly diminished in relation to the inhibition of AChE levels. From the in vitro kinetic studies, the kinetic constants K m , V max and inhibitory concentration K i (4.45×10 -5 M) was determined which supported the competitive nature of QP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological preconditions of game activity development in the early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriya Spitsyna; Ekaterina Saraykina

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.

  17. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Coffey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA, which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle.

  18. Toxic effects of brominated indoles and phenols on zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, U; Vobach, M; Wosniok, W

    2006-07-01

    Organobromine compounds in the marine environment have been the focus of growing attention in past years. In contrast to anthropogenic brominated flame retardants, other brominated compounds are produced naturally, e.g., by common polychaete worms and algae. Brominated phenols and indoles assumed to be of biogenic origin have been detected in water and sediment extracts from the German Bight. These substances as well as some of their isomers have been tested with the zebrafish embryo test and were found to cause lethal as well as nonlethal malformations. The zebrafish test was able to detect a log K(OW)-related toxicity for bromophenols, suggesting nonpolar narcosis as a major mode of action. Different effect patterns could be observed for brominated indoles and bromophenols. The comparison of effective concentrations in the zebrafish embryo test with the concentrations determined in water samples suggests the possibility that brominated indoles may affect early life stages of marine fish species in the North Sea.

  19. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOFF, ERIKA; CORE, CYNTHIA; PLACE, SILVIA; RUMICHE, ROSARIO; SEÑOR, MELISSA; PARRA, MARISOL

    2015-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1;10 to 2;6. The monolingually developing children were significantly more advanced than the bilingually developing children on measures of both vocabulary and grammar in single language comparisons, but they were comparable on a measure of total vocabulary. Within the bilingually developing sample, all measures of vocabulary and grammar were related to the relative amount of input in that language. Implications for theories of language acquisition and for understanding bilingual development are discussed. PMID:21418730

  20. Zebrafish gbx1 refines the Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary border and mediates the Wnt8 posteriorization signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrendt Reiner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mouse, Xenopus and chicken have shown that Otx2 and Gbx2 expression domains are fundamental for positioning the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB organizer. Of the two zebrafish gbx genes, gbx1 is a likely candidate to participate in this event because its early expression is similar to that reported for Gbx2 in other species. Zebrafish gbx2, on the other hand, acts relatively late at the MHB. To investigate the function of zebrafish gbx1 within the early neural plate, we used a combination of gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Results We found that ectopic gbx1 expression in the anterior neural plate reduces forebrain and midbrain, represses otx2 expression and repositions the MHB to a more anterior position at the new gbx1/otx2 border. In the case of gbx1 loss-of-function, the initially robust otx2 domain shifts slightly posterior at a given stage (70% epiboly, as does MHB marker expression. We further found that ectopic juxtaposition of otx2 and gbx1 leads to ectopic activation of MHB markers fgf8, pax2.1 and eng2. This indicates that, in zebrafish, an interaction between otx2 and gbx1 determines the site of MHB development. Our work also highlights a novel requirement for gbx1 in hindbrain development. Using cell-tracing experiments, gbx1 was found to cell-autonomously transform anterior neural tissue into posterior. Previous studies have shown that gbx1 is a target of Wnt8 graded activity in the early neural plate. Consistent with this, we show that gbx1 can partially restore hindbrain patterning in cases of Wnt8 loss-of-function. We propose that in addition to its role at the MHB, gbx1 acts at the transcriptional level to mediate Wnt8 posteriorizing signals that pattern the developing hindbrain. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that zebrafish gbx1 is involved in positioning the MHB in the early neural plate by refining the otx2 expression domain. In addition to its role in MHB formation, we have

  1. An individual-based model of Zebrafish population dynamics accounting for energy dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudouin, Remy; Goussen, Benoit; Piccini, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Developing population dynamics models for zebrafish is crucial in order to extrapolate from toxicity data measured at the organism level to biological levels relevant to support and enhance ecological risk assessment. To achieve this, a dynamic energy budget for individual zebrafish (DEB model) w...

  2. Zebrafish embryos as models for embryotoxic and teratological effects of chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Lixin; Ho, Nga Yu; Alshut, Rüdiger; Legradi, J.B.; Weiss, Carsten; Reischl, Markus; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Müller, Ferenc; Strähle, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The experimental virtues of the zebrafish embryo such as small size, development outside of the mother, cheap maintenance of the adult made the zebrafish an excellent model for phenotypic genetic and more recently also chemical screens. The availability of a genome sequence and several thousand

  3. Neuroblastoma and Its Zebrafish Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shizhen; Thomas Look, A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, an important developmental tumor arising in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (PSNS), accounts for approximately 10 % of all cancer-related deaths in children. Recent genomic analyses have identified a spectrum of genetic alterations in this tumor. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is found in 20 % of cases and is often accompanied by mutational activation of the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) gene, suggesting their cooperation in tumor initiation and spread. Understanding how complex genetic changes function together in oncogenesis has been a continuing and daunting task in cancer research. This challenge was addressed in neuroblastoma by generating a transgenic zebrafish model that overexpresses human MYCN and activated ALK in the PSNS, leading to tumors that closely resemble human neuroblastoma and new opportunities to probe the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of this tumor. For example, coexpression of activated ALK with MYCN in this model triples the penetrance of neuroblastoma and markedly accelerates tumor onset, demonstrating the interaction of these modified genes in tumor development. Further, MYCN overexpression induces adrenal sympathetic neuroblast hyperplasia, blocks chromaffin cell differentiation, and ultimately triggers a developmentally-timed apoptotic response in the hyperplastic sympathoadrenal cells. In the context of MYCN overexpression, activated ALK provides prosurvival signals that block this apoptotic response, allowing continued expansion and oncogenic transformation of hyperplastic neuroblasts, thus promoting progression to neuroblastoma. This application of the zebrafish model illustrates its value in rational assessment of the multigenic changes that define neuroblastoma pathogenesis and points the way to future studies to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  5. Short stories on zebrafish long noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shadabul; Kaushik, Kriti; Leonard, Vincent Elvin; Kapoor, Shruti; Sivadas, Ambily; Joshi, Adita; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2014-12-01

    The recent re-annotation of the transcriptome of human and other model organisms, using next-generation sequencing approaches, has unravelled a hitherto unknown repertoire of transcripts that do not have a potential to code for proteins. These transcripts have been largely classified into an amorphous class popularly known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). This discovery of lncRNAs in human and other model systems have added a new layer to the understanding of gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In recent years, three independent studies have discovered a number of lncRNAs expressed in different stages of zebrafish development and adult tissues using a high-throughput RNA sequencing approach, significantly adding to the repertoire of genes known in zebrafish. A subset of these transcripts also shows distinct and specific spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, pointing to a tight regulatory control and potential functional roles in development, organogenesis, and/ or homeostasis. This review provides an overview of the lncRNAs in zebrafish and discusses how their discovery could provide new insights into understanding biology, explaining mutant phenotypes, and helping in potentially modeling disease processes.

  6. Absence of rapid eye movements during sleep in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, B B; Þorsteinsson, H; Karlsson, K Æ

    2015-09-15

    Sleep is not a uniform phenomenon, but is organized in alternating, fundamentally different states, rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as an excellent model for sleep research. Zebrafish are well characterized in terms of development, neurobiology and genetics. Moreover, there are many experimental tools not easily applied in mammalian models that can be readily applied to zebrafish, making them a valuable additional animal model for sleep research. Sleep in zebrafish is defined behaviorally and exhibits the hallmarks of mammalian sleep (e.g. sleep homeostasis and pressure). To our knowledge no attempts have been made to discern if sleep in zebrafish entails alternations of REM-NREM sleep cycles which are critical for further development of the model. In the current experiment we quantify two key REM sleep components, rapid eye movements and respiratory rates, across sleep-wake cycles. We find no sleep-related rapid eye movements. During sleep respiratory rates, however, are reduced and become less regular, further establishing that the behavioral definition used truly captures a change in the fish's physiology. We thus fail to find evidence for REM-NREM sleep cycles in zebrafish but demonstrate a physiological change that occurs concomitantly with the previously defined behavioral state of sleep. We do not rule out that other phasic REM components (e.g. atonia, cardiac arrhythmias, myoclonic twitches or desynchronized EEG) are coherently expressed during sleep but we conclude that adult zebrafish do not have REM-sleep-related rapid eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The hazard assessment of nanostructured CeO{sub 2}-based mixed oxides on the zebrafish Danio rerio under environmentally relevant UV-A exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Laborato