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Sample records for early detection score

  1. [Scoring system for early detection of critical illness can fail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup Christiansen, Lærke; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Sloth, Erik

    2013-02-18

    A 57-year old male underwent elective aortic valve replacement. The immediate post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with the lowest possible score on a newly implemented scale for early detection of critical illness. The following day he was readmitted with dyspnoea. The critical illness score was still low despite ultrasonic demonstration of a large pericardial effusion requiring drainage. We are concerned that the widely adopted critical illness scale is not sufficiently sensitive for cardiac surgery patients and advocate the use of point-of-care ultrasound.

  2. A proposed Primary Health Early Warning Score (PHEWS) with emphasis on early detection of sepsis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian

    2016-03-01

    There are several secondary care early warning scores which alert for severe illness including sepsis. None are specifically adjusted for primary care. A Primary Health Early Warning Score (PHEWS) is proposed which incorporates practical parameters from both secondary and primary care.

  3. Scoring by nonlocal image patch estimator for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    2012-01-01

    complex because the associated anatomical changes are more subtle. In this study, we analyzed the capability of a recently proposed method, SNIPE (Scoring by Nonlocal Image Patch Estimator), to predict AD by analyzing entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (HC) scoring over the entire ADNI database (834...

  4. Scoring by nonlocal image patch estimator for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the first stages of the pathology is an important task to accelerate the development of new therapies and improve treatment. Compared to AD detection, the prediction of AD using structural MRI at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or pre-MCI stage is more...

  5. Development and definition of a simplified scanning procedure and scoring method for Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with Ultrasound (HEAD-US).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, Carlo; Della Casa Alberighi, Ornella; Di Minno, Giovanni; Graziano, Ermelinda; Molinari, Angelo Claudio; Pasta, Gianluigi; Russo, Giuseppe; Santagostino, Elena; Tagliaferri, Annarita; Tagliafico, Alberto; Morfini, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simplified ultrasound scanning procedure and scoring method, named Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with UltraSound [HEAD-US], to evaluate joints of patients with haemophilic arthropathy. After an initial consensus-based process involving a multidisciplinary panel of experts, three comprehensive and evidence-based US scanning procedures to image the elbow, knee and ankle were established with the aim to increase sensitivity in detection of early signs of joint involvement while keeping the technique easy and quick to perform. Each procedure included systematic evaluation of synovial recesses and selection of a single osteochondral surface for damage analysis. Based on expert consensus, a simplified scoring system based on an additive scale was created to define the joint status and, in perspective, to offer a tool to evaluate disease progression and monitor the result of treatment in follow-up studies.

  6. Traumatic aortic injury score (TRAINS): an easy and simple score for early detection of traumatic aortic injuries in major trauma patients with associated blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Victor X; Marini, Milagros; Muñiz, Javier; Asorey-Veiga, Vanesa; Adrio-Nazar, Belen; Boix, Ricardo; Lopez-Perez, José M; Pradas-Montilla, Gonzalo; Cuenca, José J

    2012-09-01

    To develop a risk score based on physical examination and chest X-ray findings to rapidly identify major trauma patients at risk of acute traumatic aortic injury (ATAI). A multicenter retrospective study was conducted with 640 major trauma patients with associated blunt chest trauma classified into ATAI (aortic injury) and NATAI (no aortic injury) groups. The score data set included 76 consecutive ATAI and 304 NATAI patients from a single center, whereas the validation data set included 52 consecutive ATAI and 208 NATAI patients from three independent institutions. Bivariate analysis identified variables potentially influencing the presentation of aortic injury. Confirmed variables by logistic regression were assigned a score according to their corresponding beta coefficient which was rounded to the closest integer value (1-4). Predictors of aortic injury included widened mediastinum, hypotension less than 90 mmHg, long bone fracture, pulmonary contusion, left scapula fracture, hemothorax, and pelvic fracture. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.96. In the score data set, sensitivity was 93.42 %, specificity 85.85 %, Youden's index 0.79, positive likelihood ratio 6.60, and negative likelihood ratio 0.08. In the validation data set, sensitivity was 92.31 % and specificity 85.1 %. Given the relative infrequency of traumatic aortic injury, which often leads to missed or delayed diagnosis, application of our score has the potential to draw necessary clinical attention to the possibility of aortic injury, thus providing the chance of a prompt specific diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  7. The GALAD scoring algorithm based on AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP significantly improves detection of BCLC early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J; Bilgi, H; Heider, D; Schotten, C; Manka, P; Bedreli, S; Gorray, M; Ertle, J; van Grunsven, L A; Dechêne, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death in cirrhotic patients worldwide. The detection rate for early stage HCC remains low despite screening programs. Thus, the majority of HCC cases are detected at advanced tumor stages with limited treatment options. To facilitate earlier diagnosis, this study aims to validate the added benefit of the combination of AFP, the novel biomarkers AFP-L3, DCP, and an associated novel diagnostic algorithm called GALAD. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2008 and from 2010 to 2012, 285 patients newly diagnosed with HCC and 402 control patients suffering from chronic liver disease were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP were measured using the µTASWako i30 automated immunoanalyzer. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers was measured as single parameters and in a logistic regression model. Furthermore, a diagnostic algorithm (GALAD) based on gender, age, and the biomarkers mentioned above was validated. Results: AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP showed comparable sensitivities and specifities for HCC detection. The combination of all biomarkers had the highest sensitivity with decreased specificity. In contrast, utilization of the biomarker-based GALAD score resulted in a superior specificity of 93.3 % and sensitivity of 85.6 %. In the scenario of BCLC 0/A stage HCC, the GALAD algorithm provided the highest overall AUROC with 0.9242, which was superior to any other marker combination. Conclusions: We could demonstrate in our cohort the superior detection of early stage HCC with the combined use of the respective biomarkers and in particular GALAD even in AFP-negative tumors.

  8. The Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) update of the Finnish diabetes risk score for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alssema, M; Vistisen, D; Heymans, M W;

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Finnish diabetes risk questionnaire is a widely used, simple tool for identification of those at risk for drug-treated type 2 diabetes. We updated the risk questionnaire by using clinically diagnosed and screen-detected type 2 diabetes instead of drug-treated diabetes...... as an endpoint and by considering additional predictors. METHODS: Data from 18,301 participants in studies of the Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) project with baseline and follow-up information on oral glucose tolerance status....... Internal validation was by bootstrapping techniques. RESULTS: Of the 18,301 participants, 844 developed type 2 diabetes in a period of 5 years (4.6%). The Finnish risk score had an area under the ROC curve of 0.742 (95% CI 0.726-0.758). Re-estimation of the regression coefficients improved the area under...

  9. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. K.; Melle, I.; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome.Method During 1997â€"2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... with public information campaigns and low-threshold psychosis detection teams was established in one healthcare area (ED-area), but not in a comparable area (no-ED area). Both areas ran equivalent treatment programmes during the first 2 years and need-adapted treatment thereafter.Results At the start...

  10. Fast network community detection by SCORE

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jiashun

    2012-01-01

    Consider a network where the nodes split into K different communities. The community labels for the nodes are unknown and it is of major interest to estimate them (i.e., community detection). Degree Corrected Block Model (DCBM) is a popular network model. How to detect communities with the DCBM is an interesting problem, where the main challenge lies in the degree heterogeneity. We propose a new approach to community detection which we call the Spectral Clustering On Ratios-of-Eigenvectors (SCORE). Compared to classical spectral methods, the main innovation is to use the entry-wise ratios between the first leading eigenvector and each of the other leading eigenvectors for clustering. The central surprise is, the effect of degree heterogeneity is largely ancillary, and can be effectively removed by taking entry-wise ratios between the leading eigenvectors. The method is successfully applied to the web blogs data and the karate club data, with error rates of 58/1222 and 1/34, respectively. These results are muc...

  11. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced.Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly.Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  12. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  13. Evaluación de la fibrosis hepática en la hepatitis crónica por virus C mediante la aplicación prospectiva del Sabadell's NIHCED score: Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C Related-Cirrhosis Early Detection Score Prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C infection using the Sabadell NIHCED: non-invasive hepatitis C related cirrhosis early detection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bejarano

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hepatitis crónica por VHC cursa de forma asintomática desarrollando cirrosis hepática y sus complicaciones en un 20-40% de los casos. En estudios previos se ha demostrado que la fibrosis avanzada es un factor pronóstico fundamental. El método gold standard para la valoración del grado de fibrosis es la biopsia hepática. Nuestro grupo ha validado un índice predictivo, el NIHCED (Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C related-Cirrosis Early Detection Score, basado en datos demográficos, analíticos y ecográficos para determinar la presencia de cirrosis. Objetivo: nuestro objetivo es el de evaluar si el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en los pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus C. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo donde se incluyeron pacientes con hepatitis crónica por VHC. Se les realizó una biopsia hepática y el NIHCED. El grado de fibrosis se correlacionó con el valor del NIHCED mediante curva de ROC y el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 321 pacientes (ratio hombre/mujer 1,27 con una edad media de 48 ± 14 años. La biopsia hepática mostró que 131 (30,5% no tenían fibrosis o era expansión portal, mientras que 190 (69,5% tenían fibrosis avanzada o cirrosis. Para un punto de corte de 6 puntos, la sensibilidad fue del 72%, especificidad del 76,3%, VPP del 81%, VPN del 63,7% y una precisión diagnóstica del 72,5%, con un área bajo la curva fue de 0,787 y un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de r = 0,65. Conclusiones: el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en un elevado porcentaje de pacientes sin necesidad de realizar biopsia hepática.Introduction: liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection follows an asymptomatic course towards cirrhosis and its complications in 20-40% of cases. Earlier studies demonstrated that advanced fibrosis is a prognostic factor. The "gold standard" for the evaluation

  14. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, T

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted with acute stroke...... at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Denmark, from May to September 2012 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study (n = 274). Vital signs were measured immediately after admission and consistently during the hospitalization period. Based on the vital signs, a single composite EWS...... the EWS at admission (AUROC 0.856; 95% CI 0.760-0.951; P-value score is a simple and valid...

  15. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  16. Clicker Score Trajectories and Concept Inventory Scores as Predictors for Early Warning Systems for Large STEM Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Un Jung; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Ha, Minsu; Finch, Stephen J.; Nehm, Ross H.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the retention of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors has recently emerged as a national priority in undergraduate education. Since poor performance in large introductory science and math courses is one significant factor in STEM dropout, early detection of struggling students is needed. Technology-supported "early warning systems" (EWSs) are being developed to meet these needs. Our study explores the utility of two commonly collected data sources—pre-course concept inventory scores and longitudinal clicker scores—for use in EWS, specifically, in determining the time points at which robust predictions of student success can first be established. The pre-course diagnostic assessments, administered to 287 students, included two concept inventories and one attitude assessment. Clicker question scores were also obtained for each of the 37 class sessions. Additionally, student characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and English facility) were gathered in a survey. Our analyses revealed that all variables were predictive of final grades. The correlation of the first 3 weeks of clicker scores with final grades was 0.53, suggesting that this set of variables could be used in an EWS starting at the third week. We also used group-based trajectory models to assess whether trajectory patterns were homogeneous in the class. The trajectory analysis identified three distinct clicker performance patterns that were also significant predictors of final grade. Trajectory analyses of clicker scores, student characteristics, and pre-course diagnostic assessment appear to be valuable data sources for EWS, although further studies in a diversity of instructional contexts are warranted.

  17. Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score for early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Vignesh; Ooi, Geraldine; Weidlich, Stephanie; Carson, Phillip

    2017-03-15

    Soft tissue infections are a major health burden in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is associated with mortality rates from 8 to 40%. Early recognition and aggressive surgical debridement are the cornerstones of successful treatment. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score, developed by Wong et al., uses six routine biochemical variables to aid early diagnosis. We aim to assess the diagnostic efficacy of the LRINEC score in our population. A retrospective review of patients with NF between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. A time matched cohort of abscesses/cellulitis was selected. Admission bloods were used to calculate the LRINEC score. An intraoperative finding of NF was used as the gold standard definition for comparison. The diagnostic accuracy of the LRINEC score was assessed. Ninety-eight patients with NF and 205 control patients were identified. The area under the receiver operator curve for the LRINEC score in detecting NF was 0.925 (0.890-0.959, P < 0.001). The sensitivity of the LRINEC ≥5 for NF was 76.3%, with a specificity of 93.1%. The positive and negative predictive values were 95.5 and 88.1%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 11 and 0.25. The LRINEC score is a useful, robust, non-invasive and easily calculated scoring system that can be used as an adjunct to early diagnosis of NF. However, a high degree of clinical suspicion remains the most important factor in early diagnosis of NF. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  19. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  20. Early Detection of Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance dispatch calls, or pharmacy sales for which population-at-risk information is unavailable or irrelevant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose a pr...

  1. Improved landmine detection through context-dependent score calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, Brandon; Wilson, Joseph; Milner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms developed for the detection of landmines are tasked with discriminating a wide variety of targets in a diverse array of environmental conditions. However, the potential performance of a detection algorithm may be underestimated by evaluating it in batch on a large, diverse dataset. This is because environmental, or in general, contextual, factors may contribute significant variance to the output of a detection algorithm across different contexts. One way to view this is as a problem of miscalibration: within each context, the output scores of a detection algorithm can be seen as miscalibrated relative to the scores produced in the other contexts. As a result of this miscalibration, the observed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for a detector can have a sub-optimal area-under-the-curve (AUC). One solution, then, is to re-calibrate the detector within each context. In this work, we identify multiple sets of contexts in which different landmine detection algorithms exhibit significant output variance and, consequently, miscalibration. We then apply a monotonic calibration strategy that maximizes AUC and demonstrate the gain in observed performance that results when a landmine detection algorithm is properly calibrated within each context.

  2. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  3. [Results of applying a paediatric early warning score system as a healthcare quality improvement plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Martín, M J; Prieto-Martínez, S; García-Solano, M; Montilla-Pérez, M; Tena-Martín, E; Ballesteros-García, M M

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) into our daily clinical practice, as well as to evaluate its ability to detect clinical deterioration in children admitted, and to train nursing staff to communicate the information and response effectively. An analysis was performed on the implementation of PEWS in the electronic health records of children (0-15 years) in our paediatric ward from February 2014 to September 2014. The maximum score was 6. Nursing staff reviewed scores >2, and if >3 medical and nursing staff reviewed it. Monitoring indicators: % of admissions with scoring; % of complete data capture; % of scores >3; % of scores >3 reviewed by medical staff, % of changes in treatment due to the warning system, and number of patients who needed Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission, or died without an increased warning score. The data were collected from all patients (931) admitted. The scale was measured 7,917 times, with 78.8% of them with complete data capture. Very few (1.9%) showed scores >3, and 14% of them with changes in clinical management (intensifying treatment or new diagnostic tests). One patient (scored 2) required PICU admission. There were no deaths. Parents or nursing staff concern was registered in 80% of cases. PEWS are useful to provide a standardised assessment of clinical status in the inpatient setting, using a unique scale and implementing data capture. Because of the lack of severe complications requiring PICU admission and deaths, we will have to use other data to evaluate these scales. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. External Validation of the Emergency Trauma Score for Early Prediction of Mortality in Trauma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Pieter; de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Wendt, Klaus W.; Schep, Niels W.; Goslings, J. Carel; Reitsma, J.

    Objectives: The Emergency Trauma Score has been developed for early estimation of mortality risk in adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher. Emergency Trauma Score combines four early predictors available at the trauma resuscitation room: age, Glasgow Coma Scale, base

  5. External Validation of the Emergency Trauma Score for Early Prediction of Mortality in Trauma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Pieter; de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Wendt, Klaus W.; Schep, Niels W.; Goslings, J. Carel; Reitsma, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The Emergency Trauma Score has been developed for early estimation of mortality risk in adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher. Emergency Trauma Score combines four early predictors available at the trauma resuscitation room: age, Glasgow Coma Scale, base exc

  6. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  7. Anomaly Detection with Score functions based on Nearest Neighbor Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Manqi

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel non-parametric adaptive anomaly detection algorithm for high dimensional data based on score functions derived from nearest neighbor graphs on $n$-point nominal data. Anomalies are declared whenever the score of a test sample falls below $\\alpha$, which is supposed to be the desired false alarm level. The resulting anomaly detector is shown to be asymptotically optimal in that it is uniformly most powerful for the specified false alarm level, $\\alpha$, for the case when the anomaly density is a mixture of the nominal and a known density. Our algorithm is computationally efficient, being linear in dimension and quadratic in data size. It does not require choosing complicated tuning parameters or function approximation classes and it can adapt to local structure such as local change in dimensionality. We demonstrate the algorithm on both artificial and real data sets in high dimensional feature spaces.

  8. An automated dental caries detection and scoring system for optical images of tooth occlusal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Leila; Gottlieb, Riki; Sarrett, David C; Ismail, Amid; Belle, Ashwin; Najarian, Kayvan; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries are one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. The management of dental caries demands detection of carious lesions at early stages. This study aims to design an automated system to detect and score caries lesions based on optical images of the occlusal tooth surface according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) guidelines. The system detects the tooth boundaries and irregular regions, and extracts 77 features from each image. These features include statistical measures of color space, grayscale image, as well as Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform based features. Used in this study were 88 occlusal surface photographs of extracted teeth examined and scored by ICDAS experts. Seven ICDAS codes which show the different stages in caries development were collapsed into three classes: score 0, scores 1 and 2, and scores 3 to 6. The system shows accuracy of 86.3%, specificity of 91.7%, and sensitivity of 83.0% in ten-fold cross validation in classification of the tooth images. While the system needs further improvement and validation using larger datasets, it presents promising potential for clinical diagnostics with high accuracy and minimal cost. This is a notable advantage over existing systems requiring expensive imaging and external hardware.

  9. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasan Machfoed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  10. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  11. Z-Score-Based Modularity for Community Detection in Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Atsushi; Kawase, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given partition with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

  12. A simplified clinical risk score predicts the need for early endoscopy in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Leonardo; Buda, Andrea; Di Paolo, Maria Carla; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Riccio, Elisabetta; Vassallo, Roberto; Caserta, Luigi; Anderloni, Andrea; Natali, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    Pre-endoscopic triage of patients who require an early upper endoscopy can improve management of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To validate a new simplified clinical score (T-score) to assess the need of an early upper endoscopy in non variceal bleeding patients. Secondary outcomes were re-bleeding rate, 30-day bleeding-related mortality. In this prospective, multicentre study patients with bleeding who underwent upper endoscopy were enrolled. The accuracy for high risk endoscopic stigmata of the T-score was compared with that of the Glasgow Blatchford risk score. Overall, 602 patients underwent early upper endoscopy, and 472 presented with non-variceal bleeding. High risk endoscopic stigmata were detected in 145 (30.7%) cases. T-score sensitivity and specificity for high risk endoscopic stigmata and bleeding-related mortality was 96% and 30%, and 80% and 71%, respectively. No statistically difference in predicting high risk endoscopic stigmata between T-score and Glasgow Blatchford risk score was observed (ROC curve: 0.72 vs. 0.69, p=0.11). The two scores were also similar in predicting re-bleeding (ROC curve: 0.64 vs. 0.63, p=0.4) and 30-day bleeding-related mortality (ROC curve: 0.78 vs. 0.76, p=0.3). The T-score appeared to predict high risk endoscopic stigmata, re-bleeding and mortality with similar accuracy to Glasgow Blatchford risk score. Such a score may be helpful for the prediction of high-risk patients who need a very early therapeutic endoscopy. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. WMAP Detection of Early Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WMAP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic density perturbations. The data for $\\ell > 20$ agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. The existence of correlations on super-horizon scales provides significant support for inflationary cosmologies. We detect excess power on large angular scales compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift $11 reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM model, with best fit value $\\tau = 0.17 \\pm 0.04$ at 68\\% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history. I will discuss the WMAP data and its implications for reionization in the early universe.

  14. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  15. Paediatric early warning scores on a children's ward: a quality improvement initiative.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ennis, Linda

    2014-09-09

    The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to incorporate a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) and track and trigger system in the routine care of children in an acute general children\\'s ward at a regional hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In the absence of a nationally recommended specific PEWS strategy, a local plan was developed. The experience of structuring and implementing the PEWS and track and trigger system is presented in this article. Data from the first year of use were collected to evaluate the clinical utility and effectiveness of this system. In the busy acute children\\'s service, the PEWS initiative was found to benefit processes of early detection, prompt referral and timely, appropriate management of children at potential risk of clinical deterioration. Nursing staff were empowered and supported to communicate concerns immediately and to seek rapid medical review, according to an agreed PEWS escalation plan. Outcomes were significantly improved.

  16. Aggregate National Early Warning Score (NEWS) values are more important than high scores for a single vital signs parameter for discriminating the risk of adverse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Kovacs, Caroline; Briggs, Jim; Meredith, Paul; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B

    2015-02-01

    The Royal College of Physicians (RCPL) National Early Warning Score (NEWS) escalates care to a doctor at NEWS values of ≥5 and when the score for any single vital sign is 3. We calculated the 24-h risk of serious clinical outcomes for vital signs observation sets with NEWS values of 3, 4 and 5, separately determining risks when the score did/did not include a single score of 3. We compared workloads generated by the RCPL's escalation protocol and for aggregate NEWS value alone. Aggregate NEWS values of 3 or 4 (n=142,282) formed 15.1% of all vital signs sets measured; those containing a single vital sign scoring 3 (n=36,207) constituted 3.8% of all sets. Aggregate NEWS values of either 3 or 4 with a component score of 3 have significantly lower risks (OR: 0.26 and 0.53) than an aggregate value of 5 (OR: 1.0). Escalating care to a doctor when any single component of NEWS scores 3 compared to when aggregate NEWS values ≥5, would have increased doctors' workload by 40% with only a small increase in detected adverse outcomes from 2.99 to 3.08 per day (a 3% improvement in detection). The recommended NEWS escalation protocol produces additional work for the bedside nurse and responding doctor, disproportionate to a modest benefit in increased detection of adverse outcomes. It may have significant ramifications for efficient staff resource allocation, distort patient safety focus and risk alarm fatigue. Our findings suggest that the RCPL escalation guidance warrants review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...... score. We applied the proposed algorithm on 27 patients with severe emphysema with CT scans acquired five time points, at baseline, after 3, after 12, after 21 and after 24 or 30 months. The results showed consistent emphysema progression with time and the overall progression score correlates...

  18. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  19. Surgical apgar score predicts early complication in transfemoral amputees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether the surgical apgar score (SAS) is a prognostic tool capable of identifying patients at risk of major complications following lower extremity amputations surgery. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective observational cohort study conducted between January 2013...... and April 2015. All patients who had either a primary transtibial amputation (TTA) or transfemoral amputation (TFA) conducted at our institution during the study period were assessed for inclusion. All TTA patients underwent a standardized one-stage operative procedure (ad modum Persson amputation......) performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint. All TTA procedures were performed with sagittal flaps. TFA procedures were performed in one stage with amputation approximately 10 cm above the knee joint, performed with anterior/posterior flaps. Trained residents or senior consultants performed...

  20. The National Early Warning Score: Translation, testing and prediction in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spångfors, Martin; Arvidsson, Lisa; Karlsson, Victoria; Samuelson, Karin

    2016-12-01

    The National Early Warning Score - NEWS is a "track and trigger" scale designed to assess in-hospital patients' vital signs and detect clinical deterioration. In this study the NEWS was translated into Swedish and its association with the need of intensive care was investigated. A total of 868 patient charts, recorded by the medical emergency team at a university hospital, containing the parameters needed to calculate the NEWS were audited. The NEWS was translated into Swedish and tested for inter-rater reliability with a perfect agreement (weighted κ=1.0) among the raters. The median score for patients admitted to the ICU were higher than for those who were not (10 vs. 8, p<0.0001). AUROC for discriminating admittance to the ICU was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.622-0.739, p<0.0001). A regression analysis showed that lower oxygen saturation and a lower level of consciousness were significantly associated with ICU admission (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.52], p=0.01 and OR 1.77 [1.12-2.82], p=0.02) and may predict admission to the ICU better than the other parameters. The Swedish translated NEWS seems to have excellent inter-rater reliability and can be used without risk of linguistic misinterpretation. High scores for the parameters oxygen saturation and level of consciousness in the NEWS may predict admission to the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...... people to lead a healthier life and non-detection could be considered neglectful. It may, however, cause anxiety, interfere with people’s integrity, focus only on individual causes and responsibilities, cause stigmatization and have adverse effects by inducing weight gain. Conclusions: Documentation...

  2. Detecting Dissimulation in Personality Test Scores: A Comparison between Person-Fit Indices and Detection Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a procedure based on item response theory (IRT) for assessing the scalability of response patterns could detect deliberate dissimulation (faking good) on scores from three tests of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Results for 489 and 140 undergraduates show that IRT measures were not powerful enough to detect…

  3. Diagnostic Efficacy of Vessel Specific Coronary Calcium Score in Detection of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevalli, Marzieh; Ghanaati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Kargar, Jalal; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes; Shahriari, Mona; Jalali, Amir Hosein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification which is determined quantitatively by coronary calcium scoring has been known as a sign of coronary stenosis and thus future cardiac events; hence it has been noticed on spotlight of researchers in recent years. Developing different method for early and optimal detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is really essential as CAD are the first cause of death in population. Objectives: To evaluate predictive value of vessel specific coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients and Methods: In this diagnostic test study we evaluated patients with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CAC score which had been referred to two referral radiology center in Tehran, Iran and finally we selected 2525 patients in a single and sequential pattern to create a diagnostic study. The whole-heart CAC scores and vessel specific CAC scores were calculated individually for the 4 major epicardial coronary arteries in 2 distinct group; group A ( patients with previous history of CABG) and group B (patients without history of CABG). For evaluation of obstruction tree cut off points were described: 0 > ; at least 1 segment with any kind of stenosis, ≥ 50; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 50, ≥ 70; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 70. Results: Mean of coronary calcium scores in terms of each coronary artery vessel increase by increasing coronary stenosis grade in group B; LAD, RCA, LCX respectively have mean CAC score 6.06, 6.21 and 5.04 in normal patients and 221.6, 226.7 and 106.6 in patients with complete stenosis. As expected these findings don't work for group A. Also By increasing calcium score cutoff in all four vessels sensitivity decreased and specificity increased but steal LAD had higher sensitivity than other vessels and LM had higher specificity. Thus using calcium score method is useful for ruling out stenosis in LAD while calcium score of LM can predict

  4. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  5. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  6. Screening and Early Detection - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer screening and early detection. Includes posts on diagnostic biomarkers and advances or trends in screening practices.

  7. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  8. Early detection of contagious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  9. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  10. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  11. Nurse-administered early warning score system can be used for emergency department triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthea; Jensen, Nanna Martin; Maaløe, Rikke;

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that early warning score systems can identify in-patients at high risk of catastrophic deterioration and this may possibly be used for an emergency department (ED) triage. Bispebjerg Hospital has introduced a multidisciplinary team (MT) in the ED activated by the Bispebjerg Early...

  12. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.;

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face......Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited...

  13. Does the Length of Fielding Period Matter? Examining Response Scores of Early Versus Late Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigman Richard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential effects of a shortened fielding period on an employee survey’s item and index scores and respondent demographics. Using data from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s 2011 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we investigate whether early responding employees differ from later responding employees. Specifically, we examine differences in item and index scores related to employee engagement and global satisfaction. Our findings show that early responders tend to be less positive, even after adjusting their weights for nonresponse. Agencies vary in their prevalence of late responders, and score differences become magnified as this proportion increases. We also examine the extent to which early versus late responders differ on demographic characteristics such as grade level, supervisory status, gender, tenure with agency, and intention to leave, noting that nonminorities and females are the two demographic characteristics most associated with responding early.

  14. AUDIOMETRY-FIRST STEP TO EARLY DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavco CADIEV

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of early detection of children with sense of hearing is very complicate. If the damage of sense of hearing is not detected on time and if You don’t take adequate treatment, after seven year that is impossible. Audiometry is one step to reestablishment diagnostic with help of electronic technology.

  15. Early detection of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schade, Götz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement and 2 (AABR testing need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric acoustician specialized on children.

  16. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  17. Detection of aberrant item score patterns in computerized adaptive testing : An empirical example using the CUSUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Schakel, Lolle; Smid, Nico G.

    2010-01-01

    The scalability of individual trait scores on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) was assessed through investigating the consistency of individual item score patterns. A sample of N = 428 persons completed a personality CAT as part of a career development procedure. To detect inconsistent item score

  18. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; Camargo, Climene Laura de; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan

    2017-07-10

    to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard. The data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and VassarStats.net programs. The performance of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context was evaluated through the indicators of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, area under the ROC curve, likelihood ratios and post-test probability. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context showed sensitivity of 73.9%, specificity of 95.5%, positive predictive value of 73.3%, negative predictive value of 94.7%, area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of 91.9% and the positive post-test probability was 80%. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, presented good performance, considered valid for the recognition of clinical deterioration warning signs of the children studied. avaliar a acurácia da versão traduzida e adaptada do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro, no reconhecimento da deterioração clínica. estudo de teste diagnóstico para medir a acurácia do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro, em relação a um padrão de referência. A amostra foi composta por 271 crianças de 0 a 10 anos, avaliadas de forma cega por uma enfermeira e um médico, especialistas em pediatria, com

  19. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... of existing visible and radiographical systems to monitor lesions over time. Using low-cost intra-oral cameras facilitates the recording of lesion appearance in the patient record and may be of significant benefit in monitoring early lesions over time following their detection. This benefit extends...

  20. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base.

  1. A score model for the continuous grading of early allograft dysfunction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortes, Miriam; Hervás, David; Mir, José; Valdivieso, Andrés; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) dramatically influences graft and patient outcomes. A lack of consensus on an EAD definition hinders comparisons of liver transplant outcomes and management of recipients among and within centers. We sought to develop a model for the quantitative assessment of early allograft function [Model for Early Allograft Function Scoring (MEAF)] after transplantation. A retrospective study including 1026 consecutive liver transplants was performed for MEAF score development. Multivariate data analysis was used to select a small number of postoperative variables that adequately describe EAD. Then, the distribution of these variables was mathematically modeled to assign a score for each actual variable value. A model, based on easily obtainable clinical parameters (ie, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and bilirubin) and scoring liver function from 0 to 10, was built. The MEAF score showed a significant association with patient and graft survival at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Hepatic steatosis and age for donors; cold/warm ischemia times and postreperfusion syndrome for surgery; and intensive care unit and hospital stays, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh scores, body mass index, and fresh frozen plasma transfusions for recipients were factors associated significantly with EAD. The model was satisfactorily validated by its application to an independent set of 200 patients who underwent liver transplantation at a different center. In conclusion, a model for the quantitative assessment of EAD severity has been developed and validated for the first time. The MEAF provides a more accurate graft function assessment than current categorical classifications and may help clinicians to make early enough decisions on retransplantation benefits. Furthermore, the MEAF score is a predictor of recipient and graft survival. The standardization of the criteria used to define EAD may allow reliable comparisons of

  2. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  3. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  4. Validity of different pediatric early warning scores in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are being advocated for use in the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to compare the validity of different PEWS in a pediatric ED. Methods: Ten different PEWS were evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We included chi

  5. Imperfect implementation of an early warning scoring system in a Danish teaching hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niegsch, Mark; Fabritius, Maria Louise; Anhøj, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the initiation of a patient safety campaign led to the introduction of Ward Observational Charts (WOC) and Medical Early Warning Score (MEWS) at Naestved Regional Hospital. This included systematic measuring of vital signs of all patients in order to prevent patient deterioration and ass...

  6. Mandatory early warning scoring-implementation evaluated with a mixed-methods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Gitte; Poulsen, Ingrid; Samuelson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to an intervention optimizing in-hospital monitoring practice, by introducing early warning scoring (EWS) of vital parameters. BACKGROUND: Interventions comprising EWS systems reduce in-hospital mortality, but evaluation of adherence to such in...

  7. Emergency trauma score : An instrument for early estimation of trauma severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raum, Marcus R.; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Schuring, Frank; Lefering, Rolf; Bouillon, Bertil; Rixen, Dieter; Neugebauer, Edmund A. M.; ten Duis, Henk J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Early estimation of the mortality risk of severely injured patients is mandatory. To estimate the seriousness of the condition of patients with trauma, we developed the emergency trauma score (EMTRAS) for ease of use, with simple parameters that are available within 30 minutes. Design: P

  8. MELD score can predict early mortality in patients with rebleeding after band ligation for variceal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ting Chen; Cheng-Tang Chiu; Chun-Yen Lin; I-shyan Sheen; Chang-Wen Huang; Tsung-Nan Lin; Chun-Jung Lin; Wen-Juei Jeng; Chien-Hao Huang; Yu-Pin Ho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes, as well as risk factors for 6-wk mortality, in patients with early rebleeding after endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) for esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH). METHODS: Among 817 EVL procedures performed for EVH between January 2007 and December 2008, 128 patients with early rebleeding, defined as rebleeding within 6 wk after EVL, were enrolled for analysis. RESULT: The rate of early rebleeding after EVL for acute EVH was 15.6% (128/817). The 5-d, 6-wk, 3-mo, and 6-mo mortality rates were 7.8%, 38.3%, 55.5%, and 58.6%, respectively, in these early rebleeding patients. The use of beta-blockers, occurrence of hypovolemic shock, and higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at the time of rebleeding were independent predictors for 6-wk mortality. A cut-off value of 21.5 for the MELD score was found with an area under ROC curve of 0.862 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 77.6%, 81%, 71.7%, and 85.3%, respectively. As for the 6-mo survival rate, patients with a MELD score ≥ 21.5 had a significantly lower survival rate than patients with a MELD score < 21.5 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the MELD score is an easy and powerful predictor for 6-wk mortality and outcomes of patients with early rebleeding after EVL for EVH.

  9. Procalcitonin and BISAP score versus c-reactive protein and APACHE II score in early assessment of severity and outcome of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezmarević Mihailo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Early assessment of severity and continuous monitoring of patients are the key factors for adequate treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP. The aim of this study was to determine the value of procalcitonin (PCT and Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP scoring system as prognostic markers in early stages of AP with comparison to other established indicators such as Creactive protein (CRP and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score. Methods. This prospective study included 51 patients (29 with severe AP. In the first 24 h of admission in all patients the APACHE II score and BISAP score, CRP and PCT serum concentrations were determined. The values of PCT serum concentrations and BISAP score were compared with values of CRP serum concentrations and APACHE II score, in relation to the severity and outcome of the disease. Results. Values of PCT, CRP, BISAP score and APACHE II score, measured at 24 h of admission, were significantly elevated in patients with severe form of the disease. In predicting severity of AP at 24 h of admission, sensitivity and specificity of the BISAP score were 74% and 59%, respectively, APACHE II score 89% and 69%, respectively, CRP 75% and 86%, respectively, and PCT 86% and 63%, respectively. It was found that PCT is highly significant predictor of the disease outcome (p < 0,001. Conclusion. In early assessment of AP severity, PCT has better predictive value than CRP, and similar to the APACHE II score. APACHE II score is a stronger predictor of the disease severity than BISAP score. PCT is a good predictor of AP outcome.

  10. Measuring the modified early warning score and the Rothman index: advantages of utilizing the electronic medical record in an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, G Duncan; Rothman, Michael J; Smith, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Early detection of an impending cardiac or pulmonary arrest is an important focus for hospitals trying to improve quality of care. Unfortunately, all current early warning systems suffer from high false-alarm rates. Most systems are based on the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS); 4 of its 5 inputs are vital signs. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of MEWS against the Rothman Index (RI), a patient acuity score based upon summation of excess risk functions that utilize additional data from the electronic medical record (EMR). MEWS and RI scores were computed retrospectively for 32,472 patient visits. Nursing assessments, a category of EMR inputs only used by the RI, showed sharp differences 24 hours before death. Receiver operating characteristic curves for 24-hour mortality demonstrated superior RI performance with c-statistics, 0.82 and 0.93, respectively. At the point where MEWS triggers an alarm, we identified the RI point corresponding to equal sensitivity and found the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) for MEWS was 7.8, and for the RI was 16.9 with false alarms reduced by 53%. At the RI point corresponding to equal LR+, the sensitivity for MEWS was 49% and 77% for RI, capturing 54% more of those patients who will die within 24 hours.

  11. Development of a Simple Clinical Risk Score for Early Prediction of Severe Dengue in Adult Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients at high risk of severe dengue (SD (i.e. severe plasma leakage with shock or respiratory distress, or severe bleeding or organ impairment. We retrospectively analyzed data of 1184 non-SD patients at hospital presentation and 69 SD patients before SD onset. We fit a logistic regression model using 85% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk score. Subsequently, we validated the score using the remaining 15% of patients. Using the derivation cohort, two scoring algorithms for predicting SD were developed: models 1 (dengue illness ≤4 days and 2 (dengue illness >4 days. In model 1, we identified four variables: age ≥65 years, minor gastrointestinal bleeding, leukocytosis, and platelet count ≥100×109 cells/L. Model 1 (ranging from -2 to +6 points showed good discrimination between SD and non-SD, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.848 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.771-0.924. The optimal cutoff value for model 1 was 1 point, with a sensitivity and specificity for predicting SD of 70.3% and 90.6%, respectively. In model 2 (ranging from 0 to +3 points, significant predictors were age ≥65 years and leukocytosis. Model 2 showed an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI, 0.756-0.963, with an optimal cutoff value of 1 point (sensitivity, 80.3%; specificity, 85.8%. The median interval from hospital presentation to SD was 1 day. This finding underscores the importance of close monitoring, timely resuscitation of shock including intravenous fluid adjustment and early correction of dengue-related complications to prevent the progressive dengue severity. In the validation data, AUCs of 0.904 (95% CI, 0.825-0.983 and 0.917 (95% CI, 0.833-1.0 in models 1 and 2, respectively, were achieved. The observed SD rates (in both cohorts were 50% for those with a score of ≥2 points

  12. Early Detection of Alzheimer's - A Crucial Requirement

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhari, Ijaz

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's, an old age disease of people over 65 years causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. This disease progresses very slow and its identification in early stages is very difficult. The symptoms of Alzheimer's appear slowly and gradually will have worse effects. In its early stages, not only the patients themselves but their loved ones are generally unable to accept that the patient is suffering from disease. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm to detect patients of Alzheimer's at early stages by comparing the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the patients with normal persons of their age. The progress of the disease can also be monitored by periodic comparison of the previous and current MRI.

  13. The Utility of Scoring Systems in Predicting Early and Late Mortality in Alcoholic Hepatitis: Whose Score Is It Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naaventhan Palaniyappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH is a distinct clinical entity in the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease with a high short-term mortality. Several scoring systems are being used to assess the severity of AH but the ability of these scores to predict long-term survival in these patients is largely unknown. Aims. We aim to assess the utility of five different scoring systems Child Pugh (CP, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD, Maddrey’s discriminant function (mDF, Glasgow AH score (GAHS, and age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score in predicting shot-term and long-term survival in patients with AH. Methods. Patients with histological evidence of AH were identified from our database. The clinical and biochemical parameters were used to calculate the 5 different scores. The prognostic utility of these scores was determined by generating an ROC curve for survival at 30 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Results and Conclusions. All 5 scores with the exception of CP score have a similar accuracy in predicting the short-term prognosis. However, they are uniformly poor in predicting longer-term survival with AUROC not exceeding 0.74. CP score is a very poor predictor of survival in both short and long term. Abstinence from alcohol was significantly (<0.05 associated with survival at 1 year.

  14. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and MRI in early multiple sclerosis: Validation of the VEMP score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnošija, Luka; Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Gabelić, Tereza; Adamec, Ivan; Habek, Mario

    2017-01-15

    To validate the VEMP score as a measure of brainstem dysfunction in patients with the first symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) (clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)) and to investigate the correlation between VEMP and brainstem MRI results. 121 consecutive CIS patients were enrolled and brainstem functional system score (BSFS) was determined. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) were analyzed for latencies, conduction block and amplitude asymmetry ratio and the VEMP score was calculated. MRI was analyzed for the presence of brainstem lesions as a whole and separately for the presence of pontine, midbrain and medulla oblongata lesions. Patients with signs of brainstem involvement during the neurological examination (with BSFS ≥1) had a higher oVEMP score compared to patients with no signs of brainstem involvement. A binary logistic regression model showed that patients with brainstem lesion on the MRI are 6.780 times more likely to have BSFS ≥1 (p=0.001); and also, a higher VEMP score is associated with BSFS ≥1 (p=0.042). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between clinical brainstem involvement and brainstem and pontine MRI lesions, and prolonged latencies and/or absent VEMP responses. The VEMP score is a valuable tool in evaluation of brainstem involvement in patients with early MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Barriers for early detection of cancer amongst Indian rural women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. Healthcare providers in developing countries regularly see women with advanced, incurable cancers. Health of a rural Indian women and her access to health facility is compromised due to sociocultural, economical, and environmental factors. Aims: To know the problems associated with early detection of cancers in rural women. Settings and Design: Rural area and cross-sectional. Subjects and Methods: Study subject: Women of 35 years and above. Exclusion criteria: Not willing to participate. Sample size: All eligible women of selected villages. Sampling Technique: Random selection of villages. Study duration: 2 months. Study tools: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, χ2 test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, multivariate analysis. Results: Awareness about symptoms, possibility of early detection, available tests, possibility of cure of disease was low. Main barrier for screening was cognitive, that is, ′don′t know′ answer by 83.99% women for cancer cervix, 84.93%, for cancer breast, and 67.26% for oral cancer. Awareness score was significantly associated with age (χ2 = 17.77, P = 0.001, education (χ2 = 34.62, P = 0.000, and income (χ2 = 16.72, P = 0.002; while attitude score with age (χ2 = 16.27, P = 0.012 and education (χ2 = 25.16, P = 0.003. Practice score was significantly associated with age (χ2 = 11.28, P = 0.023, education (χ2 = 32.27, P = 0.003, and occupation (χ2 = 10.69, P = 0.03. Awareness, attitude, and practice score of women having history of cancer in family or relative was significantly high than women without history. Conclusions: Cognitive barrier was the important barrier which has to be taken care of.

  16. The iScore predicts total healthcare costs early after hospitalization for an acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewara, Emmanuel M; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Bravata, Dawn M; Williams, Linda S; Fang, Jiming; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The ischemic Stroke risk score is a validated prognostic score which can be used by clinicians to estimate patient outcomes after the occurrence of an acute ischemic stroke. In this study, we examined the association between the ischemic Stroke risk score and patients' 30-day, one-year, and two-year healthcare costs from the perspective of a third party healthcare payer. Patients who had an acute ischemic stroke were identified from the Registry of Canadian Stroke Network. The 30-day ischemic Stroke risk score prognostic score was determined for each patient. Direct healthcare costs at each time point were determined using administrative databases in the province of Ontario. Unadjusted mean and the impact of a 10-point increase ischemic Stroke risk score and a patient's risk of death or disability on total cost were determined. There were 12,686 patients eligible for the study. Total unadjusted mean costs were greatest among patients at high risk. When adjusting for patient characteristics, a 10-point increase in the ischemic Stroke risk score was associated with 8%, 7%, and 4% increase in total costs at 30 days, one-year, and two-years. The same increase was found to impact patients at low, medium, and high risk differently. When adjusting for patient characteristics, patients in the high-risk group had the highest total costs at 30 days, while patients at medium risk had the highest costs at both one and two-years. The ischemic Stroke risk score can be useful as a predictor of healthcare utilization and costs early after hospitalization for an acute ischemic stroke. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  17. Auditory gap detection in the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E; Stevens, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    For blind individuals, audition provides critical information for interacting with the environment. Individuals blinded early in life (EB) typically show enhanced auditory abilities relative to sighted controls as measured by tasks requiring complex discrimination, attention and memory. In contrast, few deficits have been reported on tasks involving auditory sensory thresholds (e.g., Yates, J.T., Johnson, R.M., Starz, W.J., 1972. Loudness perception of the blind. Audiology 11(5), 368-376; Starlinger, I., Niemeyer, W., 1981. Do the blind hear better? Investigations on auditory processing in congenital or early acquired blindness. I. Peripheral functions. Audiology 20(6), 503-509). A study of gap detection stands at odds with this distinction [Muchnik, C., Efrati, M., Nemeth, E., Malin, M., Hildesheimer, M., 1991. Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects. Scand. Audiol. 20(1), 19-23]. In the current investigation we re-examined gap detection abilities in the EB using a single-interval, yes/no method. A group of younger sighted control individuals (SCy) was included in the analysis in addition to EB and sighted age matched control individuals (SCm) in order to examine the effect of age on gap detection performance. Estimates of gap detection thresholds for EB subjects were nearly identical to SCm subjects and slightly poorer relative to the SCy subjects. These results suggest some limits on the extent of auditory temporal advantages in the EB.

  18. End points for validating early warning scores in the context of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N E; Oestergaard, D.; Lippert, A.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When investigating early warning scores and similar physiology-based risk stratification tools, death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission are traditionally used as end points. A large proportion of the patients identified by these end points cannot be saved, even...... the items receiving highest ratings. CONCLUSIONS: End points relating to death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission currently comprise the most obvious compromises for investigating early warning scores and similar risk stratification tools. Additional end points from the gross list...... in the Delphi process, and the experts' combined rating of the usefulness of each suggestion was established. RESULTS: A gross list of 86 suggestions for end points, relating to 13 themes, was produced. No items were uniformly recognised as ideal. The themes cardiac arrest, death, and level of care contained...

  19. [Early prognosis in severe cranio-cerebral trauma using the Glasgow Coma Score and evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, B; Stöhr, M; Graser, W; Trost, E; Baumgärtner, H

    1989-02-01

    During 72 h following severe head injury, 103 patients in acute posttraumatic coma were assessed by clinical examinations (documented by Glasgow Coma Score) and brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) as well as short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) following median-nerve stimulation. Patient outcomes were classified at 6 months or more according to the following categories: good recovery, severely disabled or vegetative, and brain dead. Patients who had died of systemic complications (pneumonia, septicemia, renal failure, etc.) were excluded from the study. The Glasgow Coma Score was reliable in forecasting a favorable outcome; all patients with a Score over 9 points had a good recovery. The Glasgow Coma Score was not reliable in predicting an unfavorable outcome, however; some patients with the lowest possible Glasgow Coma Score (3 points) at the early clinical examination survived with good recovery. The BAEPs were reliable predictors of an unfavorable outcome; the outcome was unfavorable when a missing wave V or more missing waves pointed toward a secondary brainstem lesion. Normal BAEPs were not reliable, however, in predicting a favorable outcome. SEP data served as a prognostic indicator of unfavorable as well as favorable outcomes. In summary, evoked potentials add valuable information to the clinical examination in assessing a patient's outcome after severe head injury.

  20. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  1. A new diagnostic score to detect osteoporosis in patients undergoing lumbar spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni; Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo [IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Signal intensity of lumbar-spine at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates to bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to define a quantitative MRI-based score to detect osteoporosis on lumbar-spine MRI. After Ethics Committee approval, we selected female patients who underwent both lumbar-spine MRI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a reference group of 131 healthy females (20-29 years) who underwent lumbar-spine MRI. We measured the intra-vertebral signal-to-noise ratio in L1-L4. We introduced an MRI-based score (M-score), on the model of T-score. M-score diagnostic performance in diagnosing osteoporosis was estimated against DXA using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. We included 226 patients (median age 65 years), 70 (31 %) being osteoporotic at DXA. MRI signal-to-noise ratio correlated to BMD (r = -0.677, P < 0.001). M-score negatively correlated to T-score (r = -0.682, P < 0.001). Setting a 90 %-specificity, an M-score threshold of 5.5 was found, distinguishing osteoporosis from non-osteoporosis (sensitivity 54 %; ROC AUC 0.844). Thirty-one (14 %) patients had a fragility fracture, with osteoporosis detected in 15 (48 %) according to M-score and eight (26 %) according to T-score (P = 0.016). M-score obtained on lumbar spine MRI is a quantitative method correlating with osteoporosis. Its diagnostic value remains to be demonstrated on a large prospective cohort of patients. (orig.)

  2. Effects of nicotine chewing gum on UPDRS score and P300 in early-onset parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuoka, Takako; Kaseda, Yumiko; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Kawakami, Hideshi; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2002-03-01

    It has been reported that nicotine shows some beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study is to assess the therapeutic effects of nicotine chewing gum in patients with early-onset parkinsonism (EOP). The subjects were 8 patients with early-onset parkinsonism (male/female = 4/4, mean age; 51.3 years). Four out of 8 patients had a history of smoking (smokers). To estimate the effects of nicotine gum, the scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were studied before and after taking nicotine gum in the EOP patients. In smokers, UPDRS scores improved by more than 10% and the P300 latency of auditory ERPs was shortened by more than 30 msec. In contrast, nicotine had no remarkable effects on UPDRS scores or auditory ERPs in non-smokers. We suggest that nicotine chewing gum may be a possible choice for the treatment of patients with EOP, especially when they are smokers.

  3. Early Cannabis Use, Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia and Brain Maturation in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Leon; Gray, Courtney; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Séguin, Jean R; Veillette, Suzanne; Evans, C John; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun W L; Bromberg, Uli; Bruehl, Ruediger; Buchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaitre, Herve; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Pangelinan, Melissa Marie; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Timpson, Nic J; Schumann, Gunter; Smith, George Davey; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. Observation of 3 population-based samples included initial analysis in 1024 adolescents of both sexes from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and follow-up in 426 adolescents of both sexes from the IMAGEN Study from 8 European cities and 504 male youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in England. A total of 1577 participants (aged 12-21 years; 899 [57.0%] male) had (1) information about cannabis use; (2) imaging studies of the brain; and (3) a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia across 108 genetic loci identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data analysis was performed from March 1 through December 31, 2014. Cortical thickness derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Linear regression tests were used to assess the relationships between cannabis use, cortical thickness, and risk score. Across the 3 samples of 1574 participants, a negative association was observed between cannabis use in early adolescence and cortical thickness in male participants with a high polygenic risk score. This observation was not the case for low-risk male participants or for the low- or high-risk female participants. Thus, in SYS male participants, cannabis use interacted with risk score vis-à-vis cortical thickness (P = .009); higher scores were associated with lower thickness only in males who used cannabis. Similarly, in the IMAGEN male participants, cannabis use interacted with increased risk score vis-à-vis a change in decreasing cortical thickness from 14.5 to 18.5 years of age (t137 = -2.36; P

  4. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  5. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  6. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  7. Early neurosurgical procedures enhance survival in blunt head injury: propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Jerris R; Newgard, Craig D; Veum-Stone, Judith; Selden, Nathan R; Adams, Annette L; Diggs, Brian S; Arthur, Melanie; Mullins, Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Studies of trauma systems have identified traumatic brain injury as a frequent cause of death or disability. Due to the heterogeneity of patient presentations, practice variations, and potential for secondary brain injury, the importance of early neurosurgical procedures upon survival remains controversial. Traditional observational outcome studies have been biased because injury severity and clinical prognosis are associated with use of such interventions. We used propensity analysis to investigate the clinical efficacy of early neurosurgical procedures in patients with traumatic brain injury. We analyzed a retrospectively identified cohort of 518 consecutive patients (ages 18-65 years) with blunt, traumatic brain injury (head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of >or= 3) presenting to the emergency department of a Level-1 trauma center. The propensity for a neurosurgical procedure (i.e., craniotomy or ventriculostomy) in the first 24 h was determined (based upon demographic, clinical presentation, head computed tomography scan findings, intracranial pressure monitor use, and injury severity). Multivariate logistic regression models for survival were developed using both the propensity for a neurosurgical procedure and actual performance of the procedure. The odds of in-hospital death were substantially less in those patients who received an early neurosurgical procedure (odds ratio [OR] 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.41). The mortality benefit of early neurosurgical intervention persisted after exclusion of patients who died within the first 24 h (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.04-0.48). Analysis of observational data after adjustment using the propensity score for a neurosurgical procedure in the first 24 h supports the association of early neurosurgical intervention and patient survival in the setting of significant blunt, traumatic brain injury. Transfer of at-risk head-injured patients to facilities with high-level neurosurgical capabilities seems warranted.

  8. Barriers for Early Detection of Cancer Amongst Urban Indian Women: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Yugantara R.; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhoble, Randheer V.; Sawant, Minaxi R.; Gore, Alka D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Every year, millions of cancer patients could be saved from premature death and and suffering if they had timely access to early detection and treatment. There are two main components of early detection: early diagnosis and screening. In India, cancers of cervix, breast, mouth/oropharynx are the most frequent cancers in women. These cancers are amenable to early detection. More than two third of the cancer patients are already in an advanced and incurable stage at the time of diagnosis. Objectives: This study was designed with the aim to know the reasons for non availment of cancer screening procedures and early diagnostic facilities. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was planned in Sangli, Miraj and Kupwad Corporation area during October 2013 - March 2014 by a pretested questionnaire. Women of 25 years and above were study subjects selected randomly from a cluster sample of ward with estimated sample size of 559 women. Statistical analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS 22. Results: Nearly 74% of women said that cancer is curable. For awareness about signs and symptoms, risk factors and screening test 82.3% women scored less than 50% of total score. Only 17.7% women had awareness score more than 50%. But their attitude score was > 50% in 85.2% of women. For practice score, 24.4% women scored > 50%. Significant association was found between awareness, attitude and practice scores and education, occupation and history of cancer in family, friends and neighborhood of respondents. Conclusions: Low awareness is the main barrier for undergoing cancer screening and early detection. There is a need of effective health education programme. PMID:27366310

  9. Implementation of a Pediatric Early Warning Scoring System at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kimberly; Collado, Jerry Christopher; Keller, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Despite the addition of family-activated rapid response to the rapid response team algorithm, a children's hospital did not see an increase in utilization of the pediatric rapid response team. A Pediatric Early Warning Score in non-ICU pediatric inpatient units was implemented to increase the number of rapid response team activations. A retrospective review of the 130-bed facility, over a 12-month period, revealed an increase in pediatric rapid response calls, with a subsequent decrease in code team activations. The authors outline implementation strategies and discuss barriers encountered throughout the process, along with implications for nurse leaders.

  10. Prediction of early mortality following hip fracture surgery in frail elderly : The Almelo Hip Fracture Score (AHFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, W. S.; Folbert, E. C.; Vermeer, M.; Slaets, J. P.; Hegeman, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hip fractures are common in the elderly and have a high risk of early mortality. Identification of patients at high risk of early mortality could contribute to enhanced quality of care. A simple scoring system is essential for preoperative identification of patients at high risk of early

  11. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery W Bacher

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29-55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega. This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001, which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001. The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible.

  12. Detection and localization of deep endometriosis by means of MRI and correlation with the ENZIAN score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paola, V., E-mail: dipaola.valerio@libero.it; Manfredi, R.; Castelli, F.; Negrelli, R.; Mehrabi, S.; Pozzi Mucelli, R.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The accuracy of MRI for deep endometriosis was 95%. •The agreement between histopathological and MRI ENZIAN score was excellent (k = 0.824). •The highest agreement was for adenomyosis (1.000) and lesions of utero-sacral ligaments (0.890). •MRI ENZIAN score allows to obtain a correct preoperative staging of deep endometriosis. -- Abstract: Purpose: To determine the accuracy of ENZIAN score, as detected on MR imaging, compared to surgical-pathologic findings. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the investigational review board and the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. 115 patients were included according to following criteria: tubo-ovarian and/or deep endometriosis suspected at physical examination and transvaginal ultrasound; availability of MR examination; histopathological results from laparoscopic or surgical treatment. Exclusion criteria: lack of available MR examination, and/or (b) lack of a definitive histopathological results. Histopathological findings from bioptic specimens obtained during laparoscopic or laparotomic treatment were considered as reference standard. For all detected lesions a score according to ENZIAN score (revised 2010) was assigned both for MRI and histopathological findings. By comparing MRI-ENZIAN score and histopathological-ENZIAN score the overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values in relation to presence/absence of deep endometriosis in each patient were calculated. k-Cohen to evaluate the degree of concordance between MRI-ENZIAN score and histopathological-ENZIAN score was also measured. Moreover the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values for each specific localization provided by ENZIAN score were also calculated. Results: At histopathology, the diagnosis of deep endometriosis was confirmed in 82/115 (71.3%) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of MRI were 94%, 97

  13. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  14. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Iterative User Interface Design for Automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Calculator in Sepsis Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Christopher Ansel; Kitson, Jaben E; Li, Man; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-05-18

    The new sepsis definition has increased the need for frequent sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score recalculation and the clerical burden of information retrieval makes this score ideal for automated calculation. The aim of this study was to (1) estimate the clerical workload of manual SOFA score calculation through a time-motion analysis and (2) describe a user-centered design process for an electronic medical record (EMR) integrated, automated SOFA score calculator with subsequent usability evaluation study. First, we performed a time-motion analysis by recording time-to-task-completion for the manual calculation of 35 baseline and 35 current SOFA scores by 14 internal medicine residents over a 2-month period. Next, we used an agile development process to create a user interface for a previously developed automated SOFA score calculator. The final user interface usability was evaluated by clinician end users with the Computer Systems Usability Questionnaire. The overall mean (standard deviation, SD) time-to-complete manual SOFA score calculation time was 61.6 s (33). Among the 24% (12/50) usability survey respondents, our user-centered user interface design process resulted in >75% favorability of survey items in the domains of system usability, information quality, and interface quality. Early stakeholder engagement in our agile design process resulted in a user interface for an automated SOFA score calculator that reduced clinician workload and met clinicians' needs at the point of care. Emerging interoperable platforms may facilitate dissemination of similarly useful clinical score calculators and decision support algorithms as "apps." A user-centered design process and usability evaluation should be considered during creation of these tools.

  16. Klinefelter syndrome: are we missing opportunities for early detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Rosoklija, Ilina; Yu, Richard N; Cohen, Laurie E

    2013-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is a common condition that remains underdiagnosed, particularly prior to adulthood. Early detection could prevent morbidity and mortality, but the classic phenotype of small testes and tall stature may not be apparent until adolescence, and there is minimal guidance regarding whom to screen. We performed a retrospective study at Boston Children's Hospital in patients with the ICD-9 code for "Klinefelter syndrome" diagnosed prior to age 20 years, and determined age and reason for diagnosis, karyotype, heights, and comorbid conditions. Eighty percent had a 47,XXY karyotype, of whom half were diagnosed at age 11 to 19 years. The most common comorbidities were neurocognitive, including learning disabilities (67%), psychosocial problems (33%), and attention deficit disorder (27%). Subjects were only slightly taller than average in childhood (height standard deviation score = 0.64). These data show that Klinefelter syndrome is associated with long-standing comorbidities that frequently remain under-recognized; a karyotype should be considered in boys with neurocognitive problems.

  17. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T L; Smith, P; Mayne, S T; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women w...

  18. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  19. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  20. Serious adverse events in a hospital using early warning score - what went wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, John Asger; Mackel, Rebecca; Antonsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of a new early warning score (EWS) system by reviewing all serious adverse events in our hospital over a 6-month time period. METHOD: All incidents of unexpected death (UD), cardiac arrest (CA) and unanticipated intensive care unit admission(UICU) of adult patients...... of EWS were recorded in 87, 94 and 75% of UICU, CA and UD. Patients were monitored according to the escalation protocol in 13, 31 and 13% of UICU, CA and UD. Nurses escalated care and contacted physicians in 64% and 60% of events of UICU and the corresponding proportions for CO were 58% and 55%. On call...... physicians provided adequate care in 49% of cases of UICU and 29% of cases of the CO. Senior staff was involved according to protocol in 53% and 36% of cases of UICU and CO, respectively. CONCLUSION: Poor compliance with the escalation protocol was commonly found when serious adverse events occurred...

  1. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  2. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  3. The Bidirectional Effects of Early Poverty on Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Associations and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author reports secondary analyses that examine the bidirectional effects of the duration of early poverty on children's reading and home environment scores. The author focuses on three specific questions: (1) Does the duration of early childhood poverty affect children's reading scores…

  4. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  5. Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ADDRESS. Indiana University at Bloomington Trustees of Indiana University 509 E 3RD ST Bloomington, IN 47401 -3654 Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion ...SMISC  Project:   DESPIC:  Detecting  Early  Signatures  of   Persuasion  in  Information  Cascades     Teams:   Indiana

  6. Promoting early detection of breast cancer and care strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting early detection of breast cancer and care strategies for Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 21, No 2 (2017) > ... Worldwide, it is predicted that more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer, and ... between wide spread education, early detection, the disease stage at diagnosis, and survival rates.

  7. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  8. A robust background regression based score estimation algorithm for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Du, Bo; Zhang, Liangpei; Zhang, Lefei

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly detection has become a hot topic in the hyperspectral image analysis and processing fields in recent years. The most important issue for hyperspectral anomaly detection is the background estimation and suppression. Unreasonable or non-robust background estimation usually leads to unsatisfactory anomaly detection results. Furthermore, the inherent nonlinearity of hyperspectral images may cover up the intrinsic data structure in the anomaly detection. In order to implement robust background estimation, as well as to explore the intrinsic data structure of the hyperspectral image, we propose a robust background regression based score estimation algorithm (RBRSE) for hyperspectral anomaly detection. The Robust Background Regression (RBR) is actually a label assignment procedure which segments the hyperspectral data into a robust background dataset and a potential anomaly dataset with an intersection boundary. In the RBR, a kernel expansion technique, which explores the nonlinear structure of the hyperspectral data in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, is utilized to formulate the data as a density feature representation. A minimum squared loss relationship is constructed between the data density feature and the corresponding assigned labels of the hyperspectral data, to formulate the foundation of the regression. Furthermore, a manifold regularization term which explores the manifold smoothness of the hyperspectral data, and a maximization term of the robust background average density, which suppresses the bias caused by the potential anomalies, are jointly appended in the RBR procedure. After this, a paired-dataset based k-nn score estimation method is undertaken on the robust background and potential anomaly datasets, to implement the detection output. The experimental results show that RBRSE achieves superior ROC curves, AUC values, and background-anomaly separation than some of the other state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, and is easy to implement

  9. Detecting determinism with improved sensitivity in time series: Rank-based nonlinear predictability score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Daniel; Rummel, Christian; Schindler, Kaspar; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2014-09-01

    The rank-based nonlinear predictability score was recently introduced as a test for determinism in point processes. We here adapt this measure to time series sampled from time-continuous flows. We use noisy Lorenz signals to compare this approach against a classical amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. Both measures show an almost identical robustness against Gaussian white noise. In contrast, when the amplitude distribution of the noise has a narrower central peak and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the rank-based nonlinear predictability score outperforms the amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. For this type of noise, the nonlinear predictability score has a higher sensitivity for deterministic structure in noisy signals. It also yields a higher statistical power in a surrogate test of the null hypothesis of linear stochastic correlated signals. We show the high relevance of this improved performance in an application to electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from epilepsy patients. Here the nonlinear predictability score again appears of higher sensitivity to nonrandomness. Importantly, it yields an improved contrast between signals recorded from brain areas where the first ictal EEG signal changes were detected (focal EEG signals) versus signals recorded from brain areas that were not involved at seizure onset (nonfocal EEG signals).

  10. Further optimization of the reliability of the 28-joint disease activity score in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Liseth Siemons; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de laar, Mart A. F. J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) combines scores on a 28-tender and swollen joint count (TJC28 and SJC28), a patient-reported measure for general health (GH), and an inflammatory marker (either the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] or the C-reactive protein [CRP]) into a composite measure of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study examined the reliability of the DAS28 in patients with early RA using principles from generalizability theory and evalua...

  11. Correlation of delta high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with delta clinical variables in early systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euathrongchit, Juntima; Wattanawittawas, Pittaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014. All patients underwent HRCT at study entry and every 12 months thereafter. Thirty-one SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) within 12 weeks of their corresponding HRCT at baseline and last visit were identified. The extent of ground glass (GG), lung fibrosis (Fib), bronchiectasis (B), and honeycombing (HC) was scored, and then aggregated to produce a total (t) HRCT score. Results Mean ± SD age and disease duration from non-Raynaud’s phenomenon (NRP) to undergo HRCT at baseline were 52.2±8.8 years and 11.7±7.1 months, respectively. Seventeen (54.8%) patients were female and 20 (64.5%) were classified as dcSSc. The mean ± SD interval between the two HRCT tests was 16.0±7.2 months. The Δ HRCT scores [total fibrosis scores (t-Fib), total bronchiectasis scores (t-B), and total HRCT score (t-HRCT) scores] and Δ mRSS, but not Δ %pFVC, showed significant change over the observation period. We found significant correlation of Δ total honeycombing scores (t-HC) with Δ ESR (r=−0.44, P<0.05), and Δ t-Fib with Δ %SpO2 (r=−0.38, P<0.05). However, no significant correlation of any Δ HRCT scores with Δ %pFVC and Δ mRSS were observed. Conclusions In this study, the changes in the HRCT scores were greater than %pFVC; this, along with their correlations with the changes in ESR and %SpO2, suggest that HRCT

  12. Frequency of early warning score assessment and clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger; Antonsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether early warning score (EWS) measurements at 8h intervals is associated with better outcomes than 12h intervals. We hypothesized that the proportion of patients that deteriorated to a higher EWS at 24h after hospital admission would be lower with 8h interval than with 12h...... interval. METHOD: This was a pragmatic, ward-level randomized, non-blinded, controlled trial at an urban University hospital. During two six weeks periods acutely admitted surgical and medical patients, with an initial EWS of 0 or 1, were monitored either every 8th hour or every 12th hour. The primary......% to the 12h group; of these, 23% and 20% had an elevated EWS≥2 at 24h, respectively (p=0.456), OR 1.17 (0.78-1.76); 3.4% and 2.2%, respectively had an EWS≥5 (p=0.391), and one patient in each group had an EWS≥7 at 24h (p=1.0). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant interactions...

  13. A novel algorithm to enhance P300 in single trials: application to lie detection using F-score and SVM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Gao

    Full Text Available The investigation of lie detection methods based on P300 potentials has drawn much interest in recent years. We presented a novel algorithm to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of P300 and applied it in lie detection to increase the classification accuracy. Thirty-four subjects were divided randomly into guilty and innocent groups, and the EEG signals on 14 electrodes were recorded. A novel spatial denoising algorithm (SDA was proposed to reconstruct the P300 with a high SNR based on independent component analysis. The differences between the proposed method and our/other early published methods mainly lie in the extraction and feature selection method of P300. Three groups of features were extracted from the denoised waves; then, the optimal features were selected by the F-score method. Selected feature samples were finally fed into three classical classifiers to make a performance comparison. The optimal parameter values in the SDA and the classifiers were tuned using a grid-searching training procedure with cross-validation. The support vector machine (SVM approach was adopted to combine with an F-score because this approach had the best performance. The presented model F-score_SVM reaches a significantly higher classification accuracy for P300 (specificity of 96.05% and non-P300 (sensitivity of 96.11% compared with the results obtained without using SDA and compared with the results obtained by other classification models. Moreover, a higher individual diagnosis rate can be obtained compared with previous methods, and the presented method requires only a small number of stimuli in the real testing application.

  14. A novel algorithm to enhance P300 in single trials: application to lie detection using F-score and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junfeng; Tian, Hongjun; Yang, Yong; Yu, Xiaolin; Li, Chenhong; Rao, Nini

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of lie detection methods based on P300 potentials has drawn much interest in recent years. We presented a novel algorithm to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of P300 and applied it in lie detection to increase the classification accuracy. Thirty-four subjects were divided randomly into guilty and innocent groups, and the EEG signals on 14 electrodes were recorded. A novel spatial denoising algorithm (SDA) was proposed to reconstruct the P300 with a high SNR based on independent component analysis. The differences between the proposed method and our/other early published methods mainly lie in the extraction and feature selection method of P300. Three groups of features were extracted from the denoised waves; then, the optimal features were selected by the F-score method. Selected feature samples were finally fed into three classical classifiers to make a performance comparison. The optimal parameter values in the SDA and the classifiers were tuned using a grid-searching training procedure with cross-validation. The support vector machine (SVM) approach was adopted to combine with an F-score because this approach had the best performance. The presented model F-score_SVM reaches a significantly higher classification accuracy for P300 (specificity of 96.05%) and non-P300 (sensitivity of 96.11%) compared with the results obtained without using SDA and compared with the results obtained by other classification models. Moreover, a higher individual diagnosis rate can be obtained compared with previous methods, and the presented method requires only a small number of stimuli in the real testing application.

  15. Early bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis detected by surveillance CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Naveen; Linnane, Barry; Ranganathan, Sarath

    2010-08-01

    There is emerging evidence that cystic fibrosis lung disease begins early in infancy. Newborn screening allows early detection and surveillance of pulmonary disease and the possibility of early intervention in this life-shortening condition. We report two children with cystic fibrosis who underwent a comprehensive assessment from diagnosis that included measurement of lung function, limited-slice high-resolution CT and BAL performed annually. Early aggressive surveillance enabled significant lung disease and bronchiectasis to be detected during the first few years of life and led to a change in management, highlighting a clinical role for CT scanning during the preschool years in children with cystic fibrosis.

  16. Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Dalili

    Full Text Available To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes.This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, and neonatal seizure.The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97% and specificity (99% in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95% and specific (97%. The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95% but not sensitive (67% and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81% and low specificity (81% in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02 and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01.The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates.

  17. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and veterans. Over the course of the fifth year of

  18. [Ocular Trauma Score comparison with open globe receiving early or late care attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dulce Milagros Razo-Blanco; Gómez, Virgilio Lima

    2015-01-01

    The Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) is a scale that estimates the prognosis of injured eyes after treatment, whose results are consistent with those of longitudinal studies. The time between injury presentation and initial care has been described as a prognostic factor for visual outcome, but the OTS features of eyes receiving early or late care after trauma have not been compared. Non-experimental, comparative, retrospective, cross sectional study. Patients from either gender, aged 5-80 years, with open globe trauma, without previous diseases that reduced visual acuity or previous intraocular surgery were included. The distribution of the OTS variables was identified. The sample was divided in two: group 1 (time between trauma occurrence and initial care ≤ 24 hours) and 2 (time > 24 hours). The frequency of OTS categories of unfavorable prognosis (1-3) was compared between groups (χ(2)). 138 eyes of 138 patients, mean age 28.8 years, 65.2% male. The evolution time ranged 2-480 hours (mean 39.9); 103 eyes were assigned to group 1 (74.6%), and 35 to group 2 (25.4%). The proportion of categories 1-3 in group 1 (82.5%, n = 85) did not differ from that in group 2 (80%, n = 28; p = 1.0). The proportion of OTS categories with unfavorable prognosis did not show significant differences between the eyes who received care before or after 24 hours that could contribute to a different outcome, besides the delay in starting treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  19. Time-series models on somatic cell score improve detection of matistis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, E; Korsgaard, I R; Sloth, K H M N

    2008-01-01

    with bacteriological findings. At a sensitivity of 90% the corresponding specificity was 68%, which increased to 83% using a one-step back smoothing. It is concluded that mixture models based on Kalman filters are efficient in handling in-line sensor data for detection of mastitis and may be useful for similar......In-line detection of mastitis using frequent milk sampling was studied in 241 cows in a Danish research herd. Somatic cell scores obtained at a daily basis were analyzed using a mixture of four time-series models. Probabilities were assigned to each model for the observations to belong to a normal...... "steady-state" development, change in "level", change of "slope" or "outlier". Mastitis was indicated from the sum of probabilities for the "level" and "slope" models. Time-series models were based on the Kalman filter. Reference data was obtained from veterinary assessment of health status combined...

  20. Calculating early warning scores--a classroom comparison of pen and paper and hand-held computer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B; Schmidt, Paul; Featherstone, Peter I; Stewart, Kate; Knight, Debbie; Higgins, Bernie

    2006-08-01

    To assist in the early detection of critical illness, many hospitals now use a "track and trigger" system that allocates points to routine vital signs measurements on the basis of their derangement from an arbitrarily agreed "normal" range. These points are summed to provide an early warning score (EWS). Little is known about the accuracy with which EWS are calculated and charted. We compared the speed and accuracy of charting the weighted value attributed to each vital sign, and of calculating the EWS, using the traditional pen and paper method with that using a specially programmed, personal digital assistant (VitalPAC). Incorrect entries or omissions occurred in 24 (29%) of 84 EWS computed using pen/paper compared to 8 (10%) computed using the VitalPAC method. Fewer incorrect clinical actions were indicated using EWS derived via the VitalPAC method (4/84, 5%) than from those calculated using pen/paper (12/84, 14%). The mean time (+/-S.D.) taken for participants to calculate and chart a set of weighted values and EWS using the pen/paper method was 67.6+/-35.3 s (n=84). The corresponding time taken to enter a set of physiological data using the VitalPAC was 43.0+/-23.5 s (n=84). By comparison with the conventional pen/paper method, the use of VitalPAC was on average 1.6-times faster. The use of a device such as VitalPAC offers significant advantages both in speed and accuracy of recording of EWS.

  1. Early detection of CLas infections in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...

  2. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  3. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  4. A propensity-score matched comparison of perioperative and early renal functional outcomes of robotic versus open partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Qu, Le; Ye, Huamao; Liu, Bing; Yang, Qing; Sheng, Jing; Xiao, Liang; Lv, Chen; Yang, Bo; Gao, Xu; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xu, Chuanliang; Hou, Jianguo; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Linhui

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative and early renal functional outcomes of RPN with OPN for kidney tumors. A total of 209 RPN or OPN patients with availability of preoperative cross-sectional imaging since 2009 at our center were included. To adjust for potential baseline confounders propensity-score matching was performed, which resulted in 94 OPNs matched to 51 RPNs. Perioperative and early renal functional outcomes were compared. In propensity-score matched analysis, RPN procedures were well tolerated and resulted in significant decreases in postoperative analgesic time (24 vs. 48 hr, pscale (3 vs. 4, prisk of EBL≥400 ml (OR: 0.488; p = 0.212). When adjusted for potential selection biases, RPN offers comparable perioperative and early renal functional outcomes to those of OPN, with the added advantage of improved postoperative pain control and a shorter LOS.

  5. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...pancreatic cancer patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Pancreatic cancer , metastasis, circulating tumor cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION

  6. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  7. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  8. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity...

  9. Easy probability estimation of the diagnosis of early axial spondyloarthritis by summing up scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Rudwaleit, Martin; Zeidler, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Several sets of criteria for the diagnosis of axial SpA (including non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis) have been proposed in the literature in which scores were attributed to relevant findings and the diagnosis requests a minimal sum of these scores. To quantitatively estimate the probability of axial SpA, multiplying the likelihood ratios of all relevant findings was proposed by Rudwaleit et al. in 2004. The objective of our proposal is to combine the advantages of both, i.e. to estimate the probability by summing up scores instead of multiplying likelihood ratios. An easy way to estimate the probability of axial spondyloarthritis is to use the logarithms of the likelihood ratios as scores attributed to relevant findings and to use the sum of these scores for the probability estimation. A list of whole-numbered scores for relevant findings is presented, and also threshold sum values necessary for a definite and for a probable diagnosis of axial SpA as well as a threshold below which the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis can be excluded. In a diagram, the probability of axial spondyloarthritis is given for sum values between these thresholds. By the method proposed, the advantages of both, the easy summing up of scores and the quantitative calculation of the diagnosis probability, are combined. Our method also makes it easier to estimate which additional tests are necessary to come to a definite diagnosis.

  10. Early detection of peroneal neuropathy by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12 year old boy presented with ankle sprain. The physical examination revealed mild weakness of ankle dorsiflexion. An ultrasound was done for the soft tissues of the ankle. In addition to relative atrophy of the peroneus longus muscle, a compressive common peroneal nerve (CPN lesion with a synovial cyst at the level of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ was accidently found. Since there were features of CPN compression by the synovial cyst, total excision of the cyst was performed. After the operation, muscle strength improved and the neurological deficit subsided. Therefore, the early diagnosis of PTFJ synovial cyst with nerve injury was crucial in order to achieve a better result. The obscure nature of clinical presentations can delay the diagnosis, which may potentially lead to a poor prognosis after treatment in such cases. This report highlights the fact that ankle sprain do need a thorough clinical work up in some cases.

  11. PROBABILITY CALIBRATION BY THE MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM PROBABILITY SCORES IN ONE-CLASS BAYES LEARNING FOR ANOMALY DETECTION

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PROBABILITY CALIBRATION BY THE MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM PROBABILITY SCORES IN ONE-CLASS BAYES LEARNING FOR ANOMALY DETECTION GUICHONG LI, NATHALIE JAPKOWICZ, IAN HOFFMAN,...

  12. Validation of the Pediatric Early Warning Score to determine patient deterioration from illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Elita

    2016-08-01

    Results One hundred fifty patients were included in this study. Patients with PEW score of 5 or greater in the ER were relatively more likely to be transferred to the PICU, with a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 82.5%. The cut-off point obtained from the ROC curve was score 4.5 with AUC 96.7% (95%CI 93.4 to 99.9%; P<0.001. Conclusion A PEWS score of cut-off ≥5 may be used to determine which patients are in critically ill condition requiring treatment in PICU.

  13. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  14. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

  15. Early hearing detection and intervention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Störbeck, Claudine; Friedland, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention programs have become the standard of care to ensure optimal outcomes for infants with hearing loss, their families and society at large. The overwhelming majority of infants with congenital or early-onset permanent bilateral hearing loss are however born in developing countries like South Africa where services are scarce and awareness poor. Despite its comparatively well-developed economic and reasonably developed health care infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa, limited information on infant hearing loss and the status of early hearing detection and intervention has been available for South Africa. Recently however, an increasing number of initiatives and reports have highlighted the extent of infant hearing loss and the status of identification and intervention services offered in the country. This report provides a review of the available evidence on infant hearing loss and the status of current early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.

  16. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Turc

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  17. The effects of early childhood education on literacy scores using data from a new Brazilian assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Felício

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effects of early childhood education (ECE on literacy scores of 2nd grade students in elementary school. To do that, the Provinha Brasil was administered in Sertãozinho-SP, in conjunction with a socioeconomic questionnaire. Despite external validity problems, the evaluation of the effects of ECE in one municipality is advantageous, as we can estimate the effects of one kind of treatment. Other studies ignore this fact. Often, they estimate an average effect of various treatments effects (not just one, as they use data from different municipalities where ECE programs have different levels of quality. The OLS and Propensity Score Matching results show that students who started school at the ages of 5, 4, and 3 years had literacy scores between 12.22 and 19.54 points higher than those who began school at the age of 6 years or later.

  18. Post total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia: A novel multi-factorial scoring system to enable its prediction to facilitate an early discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: No single factor can predict the occurrence of post total thyroidectomy (TT hypocalcemia. Aims: This study was conducted to look at various factors usually implicated in post TT clinically significant hypocalcemia (CSH and to develop a scoring system using a combination of these factors to predict CSH. Settings and Design: Prospective study, tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: 145 patients, who underwent total thyroidectomy for benign goiters and early carcinoma thyroid ( 3 had 91% sensitivity, 84% specificity with a PPV of 71% and NPV of 95%, whereas score of ≥ 4 had 100% specificity and PPV in predicting CSH. Conclusions: CSH after TT is multi-factorial, and a combination of factors (Hypocalcemia prediction score > 3 can be used to predict it so as to discharge patients within 24 hours after surgery.

  19. The iScore predicts poor functional outcomes early after hospitalization for an acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Raptis, Stavroula; Kapral, Moira K; Liu, Ying; Tu, Jack V; Mamdani, Muhammad; Austin, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The iScore is a prediction tool originally developed to estimate the risk of death after hospitalization for an acute ischemic stroke. Our objective was to determine whether the iScore could also predict poor functional outcomes. We applied the iScore to patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke at multiple hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2008, who had been identified from the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network regional stroke center database (n=3818) and from an external data set, the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network Ontario Stroke Audit (n=4635). Patients were excluded if they were included in the sample used to develop and validate the initial iScore. Poor functional outcomes were defined as: (1) death at 30 days or disability at discharge, in which disability was defined as having a modified Rankin Scale 3 to 5; and (2) death at 30 days or institutionalization at discharge. The prevalence of poor functional outcomes in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network and the Ontario Stroke Audit, respectively, were 55.7% and 44.1% for death at 30 days or disability at discharge and 16.9% and 16.2%, respectively, for death at 30 days or institutionalization at discharge. The iScore stratified the risk of poor outcomes in low- and high-risk individuals. Observed versus predicted outcomes showed high correlations: 0.988 and 0.940 for mortality or disability and 0.985 and 0.993 for mortality or institutionalization in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network and Ontario Stroke Audit cohorts. The iScore can be used to estimate the risk of death or a poor functional outcome after an acute ischemic stroke.

  20. MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI), lesion load and clinical scores in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellmann-Strobl, J.; Paul, F.; Aktas, O.; Zipp, F. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Stiepani, H.; Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, J. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Schleswig-Holstein, Institute of Neuroradiology, Campus Luebeck, Kiel (Germany); Warmuth, C. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Wandinger, K.P. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based lesion load assessment with clinical disability in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Seventeen untreated patients (ten women, seven men; mean age 33.0{+-}7.9 years) with the initial diagnosis of RRMS were included for cross-sectional as well as longitudinal (24 months) clinical and MRI-based assessment in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. Conventional MR sequences, MR spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI) were performed at 1.5 T. Lesion number and volume, MRS and MTI measurements for lesions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were correlated to clinical scores [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC)] for monitoring disease course after treatment initiation (interferon {beta}-1a). MTI and MRS detected changes [magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine ratio] in NAWM over time. EDSS and lesional MTR increases correlated throughout the disease course. Average MTR of NAWM raised during the study (p<0.05) and correlated to the MSFC score (r=0.476, p<0.001). At study termination, NAA/creatine ratio of NAWM correlated to the MSFC score (p<0.05). MTI and MRS were useful for initial disease assessment in NAWM. MTI and MRS correlated with clinical scores, indicating potential for monitoring the disease course and gaining new insights into treatment-related effects. (orig.)

  1. Nurse-administered early warning score system can be used for emergency department triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthea; Jensen, Nanna Martin; Maaløe, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Warning Score (BEWS). The BEWS is calculated on the basis of respiratory frequency, pulse, systolic blood pressure, temperature and level of consciousness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the BEWS to identify critically ill patients in the ED and to examine the feasibility of using...

  2. Predicting Poor Achievement in Early Grade School Using Kindergarten Scores on Simple Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Marcia Strong; Delgado, Christine F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, kindergarten children's scores on nine cognitive tasks were evaluated as potential predictors of poor achievement in first grade. A set of five tasks successfully identified 83% of children who were poor readers in first grade, while just three tasks identified 72% of children who were poor achievers in math in first grade. There…

  3. Reliability and minimum detectable change of the gait profile score for post-stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, Gisele Francini; Martello, Suzane Ketlyn; de Almeida, Juliana Carla; Correa, Katren Pedroso; Iucksch, Dielise Debona; Manffra, Elisangela Ferretti

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to determine Gait Profile Score (GPS) for hemiparetic stroke patients, (ii) to evaluate its reliability within and between sessions, and (iii) to establish its minimal detectable change (MDC). Seventeen hemiparetic patients (mean age 54.9±10.5years; 9 men and 8 women; 6 hemiparetic on the left side and 11 on the right side; mean time after stroke 6.1±3.5months) participated in 2 gait assessment sessions within an interval of 2-7 days. Intra-session reliability was obtained from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the three strides of each session. Inter-session reliability was estimated by the ICC from the averages of that three strides. GPS value of non paretic lower limb (NPLL) (13.9±2.4°) was greater than that of paretic lower limb (PLL) (12.0±2.8°) and overall GPS (GPS_O) was 13.7±2.5°. The Gait Variable Scores (GVS), GPS and GPS_O exhibited intra-session ICC values between 0.70 and 0.99, suggesting high intra-day stability. Most of GVS exhibited excellent inter-session reliability (ICC between 0.81 and 0.93). Only hip rotation, hip abduction of PLL exhibited moderate reliability with ICC/MDC values of 0.57/10.0° and 0.71/3.1°, respectively. ICC/MDC values of GPS were 0.92/2.3° and 0.93/1.9° for PLL and NPLL, respectively. GPS_O exhibited excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.95) and MDC of 1.7°. Given its reliability, the GPS has proven to be a suitable tool for therapeutic assessment of hemiparetic patients after stroke.

  4. Protein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Misek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breast cancer control will be greatly aided by early detection so as to diagnose and treat breast cancer in its preinvasive state prior to metastasis. For breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States, early detection does allow for increased treatment options, including surgical resection, with a corresponding better patient response. Unfortunately, however, many patients' tumors are diagnosed following metastasis, thus making it more difficult to successfully treat the malignancy. There are, at present, no existing validated plasma/serum biomarkers for breast cancer. Only a few biomarkers (such as HER-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor have utility for diagnosis and prognosis. Thus, there is a great need for new biomarkers for breast cancer. This paper will focus on the identification of new serum protein biomarkers with utility for the early detection of breast cancer.

  5. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  6. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  7. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  8. Population-based study of ABCD2 score, carotid stenosis, and atrial fibrillation for early stroke prediction after transient ischemic attack: the North Dublin TIA study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, Orla C

    2010-05-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) etiologic data and the ABCD(2) score may improve early stroke risk prediction, but studies are required in population-based cohorts. We investigated the external validity of the ABCD(2) score, carotid stenosis, and atrial fibrillation for prediction of early recurrent stroke after TIA.

  9. Early Detection of Rogue Waves Using Compressive Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible usage of the compressive sampling for the early detection of rogue waves in a chaotic sea state. One of the promising techniques for the early detection of the oceanic rogue waves is to measure the triangular Fourier spectra which begin to appear at the early stages of their development. For the early detection of the rogue waves it is possible to treat such a spectrum as a sparse signal since we would mainly be interested in the high amplitude triangular region located at the central wavenumber. Therefore compressive sampling can be a very efficient tool for the rogue wave early warning systems. Compressed measurements can be acquired by remote sensing techniques such as coherent SAR which measure the ocean surface fluctuation or by insitu techniques such as spectra measuring tools mounted on a ship hull or bottom mounted pressure gauges. By employing a numerical approach we show that triangular Fourier spectra can be sensed by compressed measurements at the early stages of the develo...

  10. Predictive monitoring for early detection of sepsis in neonatal ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Karen D

    2013-04-01

    Predictive monitoring is an exciting new field involving analysis of physiologic data to detect abnormal patterns associated with critical illness. The first example of predictive monitoring being taken from inception (proof of concept) to reality (demonstration of improved outcomes) is the use of heart rate characteristics (HRC) monitoring to detect sepsis in infants in the neonatal ICU. The commercially available 'HeRO' monitor analyzes electrocardiogram data from existing bedside monitors for decreased HR variability and transient decelerations associated with sepsis, and converts these changes into a score (the HRC index or HeRO score). This score is the fold increase in probability that a patient will have a clinical deterioration from sepsis within 24 h. This review focuses on HRC monitoring and discusses future directions in predictive monitoring of ICU patients. In a randomized trial of 3003 very low birthweight infants, display of the HeRO score reduced mortality more than 20%. Ongoing research aims to combine respiratory and HR analysis to optimize care of ICU patients. Predictive monitoring has recently been shown to save lives. Harnessing and analyzing the vast amounts of physiologic data constantly displayed in ICU patients will lead to improved algorithms for early detection, prognosis, and therapy of critical illnesses.

  11. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  12. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field.

  13. Design and internal validation of an obstetric early warning score: secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre Case Mix Programme database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, C; Alexander, P; Columb, M; Johal, J

    2013-04-01

    We designed and internally validated an aggregate weighted early warning scoring system specific to the obstetric population that has the potential for use in the ward environment. Direct obstetric admissions from the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre's Case Mix Programme Database were randomly allocated to model development (n = 2240) or validation (n = 2200) sets. Physiological variables collected during the first 24 h of critical care admission were analysed. Logistic regression analysis for mortality in the model development set was initially used to create a statistically based early warning score. The statistical score was then modified to create a clinically acceptable early warning score. Important features of this clinical obstetric early warning score are that the variables are weighted according to their statistical importance, a surrogate for the FI O2 /Pa O2 relationship is included, conscious level is assessed using a simplified alert/not alert variable, and the score, trigger thresholds and response are consistent with the new non-obstetric National Early Warning Score system. The statistical and clinical early warning scores were internally validated using the validation set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.995 (95% CI 0.992-0.998) for the statistical score and 0.957 (95% CI 0.923-0.991) for the clinical score. Pre-existing empirically designed early warning scores were also validated in the same way for comparison. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.955 (95% CI 0.922-0.988) for Swanton et al.'s Modified Early Obstetric Warning System, 0.937 (95% CI 0.884-0.991) for the obstetric early warning score suggested in the 2003-2005 Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK, and 0.973 (95% CI 0.957-0.989) for the non-obstetric National Early Warning Score. This highlights that the new clinical obstetric early warning score has an excellent ability to

  14. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods.

  15. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, Nh; Naumova, En

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old onesFhealth threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorismFcall for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance.

  16. The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS): an instant physiological prognostic indicator of poor outcome in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Aravind; Malde, Deep; Arab, Tameem; Hamed, Mazin; Allgar, Victoria; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2014-11-28

    The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) is a bedside scoring system that is non-invasive, simple and repeatable to reflect dynamic changes in physiological state. This study aims to assess accuracy of MEWS and determine an optimal MEWS value in predicting severity in acute pancreatitis (AP). A prospective database of consecutive admissions with AP to a single institution was analysed to determine value of MEWS in identifying severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and predicting poor outcome. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were used to determine optimal accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated for the optimal MEWS values obtained. One-hundred and 42 patients with AP were included. The optimal highest MEWS per 24 hours period (hMEWS) and mean MEWS per 24 hour period (mMEWS) in predicting SAP as determined by ROC were 2.5 and 1.625 respectively; with hMEWS ≥3 and mMEWS >1 utilised in this cohort as MEWS scores are whole numbers. On admission, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, and accuracy of hMEWS ≥3 was 95.5%, 90.8%, 99.0%, 65.6% and 92.0%; and for mMWES >1 was 95.5%, 87.5%, 99.0%, 58.3% and 88.7%, both superior than the Imrie score: 31.5%, 92.1%, 88.9%, 40.0% and 83.5%. The accuracy of hMEWS ≥3 and mMEWS >1 increased over the subsequent 72 hours (days 0-2) from 92 to 96%, and 89% to 94%, respectively. MEWS provides a novel, easy, instant, repeatable, reliable prognostic score that may be superior to existing scoring systems. A larger cohort is required to validate these findings.

  17. Sleep Spindles as Biomarker for Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of sleep spindles as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). The method is based on automatic detection of sleep spindles. The method may be combined with measurements of one or more further...

  18. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic re

  19. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  20. Illumina Spin-off to Develop Early-Detection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    DNA-sequencing giant Illumina has formed a new company, called Grail, to develop liquid biopsies capable of spotting cancer before symptoms arise. The start-up is working on a low-cost "pan-cancer" test that can detect multiple cancer types early, which it hopes to introduce by 2019.

  1. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  2. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  3. Early detection of occult atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keach, Joseph Walker; Bradley, Steven M; Turakhia, Mintu P; Maddox, Thomas M

    2015-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common arrhythmia and significantly increases stroke risk. This risk can be mitigated with oral anticoagulation, but AF is often asymptomatic, or occult, preventing timely detection and treatment. Accordingly, occult AF may cause stroke before it is clinically diagnosed. Currently, guidelines for the early detection and treatment of occult AF are limited. This review addresses recent advancements in occult AF detection methods, identification of populations at high risk for occult AF, the treatment of occult AF with oral anticoagulation, as well as ongoing trials that may answer critically important questions regarding occult AF screening.

  4. Role of Gold Nanoparticles in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sanjay Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of the small; the very small. It is the use and manipulation of matter at a tiny scale. At this size, atoms and molecules work differently and provide a variety of surprising and interesting uses. These nanoparticles can be used to detect/mondor cancer (by utilizing or adding optical, magnetic, and fluorescent properties. This novel imaging tool can lead to significant improvements in cancer therapy due to earlier detection, accurate staging and microtumor identification. In this review, we will summarize the current state of the art of gold nanoparticles in early detection of oral cancer.

  5. Glasgow Coma Scale scores, early opioids, and 4-year psychological outcomes among combat amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Melcer, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphine and fentanyl are frequently used for analgesia after trauma, but there is debate over the advantages and disadvantages of these opioids. Among combat amputees, intravenous (IV morphine (vs IV fentanyl after injury was associated with reduced likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The previous results were based on military health diagnoses over 2 yr postinjury. The present study followed psychological diagnoses of patients with amputation for 4 yr using military and Department of Veterans Affairs health data. In-­theater combat casualty records (n = 145 documented Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores and/or morphine, fentanyl, or no opioid treatment within hours of injury. We found that (1 GCS scores were not significantly associated with PTSD; (2 longitudinal modeling using four (yearly time points showed significantly reduced odds of PTSD for patients treated with morphine (vs fentanyl across years (adjusted odds ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval = 0.17–0.94; (3 reduced PTSD prevalence for morphine (vs IV fentanyl; morphine = 25%, fentanyl = 59%, p < 0.05 was significant, specifically among patients with traumatic brain injury during the first 2 yr postinjury; and (4 PTSD prevalence, but not other disorders (e.g., mood, increased between year 1 (PTSD = 18% and years 2 through 4 postinjury (PTSD range = 30%–32%.

  6. Early Detection of Rogue Waves by the Wavelet Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra is capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  7. Paediatric Early Warning Score - A multi-center randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    of the clinical condition of hospitalised patients is often preceded by physiological changes up to 24 hours before death. Despite this several reports show that lack of identification and proper actions in patients developing acute and critical illness remains a problem. Challenges in assessing if a child...... is critically ill are related to the child’s symptoms of serious illness often being uncharacteristic. Children can seem relatively unaffected until a short time before circulatory insufficiency and cardiac arrest. Thus, there is a need for developing and investigating if an Paediatric Early Warning System...

  8. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  9. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  10. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  11. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T L; Smith, P; Mayne, S T; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positiv...

  12. Development of a score and probability estimate for detecting angle closure based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; Haaland, Benjamin A; Perera, Shamira A; Friedman, David S; He, Mingguang; Sakata, Lisandro M; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2014-01-01

    To develop a score along with an estimated probability of disease for detecting angle closure based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) imaging. Cross-sectional study. A total of 2047 subjects 50 years of age and older were recruited from a community polyclinic in Singapore. All subjects underwent standardized ocular examination including gonioscopy and imaging by AS OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec). Customized software (Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program) was used to measure AS OCT parameters. Complete data were available for 1368 subjects. Data from the right eyes were used for analysis. A stepwise logistic regression model with Akaike information criterion was used to generate a score that then was converted to an estimated probability of the presence of gonioscopic angle closure, defined as the inability to visualize the posterior trabecular meshwork for at least 180 degrees on nonindentation gonioscopy. Of the 1368 subjects, 295 (21.6%) had gonioscopic angle closure. The angle closure score was calculated from the shifted linear combination of the AS OCT parameters. The score can be converted to an estimated probability of having angle closure using the relationship: estimated probability = e(score)/(1 + e(score)), where e is the natural exponential. The score performed well in a second independent sample of 178 angle-closure subjects and 301 normal controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.94. A score derived from a single AS OCT image, coupled with an estimated probability, provides an objective platform for detection of angle closure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  14. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  15. Early breast cancer detection using techniques other than mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopans, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    X-ray mammography is the only imaging method currently available with any proven efficacy for screening to detect early-stage, clinically occult breast cancer. Sonography has a limited role in the differentiation of cystic from solid masses and as a guide for aspiration and preoperative localization of selected breast lesions. Computed tomography has a more limited role to determine the spatial orientation of a lesion detected only in the lateral mammographic position. All other imaging methods should be considered experimental at this time.

  16. Early detection of cutaneous melanoma by sequential digital dermatoscopy (SDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sophie Luise; Haenssle, Holger Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The early diagnosis and excision of cutaneous melanoma is essential for an improved prognosis of the disease. Besides the investigation of pigmented lesions with the unaided eye and conventional dermatoscopy, long-term sequential digital dermatoscopy has been shown to improve the sensitivity of melanoma detection, especially in high-risk patients. In addition to the static clinical and dermatoscopic assessment, the sequential digital dermatoscopy strategy helps to detect changes over time. This review summarizes the latest developments in the field of sequential digital dermatoscopy, describes current strategies for the selection of patients and lesions to monitor, and suggests objective criteria that should lead to an excisional biopsy.

  17. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  18. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  19. Early Detection and Classification of Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hanon. Alasadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin. It can affect the skin only, or it may spread to the organs and bones. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Melanoma can be of benign or malignant. Malignant melanoma is the dangerous condition, while benign is not. In order to reduce the death rate due to malignant melanoma skin cancer, it is necessary to diagnose it at an early stage. In this paper, a detection system has been designed for diagnosing melanoma in early stages by using digital image processing techniques. The system consists of two phases: the first phase detects whether the pigmented skin lesion is malignant or benign; the second phase recognizes malignant melanoma skin cancer types. Both first and second phases have several stages. The experimental results are acceptable.

  20. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    ) develops type 2 diabetes within a ten-year period. Early detection can prevent or delay the onset of late complications, for which follow-up screening is important. The women are recommended follow-up screening every 1-2 years after birth do to the potentials in early detection of diabetes and prevention...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...... and their participating in follow-up screening were identified. Diagnosis of diabetes or treatment with glucose-lowering agents after giving birth were also identified. Results: Attendance in follow-up screening significantly decreased with time after giving birth. Women attending follow-up screening had a significantly...

  1. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    informatics, immunology , benign cancer , prognostic studies, baseline diagnostics, heatmaps, ROCurves 2 Major Activities 1. Production of IMS arrays...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0231 TITLE: A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  2. Early detection of liver fibrosis in rats using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging: a feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lee, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging to detect the early stages of liver fibrosis in rats. Fibrosis was induced in livers of rats (n = 60) by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Group 1 was the control group, and rats in groups 2-6 received DMN injections for 1-5 weeks, respectively. Each rat was sacrificed to perform 3-D ultrasound scanning of the liver in vitro using a single-element transducer of 6.5 MHz. The 3-D raw data acquired at a sampling rate of 50 MHz were used to construct 3-D Nakagami images. The liver specimen was further used for histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining to score the degree of liver fibrosis. The results indicate that the Metavir scores of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections in Groups 1-4 were 0 (defined as early liver fibrosis in this study), and those in groups 5 and 6 ranged from 1 to 2 and 2 to 3, respectively. To quantify the degree of early liver fibrosis, the histologic sections with Masson stain were analyzed to calculate the number of fiber-related blue pixels. The number of blue pixels increased from (2.36 ± 0.79) × 10(4) (group 1) to (7.68 ± 2.62) × 10(4) (group 4) after DMN injections for 3 weeks, indicating that early stages of liver fibrosis were successfully induced in rats. The Nakagami parameter increased from 0.36 ± 0.02 (group 1) to 0.55 ± 0.03 (group 4), with increasing numbers of blue pixels in the Masson-stained sections (p-value Nakagami imaging has potential in the early detection of liver fibrosis in rats and may serve as an image-based pathologic model to visually track fibrosis formation and growth.

  3. Earthquake Early Warning with Seismogeodesy: Detection, Location, and Magnitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is critical to reducing injuries and casualties in case of a large magnitude earthquake. The system must rely on near-source data to minimize the time between event onset and issuance of a warning. Early warning systems typically use seismic instruments (seismometers and accelerometers), but these instruments experience difficulty maintaining reliable data in the near-source region and undergo magnitude saturation for large events. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) instruments capture the long period motions and have been shown to produce robust estimates of the true size of the earthquake source. However, GNSS is often overlooked in this context in part because it is not precise enough to record the first seismic wave arrivals (P-wave detection), an important consideration for issuing an early warning. GNSS instruments are becoming integrated into early warning, but are not yet fully exploited. Our approach involves the combination of direct measurements from collocated GNSS and accelerometer stations to estimate broadband coseismic displacement and velocity waveforms [Bock et al., 2011], a method known as seismogeodesy. We present the prototype seismogeodetic early warning system developed at Scripps and demonstrate that the seismogeodetic dataset can be used for P-wave detection, hypocenter location, and shaking onset determination. We discuss uncertainties in each of these estimates and include discussion of the sensitivity of our estimates as a function of the azimuthal distribution of monitoring stations. The seismogeodetic combination has previously been shown to be immune to magnitude saturation [Crowell et al., 2013; Melgar et al., 2015]. Rapid magnitude estimation is an important product in earthquake early warning, and is the critical metric in current tsunami hazard warnings. Using the seismogeodetic approach, we refine earthquake magnitude scaling using P-wave amplitudes (Pd) and peak ground displacements (PGD) for a

  4. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services.

  5. A propensity-score matched comparison of perioperative and early renal functional outcomes of robotic versus open partial nephrectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the perioperative and early renal functional outcomes of RPN with OPN for kidney tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 209 RPN or OPN patients with availability of preoperative cross-sectional imaging since 2009 at our center were included. To adjust for potential baseline confounders propensity-score matching was performed, which resulted in 94 OPNs matched to 51 RPNs. Perioperative and early renal functional outcomes were compared. RESULTS: In propensity-score matched analysis, RPN procedures were well tolerated and resulted in significant decreases in postoperative analgesic time (24 vs. 48 hr, p<0.001 and visual analog pain scale (3 vs. 4, p<0.001. Besides, the RPN patients had a significantly shorter LOS (9 vs. 11 days, p = 0.008 and less EBL (100 vs. 200 ml, p<0.001, but median operative time was significantly longer (229 vs. 182 min, p<0.001. Ischemia time, transfusion rates, complication rates, percentage eGFR decline and CKD upstaging were equivalent after RPN versus OPN. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, RPN patients were less likely to have a prolonged LOS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.409; p = 0.016, while more likely to experience a longer operative time (OR: 4.296; p = 0.001. However, the statistical significance for the protective effect of RPN versus OPN in EBL was not confirmed by examining the risk of EBL≥400 ml (OR: 0.488; p = 0.212. CONCLUSIONS: When adjusted for potential selection biases, RPN offers comparable perioperative and early renal functional outcomes to those of OPN, with the added advantage of improved postoperative pain control and a shorter LOS.

  6. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  7. Detection and Automated Scoring of Dicentric Chromosomes in Nonstimulated Lymphocyte Prematurely Condensed Chromosomes After Telomere and Centromere Staining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' kacher, Radhia [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); El Maalouf, Elie [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Laboratoire Modélisation Intelligence Processus Systèmes (MIPS)–Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse (France); Terzoudi, Georgia [Laboratory of Radiobiology & Biodosimetry, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Ricoul, Michelle [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heidingsfelder, Leonhard [MetaSystems, Altlussheim (Germany); Karachristou, Ionna [Laboratory of Radiobiology & Biodosimetry, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Laplagne, Eric [Pole Concept, Paris (France); Hempel, William M. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Colicchio, Bruno; Dieterlen, Alain [Laboratoire Modélisation Intelligence Processus Systèmes (MIPS)–Groupe TIIM3D, Université de Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse (France); Pantelias, Gabriel [Laboratory of Radiobiology & Biodosimetry, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Sabatier, Laure, E-mail: laure.sabatier@cea.fr [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To combine telomere and centromere (TC) staining of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) fusions to identify dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes, making possible the realization of a dose–response curve and automation of the process. Methods and Materials: Blood samples from healthy donors were exposed to {sup 60}Co irradiation at varying doses up to 8 Gy, followed by a repair period of 8 hours. Premature chromosome condensation fusions were carried out, and TC staining using peptide nucleic acid probes was performed. Chromosomal aberration (CA) scoring was carried out manually and automatically using PCC-TCScore software, developed in our laboratory. Results: We successfully optimized the hybridization conditions and image capture parameters, to increase the sensitivity and effectiveness of CA scoring. Dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes were rapidly and accurately detected, leading to a linear-quadratic dose–response curve by manual scoring at up to 8 Gy. Using PCC-TCScore software for automatic scoring, we were able to detect 95% of dicentrics and centric rings. Conclusion: The introduction of TC staining to the PCC fusion technique has made possible the rapid scoring of unstable CAs, including dicentrics, with a level of accuracy and ease not previously possible. This new approach can be used for biological dosimetry in radiation emergency medicine, where the rapid and accurate detection of dicentrics is a high priority using automated scoring. Because there is no culture time, this new approach can also be used for the follow-up of patients treated by genotoxic therapy, creating the possibility to perform the estimation of induced chromosomal aberrations immediately after the blood draw.

  8. Genetics and early detection in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Rachel K; Rosas, Ivan O; Hunninghake, Gary M

    2014-04-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF.

  9. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  10. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  11. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates finding new invaders before they are common. Here we outline our research (2005 present) approach and findings, including strategies to increase detection efficiency by optimizing specimen collection and identification methods. Initial surveys were designed to over-sample to amass data as the basis for numerical experiments to investigate to the effort required for a given detection probability. Later surveys tested the outcome of implementing these strategies, examined the potential benefits of sampling larval fish instead of adults and explored the prospect of using advanced DNA based methods as an alternative to traditional taxonomy. To date we have identified several previously undetected invertebrate invaders, developed survey design and gear recommendations and have refined the search strategy for systems beyond the SLRE. In addition, because we’ve accumulated such a large body of data we now have the basis to show spatial-temporal trends for native and non-native species in the SLRE. not applicable

  12. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  13. A Comparative Study of Observed Score Approaches and Purification Procedures for Detecting Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nohoon; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.; Davison, Mark L.

    The purposes of this study were to introduce the iterative purification procedure and to compare this with the two-step purification procedure, to compare false positive error rates and the power of five observed score approaches and to identify factors affecting power and false positive rates in each method. This study used 2,400 data sets that…

  14. Detection of Invalid Test Scores on Admission Tests : A Simulation Study Using Person-Fit Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.; Albers, Casper J.

    While an admission test may strongly predict success in university or law school programs for most test takers, there may be some test takers who are mismeasured. To address this issue, a class of statistics called person-fit statistics is used to check the validity of individual test scores.

  15. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  16. Early detection of choroidal neovascularization in age related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Galbinur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify factors associated with early detection of choroidal neovascularization CNV in clinical practice.Methods: Seventy six AMD patients who had history of CNV in one eye and presented with CNV in the second eye and evaluated for association with visual acuity (VA at time of presentation. Demographics, clinical data and lesion characteristics were retrospectively collected.Results: Better VA was associated with history of CNV in the fellow eye (p<0.0001, adherence to follow-up every four-months (p=0.015, younger age (p=0.03, smaller lesion (p<0.0001, and non-subfoveal localization (p=0.048. VA of the fellow eye did not correlate with VA at presentation with CNV.Conclusion: these data suggest that experience of CNV, regardless of VA, facilitates early diagnosis in the fellow eye. Adherence to follow-up in the routine clinic setting also facilitates early detection of CNV.

  17. Short communication: early detection of mastitis using infrared thermography in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, A; Polat, B; Okumus, Z; Kaya, M; Yanmaz, L E; Hayirli, A

    2008-11-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) absorbs infrared radiation and generates images based on the amount of heat generated. It has been used in human medicine for diagnosis of various cancers. This experiment was conducted to determine if IRT had merit for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk sample and skin surface temperature (SST) were simultaneously evaluated using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and IRT for each quarter in 94 dairy cows (49 Brown Swiss and 45 Holstein). Average days in milk (DIM) and milk production were 93 +/- 37 d and 16 +/- 2.2 kg (mean +/- SD) and their ages ranged from 4 to 8 yr. There was a strong correlation between SST and CMT score (r = 0.92). Average SST was 33.19, 34.08, 34.99, and 36.15 degrees C for quarters with the CMT score of 0 (n = 156), +1 (n = 116), +2 (n = 80), and +3 (n = 24), respectively. This association was best described by a linear model as follows: y = 0.94x + 33.17, R(2) = 0.85, where y = SST and x = CMT score. Changes in rectal temperature (RT) due to the CMT score were minor (y = 0.09x + 38.39, R(2) = 0.07, where y = RT and x = average CMT score). In conclusion, RT may not confirm mastitis. However, IRT is sensitive enough to perceive changes in SST in response to varying degrees of severity of the mammary gland infection as reflected by the CMT score, suggesting that as a noninvasive tool, IRT can be employed for screening dairy cows for mastitis.

  18. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  19. Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Usman M; Khan, Shoab A

    2012-10-01

    There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others.

  20. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease.

  1. Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Atikun Limsukon, Athavudh Deesomchok, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Nittaya PhetsukDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice.Objective: To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients.Methods: The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit.Results: A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.37–0.46 and 0.18 (95% CI, -0.23–0.60, respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19. There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6

  2. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  3. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Soo Hyung [School of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, Jun; Wang Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 {+-} 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  4. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  5. A novel approach for lie detection based on F-score and extreme learning machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Gao

    Full Text Available A new machine learning method referred to as F-score_ELM was proposed to classify the lying and truth-telling using the electroencephalogram (EEG signals from 28 guilty and innocent subjects. Thirty-one features were extracted from the probe responses from these subjects. Then, a recently-developed classifier called extreme learning machine (ELM was combined with F-score, a simple but effective feature selection method, to jointly optimize the number of the hidden nodes of ELM and the feature subset by a grid-searching training procedure. The method was compared to two classification models combining principal component analysis with back-propagation network and support vector machine classifiers. We thoroughly assessed the performance of these classification models including the training and testing time, sensitivity and specificity from the training and testing sets, as well as network size. The experimental results showed that the number of the hidden nodes can be effectively optimized by the proposed method. Also, F-score_ELM obtained the best classification accuracy and required the shortest training and testing time.

  6. A comparative study between Marshall and Rotterdam CT scores in predicting early deaths in patients with traumatic brain injury in a major tertiary care hospital in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:CT plays a crucial role in the early assessment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Marshall and Rotterdam are the mostly used scoring systems,in which CT findings are grouped differently.We sought to determine the values of the scoring system and initial CT findings in predicting the death at hospital discharge (early death) in patients with TBI.Methods:There were consecutive 634 traumatic neurosurgical patients with mild-to-severe TBI admitted to the emergency department of College of Medical Sciences.Their initial CT and status at hospital discharge (dead or alive) were reviewed,and both CT scores were calculated.We examined whether each score is related to early death;compared the two scoring systems' performance in predicting early death,and identified the CT findings that are independent predictors for early death.Results:Both imaging score (Marshall) and clinical score (Rotterdam) can be used to reliably predict mortality in patients with acute traumatic brain injury with high prognostic accuracy.Other specific CT characteristics that can be used to predict early mortality are traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage,midline shift and status of the peri-mesencephalic cisterns.Conclusions:Marshall CT classification has strong predictive power,but greater discrimination can be obtained if the individual CT parameters underlying the CT classification are included in a prognostic model as in Rotterdam score.Consequently,for prognostic purposes,we recommend the use of individual characteristics rather than the CT classification.Performance of CT models for predicting outcome in TBI can be significantly improved by including more details of variables and by adding other variables to the models.

  7. Imperfect implementation of an early warning scoring system in a Danish teaching hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Niegsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, the initiation of a patient safety campaign led to the introduction of Ward Observational Charts (WOC and Medical Early Warning Score (MEWS at Naestved Regional Hospital. This included systematic measuring of vital signs of all patients in order to prevent patient deterioration and assure timely and correct initiation of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess to what degree WOC guidelines being followed by ward staff. DESIGN AND SETTING: A 7-day prospective, observational, randomised, cross-sectional, point prevalence study of WOC guideline compliance in hospitalised patients on twelve wards at Naestved Hospital. RESULTS: The study included 132 patients. Of these, 58% had been observed and managed correctly according to WOC guidelines. 77% had all MEWS elements recorded by staff. One patient had no MEWS elements recorded. Only 38% of patients with abnormal MEWS were correctly escalated by nursing staff. Staff was aware of the abnormal MEWS observed by investigator in 60% of the patients. Each element of WOC was on average recorded by staff in 90% of the patients. CONCLUSION: At the time of our study, the long-term implementation of WOC guidelines has not been completed satisfactorily. The lacking component in the implementation of MEWS and WOC is the documentation of action taken upon finding an abnormal value. Unsuccessful implementation could result in incorrect results from evaluation of an early warning system. We suggest a redesign of the training programme to educate staff in recognising and caring for critically ill patients at Naestved Hospital.

  8. Cancer Screening and Early Detection in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Jennifer T; Murphy, Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and early detection. Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, and evidence-based summaries. Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in cancer screening over time. Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21(st) century through their practice, research, educational efforts, and advocacy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  10. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  11. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  12. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  13. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  14. Implementation of a novel postoperative monitoring system using automated Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) incorporating end-tidal capnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankush, Joseph M; Freeman, Robbie; McIlvaine, Joy; Tran, Trung; Nassani, Stephen; Leitman, I Michael

    2016-10-20

    Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload. This study investigates whether the implementation of automated devices that utilize ongoing vital signs monitoring and MEWS calculations, inclusive of a score for end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), can be feasibly implemented on the general care hospital floor and effectively identify derangements in a post-operative patient's condition while limiting the amount of false alarms that would serve to increase provider workload. From July to November 2014, post-operative patients meeting the inclusion criteria (BMI > 30 kg/m(2), history of obstructive sleep apnea, or the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural narcotics) were monitored using automated devices that record minute-by-minute VS included in classic MEWS calculations as well as EtCO2. Automated messages via pagers were sent to providers for instances when the device measured elevated MEWS, abnormal EtCO2, and oxygen desaturations below 85 %. Data, including alarm and message details from the first 133 patients, were recorded and analyzed. Overall, 3.3 alarms and pages sounded per hour of monitoring. Device-only alarms sounded 2.7 times per hour-21 % were technical alarms. The remaining device-only alarms for concerning VS sounded 2.0/h, 70 % for falsely recorded VS. Pages for abnormal EtCO2 sounded 0.4/h (82 % false recordings) while pages for low blood oxygen saturation sounded 0.1/h (55 % false alarms). 143 times (0.1 pages/h) the devices calculated a MEWS

  15. A simple scoring system for predicting early major complications in spine surgery: the cumulative effect of age and size of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Albert Vincent Berthier; Teles, Alisson R; Roxo, Marcelo Ricardo; Schuster, Marcelo Neutzling; Zauk, Eduardo Ballverdu; Barcellos, Gabriel da Costa; Costa, Pablo Ramon Fruett da; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Kraemer, Jorge Luiz; Ferreira, Marcelo Paglioli; Gobbato, Pedro Luis; Worm, Paulo Valdeci

    2016-10-01

    To analyze the cumulative effect of risk factors associated with early major complications in postoperative spine surgery. Retrospective analysis of 583 surgically-treated patients. Early "major" complications were defined as those that may lead to permanent detrimental effects or require further significant intervention. A balanced risk score was built using multiple logistic regression. Ninety-two early major complications occurred in 76 patients (13%). Age > 60 years and surgery of three or more levels proved to be significant independent risk factors in the multivariate analysis. The balanced scoring system was defined as: 0 points (no risk factor), 2 points (1 factor) or 4 points (2 factors). The incidence of early major complications in each category was 7% (0 points), 15% (2 points) and 29% (4 points) respectively. This balanced scoring system, based on two risk factors, represents an important tool for both surgical indication and for patient counseling before surgery.

  16. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-27

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital sensor was functionalized by immobilizing streptavidin agarose on the sensing area of the sensor to introduce selectivity for the antigen-antibody solution. Different concentrations of CTX-I were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the target molecule. Preliminary results are provided in the paper assisted with the respective equivalent circuit of the working technology on the sensor using Complex Non-linear Least Square (CNLS). The results are encouraging and will be used to develop a complete system for commercialization complementing the existing systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. A new Screening Tool for Detecting Early Atheroslerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie W.Shaeffer; Palm Spring CA; Thach Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    @@ In a study published in the current issue of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, Ang and co-investigators used the highresolution 64-slice CT coronary angiography to detect coronary lesions in a group of patients with atypical angina.1 The clinical data of these patients were also used to calculate their risk according the Framingham and PROCAM scoring system.2,3 As the cohort is composed with a majority of low risk patients with atypical angina, only a small minority of the patients were classified as having medium and high risk. The results showed that MDCT uncovered 18% either significant lesions (>50% stenosis) or calcifications (>400Agatston units)in the low risk patients and 33% in the medium and high risk subgroups.

  18. Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. McBride

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years — 15 normal controls (NCs, 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the

  19. Sugihara causality analysis of scalp EEG for detection of early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joseph C; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Munro, Nancy B; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Sugihara proposed an innovative causality concept, which, in contrast to statistical predictability in Granger sense, characterizes underlying deterministic causation of the system. This work exploits Sugihara causality analysis to develop novel EEG biomarkers for discriminating normal aging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hypothesis of this work is that scalp EEG based causality measurements have different distributions for different cognitive groups and hence the causality measurements can be used to distinguish between NC, MCI, and AD participants. The current results are based on 30-channel resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years) - 15 normal controls (NCs), 16 MCI, and 17 early-stage AD. First, a reconstruction model is developed for each EEG channel, which predicts the signal in the current channel using data of the other 29 channels. The reconstruction model of the target channel is trained using NC, MCI, or AD records to generate an NC-, MCI-, or AD-specific model, respectively. To avoid over fitting, the training is based on the leave-one-out principle. Sugihara causality between the channels is described by a quality score based on comparison between the reconstructed signal and the original signal. The quality scores are studied for their potential as biomarkers to distinguish between the different cognitive groups. First, the dimension of the quality scores is reduced to two principal components. Then, a three-way classification based on the principal components is conducted. Accuracies of 95.8%, 95.8%, and 97.9% are achieved for resting eyes open, counting eyes closed, and resting eyes closed protocols, respectively. This work presents a novel application of Sugihara causality analysis to capture characteristic changes in EEG activity due to cognitive deficits. The developed method has excellent potential as individualized biomarkers in the detection of

  20. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  1. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M Shiell

    Full Text Available In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  2. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (Pmastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently.

  3. Detection of early glaucomatous progression with octopus cluster trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Farzaneh; Holló, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    To compare the ability of Corrected Cluster Trend Analysis (CCTA) and Cluster Trend Analysis (CTA) with event analysis of Octopus visual field series to detect early glaucomatous progression. One eye of 15 healthy, 19 ocular hypertensive, 20 preperimetric, and 51 perimetric glaucoma (PG) patients were investigated with Octopus normal G2 test at 6-month intervals for 1.5 to 3 years. Progression was defined with significant worsening in any of the 10 Octopus clusters with CCTA, and event analysis criteria, respectively. With event analysis, 9 PG eyes showed localized progression and 1 diffuse mean defect (MD) worsening. With CCTA, progression was indicated in 1 normal, 1 ocular hypertensive, and 1 preperimetric glaucoma eyes due to vitreous floaters, and 28 PG eyes including all 9 eyes with localized progression with event analysis. The locations of CCTA progression matched those found with event analysis in all 9 cases. In 17 of the remaining 19 eyes, progressing clusters matched the locations that were suspicious but not definitive for progression with event analysis. In the eye with diffuse MD worsening, CTA found significant progression for 7 clusters. For global MD progression rate, eyes worsened with CCTA only did not differ from the stable eyes but had significantly smaller progression rates than the eyes progressed with event analysis (P=0.0002). In PG, Octopus CCTA and CTA are clinically useful to identify early progression and areas suspicious for early progression. However, in some eyes with no glaucomatous visual field damage, vitreous floaters may cause progression artifacts.

  4. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  5. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  6. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  7. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation.

  8. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  9. INFERNO: a system for early outbreak detection and signature forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elena N; O'Neil, E; MacNeill, I

    2005-08-26

    Public health surveillance systems that monitor daily disease incidence provide valuable information about threats to public health and enable public health authorities to detect enteric outbreaks rapidly. This report describes the INtegrated Forecasts and EaRly eNteric Outbreak (INFERNO) detection system of algorithms for outbreak detection and forecasting. INFERNO incorporates existing knowledge of infectious disease epidemiology into adaptive forecasts and uses the concept of an outbreak signature as a composite of disease epidemic curves. Four main components comprise the system: 1) training, 2) warning and flagging, 3) signature forecasting, and 4) evaluation. The unifying goal of the system is to gain insight into the nature of temporal variations in the incidence of infection. Daily collected records are smoothed initially by using a loess-type smoother. Upon receipt of new data, the smoothing is updated; estimates are made of the first two derivatives of the smoothed curve, which are used for near-term forecasting. Recent data and near-term forecasts are used to compute a five level, color-coded warning index to quantify the level of concern. Warning algorithms are designed to balance false detection of an epidemic (Type I errors) with failure to correctly detect an epidemic (Type II errors). If the warning index signals a sufficiently high probability of an epidemic, the fitting of a gamma-based signature curve to the actual data produces a forecast of the possible size of the outbreak. Although the system is under development, its potential has been demonstrated through successful use of emergency department records associated with a substantial waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis that occurred in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1993. Prospects for further development, including adjustment for seasonality and reporting delays, are also outlined.

  10. Justification for screening programs for early detection of HBV infections

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    Małgorzata Leźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to collect the data on undetected hepatitis B virus (HBV in the frequently hospitalized (at least twice in the last 5 years population of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study results could be used by occupational health services and local governments to take preventive actions. Material and Methods: The study focused on empirical data derived from hepatitis B Screening Programme in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study comprised 6332 people tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen – HBsAg. They had been hospitalized at least twice. The diagnostic survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire, developed for this study. For the statistical analysis the Statistica 10.0 program was used. A level of statistical significance was assumed at a value of α = 0.05. The results showing that the probability test p satisfy the inequality p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: HBs antigen was detected in 34 patients (0.54%. There was no association between the detected infections and the gender of the respondents. There was no relationship between the detected infections and transfusion of blood and blood products before 1992. Surgical procedures performed in the patients did not increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Actions aimed at detecting asymptomatic infections should primarily focus on the 35–39 age group. Effective identification of chronically-infected people and application of optimal treatment play a key role in reducing the risk of disease progression in the whole population. Therefore, the implementation of screening programs is warranted for prevention and early detection of hepatitis B. Med Pr 2014;65(6:777–784

  11. Nanotechnology Method Comparison for Early Detection of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamakshi Bhati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, cancer has been the leading cause of death under the age of 85 years and the eradication of this disease has been the long sought-after goal of scientists and physicians. Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably. These abnormal cells have the ability to invade and destroy normal body cells, which is life threatening. One of the most important factors in effective cancer treatment is the detection of cancerous tumour cells in an early stage. Nanotechnology brings new hope to the arena of cancer detection research, owing to nanoparticles’ unique physical and chemical properties, giving them the potential to be used in the detection and monitoring of cancer. One such approach is quantum dots based detection which is rapid, easy and economical enabling quick point-of-care screening of cancer markers. QDs have got unique properties which make them ideal for detecting tumours. On the other hand, Gold nanoparticles have been in the bio-imaging spotlight due to their special optical properties. Au-NPs with strong surface-plasmon-enhanced absorption and scattering have allowed them to emerge as powerful imaging labels and contrast agents. This paper includes the comparative study of both the methods. Compared with quantum dots, the gold-nanoparticles are more than 200 times brighter on a particle-to-particle basis, although they are about 60 times larger by volume. Thus, Gold nanoparticles in suspension, offers advantages compared with quantum dots in that the gold appears to be non-toxic and the particles produce a brighter, sharper signal.

  12. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  13. The Effect of Piano Playing on Preservice Teachers' Ability to Detect Errors in a Choral Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Jessica; Babb, Sandra L.; Bowers, Judy; Hankle, Steven; Zrust, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and empirically test the pedagogical claim that playing the piano while listening to choral singers impedes error detection ability. In a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55 preservice teachers) either listened to four excerpts of choral hymns or played a single part (soprano/bass) on the piano…

  14. The Effect of Piano Playing on Preservice Teachers' Ability to Detect Errors in a Choral Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Jessica; Babb, Sandra L.; Bowers, Judy; Hankle, Steven; Zrust, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and empirically test the pedagogical claim that playing the piano while listening to choral singers impedes error detection ability. In a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55 preservice teachers) either listened to four excerpts of choral hymns or played a single part (soprano/bass) on the piano…

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the detection and characterization of prostate cancer: Correlation with microvessel density and Gleason score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Y., E-mail: joychen_1266@163.com [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu, Y.; Yao, X.; Qi, J. [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the peak intensity of the lesion at contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and the microvessel density (MVD) and Gleason score in biopsy specimens of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using cadence-contrast pulse sequence (CPS) technology was performed in 147 patients with suspected prostate cancer before biopsy. An auto-tracking contrast quantification (ACQ) software was used to analyse the peak intensity (PI) of the lesion. The Gleason score and MVD immunoreactivity were determined in the prostate biopsy specimens. Ultrasound findings were correlated with biopsy findings. Results: Prostate cancer was detected in 73 of 147 patients. The PI values of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those of non-malignant patients [9.81 (4.23) versus 5.69 (3.19) dB; p < 0.01]. The mean (SD) PIs of prostate cancer lesions with a Gleason score of 6-9 were 7.08 (3.80), 8.65 (4.08), 9.76 (3.75), and 9.85 (4.13) dB, respectively. The PI value increased significantly with a higher Gleason score (p < 0.01). The mean (SD) MVDs observed in prostate cancer lesions with a Gleason score of 6-9 were 52.50 (10.54), 56.85 (10.31), 59.91 (9.29), and 66.04 (11.82), respectively. There was a positive correlation between PI and MVD in prostate cancer, with a correlation coefficient of 0.617. No correlation was found between PI value and age, prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) level (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The PI obtained by CPS harmonic ultrasonography appears to be of value as an indicator of MVD and increases with a higher Gleason score. CPS harmonic ultrasonography could be promising as a useful imaging technique in the detection and characterization of prostate cancer.

  16. Association between scores in high school, aptitude and achievement exams and early performance in health science college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Alwan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was carried out to assess the correlation between admi-ssion criteria to health science colleges, namely, final high school grade and Saudi National Apti-tude and Achievement exams, and early academic performance in these colleges. The study inclu-ded 91 male students studying in the two-year pre-professional program at the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Records of these students were used to extract relevant information and their academic performance (based on the grade point average achieved at the end of the first semester of the pre-professional program, which were analytically studied. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the associa-tions between the different scores. SPSS statistical program (version 12.0 was used for data ana-lyses. We found a strong correlation between the academic performance and the Achievement Exam, Aptitude Exam and high school final grade, with Pearson Correlation Coefficients of 0.96, 0.93, 0.87, respectively. The Saudi National Achievement Exam showed the most significant correla-tion. Our results indicate that academic performance showed good correlation with the admission criteria used, namely final high school grade, Saudi National Aptitude and Achievement Exams.

  17. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual's cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity.

  18. Value of routine ultrasound in detecting early joint changes in children with haemophilia using the 'Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with UltraSound' protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, W; van der Schaaf, I C; Fischer, K

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with haemophilia tend to bleed in large joints even during prophylactic replacement therapy. Detection of early blood-induced joint changes may improve monitoring of treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the value of routine ultrasound in detecting early joint abnorm

  19. CADe tools for early detection of breast cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Lauria, A; López, E; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S

    2004-01-01

    A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcifications and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. Our collaboration, among italian physicists and radiologists, has built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images and has developed a Computer Aided Detection (CADe) system for the automatic analysis of mammographic images and installed it in some Italian hospitals by a GRID connection. Regarding microcalcifications, in our CADe digital mammogram is divided into wide windows which are processed by a convolution filter; after a self-organizing map analyzes each window and produces 8 principal components which are used as input of a neural network (FFNN) able to classify the windows matched to a threshold. Regarding massive lesions we select all important maximum intensity position and define the ROI radius. From each ROI found we extract the parameters which are used as input in a FFNN to distinguish betwee...

  20. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guliz N. eGuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis.

  1. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güncü, Güliz N; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis.

  2. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  3. First-Grade Spelling Scores within the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Screening: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Kristen A.; Murray, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity evidence of first-grade spelling scores from a standardized test of nonsense word spellings and their potential value within universal literacy screening. Spelling scores from the Test of Phonological Awareness: Second Edition PLUS for 47 first-grade children were scored using a standardized…

  4. Early Hearing Detection and Vocabulary of Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L; Wiggin, Mallene; Chung, Winnie

    2017-08-01

    To date, no studies have examined vocabulary outcomes of children meeting all 3 components of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) guidelines (hearing screening by 1 month, diagnosis of hearing loss by 3 months, and intervention by 6 months of age). The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the current EHDI 1-3-6 policy on vocabulary outcomes across a wide geographic area. A secondary goal was to confirm the impact of other demographic variables previously reported to be related to language outcomes. This was a cross-sectional study of 448 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 39 months of age (mean = 25.3 months, SD = 7.5 months). The children lived in 12 different states and were participating in the National Early Childhood Assessment Project. The combination of 6 factors in a regression analysis accounted for 41% of the variance in vocabulary outcomes. Vocabulary quotients were significantly higher for children who met the EHDI guidelines, were younger, had no additional disabilities, had mild to moderate hearing loss, had parents who were deaf or hard of hearing, and had mothers with higher levels of education. Vocabulary learning may be enhanced with system improvements that increase the number of children meeting the current early identification and intervention guidelines. In addition, intervention efforts need to focus on preventing widening delays with chronological age, assisting mothers with lower levels of education, and incorporating adults who are deaf/hard-of-hearing in the intervention process. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  6. Early detection of influenza like illness through medication sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, Maja; Erculj, Vanja; Lajovic, Jaro

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring sales of medications is a potential candidate for an early signal of a seasonal influenza epidemic. To test this theory, the data from a traditional, consultation-oriented influenza surveillance system were compared to medication sales and a predictive model was developed. Weekly influenza-like incidence rates from the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System were compared to sales of seven groups of medications (nasal decongestants, medicines for sore throat (MST), antitussives, mucolytics, analgo-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), betalactam antibiotics, and macrolide antibiotics) to determine the correlation of medication sales with the sentinel surveillance system - and therefore their predictive power. Poisson regression and regression tree approaches were used in the statistical analyses. The fact that NSAIDs do not exhibit any seasonality and that prescription of antibiotics requires a visit to the doctor's office makes the two medication groups inappropriate for predictive purposes. The influenza-like illness (ILI) curve is the best matched by the mucolytics and antitussives sales curves. Distinct seasonality is also observed with MST and decongestants. The model including these four medication groups performed best in prediction of ILI incidence rate using the Poisson regression model. Sales of antitussives proved to be the best single predictive variable for regression tree model. Sales of medication groups included in the model were demonstrated to have a predictive potential for early detection of influenza season. The quantitative information on medication sales proves to be a useful supplementary system, complementing the traditional consultation-oriented surveillance system.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p muscular (abdominal) aorta (p muscular abdominal aorta.

  8. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    CERN Document Server

    Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. Individuals at the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner, on average, than those at the periphery. However, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals whom to monitor is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students divided between a random group and a friend group. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 14.7 days (95% C.I. 11.7-17.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significa...

  9. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  10. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Naresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective identification of lung cancer at an initial stage is an important and crucial aspect of image processing. Several data mining methods have been used to detect lung cancer at early stage. In this paper, an approach has been presented which will diagnose lung cancer at an initial stage using CT scan images which are in Dicom (DCM format. One of the key challenges is to remove white Gaussian noise from the CT scan image, which is done using non local mean filter and to segment the lung Otsu’s thresholding is used. The textural and structural features are extracted from the processed image to form feature vector. In this paper, three classifiers namely SVM, ANN, and k-NN are applied for the detection of lung cancer to find the severity of disease (stage I or stage II and comparison is made with ANN, and k-NN classifier with respect to different quality attributes such as accuracy, sensitivity(recall, precision and specificity. It has been found from results that SVM achieves higher accuracy of 95.12% while ANN achieves 92.68% accuracy on the given data set and k-NN shows least accuracy of 85.37%. SVM algorithm which achieves 95.12% accuracy helps patients to take remedial action on time and reduces mortality rate from this deadly disease.

  11. Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor posttreatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.

  12. Development, Methodology and Potential of the New Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS for Caries Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Oehme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the limitations of adjunct caries detection and diagnostic tools, e.g., imperfect validity and reproducibility, as well as the difficulties in controlling all possible confounding factors, the need for an objective visual caries detection and diagnosis system has become evident. Our work has therefore aimed at systematizing caries lesions with the Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS for occlusal and smooth surface lesions, which can be used for primary and permanent teeth, as well as under clinical, epidemiological, public health and laboratory conditions. Besides the description of the development and methodology of UniViSS, it is shown that UniViSS allows an accurate and reproducible classification of caries lesions on occlusal surfaces.

  13. Spectral analysis-based risk score enables early prediction of mortality and cerebral performance in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for ventricular fibrillation and comatose status

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early prognosis in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) is unreliable, especially in patients undergoing mild hypothermia. We aimed at developing a reliable risk-score to enable early prediction of cerebral performance and survival. Methods: Sixty-one out of 239 consecutive patients undergoing mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest, with eventual return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and comatose status on admission fulfilled the inclu...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected inflammation is associated with functional disability in early arthritis-results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Leonie E; Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Newsum, Elize C; Huizinga, Tom W J; Reijnierse, Monique; le Cessie, Saskia; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2016-12-01

    MRI sensitively detects inflammation, but the clinical relevance of MRI-detected inflammation is undetermined in early arthritis. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between MRI-detected inflammation of hands and feet and functional disability in early arthritis. Five hundred and fourteen early arthritis patients, consecutively included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic, were studied. At baseline a unilateral 1.5 T MRI of the wrist, MCP and MTP joints was performed and functional disability was measured using the HAQ. MRIs were scored for tenosynovitis, synovitis and bone marrow oedema (BME) by two readers. The sum of these types of MRI-detected inflammation yielded the total MRI-inflammation score. Linear and nonlinear regression analyses were performed with HAQ as outcome. The total MRI-inflammation score was associated with the HAQ score (β = 0.014, P < 0.001), as were tenosynovitis (β = 0.046, P < 0.001), synovitis (β = 0.039, P < 0.001) and bone marrow oedema scores (β = 0.015, P < 0.001) separately. Analysing these three types of MRI-detected inflammation in one multivariable model revealed that only tenosynovitis was independently associated with the HAQ score (β = 0.039, P < 0.001). Also after correction for age, gender, joint counts, CRP and auto-antibodies, this association remained significant (β = 0.034, P < 0.001). MRI-detected inflammation at wrists or MCP joints associated significantly with impairments in hand functioning (e.g. difficulties with opening milk cartons or jars). Exploring the relation between MRI-detected inflammation and HAQ scores showed no evidence of a floor effect, suggesting that even low scores of MRI-detected inflammation are functionally relevant. MRI-detected inflammation, and tenosynovitis in particular, is associated with functional disability. This demonstrates the functional relevance of MRI-detected inflammation in early arthritis. © The Author 2016. Published by

  15. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  16. Raising sun protection and early detection awareness among Florida high schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Shamban, Jill; O'Riordan, David L; Slygh, Carolyn; Kinney, John P; Rosenberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Changing adolescents' sun protection behaviors remains a challenge, and the need for effective interventions targeting this group is a priority, particularly in warmer climates where emphasis on appropriate sun protection remains a year-round concern. However, there has been little prospective research on the effect of school-based sun protection interventions, particularly on adolescents, especially teens aged 15 to 18. High school science students in Palm Beach County, Florida, received a seven-lesson sun protection and early detection curriculum preceded by pretests and followed with post-tests 6 months later. The main outcome measures were student knowledge and sun protection practices, including adherence to sunscreen recommendations. Of 344 students completing the baseline surveys, 184 students completed the postintervention questionnaire. Overall, there were significant improvements from baseline to follow-up for many of the knowledge questions. Greatest change scores were seen in the children's ability to correctly define the five rules of early detection of skin cancer (27-60%, pchallenges and obstacles and thus, further work is needed to better understand what combination of knowledge-based information, activity-based education, school-wide changes, and community efforts, will create a long-term systemic improvement in sun protection habits in children.

  17. Mueller matrix microscope: a quantitative tool to facilitate detections and fibrosis scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Li, Migao; Zeng, Nan; Wu, Jian; Ma, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Today the increasing cancer incidence rate is becoming one of the biggest threats to human health.Among all types of cancers, liver cancer ranks in the top five in both frequency and mortality rate all over the world. During the development of liver cancer, fibrosis often evolves as part of a healing process in response to liver damage, resulting in cirrhosis of liver tissues. In a previous study, we applied the Mueller matrix microscope to pathological liver tissue samples and found that both the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters are closely related to the fibrous microstructures. In this paper,we take this one step further to quantitatively facilitate the fibrosis detections and scorings of pathological liver tissue samples in different stages from cirrhosis to cancer using the Mueller matrix microscope. The experimental results of MMPD and MMT parameters for the fibrotic liver tissue samples in different stages are measured and analyzed. We also conduct Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere birefringence model to examine in detail the influence of structural changes in different fibrosis stages on the imaging parameters. Both the experimental and simulated results indicate that the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameter scan provide additional quantitative information helpful for fibrosis detections and scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancers. Therefore, the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters have a good application prospect in liver cancer diagnosis.

  18. Mueller matrix microscope: a quantitative tool to facilitate detections and fibrosis scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Li, Migao; Zeng, Nan; Wu, Jian; Ma, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Today the increasing cancer incidence rate is becoming one of the biggest threats to human health. Among all types of cancers, liver cancer ranks in the top five in both frequency and mortality rate all over the world. During the development of liver cancer, fibrosis often evolves as part of a healing process in response to liver damage, resulting in cirrhosis of liver tissues. In a previous study, we applied the Mueller matrix microscope to pathological liver tissue samples and found that both the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters are closely related to the fibrous microstructures. In this paper, we take this one step further to quantitatively facilitate the fibrosis detections and scorings of pathological liver tissue samples in different stages from cirrhosis to cancer using the Mueller matrix microscope. The experimental results of MMPD and MMT parameters for the fibrotic liver tissue samples in different stages are measured and analyzed. We also conduct Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere birefringence model to examine in detail the influence of structural changes in different fibrosis stages on the imaging parameters. Both the experimental and simulated results indicate that the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters can provide additional quantitative information helpful for fibrosis detections and scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancers. Therefore, the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters have a good application prospect in liver cancer diagnosis.

  19. Improved hospital mortality with a low MET dose: the importance of a modified early warning score and communication tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, D V; Ziegenfuss, M; Goleby, M A; Ward, H E

    2016-11-01

    Rapid response systems have been mandated for the recognition and management of the deteriorating patient. Increasing medical emergency team (MET) dose may be associated with improved outcomes. Large numbers of MET calls may divert resources from the program providing the service unless additional personnel are provided. To describe the implementation and outcomes of a multifaceted rapid response system (RRS) in a teaching hospital, we conducted an observational study. The RRS consisted of the introduction of a MET together with 1) redesign of the ward observation chart with the vital sign variables colour-coded to identify variation from normal; 2) mandated minimum frequency of vital sign measurement; 3) three formal levels of escalation based on the degree of physiological instability as measured by a modified early warning score (MEWS); 4) COMPASS© education and e-learning package with a two-hour face-to-face small group tutorial; 5) practise in escalation and communication using the ISBAR (Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment, Response/Recommendation) communication tool. The primary outcome measures were all-cause hospital mortality rate and hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) compared to peer hospitals calculated by the Health Round Table. There were 161,153 separations and 1,994 hospital deaths from July 2008 to December 2012. The MET call rate was 11.3 per 1000 separations in 2012. There was a decline in all-cause hospital mortality from 13.8 to 11 deaths/1000 separations. The HSMR decreased from 95.7 in 2008 to 66 in the second half of 2012 (below the three standard deviation control limit). A low MET dose may be associated with improved hospital mortality when combined with a MEWS and an intervention to improve communication.

  20. FRAX Score Can Be Used to Avoid Superfluous DXA Scans in Detecting Osteoporosis in Celiac Disease: Accuracy of the FRAX Score in Celiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Raffaella; Imperatore, Nicola; Capone, Pietro; Gerbino, Nicolò; Rea, Matilde; Affinito, Giovanna; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio

    2017-06-15

    The Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool has been developed to estimate patients' 10-yr probability of fracture, thus establishing which patients should undergo dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan. This study aimed to evaluate if the FRAX tool can replace or optimize the use of DXA scan in celiac disease (CD). We prospectively enrolled all CD patients aged over 40 yr diagnosed at our third-level unit. At time of CD diagnosis, all patients underwent FRAX score calculation for risk of major osteoporotic and hip fractures and DXA scan (used as gold standard) to assess the accuracy of the FRAX score. The FRAX score calculation was based on the following 10 variables: age (>40 yr), sex (M/F), body mass index, history of previous fracture (yes/no), parent fractured hip (yes/no), current smoking (yes/no), use of steroids (yes/no), rheumatoid arthritis (yes/no), secondary osteoporosis (yes/no), and alcohol ≥3 units/d (yes/no). DXA assessment was performed within 1 week from FRAX calculation. The FRAX score was dichotomized as normal or pathologic in accordance with the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group. A total of 160 CD patients were enrolled (M/F = 20/140; mean age 48.7 yr). A pathologic FRAX score was evident in 14 out of 160 patients (8.7%), whereas osteoporosis based on DXA scan was found in 10 patients (6%) (κ = 0.6); 3 patients with osteoporosis (1.9%) showed a 10-yr risk of major fracture >10% according to the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group criteria. With regard to diagnostic accuracy, the FRAX score showed sensitivity of 0%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 0%, and negative predictive value of 94%. The prevalence of osteoporosis in adult CD appears to be quite low and only a small proportion of patients would require a DXA investigation. The FRAX score could be an effective tool to avoid useless DXA scans in CD patients in view of its high negative predictive value. Copyright © 2017 The International Society

  1. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging as an adjunct to coronary calcium score for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Ziegler Franz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery calcifications (CAC are markers of coronary atherosclerosis, but do not correlate well with stenosis severity. This study intended to evaluate clinical situations where a combined approach of coronary calcium scoring (CS and nuclear stress test (SPECT-MPI is useful for the detection of relevant CAD. Methods Patients with clinical indication for invasive coronary angiography (ICA were included into our study during 08/2005-09/2008. At first all patients underwent CS procedure as part of the study protocol performed by either using a multidetector computed tomography (CT scanner or a dual-source CT imager. CAC were automatically defined by dedicated software and the Agatston score was semi-automatically calculated. A stress-rest SPECT-MPI study was performed afterwards and scintigraphic images were evaluated quantitatively. Then all patients underwent ICA. Thereby significant CAD was defined as luminal stenosis ≥75% in quantitative coronary analysis (QCA in ≥1 epicardial vessel. To compare data lacking Gaussian distribution an unpaired Wilcoxon-Test (Mann–Whitney was used. Otherwise a Students t-test for unpaired samples was applied. Calculations were considered to be significant at a p-value of Results We consecutively included 351 symptomatic patients (mean age: 61.2±12.3 years; range: 18–94 years; male: n=240 with a mean Agatston score of 258.5±512.2 (range: 0–4214. ICA verified exclusion of significant CAD in 66/67 (98.5% patients without CAC. CAC was detected in remaining 284 patients. In 132/284 patients (46.5% with CS>0 significant CAD was confirmed by ICA, and excluded in 152/284 (53.5% patients. Sensitivity for CAD detection by CS alone was calculated as 99.2%, specificity was 30.3%, and negative predictive value was 98.5%. An additional SPECT in patients with CS>0 increased specificity to 80.9% while reducing sensitivity to 87.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was 84.2%. Conclusions In patients

  2. Validation of an abbreviated Vitalpac™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS) in 75,419 consecutive admissions to a Canadian regional hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2012-03-01

    The early warning score derived from 198,755 vital sign sets in the Vitalpac™ database (ViEWS) has an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) for death of acute unselected medical patients within 24h of 88%.

  3. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  4. Early detection of biochemically occult autonomous thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, N; Virili, C; Cellini, M; Capriello, S; Gargano, L; Salvatori, R; Centanni, M; Santaguida, M G

    2016-12-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid areas may be associated with subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, but may exist even in the presence of normal TSH. This study was aimed at comparing the rate of autonomously functioning areas and their cardiac sequelae in patients with nodular goitre studied with the usual and a novel approach. In total 490 adult outpatients with thyroid nodular goitre, living in a mild iodine-deficient area, were selected in our referral centre for thyroid diseases from 2009 to 2014 on the basis of a suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy. They were divided in three groups according to a non-conventional approach (excessive response to thyroxine treatment: group 1) or conventional approach (low/normal TSH with clinical suspicion or low TSH: groups 2 and 3). All patients of the study with the suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy underwent thyroid scan with radioactive iodine (I(131)) uptake (RAIU). The percentage of confirmed thyroid functional autonomy was 319/490, being significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (81.5 vs 64.7 vs 52.6%; chi-square P < 0.0001). However, the diagnosis with non-conventional approach was made at a significant earlier age (P < 0.0001). Cardiac arrhythmias as well as atrial fibrillation were similarly detected by conventional and non-conventional approaches (chi-square test: P = 0.2537; P = 0.8425). The hyper-responsiveness to thyroxine treatment should induce the suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy at an early stage, allowing to detect autonomous functioning areas in apparently euthyroid patients. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Early detection and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Humbert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH remains poor, despite advances in treatment options that have been made in the past few decades. Recent evidence suggests that World Health Organization functional class I or II patients have significantly better long-term survival rates than patients in higher functional classes, thus providing a rationale for earlier diagnosis and treatment of PAH. However, early diagnosis is challenging and there is frequently a delay between symptom onset and diagnosis. Screening programmes play an important role in PAH detection and expert opinion favours echocardiographic screening of asymptomatic patients who may be predisposed to the development of PAH (i.e. those with systemic sclerosis or sickle cell disease, although current guidelines only recommend annual echocardiographic screening in symptomatic patients. This article reviews the currently available screening programmes, including their limitations, and describes alternative screening approaches that may identify more effectively those patients who require right heart catheterisation for a definitive PAH diagnosis.

  6. Validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among General Medical Outpatients in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Nkomazna, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study designed to assess the validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Participants aged ≥20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were screened by (1) an 8-item Finnish diabetes risk assessment questionnaire and (2) Haemoglobin A1c test. Data from 291 participants were analyzed (74.2% were females). The mean age of the participants was 50.1 (SD = ±11) years, and the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 42 (14.4%) with no significant differences between the gender (20% versus 12.5%, P = 0.26). The area under curve for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.55–0.72) for the total population, 0.65 (95% CI: 0.56–0.75) for women, and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52–0.83) for men. The optimal cut-off point for detecting undiagnosed diabetes was 17 (sensitivity = 48% and specificity = 73%) for the total population, 17 (sensitivity = 56% and specificity = 66%) for females, and 13 (sensitivity = 53% and specificity = 77%) for males. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 20% and 89.5%, respectively. The findings indicate that the Finnish questionnaire was only modestly effective in predicting undiagnosed diabetes among outpatients in Botswana.

  7. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. Material and methods A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A – 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B – 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge – test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B – 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. Results We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p 40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (pmotivation for

  8. PENENTUAN Streptococcus Group A PENYEBAB FARINGITIS PADA ANAK MENGGUNAKAN McIsaac SCORE DAN RAPID ANTIGEN DETECTION TEST (RADT DALAM UPAYA PENGGUNAAN ANTIBIOTIKA SECARA BIJAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Agustia Sinta Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharyngitis can be caused by viruses and bacteria. The bacteria that most commonly causes pharyngitis is Streptococcus Group A. In the treatment of pharyngitis, it is very important to ensure the cause for determining the appropriate treatments, therefore unnecessary use of antibiotics can be avoided. Antibiotics should be prescribed in patients with pharyngitis caused by bacteria. Diagnostic test that can be applied to determine the causes of pharyngitis are McIsaac score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Streptococcus Group A as the cause of pharyngitis applying McIsaac scores and the RADT. This study was cross-sectional. Patients with the inclusion and exclusion criteria were given an initial assessment using the McIsaac score, subsequently tested with the RADT. The results gained from the McIsaac scores and subsequent RADT were compared.  It was found that as many as 124 patients suspected of having bacterial pharyngitis. Forty two of them were scored 3; 55 patients scored 4, and  27 patients scored 5. All patients tested with the RADT, only 18 patients gave positive results. Out of those 18 patients positively tested, 6 patients scored 3; 8 patients scored 4, and 4 patients scored 5. In was concluded that the use of RADT was better than McIsaac scores in determining pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus Group A.

  9. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaritella Nicolò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs in multiple sclerosis (MS has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS patients with an EDSS Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2 were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001. Low EP score (below 15–20 points, short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS.

  10. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  11. A spatial hazard model for cluster detection on continuous indicators of disease: application to somatic cell score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Emilie; Senoussi, Rachid; Barnouin, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Methods for spatial cluster detection dealing with diseases quantified by continuous variables are few, whereas several diseases are better approached by continuous indicators. For example, subclinical mastitis of the dairy cow is evaluated using a continuous marker of udder inflammation, the somatic cell score (SCS). Consequently, this study proposed to analyze spatialized risk and cluster components of herd SCS through a new method based on a spatial hazard model. The dataset included annual SCS for 34 142 French dairy herds for the year 2000, and important SCS risk factors: mean parity, percentage of winter and spring calvings, and herd size. The model allowed the simultaneous estimation of the effects of known risk factors and of potential spatial clusters on SCS, and the mapping of the estimated clusters and their range. Mean parity and winter and spring calvings were significantly associated with subclinical mastitis risk. The model with the presence of 3 clusters was highly significant, and the 3 clusters were attractive, i.e. closeness to cluster center increased the occurrence of high SCS. The three localizations were the following: close to the city of Troyes in the northeast of France; around the city of Limoges in the center-west; and in the southwest close to the city of Tarbes. The semi-parametric method based on spatial hazard modeling applies to continuous variables, and takes account of both risk factors and potential heterogeneity of the background population. This tool allows a quantitative detection but assumes a spatially specified form for clusters.

  12. Plasma-derived exosomal survivin, a plausible biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survivin is expressed in prostate cancer (PCa, and its downregulation sensitizes PCa cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes, secreted from the endosomal membrane compartment, contain RNA and protein that they readily transport via exosome internalization into recipient cells. Recent progress has shown that tumor-derived exosomes play multiple roles in tumor growth and metastasis and may produce these functions via immune escape, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Furthermore, exosome analysis may provide novel biomarkers to diagnose or monitor PCa treatment. METHODS: Exosomes were purified from the plasma and serum from 39 PCa patients, 20 BPH patients, 8 prostate cancer recurrent and 16 healthy controls using ultracentrifugation and their quantities and qualities were quantified and visualized from both the plasma and the purified exosomes using ELISA and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Survivin was significantly increased in the tumor-derived samples, compared to those from BPH and controls with virtually no difference in the quantity of Survivin detected in exosomes collected from newly diagnosed patients exhibiting low (six or high (nine Gleason scores. Exosome Survivin levels were also higher in patients that had relapsed on chemotherapy compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that Survivin exists in plasma exosomes from both normal, BPH and PCa subjects. The relative amounts of exosomal Survivin in PCa plasma was significantly higher than in those with pre-inflammatory BPH and control plasma. This differential expression of exosomal Survivin was seen with both newly diagnosed and advanced PCa subjects with high or low-grade cancers. Analysis of plasma exosomal Survivin levels may offer a convenient tool for diagnosing or monitoring PCa and may, as it is elevated in low as well as high Gleason scored samples, be used for early detection.

  13. Guideline-Based Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Eight Danish Municipalities: The TOP-KOM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, Ulla Borup; Stycke, Margit; Dollerup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and prevention of disease progression are important. Only 40% of COPD cases are diagnosed in Denmark. Recommendations for early case finding have been established. This study investigates early detection of pulmonary obstruction in a Danish municipality setting. Methods. Eight municipalities participated. Citizens fulfilling national case finding recommendations, age ≥35 years, smokers/ex-smokers/relevant occupational exposure, and at least one respiratory symptom, were invited to spirometry. Citizens with indication of pulmonary obstruction, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.70, were referred to their general practitioner (GP). Results. 1,499 citizens were examined (53.6% male, mean age 57.2 years). 44.8% were current smokers with 57% planning for smoking cessation. The citizens recorded significant airway symptoms with dyspnea being the most important (71%). The mean FEV1/FVC score was 73.54 (SD 22.84). 456 citizens (30.4%) were found to have indication for pulmonary obstruction and were referred to GP for further diagnosis. Conclusion. Early detection in Danish municipalities proved effective finding nearly 1/3 being pulmonary obstructive. It seems to be of value to have municipalities to perform case finding together with smoking cessation as a primary intervention in COPD management. PMID:28321336

  14. Assessment of Urinary-5-Hydroxyindolacetic Acid as A Diagnostic Parameter in Early Detection of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair B Kamal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency especially in children and young adults. The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult because half the cases are incorrectly identified. Serotonin was defined as a good diagnostic marker for many inflammations including appendicitis and it is metabolite into 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA to be excreted in urine. 5-HIAA is suggested to be of diagnostic importance in the detection of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic importance of urinary-5-HIAA as an added parameter to Alvarado score. Methods: Seventy patients (35 females and 35 males with acute appendicitis (35 were mild and 35 severe-perforated and gangrenous were included in this study and 70 healthy individuals were taken as a control group. Urinary-5-HIAA was estimated in all patients and control group using ELISA method. Results: Sensitivity for the mild group is 94.2%, specificity 100% and diagnostic accuracy is 97.4%, while the sensitivity for the severe group is 37%. It was found that there is a highly significant difference between mild and control groups (P<0.05. The diagnostic accuracy for the mild group is 97.4% and for the severe is 68.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that urinary-5-HIAA is a high sensitive test for early detection of acute appendicitis.

  15. Early detection of hepatic encephalopathy by recording visual evoked potential (VEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Doron; Storch, Shimon; Kovach, Ivan; Storch, Rita; Zamir, Chen

    2002-01-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) record in response to a pattern stimulus is a non invasive and reliable method of detecting central and peripheral nerve system abnormalities. VEP recording have been used in animals with fulminant hepatic failure, and also in-patients with hepatic encephalopathy and acute severe hepatitis. Our aims were: a. to evaluate the potency of PVEP in assessing hepatic encephalopathy. b. to find the rate of pathologic PVEP in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. VEP was recorded in 14 chronic liver cirrhotic patients (6 alcoholic, 6 HCV-related, 2 cryptogenic) and 14 controls. Patients with any neurologic abnormalities were excluded from the study. All patients were subjected to the Mental State Score (MSS) test, and venous blood ammonia was measured on the same day of VEP recording. In 10/14 (71%) patients some VEP recording abnormality was detected. In the cirrhotic patients, P100 latency was significantly longer (P VEP developed hepatic encephalpathy during a follow-up of one year, compared to one out of 4 patients with no pathology on VEP recording. VEP recording may be a valuable tool in assessing patients with early hepatic encephalopathy and in predicting encephalopathy.

  16. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  17. Directly detecting the evolution of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trager, Scott; Faber, SM; Dressler, A; Renzini, A; Bender, R

    2005-01-01

    We describe observations focused on understanding the epochs and timescales of the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies, particularly those in clusters. We show that while early-type cluster galaxies are on average older and closer to coeval than their counterparts in the field, significan

  18. Alberta卒中项目早期CT评分系统及其应用%Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score system and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 董瑞国

    2010-01-01

    Alberta卒中项目早期CT评分(Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score,ASPECTS)是评价缺血性卒中患者大脑中动脉供血区早期缺血改变的一种简单、可靠和系统的方法,可对缺血性病变快速进行半定量评价,有助于判定溶栓效果和远期预后.多模式CT和MRI技术的发展丰富了ASPECTS的应用范围,提高了病情判断的有效性和可靠性.后循环急性卒中预后早期CT评分的开发使快速评分扩展到后循环卒中,这有利于对所有缺血性卒中患者进行早期影像学评分.文章对ASPECTS系统的原理、组成及其在多模式CT和MRI中的应用以及后循环评分进行了综述.%The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a simple, reliable and systematic approach for evaluating early ischemic changes in middle cerebral artery territory in patients with ischemic stroke. It can be used to conduct rapid semi-quantitative evaluation of ischemic lesions and help to determine the thrombolytic effect and long-term prognosis. The development of multimodal CT and MRI techniques have enriched the application scope of ASPECTS and have improved the validity and reliability of disease judgment. The development of the posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score has made the fast scores extend to posterior circulation stroke, which is beneficial for all the patients with ischemic stroke to conduct early imaging scores. This article reviews the principle of the ASPECTS system, composition, its application in multimodal CT and MRI, as well as the posterior circulation scores.

  19. International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scoring System for disseminated intravascular coagulation ≥ 6: a new predictor of hemorrhagic early death in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Mirjana; Suvajdzic, Nada; Bogdanovic, Andrija; Kurtovic, Nada Kraguljac; Sretenovic, Aleksandra; Elezovic, Ivo; Tomin, Dragica

    2013-03-01

    High-hemorrhagic early death (ED) rate is a major impediment in the managing of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our group of 56 newly diagnosed APL patients, ED occurred in 12 subjects, due to endocranial bleeding (8/12), differentiation syndrome (2/12), or infection (2/12). Predictors of hemorrhagic ED were as follows: white blood cells count ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L (P = 0.002337), Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status ≥ 3 (P = 0.00173), fibrinogen level disseminated intravascular coagulation (ISTH DIC score) ≥ 6 (P = 0.00741). Multivariate analysis indicated ISTH DIC score ≥ 6 to be the most significant predictor for hemorrhagic ED (P = 0.008). The main finding of this study is that simple coagulation-related tests, performed on hospital admission and combined in the ISTH DIC score, might help to identify patients at high risk for fatal bleeding needing more aggressive supportive measures.

  20. An Advanced Deep Learning Approach for Ki-67 Stained Hotspot Detection and Proliferation Rate Scoring for Prognostic Evaluation of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Monjoy; Chakraborty, Chandan; Arun, Indu; Ahmed, Rosina; Chatterjee, Sanjoy

    2017-06-12

    Being a non-histone protein, Ki-67 is one of the essential biomarkers for the immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation rate in breast cancer screening and grading. The Ki-67 signature is always sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Due to random morphological, color and intensity variations of cell nuclei (immunopositive and immunonegative), manual/subjective assessment of Ki-67 scoring is error-prone and time-consuming. Hence, several machine learning approaches have been reported; nevertheless, none of them had worked on deep learning based hotspots detection and proliferation scoring. In this article, we suggest an advanced deep learning model for computerized recognition of candidate hotspots and subsequent proliferation rate scoring by quantifying Ki-67 appearance in breast cancer immunohistochemical images. Unlike existing Ki-67 scoring techniques, our methodology uses Gamma mixture model (GMM) with Expectation-Maximization for seed point detection and patch selection and deep learning, comprises with decision layer, for hotspots detection and proliferation scoring. Experimental results provide 93% precision, 0.88% recall and 0.91% F-score value. The model performance has also been compared with the pathologists' manual annotations and recently published articles. In future, the proposed deep learning framework will be highly reliable and beneficial to the junior and senior pathologists for fast and efficient Ki-67 scoring.

  1. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    exfoliated cells in body fluids is more quantitative than that detected in cancer cells on frozen tissue sections because most cells in tissue sections...the MB and QD detections are more specific and sensitive than cytological method in detecting breast cancer cells. The proposed study will also...Lewis) for the presence of benign, atypical or malignant cells. We will then compare the results of the MB and QD detection with cytological findings

  2. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  3. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Larsen, Tor K; Auestad, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Early detection in first-episode psychosis confers advantages for negative, cognitive, and depressive symptoms after 1, 2, and 5 years, but longitudinal effects are unknown. The authors investigated the differences in symptoms and recovery after 10 years between regional health care sectors...... with and without a comprehensive program for the early detection of psychosis....

  4. Overview of Early Detection and Treatment Strategies for Suicidal Behavior in Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Susan J.; Kupfer, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to early detection and intervention for the prevention of youth suicide is presented. The approach integrates a proposed model of risk factors with a multithreshold level of early detection. Psychiatric diagnosis, personality traits, psychosocial factors, life events and chronic medical illness, biological factors, and family…

  5. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study demonstra

  6. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  7. ROLE OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN EARLY DETECTION OF HEA RING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study about 72 children with complai nts of hearing impairment attending the Outpatient department of Government Ear, Nose a nd Throat Hospital were taken up. These children were chosen randomly and were followed up from consultation stage till the final diagnosis after completion of all the tests. The age range of children was from 1 year to 7 years. 43 Children were males and 29 children were females. All the ch ildren attended the Government E.N.T. Hospital for evaluation and further evaluations were done at the Hearing Aid Centre. Most of the children were from poor socio-economic status (White Ration Card Holders. Average time taken for each child ranged from 60 minutes to 120 minutes since t he physiological tests have to be done for the children under sedation as they are not co-operativ e. The Aims and Objectives of this study are 1. Early detection of hearing impairment in children h as been the main aim of this study. Children of age groups, ranging from 1 – 7 years with a complaint o f hearing impairment are taken up for this study. Main emphasis being on sensori-neural hearing loss with or without speech impairment, cases of external and middle ear conditions are excluded.2. Assessment of the type and degree of hearing loss and knowing probable site of pathology by conductin g a battery of tests- PTA (pure tone audiometry, FFA(Free field Audiometry, Impedance Audiometry, OAE(otoacoustic emissions, and BERA(Brain stem Evoked Response Audiometry.3. Know ing efficacy and accuracy of Electrophysiological tests in children who are othe rwise uncooperative or cannot understand and follow the subjective tests. 4. Comparing the resul ts of Electrophysiological tests and subjective tes ts. 5. Analyzing the data in terms of gender, etiology, type of hearing loss etc. With the advent of the advanced electrophysiological tests of hearing like BERA, OAE, Electrocochleography and Auditory Steady State Response audiometry

  8. Early detection and intervention in psychosis: an ethical paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Thomas H

    2005-08-01

    This paper will first posit the rationale for intervention before onset, then outline the current usual practice of treating schizophrenia and the determinants of that practice. Recent developments that permit or demand a change in this practice will then be elaborated. The article concludes with an elaboration of the currently known risks and benefits of early intervention research. The ethics of early intervention are undergoing a paradigm shift, a shift that supports early intervention research as being necessary to bring empirical balance to territory that is currently overpopulated with zealous opinions.

  9. Implementation of program of prevention and early detection of osteoporosis among women of Primorsko-goranska County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Suzana; Kresina, Helena Glibotić; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić; Kresina, Sandro

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present preliminary data of Program of prevention and early detection of osteoporosis among women in Primorsko-goranska County. Osteoporosis is recognized as a public health problem for which clearly preventive measures are defined. Measurement of bone density was done by ultrasound densitometry of the calcaneus among women aged from 45 to 69 years old. 688 women were examined and they were classified in five five-year age groups. The women with the osteoporosis (T-score educative booklet with advices for healthy nutrition and physical activity. Implementation of this program indicated the importance of proper lifestyle in the prevention of osteoporosis. Average T-scores of all five groups of women show that osteopenia occurs also in the youngest ones. This indicates the need for a systematic approach to preventing osteoporosis through education of women including younger ones and creating conditions for organized physical activities at the community level.

  10. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function

    OpenAIRE

    Caplin, B; Veighey, K.; Mahenderan, A.; Manook, M.; Henry, J; Nitsch, D; Harber, M.; Dupont, P.; Wheeler, D.C.; G. Jones; Fernando, B.; Howie, A J; Veitch, P

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little...

  11. Intercostal Artery Laceration: Rare Complication of Thoracentesis and Role of Ultrasound in Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemothorax is a rare but potentially fatal postthoracentesis complication. Early clinical signs may be nonspecific resulting in diagnostic delay. A high index of suspicion is vital for early diagnosis and intervention to avoid further bleeding. Following procedure, early bedside ultrasound findings can be vital for early detection. We report a case of massive hemothorax in a 63-year-old male following therapeutic thoracentesis. Diagnosis was made following highly suggestive sonographic findings prompting thoracotomy and lacerated intercostal artery cauterization.

  12. CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS (2)-VASc score of patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter and newly detected left atrial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Kristina; Köbe, Julia; Dechering, Dirk; Milberg, Peter; Pott, Christian; Vogler, Julia; Stypmann, Jörg; Waltenberger, Johannes; Mönnig, Gerold; Breithardt, Günter; Eckardt, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The risk of developing a stroke or systemic embolus due to a left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or atrial flutter (AFL) is estimated by the CHADS(2) score and more recently the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score. We aimed to further characterize AF/AFL patients who were found to have a LA thrombus on a transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Of 3,165 TEE between 2005 and 2011 for a broad spectrum of indications, we detected 65 AF patients with LA thrombus (2 %). There were 40 men and 25 women, mean age was 65 ± 13 years (range 36-88 years). Mean CHADS(2) score was 1.8 ± 1.1 and mean CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was 3.0 ± 1.6. 11 patients (17 %) had a CHADS(2) score of 0, 12 patients (18 %) of 1, 28 patients (43 %) of 2 and 12 patients (18 %) of 3. Hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (72 %), followed by congestive heart failure (32 %), diabetes (23 %) and age ≥75 years (23 %). Mean difference between CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc was 1.25 ± 0.91. Of the 11 patients (17 %) with a LA thrombus despite a CHADS(2) score of 0, five had a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score of 0, four a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score of 1 and two a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score of 2. In an unselected TEE population with newly detected LA thrombus about one-third of patients fell into the low-risk group when classified based on the CHADS(2) score, while a much lower population fell in the same low-risk group when classified according to the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score. However, this does not prove clinical superiority of the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score over the established CHADS(2) score. Whether our observation has clinical implications (e.g. TEE prior to LA ablation irrespective of CHADS(2) score), or argues for use of the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score needs to be evaluated in prospective studies.

  13. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE) and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with an EDSS EDSS 2.0 (TT2) were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001). Low EP score (below 15–20 points), short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years) and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS). PMID:22913733

  14. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features.

  15. Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Haahr, Ulrik; Larsen, Tor K; Auestad, Bjørn; Barder, Helene; Evensen, Julie; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O; Langeveld, Johannes; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-02-01

    Poor symptom outcome remains a challenge in psychosis: At least 50% of first-episode patients continue to have positive and/or negative symptoms after ten years. To investigate rates, early predictors and early symptom progression of long-term non-remitted psychosis in an early detection study. Symptomatic remission according to new international criteria was assessed in 174 patients at ten-year follow-up. Remitted and non-remitted patients were compared on early symptom progression, and logistic regression was applied to predict non-remission. At ten years, 50% of patients were in symptomatic remission. Non-remission was predicted by positive symptoms at inclusion and during the first year of treatment. Of individual symptoms only hallucinations were significantly predictive of ten-year non-remission. Early symptom differences were not reflected by differences in treatment. Long-term symptomatic non-remission is associated with early positive symptoms. More assertive intervention may be needed in patients who do not respond robustly in the first year of treatment, whether or not they have been detected "early". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early detection of positive blood cultures by the acridine orange staining technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, B M; Henry, N K; Washington, J A

    1983-01-01

    Staining 2,205 macroscopically negative blood cultures with acridine orange after 6 to 17 h of inoculation and incubation was as sensitive as an early subculture in detecting positive blood cultures. Of the 179 positive blood cultures, 30 (16.8%) were detected by acridine orange alone, 19 (10.6%) were detected by early subculture alone, 84 (46.9%) were detected by both techniques, and 46 (25.7%) were not detected by either method. The latter group includes cultures that became positive after ...

  17. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  18. Early Detection of Heterotopic Ossification for Effective Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    selectively induced in rat model of myocardial infarction . Inflammation. 2001;25(5):293-300. 20. Tögel F, Isaac J, Hu Z, Weiss K, Westenfelder C. Renal SDF...possibility of molecular imaging as a tool for early diagnosis of HO. BODY: To establish an animal model of HO and make molecular probe of SDF-1 were the

  19. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. How

  20. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early intervention has been shown to reduce the rate of vertebral and hip fractures by 50 - 70%. ... clinical practice to predict fracture risk and to set guidelines for its use. Methods ... interest groups, which included the Society for. Endocrinology ...

  1. The HEART score for early rule out of acute coronary syndromes in the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Berg, Patricia; Body, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to summarise the current evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of the HEART score for predicting major adverse cardiac events in patients presenting with undifferentiated chest pain to the emergency department. Two investigators independently searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases between 2008 and May 2016 identifying eligible studies providing diagnostic accuracy data on the HEART score for predicting major adverse cardiac events as the primary outcome. For the 12 studies meeting inclusion criteria, study characteristics and diagnostic accuracy measures were systematically extracted and study quality assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. After quality assessment, nine studies including data from 11,217 patients were combined in the meta-analysis applying a generalised linear mixed model approach with random effects assumption (Stata 13.1). In total, 15.4% of patients (range 7.3-29.1%) developed major adverse cardiac events after a mean of 6 weeks' follow-up. Among patients categorised as 'low risk' and suitable for early discharge (HEART score 0-3), the pooled incidence of 'missed' major adverse cardiac events was 1.6%. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the HEART score for predicting major adverse cardiac events were 96.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.0-98.2%) and 47.0% (95% CI 41.0-53.5%), respectively. Patients with a HEART score of 0-3 are at low risk of incident major adverse cardiac events. As 3.3% of patients with major adverse cardiac events are 'missed' by the HEART score, clinicians must ask whether this risk is acceptably low for clinical implementation.

  2. Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation of the tumor area. (c) The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d) The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include,...

  3. Tsunamis: Detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    detection from Open Ocean regions, islands, and coastal waters, and the significant progress made in this area over the years have been addressed. Additionally, a brief description of some theoretically sound physical principles, which have been confirmed... through observations, has been provided because of their potential to be possibly implemented in future for remote detection of tsunamis in the open ocean. The technological advancement made over the years in the field of sea-level measurements which...

  4. [Government actions for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America. Future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Documentary research carried out in 2009 aims to document the regulatory framework and existing programs for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to establish the most important challenges for the containment of the epidemic in the region. The governments of the region have developed diverse efforts and initiatives to confront the rise in mortality due to said cause, including early detection, treatment and research strategies. Despite advances in the early detection of breast cancer, the challenge remains to link efforts to ensure continuity of care (diagnostic confirmation, treatment and monitoring) in order to achieve higher efficiency, effectiveness and benefits for women with this disease.

  5. Early detection of dementia in the community under a community-based integrated care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2014-04-01

    Early detection of dementia is recommended in the stages from mild cognitive impairment to early dementia, excluding the asymptomatic stage. The advantages of early detection for patients and their caregivers include early receipt of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, and early access to appropriate agencies and/or support networks. The disadvantages include psychological damage related to anxiety and depression, and risk of stigmatization and/or social exclusion. The possibility of false positive diagnoses is also problematic. For detection of dementia, various screening tests and questionnaires have been developed. However, none of these techniques are sensitive and specific enough to avoid false positives. Thus, these screening tools are recommended for assessment of the severity of functional decline after sufficient information has been gathered to suspect dementia. In terms of social services, early detection might delay institutionalization. However, implementation of early detection would add a heavy burden on social resources, especially human resources. For effective implementation of early diagnosis and management of dementia, measures are required to improve social and human resources, including the following: improvement of the diagnostic abilities of general practitioners, improvement of necessary care and support systems after diagnosis, and organizing volunteers to support local communities. Under a community-based integrated care system, each community will create a "tailored" system that meets the health needs, health status and values of the community. Promoting social participation and community involvement of the residents should be one of the key strategies to address the shortage of human resources. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy and Confidence in the Clinical Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman-Chick, Kathryn A; Martin, Phillip K; Barrett, Matthew J; Manning, Carol A; Sperling, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in up to 34% of patients with early-stage Parkinson disease (PD); however, it is difficult to detect subtle impairment without objective cognitive testing. Data were obtained from the Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative. All 341 participants were administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a brief neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified as PD-MCI if MoCA was <26 or if they scored ≥1 standard deviation below the normative mean in 2 or more domains, based upon established criteria. The sensitivity/specificity for the clinical detection of PD-MCI was determined. Overall accuracy for clinical detection of PD-MCI was 67.4%. Although clinical determination was highly specific (96.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.98), sensitivity was poor (32.0%; 95% CI: 0.25-0.40). Identifying MCI in early-stage PD based on clinical interview alone appears to be insufficient. The inclusion of objective cognitive tests allowing for normative sample comparisons is needed to increase the detection of cognitive impairment in this population.

  7. An inflammation based score can optimize the selection of patients with advanced cancer considered for early phase clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Pinato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate organ function and good performance status (PS are common eligibility criteria for phase I trials. As inflammation is pathogenic and prognostic in cancer we investigated the prognostic performance of inflammation-based indices including the neutrophil (NLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR. METHODS: We studied inflammatory scores in 118 unselected referrals. NLR normalization was recalculated at disease reassessment. Each variable was assessed for progression-free (PFS and overall survival (OS on uni- and multivariate analyses and tested for 90 days survival (90DS prediction using receiving operator curves (ROC. RESULTS: We included 118 patients with median OS 4.4 months, 23% PS>1. LDH≥450 and NLR≥5 were multivariate predictors of OS (p<0.001. NLR normalization predicted for longer OS (p<0.001 and PFS (p<0.05. PS and NLR ranked as most accurate predictors of both 90DS with area under ROC values of 0.66 and 0.64, and OS with c-score of 0.69 and 0.60. The combination of NLR+PS increased prognostic accuracy to 0.72. The NLR was externally validated in a cohort of 126 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the NLR as a validated and objective index to improve patient selection for experimental therapies, with its normalization following treatment predicting for a survival benefit of 7 months. Prospective validation of the NLR is warranted.

  8. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers.

  9. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-08-04

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers.

  10. Early Detection of Breast Cancer by Florescence Molecular Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    and C. G., "Conservative treatment versus mastectomy in early breast cancer: patterns of failure with 15 years of follow-up data. Institut Gustave...as increased tissue density or scarring from prior surgery. Functional imaging, which includes Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission...therapeutic strategies and will enable the effects of treatment to be more closely followed in time scales of hours or days instead of the longer

  11. Understanding Parkinson's disease: detection and early disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss within the basal ganglia and insufficient levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of voluntary movement), and postural disturbances. Exact cause is unknown, but theories surrounding environmental or endogenous toxicities have been suggested. Differential diagnoses include genetic and other neurologic disorders that may share symptoms similar to those seen in PD. Clinical progression has been categorized into three phases of the disease: early, nonfluctuating, and fluctuating. Medications generally offer good symptom relief during the early and nonfluctuating phases of the disease. Classifications of anti-PD medications include anticholinergics, dopamine agonists, amantadine, MAO-B inhibitors, levodopa-carbidopa, and Catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors. Surgical intervention may be an option for select patients whose conditions are not well controlled though medical management strategies. Primary care providers often can manage patients in the early stage of PD, but later stages require expert neurologic management. Patient/family education and anticipatory guidance is imperative.

  12. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  13. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Veighey, Kristin; Mahenderan, Arundathi; Manook, Miriam; Henry, Joanne; Nitsch, Dorothea; Harber, Mark; Dupont, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Jones, Gareth; Fernando, Bimbi; Howie, Alexander J; Veitch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little evidence to support differences between the study group, who had undergone serial biopsies, and a contemporaneous control group, who had not. In allografts with serial biopsies (n = 162), there was an increase in ICD between implantation (median: 2%, IQR:0-8) and 2-3 months post-transplant (median 8% IQR:4-15; p live donors was independently associated with smaller early post-transplant increases in ICD. There was no evidence for a difference in delta ICD between donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death, nor association with length of cold ischemia. After adjustment for GFR at the time of the second biopsy, delta ICD after three months did not predict allograft function at one yr. These findings suggest that graft damage develops shortly after transplantation and reflects donor factors, but does not predict future biochemical outcomes.

  14. A MECHANISM FOR EARLY DETECTING DDOS ATTACKS BASED ON M/G/R PS QUEUE

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Hong Son

    2016-01-01

    When service system is under DDoS attacks, it is important to detect anomaly signature at starting time of attack for timely applying prevention solutions. However, early DDoS detection is difficult task because the velocity of DDoS attacks is very high. This paper proposes a DDoS attack detection method by modeling service system as M/G/R PS queue and calculating monitoring parameters based on the model in odder to early detect symptom of DDoS attacks. The proposed method is validated by ...

  15. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC is...

  16. [Contribution of cognitive evoked potentials for detecting early cognitive disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnié, M N; Bensa, C; Laloux, L; Bertogliati, C; Faure, S; Lebrun, C

    2007-11-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), one of the most frequent neurological diseases in young adults, cognitive dysfunctions have been under considered whereas their evolution may produce a fronto-sous-cortical deterioration and more than half of the MS patients present such dysfunctions. Nevertheless sensory evoked-potentials are classically used in this disease, event-related potentials (ERP) are not included in the clinical exploration of MS. Two studies are presented aimed at further tracking the usefulness of ERP for detecting early cognitive dysfunctions in MS. All of the patients presented a relapsing remitting MS for less than 5 years with a moderate physical handicap and complained from their memory. They performed a neuropsychological set and ERP were elicited using the oddball paradigm in both modalities, visual and auditory. In the first study, 10 patients without cognitive dysfunction at the neuropsychological evaluation and 10 patients with an attention deficit participated with 10 age-matched controls. In the second study, 10 patients with memory impairment at the neuropsychological evaluation and 10 age-matched controls were included. Our data argue for an earlier modification of ERP parameters in the visual modality than in the auditory one, even before the modification of cognitive scores. In both studies, P300 parameters were correlated to neuropsychological performances (and especially to the attention examination in the first study and to memory tests in the second study) in both modalities. Taking into account the clinical usefulness of ERPs, it is nowadays important to include this electrophysiological method in evaluation and follow-up of MS, and not only using the auditory modality but also the visual presentation in order to detect earlier cognitive dysfunctions even before modification of neuropsychological performances.

  17. [Early clinical and radiological basic detection of congenital hip dysplasia at primary health care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo-Rodríguez, A G; Redón-Tavera, A

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases of late congenital hip dysplasia has increased, together with its sequelae, disability and absence of early diagnosis. The problem is that there is a difference between the sensitivity and the clinical exam, and the physicians knowledge of this topic is poor. We evaluated the quality of the training provided to the primary health care staff on congenital hip dysplasia. A prospective cohort study was undertaken to study 228 physicians for 3 years. A workshop was delivered and the physicians took a pre-workshop and a post-workshop exam. Then pelvic X-rays of infants under 6 months of age were taken and the X-ray references and measurements were assessed. The statistical analysis assesses the change in the pre-workshop and post-workshop grades in both the group that participated in the workshop and the group that did not. The statistical variables used included means, standard deviation, minimum and maximum grades, and the score differences. Students t test was used to prove the statistical significance of the differences, with n-1 degrees of freedom. Thirty-one pathological hips were detected in infants under 6 months of age in the group that took the workshop. The group that received the training shows that the latter may have a positive impact since an improvement in the grades (p 0.0001) was seen after the theoretical and practical course and after the X-ray measurements. A low knowledge level was observed. The training raised the awareness of the health care staff and a progressive increase was seen in the number of infants under 6 months of age who received a timely detection.

  18. Detection of the early keratoconus based on corneal biomechanical properties in the refractive surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Pniakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Subclinical keratoconus is contraindication to refractive surgery. The currently used methods of preoperative screening do not always allow differentiating between healthy eyes and those with subclinical keratoconus. Aim: To evaluate biomechanical parameters of the cornea, waveform score (WS, and intraocular pressure (IOP as potentially useful adjuncts to the diagnostic algorithm for precise detection of the early keratoconus stages and selection of refractive surgery candidates. Settings and Design: Department of Ophthalmology and prospective cross-sectional study. Patients and Methods: Patients enrolled in the study were diagnosed with refractive disorders. We assessed parameters of corneal biomechanics such as corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldman-correlated IOP (IOPg, corneal compensated IOP, WS, and keratoconus match index (KMI. They were classified into one of three groups based on the predefined KMI range: Group 1 (from 0.352 to 0.757 – 45 eyes, Group 2 (from −0.08 to 0.313 – 52 eyes, and Group 0 - control group (from 0.761 to 1.642 – 80 eyes. Results: In both study groups, IOPg, CRF, and CH were decreased when compared to control (P < 0.0001. In control group, there was positive correlation between CH and KMI (P < 0.05, with no correlations in any of the two study groups. CRF correlated positively with KMI in control (P < 0.0001 and in Group 2 (P < 0.05. Conclusions: CH and CRF, together with WS and IOPg, consist a clinically useful adjunct to detect subclinical keratoconus in patients referred for refractive surgery when based on KMI staging.

  19. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  20. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact

  1. Markers for prediction and early detection of Pneumoconiosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available /or specificity in detecting changes in response to silica exposure, or susceptibility to silicosis? A prospective cohort study is necessary to answer this question, with annual follow up for at least five years. The biomarkers chosen can be measured in serum...

  2. Use of digital PCR to improve early detection of CLas infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...

  3. Effect of an early detection programme on duration of untreated psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Vaglum, Per; Haahr, Ulrik;

    2005-01-01

    It is unclear whether an early detection programme increases or decreases the number of patients with a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and whether these differ from other patients with a long DUP....

  4. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  5. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  6. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  7. EPA, NASA, NOAA and USGS Creating Early Warning System to Detect Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that it is developing an early warning indicator system using historical and current satellite data to detect algal blooms. EPA researchers will develop a mobile app to inform water

  8. MidColumbia - Early Detection, Monitoring and Mapping of Invasives with Volunteers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Project will initiate a program for the early detection, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on McNary and Umatilla NWR's using Refuge volunteers. The initial...

  9. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  10. ICU早期预警评分对护理工作的指导作用%STUDY ON THE ICU EARLY WARNING SCORE IN NURSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海霞

    2011-01-01

    早期对患者心事、收缩压、呼吸频率、体温和意识进行评分(早期预警评分),一旦分值达到一定标准,即可进行积极的医疗处置.适合广大医护人员客观及时地对患者的病情进行评估,及时采取干预措施,防范延误病情.%Early evaluating on the patient's heart rate, systolic blood pressure respiratory rate, body temperature and consciousness could provide information for active medical treatment. The ICU early warning score could paly a role in evaluating the disease. So we can evaluate the patient's condition in time and objectively, so that to prevent the occurrence of disease.

  11. Development of Technologies for Early Detection and Stratification of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0814 TITLE: Development of Technologies for Early Detection and Stratification of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...Development of Technologies for Early Detection and 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0814 Stratification of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...test can be implemented. We are also working to characterize breast cancer biopsy samples with single cell resolution to discover the nature of the

  12. [Early detection of developmental disorders: the need for a new perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, M

    1988-02-01

    Early detection of abnormality in young children (aged 0-7) in the Netherlands is to be organized on two levels. First, regional cooperation between child-health professionals and institutions will be stimulated in order to form a nationwide network of 'multidisciplinary teams', with the task of coordinating early detection in a specific area. These teams are to advise parents and professionals in those cases where a child's development is suspected of being 'at risk'. The second part of the program is a campaign to promote the idea of early detection among the population. The aim is to develop the 'signalizing' and diagnostic abilities of parents, teachers and child-health professionals through education and training. The subject of early detection seemed and still seems to be a focus of different interests, and of conflicts of competence between different groups and schools of professionals and different institutions. In this article some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. One of the important problems concerning early detection is the question of defining normality and abnormality. It is concluded that in the case of early detection of both somatic and psychosomatic disorder there can be no such thing as an absolute scientific rationality, as is often suggested. Theoretical frameworks underlying methods of early detection are influenced by social, cultural and historical factors, and thus form a social construction. Finally a protocol-approach is being suggested, a method that might clear some of the problems concerning the content and organizational procedures of the Dutch system for early detection.

  13. Immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of Fasciola gigantica by glutathione S-transferase (GST)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S.; Mukhopadhayay, S. K.; Ganguly, S.; Jana, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, effort to isolate purified GST from Fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. In this study, immunoprotection studies with GST and antibody titer post-infection has revealed GST to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-Fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.

  14. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  15. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangbo An; Jingjing Wang; Hao Li; Zhizhen Lu; Yan Bai; Han Xiao; Youyi Zhang; Yao Song

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy...

  16. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  17. Research Progress of MicroRNA in Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hua Wang; Cong-Jian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to update the progress ofmicroRNA (miRNA) in early detection of ovarian cancer.We discussed the current clinical diagnosis methods and biomarkers of ovarian cancer, especially the methods of miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer.Data Sources: We collected all relevant studies about miRNA and ovarian cancer in PubMed and CNKI from 1995 to 2015.Study Selection: We included all relevant studies concerning miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer, and excluded the duplicated articles.Results: miRNAs play a key role in various biological processes of ovarian cancer, such as development, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metastasis, and these phenomena appear in the early-stage.Therefore, miRNA can be used as a new biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer, intervention on miRNA expression of known target genes, and potential target genes can achieve the effect of early prevention.With the development ofnanoscience and technology, analysis methods ofmiRNA are also quickly developed, which may provide better characterization of early detection of ovarian cancer.Conclusions: In the near future, miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment, and combining with the new analysis technology and new nanomaterials, point-of-care tests for miRNA with high throughput, high sensitivity, and strong specificity are developed to achieve the application of diagnostic kits in screening of early ovarian cancer.

  18. Longitudinal imaging pattern analysis (SPARE-CD index) detects early structural and functional changes before cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vanessa H; Resnick, Susan M; Doshi, Jimit; Beason-Held, Lori L; Zhou, Yun; Ferrucci, Luigi; Wong, Dean F; Kraut, Michael A; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-12-01

    This article investigates longitudinal imaging characteristics of early cognitive decline during normal aging, leveraging on high-dimensional imaging pattern classification methods for the development of early biomarkers of cognitive decline. By combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting positron emission tomography (PET) cerebral blood flow (CBF) images, an individualized score is generated using high-dimensional pattern classification, which predicts subsequent cognitive decline in cognitively normal older adults of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The resulting score, termed SPARE-CD (Spatial Pattern of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Cognitive Decline), analyzed longitudinally for 143 cognitively normal subjects over 8 years, shows functional and structural changes well before (2.3-2.9 years) changes in neurocognitive testing (California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT] scores) can be measured. Additionally, this score is found to be correlated to the [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET mean distribution volume ratio at a later time. This work indicates that MRI and PET images, combined with advanced pattern recognition methods, may be useful for very early detection of cognitive decline.

  19. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  20. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... samples). The four most informative peptides identified 25.8% of colorectal cancer patients with a specificity of 95%. The median lead time was 1.4 (range 0.12-3.8) years before clinical diagnosis.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that in the general population, autoantibody signatures are detectable during...

  1. Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Escudero Cascon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an alternative pathology detection system to monitor structures based on these technologies. This article introduces a ZigBee WSN system, intending to be autonomous, easy to use and with low power consumption. Its functional parts are fully discussed with diagrams, as well as the protocol used to collect samples from sensor nodes. Finally, several tests focused on range and power consumption of our prototype are shown, analysing whether the results obtained were as expected or not.

  2. Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Santiago J Barro

    2009-01-01

    Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an alternative pathology detection system to monitor structures based on these technologies. This article introduces a ZigBee WSN system, intending to be autonomous, easy to use and with low power consumption. Its functional parts are fully discussed with diagrams, as well as the protocol used to collect samples from sensor nodes. Finally, several tests focused on range and power consumption of our prototype are shown, analysing whether the results obtained were as expected or not.

  3. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  4. Early Detection of Breast Cancer by Fluorescence Molecular Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    development of appropriate fluorescence imaging methods for highly reliable and quantitative fluorescence imaging ii ) the establishment and imaging of...Tomography (FMT) is a relatively new optical tomographic imaging approach that capitalizes on the strengths of molecular imaging. It bases detection...The large boxes on Fig.5 b,c indicate the detector FOV. Fig.5 b,c depict FMT ( tomo - synthesis) images in color, obtained with an empirical

  5. Using ductoscopy to detect breast mass at an early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    Using a new procedure termed fiberoptic ductoscopy, a surgeon can visualize a patient's breast mammary ducts directly with a 0.9-mm scope. Eighty-five percent of breast cancers are thought to originate in the epithelial lining of the mammary ducts. The hope is that this new technique will allow surgeons to detect breast cancer in high-risk patients before a mass is felt or seen via mammography.

  6. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  7. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    , distributed pressure measurements from wired pipe, and statistical change detection methods. Using statistical change detection methods, it is possible to detect the incidents and their location at a very early stage when small changes in operating parameters are covered in measurement noise. The method has......Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...

  8. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics......, distributed pressure measurements from wired pipe, and statistical change detection methods. Using statistical change detection methods, it is possible to detect the incidents and their location at a very early stage when small changes in operating parameters are covered in measurement noise. The method has...

  9. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15-21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  10. An attempt of early detection of poor outcome after whiplash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien LAPORTE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash associated disorders (WAD for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences.In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and six months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15 to 21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI with tractography (DTI. At 6-month, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favourable or unfavourable progression (an unfavourable classification corresponding to the presence of Post-Concussion Symptom PCS and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and /or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. That is, the association of a neuropsychological disorder with a somatic one was sufficient to explain the passage to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible

  11. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  12. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  13. Simple Risk Score for Prediction of Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma within the Milan Criteria after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiliang; Wu, Jushan; Zhu, Ruidong; Feng, Dezhao; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Bu, Dayu; Li, Chenlei; Zhou, Yuyan; Si, Lianghao; Liu, Yuhan; Liang, Ziwei; Xu, Jianing; Wu, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    Ten to twenty percent of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients fulfilling the Milan criteria (MC) recurred within three years after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We therefore utilize a training cohort to develop an improved prognostic model for predicting the recurrence in these patients. By univariate and multivariate analysis, AFP level [cut-off value: 321 ng/mL, area under the curve (AUC) = 0.724, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.604–0.843, P < 0.001] and cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and glypican-3 (GPC3) expression pattern from nine putative prognostic factors were entered in risk factor scoring model to conjecture the tumor recurrence. In the training cohort, the AUC value of the model was 0.767 (95% CI = 0.645–0.890, P < 0.001), which was the highest among all the elements. The model’s performance was then assessed using a validation cohort. In the validation cohort, the AUC value of the model was 0.843 (95% CI = 0.720−0.966, P < 0.001) which was higher than any other elements. The results indicated that model had high performance with good discrimination ability and significantly improved the predictive capacity for the recurrence of HCC patients within MC after OLT. PMID:28276470

  14. Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention.

  15. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha P Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  16. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  17. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  18. A multicentre, randomised intervention study of the Paediatric Early Warning Score: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    2017-01-01

    and is used in two regions in Denmark. However, healthcare professionals experience difficulties in relation to measuring blood pressure and to the lack of assessment of children's level of consciousness. In addition, is it noteworthy that in 23,288-hour studies, all seven items of the Bedside Paediatric......,000 children should be included to gain a power of 80% (with a 5% significance level) and to detect a clinically significant difference of 30% of unplanned transfers to intensive care or from regional hospitals to the paediatric department at the university department. A safety interim analysis...

  19. A Comparison of Colorimetric Assessment of Vaginal pH with Nugent Score for the Detection of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, Mrutyunjaya B.; Charantimath, Umesh S.; Kavi, Avinash; Nagmoti, Jyoti M.; Nagmoti, Mahantesh B.; Mallapur, Ashalata A.; Katageri, Geetanjali M.; Ramadurg, Umesh Y.; Bannale, Sheshidhar G.; Revankar, Amit P.; Ganachari, M. S.; Derman, Richard J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. A Nugent score > 7 has been defined as the gold standard for the diagnosis for bacterial vaginosis (BV), though it is resource intensive and impractical as point of care testing. We sought to determine if colorimetric assessment of vaginal pH can accurately predict the occurrence of BV. Methods. We performed a planned subanalysis of 1,216 pregnant women between 13 0/7 and 19 6/7 weeks who underwent vaginal examination as part of a randomized controlled trial. Using a standardized technique, specimens were obtained for colorimetric assessment and two separate slides for Gram staining. These slides were subsequently evaluated by two independent blinded microbiologists for Nugent scoring. Results. Interrater reliability of the interpretation of the Nugent score was excellent (intraclass correlation-individual 0.93 (95 CI 0.92 to 0.94) and average 0.96 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.97)). The sensitivity of an elevated pH > 5 for a Nugent score > 7 was 21.9% while the specificity was 84.5%. The positive predictive value in our population was 33.7% with a negative predictive value of 75.0%. Conclusion. Though the Nugent score is internally accurate, the prediction of BV using vaginal pH alone has poor sensitivity and specificity. PMID:28293099

  20. First-episode psychosis patients recruited into treatment via early detection teams versus ordinary pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan O; Friis, Svein; Joa, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    Within an early detection sector, to compare the 1- and 2-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis patients coming into the treatment system via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus those achieving help via ordinary referral channels (not-DT)....

  1. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  2. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  3. Early Detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Patients Assessed by Carotid Duplex and Coronary Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsi Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Carotid duplex may detect subclinical vascular atherosclerosis in more than half of asymptomatic patients without coronary artery calcification detected by coronary computed tomography. These findings have important implications for early-stage atherosclerosis screening and implementation of primary preventive intervention.

  4. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  5. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  6. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  7. Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young isiZulu-Speaking Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Nola J.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Stronach, Sheri T.; Njongwe, Nonyameko; Kauchali, Shuaib; Grinker, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally appropriate tools are needed for detecting symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in young South African children. The objectives of this study were to (1) adapt and translate into isiZulu existing measures for detecting early signs of autism spectrum disorder, (2) use the measures to characterize and compare behavioural profiles of young…

  8. SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    While the automatic detection of AD has been widely studied, the problem of the prediction of AD (or its early detection) has been less investigated. This might be explained by the fact that the prediction problem is clearly more challenging since the anatomical changes are more subtle. However...

  9. PHI in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsova, Radka; Topolcan, Ondrej; Windrichova, Jindra; Hora, Milan; Dolejsova, Olga; Pecen, Ladislav; Kasik, Petr; Novak, Jaroslav; Casova, Miroslava; Smejkal, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in the serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), %free PSA and -2proPSA biomarkers, and prostate health index (PHI) in the diagnostic algorithm of early prostate cancer. The Immunoanalytical Laboratory of the University Hospital in Pilsen examined sera from 263 patients being treated at the Hospital's Urology Department with suspected prostate cancer who had undergone biopsies and were divided into a benign and malignant group. The monitored biomarkers were measured using chemiluminescence. All statistical analyses were calculated using the SAS software. We found statistically significantly increased levels of -2proPSA, PHI and PSA and decreased levels of %freePSA in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer by prostate biopsy vs. patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (median values: -2proPSA: 16 vs. 21 ng/l, PHI: 35 vs. 62, total PSA: 7.2 vs. 7.7 μg/l and %free PSA: 16.7 vs. 11.7%). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed the best performance for PHI compared to other markers. The assessment of -2proPSA and the calculation of PHI appear to be of great benefit for a more accurate differential diagnosis of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Early afterglow detection in the Swift observations of GRB 050801

    CERN Document Server

    De Pasquale, M; Page, M J; Burrows, D N; Blustin, A J; Zane, S; Mason, K O; Roming, P W A; Palmer, D; Gehrels, N; Zhang, B; Pasquale, Massimiliano De

    2007-01-01

    We present results of Swift optical, UV and X-ray observations of the afterglow of GRB 050801. The source is visible over the full optical, UV and X-ray energy range of the Swift UVOT and XRT instruments.Both optical and X-ray lightcurves exhibit a broad plateau (\\Delta t/t ~ 1) during the first few hundred seconds after the gamma-ray event. We investigate the multiwavelength spectral and timing properties of the afterglow, and we suggest that the behaviour at early times is compatible with an energy injection by a newly born magnetar with a period of a few tenths of a millisecond, which keeps the forward shock refreshed over this short interval by irradiation. Reverse shock emission is not observed. Its suppression might be due to GRB ejecta being permeated by high magnetic fields, as expected for outflows powered by a magnetar.Finally, the multiwavelength study allows a determination of the burst redshift, z=1.56.

  11. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA as a potential tool for early cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr Ryan L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent surge in mitochondrial research has been driven by the identification of mitochondria-associated diseases and the role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Both of these aspects have identified mitochondrial analysis as a vital component of medical research. Moreover, mitochondria have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis because of their vital role in energy production, nuclear-cytoplasmic signal integration and control of metabolic pathways. Interestingly, at some point during neoplastic transformation, there is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which damage the mitochondrial genome. This accelerates the somatic mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA. It has been proposed that these mutations may serve as an early indication of potential cancer development and may represent a means for tracking tumour progression. The purpose of this review is to explore the potential utility that these mutations may afford for the identification and monitoring of neoplasia and malignant transformation where appropriate body fluids or non-invasive tissue access is available for mitochondrial DNA recovery. Specifically, prostate, breast, colorectal, skin and lung cancers are discussed.

  13. Dinitrogen oxide detection for process failure early warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J E; Stuetz, R M; Morton, S; Stephenson, T

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted in order to establish whether the concentration of N2O in the off-gas from an activated sludge pilot plant could be used as a indicator for monitoring the nitrification process and as an early indication of ammonia appearing in the plant effluent. A strong correlation was found between ammonia shock loads and the concentration of N20 in the off-gas from the aeration tank for ammonia shock loads and dissolved oxygen depletion. When subjecting the experimental setup to doses of a nitrification inhibitor (allylthiourea) a similar pattern was seen with a correlation between nitrite build up in the aeration tank and concentration increase of N2O in the off-gas from the aeration tank. The results from this work suggest the concentration and the changes in the concentration of N2O in the exhaust gas from a nitrifying process may be a useful parameter for monitoring nitrifying activated sludge processes.

  14. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer.Results:The 50¿640 women...

  15. Early automatic detection of Parkinson's disease based on sleep recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Helge B D; Nikolic, Miki;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is most likely the earliest sign of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and consequently increased muscle activity. However, some muscle twitching in normal subjects occurs...... the number of outliers during REM sleep was used as a quantitative measure of muscle activity. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to automatically separate all iRBD test subjects from healthy elderly controls and subjects with periodic limb movement disorder. CONCLUSION: The proposed work is considered...... during REM sleep. PURPOSE: There are no generally accepted methods for evaluation of this activity and a normal range has not been established. Consequently, there is a need for objective criteria. METHOD: In this study we propose a full-automatic method for detection of RSWA. REM sleep identification...

  16. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  17. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  18. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  19. [Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Lourdes; Atienzo, Erika E; Marín, Eréndira; de la Vara-Salazar, Elvia; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; González, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few practice health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  20. Characterizing early detection of language difficulties in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Julie; Flamant, Cyril; Boussicault, Gerald; Berlie, Isabelle; Gascoin, Géraldine; Branger, Bernard; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The optimal age for assessing language difficulties in premature children remains unclear. To determine the most predictive and earliest screening tool for later language difficulties on children born preterm. A prospective population-based study in the Loire Infant Follow-up Team LIFT SUBJECTS: All children born language items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months, and the "Epreuves de Repérage des Troubles du Langage" (ERTL) at 4years. After 5years, the kindergarten teacher evaluated the vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation capacities of the child in comparison with the classroom performances. Among 1957 infants enrolled at discharge, 947 were assessed by their teacher with 12.2% (n=116) of language difficulties. Full data at all time points were available for 426 infants. The area under curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve obtained for the ASQ communication scale at 18months was significantly lower (0.65±0.09) than that obtained at 24months (0.77±0.08) and the languages items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months (0.77±0.08), and the ERTL at 4years (0.76±0.09). The optimal cut-off value for ASQ communication at 24months is ≤45 [sensitivity of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.86); specificity of 0.63 (95%CI: 0.59-0.66)]. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire communication scale at 24 corrected months appears as an acceptable test at an early time point to identify preterm children at risk of later language difficulties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual association test to detect early dementia of the Alzheimer type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, J; Schmand, B; Tulner, L; Walstra, G; Jonker, C

    2002-01-01

    group scored significantly lower on the VAT at baseline than the non-demented group. The VAT discriminated more effectively than both the MMSE and the six item picture learning task from the CAMCOG. Study 3: VAT scores were significantly lower in patients with DAT (n=48) than in patients with vascular dementia (n=37), frontotemporal dementia (n=9), or subcortical dementia (n=15), but not lower than in patients with Lewy body dementia (n=7). Mean mini mental state examination scores of these groups were not significantly different. The VAT discriminated patients with DAT from patients with other types of dementia more effectively than a prose recall test. Sensitivity was 79% and specificity 69%. Conclusions: The VAT detects with high specificity a sizeable proportion of patients with DAT a year before the diagnosis, and a low VAT score is relatively uncommon in patients with non-DAT dementia. PMID:12122168

  2. Early detection of factual knowledge deficiency and remediation in otolaryngology residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael P; Davis, Elizabeth M; Grundfast, Kenneth; Grillone, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    Within otolaryngology residency training, the annual Otolaryngology Training Examination (OTE) is the primary method used to assess, quantify, and compare the factual knowledge acquired by each resident. The objective of this study was to develop a more frequent method for tracking of factual knowledge to prevent educational delay. Retrospective analysis of educational scores. For each didactic lecture within a single otolaryngology residency training program, multiple choice questions were provided before and after each lecture. Questions were based on lecture objectives that were derived from the American Board of Otolaryngology curriculum. Scores were tracked over the course of 1 academic year and compared to the scores of residents on the OTE administered in that year to determine correlation with a validated measure of factual knowledge. The effect of remedial measures on improvement in OTE scores was determined. Over the course of 1 academic year, there were 328 questions presented to 12 residents before and after 32 lectures in the didactic program. Ten residents completed an average of 244 questions. Overall OTE scores demonstrated a significant and very strong correlation to lecture question scores (Pearson r = 0.86, P = .002). Remedial measures for residents during the previous 5 years who had inadequate OTE scores were successful in improving scores (P = .002). A structured didactic program that uses review questions to assess knowledge can be used to track acquisition of factual knowledge. Early identification of residents with deficiencies facilitates the development of individualized learning plans that result in successful remediation. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  4. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: How much plankton sampling is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  5. Detection of a huge explosion in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cusumano, G; Chincarini, G; Panaitescu, A; Burows, D N; La Parola, V; Sakamoto, T; Campana, S; Mineo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Angelini, L; Barthelemy, S; Beardmore, A P; Boyd, P T; Cominsky, L; Gronwall, C; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Giommi, P; Goad, M; Hurley, K; Kennea, J A; Mason, K O; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Palmer, D M; Roming, P W A; Wells, A; White, N E; Zhang, B

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of high energy photons that can last from about 10 milliseconds to 10 minutes. Their origin and nature have puzzled the scientific community for about 25 years until 1997, when the first X-ray afterglows of long (> 2 s duration) bursts were detected and the first optical and radio counterparts were found. These measurements established that long GRBs are typically at high redshift (z 1.6) and are in sub-luminous star-forming host galaxies. They are likely produced in core-collapse explosions of a class of massive stars that give rise to highly relativistic jets (collapsar model). Internal inhomogeneities in the velocity field of the relativistic expanding flow lead to collisions between fast moving and slow moving fluid shells and to the formation of internal shock waves. These shocks are believed to produce the observed prompt emission in the form of irregularly shaped and spaced pulses of gamma-rays, each pulse corresponding to a distinct internal collision. The ex...

  6. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chandarana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  7. A Comparison of the Progression and Recurrence Risk Index in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Tumors Detected by Narrow-Band Imaging Versus White Light Cystoscopy, Based on the EORTC Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, the second most common urologic malignancy, is amenable to early diagnosis. This study presents the potential prognostic benefit for a less invasive modification to the standard endoscopic approach. Objectives To evaluate the risk index for the progression and recurrence of additional tumors detected with narrow-band imaging (NBI cystoscopy compared to standard white light imaging (WLI cystoscopy in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC, based on the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC scoring system. Patients and Methods Patients with NMIBC, who were scheduled for resection between May 2012 and May 2013, were studied and mapped under NBI and WLI cystoscopy by independent surgeons prior to resection. Detection rates and tumor characteristics, including EORTC progression and the recurrence risk index, were compared. Results Fifty patients, aged 63.86 ± 10.05 years, were enrolled. The overall detection rate was 98.9% for NBI vs. 89.4% for WLI (P = 0.001, and the false-positive rates were 9.6% and 5.8%, respectively (P = 0.051. Ten tumors were detected by NBI alone, including four grade I tumors, four grade III tumors, and two carcinomas in situ. The tumor progression index was not significantly reduced with NBI compared to WLI (P > 0.05; however, the recurrence index was significantly lower in the NBI group (P < 0.05. Conclusions NBI cystoscopy improved the detection rate. Although false positives were more common with NBI, this was not statistically significant. NBI found additional aggressive tumors, which underscores the impact of detection in EORTC recurrence risk scoring.

  8. Interferon-Gamma Release Assay: An Effective Tool to Detect Early Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yin

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection before the formation of tissue cysts is vital for treatment, as drugs available for toxoplasmosis cannot kill bradyzoites contained in the cysts. However, current methods, such as antibody-based ELISA, are ineffective for detection of early infection. Here, we developed an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, measuring the IFN-γ released by T lymphocytes stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen peptides in vitro, for the detection of T. gondii infection in mice. Splenocytes isolated from infected mice were stimulated by peptides derived from dense granule proteins GRA4 and GRA6 and rhoptry protein ROP7, and released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that both acute and chronic infection could be detected by IGRA. More importantly, IGRA detected infection as early as the third day post infection; while serum IgM and IgG were detected 9 days and 13 days post infection, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that an IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative sample revealed an early infection, indicating the combination of IGRA and ELISA can be employed for the early diagnosis of T. gondii infection in human beings, cats and livestock.

  9. Apgar score

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003402.htm Apgar score To use the sharing features on this page, ... birth. Virginia Apgar, MD (1909-1974) introduced the Apgar score in 1952. How the Test is Performed The ...

  10. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Design Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Settings Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. Participants A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Main outcome measure Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. Results 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. Conclusions NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to risk of ICU admission and complications and thereby improves traditional clinical-risk scores in the management of patients with CAP in the ED setting. Trial registration number

  11. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  12. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  13. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA and support vector machine (SVM was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  14. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1 in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Denk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1 was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2 h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ≥ 18 during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4 h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score. The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction.

  15. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1) in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Stephanie; Wiegner, Rebecca; Hönes, Felix M; Messerer, David A C; Radermacher, Peter; Weiss, Manfred; Kalbitz, Miriam; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Braumüller, Sonja; McCook, Oscar; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2 h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ≥ 18) during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4 h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score). The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction.

  16. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  17. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-04-01

    Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ≤ 4.1 × 10(-5)) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10(-18)), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study.

  18. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score applied to CT angiography source images is a strong predictor of futile recanalization in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawiorski, Michal M.; Alonso de Lecinana, Maria [Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Sanchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja E.; Marin, Begona; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio [Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Pastor, Andres; Diaz-Otero, Fernando [Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, IiSGM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Calleja, Patricia [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lourido, Daniel; Vicente, Agustina; Fandino, Eduardo [Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Reliable predictors of poor clinical outcome despite successful revascularization might help select patients with acute ischemic stroke for thrombectomy. We sought to determine whether baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) applied to CT angiography source images (CTA-SI) is useful in predicting futile recanalization. Data are from the FUN-TPA study registry (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02164357) including patients with acute ischemic stroke due to proximal arterial occlusion in anterior circulation, undergoing reperfusion therapies. Baseline non-contrast CT and CTA-SI-ASPECTS, time-lapse to image acquisition, occurrence, and timing of recanalization were recorded. Outcome measures were NIHSS at 24 h, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, modified Rankin scale score, and mortality at 90 days. Futile recanalization was defined when successful recanalization was associated with poor functional outcome (death or disability). Included were 110 patients, baseline NIHSS 17 (IQR 12; 20), treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT; 45 %), primary mechanical thrombectomy (MT; 16 %), or combined IVT + MT (39 %). Recanalization rate was 71 %, median delay of 287 min (225; 357). Recanalization was futile in 28 % of cases. In an adjusted model, baseline CTA-SI-ASPECTS was inversely related to the odds of futile recanalization (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7), whereas NCCT-ASPECTS was not (OR 0.8; 95 % CI 0.5-1.2). A score ≤5 in CTA-SI-ASPECTS was the best cut-off to predict futile recanalization (sensitivity 35 %; specificity 97 %; positive predictive value 86 %; negative predictive value 77 %). CTA-SI-ASPECTS strongly predicts futile recanalization and could be a valuable tool for treatment decisions regarding the indication of revascularization therapies. (orig.)

  19. Low serum secretory immunoglobulin A level and sense of coherence score at an early gestational stage as indicators for subsequent threatened premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka, Naomi; Sakai, Akemi; Shimada, Keiko; Tabuchi, Noriko; Kameda, Yukie; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the candidate indicators secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and sense of coherence (SOC) as predictors of threatened premature birth. This was a panel study conducted on women in their first and latter half of pregnancy during survey period. The survey period was from December 2005 to June 2006 and from December 2007 to June 2008. The women enrolled in the study were asked to complete the survey questionnaire and provide blood samples for the determinations of physiological indicators. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to the stress perception scale (SPS), SOC score as an indicator of modifiers of stress, demographic data, complications in a previous pregnancy, and the course of the current pregnancy. We used s-IgA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a physiological stress indicator and a marker of infection, respectively. Seventy-two eligible subjects were included in the analysis. Twenty-eight (38.9%) subjects had undergone treatment for threatened premature birth, and 44 (61.1%) subjects had not. In the logistic analysis, we set the course of pregnancy as a dependent variable, and age, birth history, smoking habits, a history of miscarriage, premature birth or threatened premature birth, SPS, SOC, and s-IgA in the first half of pregnancy as independent variables. We found that low serum s-IgA levels and low SOC scores in the first half of pregnancy were associated with threatened premature birth. Our results suggest that low serum s-IgA level and SOC score at an early gestational stage are significant indicators for a threatened premature birth.

  20. Health education for early detection of breast cancer in blind women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge of blind women about the risk factors for breast cancer and whether they look for early detection of this cancer. Methods: a quasi-experimental study with 72 blind women distributed in focus groups. Data were collected through interviews. Results: few participants had knowledge about one or more risk factors for breast cancer, but most practiced early detection. Health education was developed using breast kits and demonstration of breast self-examination. It was obtained qualitative improvement of knowledge of the participants about breast cancer, its risk factors and early detection practices. In addition, participants demonstrated breast self-examination confidently. Conclusion: we need to develop in a harder manner educational activities to clarify about breast cancer risk factors and the importance of periodically carrying out breast self-examination, clinical examination and mammography.

  1. AVENUES TO EARLY DETECTION OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT AND MALIGNANT LESIONS: A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Muzaffar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : In spite of the advances in the therapy for management of Oral Cancer the prognosis still remains poor. The survival of these patients is highly dependent on the early detection of these lesions and subsequent, prompt treatment. Scalpel biopsy though considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis is invasive and associated with high morbidity and as such is reserved for evaluating highly suspicious lesions. There is a need to devise tests which are non-invasive, highly specific and sensitive and cost effective too. Various diagnostic tests used nowadays for early detection of malignancy include brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, Lab On a Chip, Saliva based Oral Cancer Diagnosis, Laser Capture Micro dissection, Spectral Cytopathology, A multispectral digital microscope (MDM, Optical coherence tomography, Oral Auto fluorescence. In this review an attempt has been made to examine the role of these tests and technologies and assess their role in early detection of malignancies.

  2. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  3. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyu Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been treated with minodronate for osteoporosis during 18 months. Based on the MRI findings and medication history, early stage BRONJ could be considered. Therefore minodronate was switched to teriparatide. Thereafter mandible pares-thesias, odontalgia and exposed bone were not observed. This case suggests that MRI is useful for the early detection of BRONJ.

  4. Factors Contributing to Discrepancy Between Visual Acuity Fractions Derived From a Snellen Chart and Letter Scores on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fred K; Agelis, Lillian Evangelia; Peh, Khaik K; Teong, Joanne; Wong, Evan Norman Xi Ming

    2014-01-01

    To report factors influencing the relationship between visual acuity (VA) fractions measured on Snellen chart and letter scores on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. This was a retrospective review from a single ophthalmology outpatient clinic. All patients had routine consecutive VA testing in the right eye using a Snellen chart (1-6 m) and the ETDRS chart (4 m and/or 1 m), by the same optometrist, using a standardized testing protocol for each chart. Both acuity fractions and letter scores were converted to their equivalent logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) for comparison. Multiple regression analysis was performed. A total of 237 patients with a wide range of ocular disease and VAs were enrolled. Mean age was 63 years (range, 18-95 years). Recorded VA (logMAR) was better on Snellen chart by a mean (95% limits of agreement) of -0.07 (-0.33 to +0.18, P Snellen and ETDRS charts was nonuniform across VA range. This has implications on interpretation of published studies converting Snellen fractions to logMAR for analysis and reporting of VA outcomes.

  5. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...2015 – 31 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0032 Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast...carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to identify peptides that specifically recognize premalignant lesions in the mammary tissue. To achieve this goal, we

  6. Cancer: improving early detection and prevention. A community practice randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, A J; O'Connor, G. T.; Keller, A.; Carney, P A; Levy, D; Whaley, F. S.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the impact of physician education and facilitator assisted office system interventions on cancer early detection and preventive services. DESIGN--A randomised trial of two interventions alone and in combination. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--Physicians in 98 ambulatory care practices in the United States. INTERVENTIONS--The education intervention consisted of a day long physician meeting directed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and skills relevant to cancer prevention and early ...

  7. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Results Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Conclusions Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct

  8. Evaluating Surveillance Strategies for the Early Detection of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (Rh). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas Rh reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction, a

  9. Serum/plasma DNA methylation pattern and early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arootin Gharibiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. With its fatality rate reduced significantly if diagnosed early, developing cost-effective, noninvasive methods of early detection is highly investigated. Currently, mammography with magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method of early detection in women who are at a significantly raised risk of developing breast cancer. Due to environmental effects and life-style changes in recent years, elevation of the risk of cancer incidents in lower risk populations is observed and therefore, the development of a relatively easy-performed and low-cost method for early detection of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular is needed. Serum-based analysis techniques have been quite popular subject of research recently as they can be performed with low technical knowledge, become automated and are cheap. In the present article, we have reviewed the literature related to the use of DNA methylation-detection based techniques for diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer using serum or plasma circulating tumor DNA and their power as a future biomarker. A reference to all genes that is reported to be differentially methylated in breast cancer accompanies the article.

  10. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  11. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging detects Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract early after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiman Xie; Min Fang; Linjiang Zhou; Shanghua Fan; Jianying Liu; Hongbo Quan; Man Luo; Dongying Qiu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and time window of early detection of Wallerian degeneration in the corticospinal tract after middle cerebral artery infarction, 23 patients were assessed using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging at 3.0T within 14 days after the infarction. The fractional anisotropy values of the affected corticospinal tract began to decrease at 3 days after onset and decreased in all cases at 7 days. The diffusion coefficient remained unchanged. Experimental findings indicate that diffusion tensor imaging can detect the changes associated with Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract as early as 3 days after cerebral infarction.

  13. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomasetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  14. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  15. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  16. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E', an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E'/A' at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy.

  17. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E’, an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E’/A’ at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy. PMID:26871457

  18. Good Intracranial Collaterals Trump Poor ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) for Intravenous Thrombolysis in Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Wan-Yee, Kong; Paliwal, Prakash; Gopinathan, Anil; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ting, Eric; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Seet, Raymond C S; Chan, Bernard P L; Teoh, Hock L; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Sharma, Vijay K; Yeo, Leonard L L

    2016-09-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, large early infarct size estimated by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is associated with poorer outcomes and is a relative contraindication for recanalization therapies. The state of the intracranial collateral circulation influences the functional outcome and may be a variable to consider before thrombolysis. We evaluated the prognostic effect of the collateral circulation in patients with thrombolyzed acute ischemic stroke who have large early infarct sizes as indicated by low ASPECTS. Patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke who received a computed tomographic angiogram and subsequent treatment with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator from 2010 to 2013 were studied. Two independent neuroradiologists determined their ASPECTS. We stratified patients using ASPECTS into 2 groups: large volume infarcts (ASPECTS≤7 points) and small volume infarcts (ASPECTS 8-10). In addition, we evaluated a third group with very large volume infarcts (ASPECTS≤5 points). We then analyzed the 3 subgroups using the Maas, Tan, and ASPECTS-collaterals grading systems of the computed tomographic angiogram intracranial collaterals. Good outcomes were defined by modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 3 months. A total of 300 patients were included in the final analysis. For patients with very large volume infarcts (ASPECTS≤5 points), univariable analysis showed that younger age, male sex, lower National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), lower systolic blood pressure, and good collaterals by Maas, Tan, or ASPECTS-collaterals grading were predictors of good outcomes. On multivariate analysis, younger age (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97; P=0.002) and good collaterals by ASPECTS-collaterals system (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.57; P<0.001) were associated with good outcomes. In patients with large and very large volume infarcts, good collaterals as measured by the

  19. [Vaginal sonography: a screening method for early detection of ovarian tumors and endometrial cancers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmers, R; Völksen, M; Rath, W; Kuhn, W

    1989-01-01

    In total we performed a vaginosonographic measurement of 212 patients with or without a postmenopausal bleeding. Altogether 424 ovaries were sonographically examined. An endometrial thickness greater than 4 mm was histologically clarified by means of a curettage and all detectable ovarian tumors by means of a laparotomia. In total we found seven asymptomatic endometrial carcinomas, one cervical carcinoma and two ovarian cancers. The vaginosonography showed to be a very sensitive and acceptable method for the early detection of postmenopausal ovarian and endometrial tumors.

  20. Toward Early-Warning Detection of Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, K.; Cariou, R.; Chapman, A.; Crispin-Ortuzar, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frei, M.; Hanna, C.; Kara, E.; Keppel, D.; Liao, L; Privitera, S.; A Searle; Singer, L.; Weinstein, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from (CBC). We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  1. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography for stenosis detection according to calcium score: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, Martijn A.M. den; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Smet, Kristof de [University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess sensitivity and specificity of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for significant stenosis at different degrees of coronary calcification. A literature search was performed including studies describing test characteristics of CCTA for significant stenosis, performed with at least 16-MDCT and according to calcium score (CS). Invasive coronary angiography was the reference standard. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of CCTA by CS categories and CT equipment were calculated. Of 14,121 articles, 51 studies reported on the impact of calcium scoring on diagnostic performance of CCTA and could be included in the systematic review. Twenty-seven of these studies (5,203 participants) were suitable for meta-analysis. On a patient-basis, sensitivity of CCTA for significant stenosis was 95.8, 95.6, 97.6 and 99.0% for CS 0-100, 101-400, 401-1,000 and >1,000 respectively. Specificity was 91.2, 88.2, 50.6 and 84.0% respectively. Specificity of CCTA was significantly lower for CS 401-1,000 due to lack of patients without significant stenosis. Sensitivity and specificity of 16-MDCT were significantly lower compared to more modern CT systems. Even in cases of severe coronary calcification, sensitivity and specificity of CCTA for significant stenosis are high. With 64-MDCT and newer CT systems, a CS cut-off for performing CCTA no longer seems indicated. (orig.)

  2. Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  3. Functional analysis of a large set of BRCA2 exon 7 variants highlights the predictive value of hexamer scores in detecting alterations of exonic splicing regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Daniela; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Abuli, Anna; Abdat, Julie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    Exonic variants can alter pre-mRNA splicing either by changing splice sites or by modifying splicing regulatory elements. Often these effects are difficult to predict and are only detected by performing RNA analyses. Here, we analyzed, in a minigene assay, 26 variants identified in the exon 7 of BRCA2, a cancer predisposition gene. Our results revealed eight new exon skipping mutations in this exon: one directly altering the 5' splice site and seven affecting potential regulatory elements. This brings the number of splicing regulatory mutations detected in BRCA2 exon 7 to a total of 11, a remarkably high number considering the total number of variants reported in this exon (n = 36), all tested in our minigene assay. We then exploited this large set of splicing data to test the predictive value of splicing regulator hexamers' scores recently established by Ke et al. (). Comparisons of hexamer-based predictions with our experimental data revealed high sensitivity in detecting variants that increased exon skipping, an important feature for prescreening variants before RNA analysis. In conclusion, hexamer scores represent a promising tool for predicting the biological consequences of exonic variants and may have important applications for the interpretation of variants detected by high-throughput sequencing.

  4. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, N.M.

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  5. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  6. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  7. Predictors of natively unfolded proteins: unanimous consensus score to detect a twilight zone between order and disorder in generic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natively unfolded proteins lack a well defined three dimensional structure but have important biological functions, suggesting a re-assignment of the structure-function paradigm. To assess that a given protein is natively unfolded requires laborious experimental investigations, then reliable sequence-only methods for predicting whether a sequence corresponds to a folded or to an unfolded protein are of interest in fundamental and applicative studies. Many proteins have amino acidic compositions compatible both with the folded and unfolded status, and belong to a twilight zone between order and disorder. This makes difficult a dichotomic classification of protein sequences into folded and natively unfolded ones. In this work we propose an operational method to identify proteins belonging to the twilight zone by combining into a consensus score good performing single predictors of folding. Results In this methodological paper dichotomic folding indexes are considered: hydrophobicity-charge, mean packing, mean pairwise energy, Poodle-W and a new global index, that is called here gVSL2, based on the local disorder predictor VSL2. The performance of these indexes is evaluated on different datasets, in particular on a new dataset composed by 2369 folded and 81 natively unfolded proteins. Poodle-W, gVSL2 and mean pairwise energy have good performance and stability in all the datasets considered and are combined into a strictly unanimous combination score SSU, that leaves proteins unclassified when the consensus of all combined indexes is not reached. The unclassified proteins: i belong to an overlap region in the vector space of amino acidic compositions occupied by both folded and unfolded proteins; ii are composed by approximately the same number of order-promoting and disorder-promoting amino acids; iii have a mean flexibility intermediate between that of folded and that of unfolded proteins. Conclusions Our results show that

  8. Predictors of natively unfolded proteins: unanimous consensus score to detect a twilight zone between order and disorder in generic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Natively unfolded proteins lack a well defined three dimensional structure but have important biological functions, suggesting a re-assignment of the structure-function paradigm. To assess that a given protein is natively unfolded requires laborious experimental investigations, then reliable sequence-only methods for predicting whether a sequence corresponds to a folded or to an unfolded protein are of interest in fundamental and applicative studies. Many proteins have amino acidic compositions compatible both with the folded and unfolded status, and belong to a twilight zone between order and disorder. This makes difficult a dichotomic classification of protein sequences into folded and natively unfolded ones. In this work we propose an operational method to identify proteins belonging to the twilight zone by combining into a consensus score good performing single predictors of folding. Results In this methodological paper dichotomic folding indexes are considered: hydrophobicity-charge, mean packing, mean pairwise energy, Poodle-W and a new global index, that is called here gVSL2, based on the local disorder predictor VSL2. The performance of these indexes is evaluated on different datasets, in particular on a new dataset composed by 2369 folded and 81 natively unfolded proteins. Poodle-W, gVSL2 and mean pairwise energy have good performance and stability in all the datasets considered and are combined into a strictly unanimous combination score SSU, that leaves proteins unclassified when the consensus of all combined indexes is not reached. The unclassified proteins: i) belong to an overlap region in the vector space of amino acidic compositions occupied by both folded and unfolded proteins; ii) are composed by approximately the same number of order-promoting and disorder-promoting amino acids; iii) have a mean flexibility intermediate between that of folded and that of unfolded proteins. Conclusions Our results show that proteins unclassified by SSU

  9. Aberrant p16 promoter hypermethylation in bronchial mucosae as a biomarker for the early detection of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-shun; HOU Ai-rong; LI Long-yun; GAO Yan-ning; CHENG Shu-jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in the world and its mortality could be greatly reduced by diagnosis and treatment in its early stages. Effective tools for the early detection of lung cancer and its high risk factors remain a major challenge. Biomarkers that detect lung cancer in its early stages or identify its pretumour lesions,enabling early therapeutic intervention, would be invaluable to improve its dismal prognosis.

  10. A Novel Algorithm to Enhance P300 in Single Trials: Application to Lie Detection Using F-Score and SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Gao; Hongjun Tian; Yong Yang; Xiaolin Yu; Chenhong Li; Nini Rao

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of lie detection methods based on P300 potentials has drawn much interest in recent years. We presented a novel algorithm to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of P300 and applied it in lie detection to increase the classification accuracy. Thirty-four subjects were divided randomly into guilty and innocent groups, and the EEG signals on 14 electrodes were recorded. A novel spatial denoising algorithm (SDA) was proposed to reconstruct the P300 with a high SNR based on indep...

  11. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis.

  12. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  13. Early detection of COPD in primary care--the Copenhagen COPD Screening Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Backer, Vibeke; Gottlieb, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection...

  14. Early detection of fires by means of thermography; Frueherkennung von Braenden mit Thermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Matthias; Doeppner, Joerg; Pohl, Gisbert; Mahler, Guido; Dammass, Gunnar; Wendland, Georg [InfraTec GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the physical and technical fundamentals of an early detection of fires by means of thermal imaging. Hereupon, the technical implementation of these fundamentals into a modular automatic monitoring system by thermography is described. The authors report on practical experiences of this monitoring system.

  15. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  16. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  17. Early Detection and Outpatient Management of Alcoholism: A Curriculum for Medical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Henrietta N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A course in the early detection and outpatient management of alcoholism for medical residents is discussed. Unlike other courses on alcoholism that have emphasized changes in physicians' attitudes, this course was designed to promote changes in residents' practice behavior and to foster the development of necessary clinical skills. (MLW)

  18. EPA guidance on the early detection of clinical high risk states of psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze-Lutter, F; Michel, C; Schmidt, S J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this guidance paper of the European Psychiatric Association is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the early detection of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis in patients with mental problems. To this aim, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting on conversion rat...

  19. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression?: Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used screening-effec

  20. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 1 July 2010 - 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Photoacoustic ...upon request). Aim 2) Prioritize ovarian cancer-associated surface proteins for their utility as molecular photoacoustic imaging targets and

  1. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS a

  2. Early detection of drought stress in grass swards with imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an experimental imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.28-1.45 mm2) and spectral (5-13 nm) resolution was explored for early detection of drought stress in grass. A climate chamber experiment was conducted with nine Lolium perenne L. mini swards with drought stress treatme

  3. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  4. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal...

  5. Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Stegeman, J.A.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge does not allow the prediction of when low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes infecting poultry will mutate to their highly pathogenic phenotype (HPAIV). This mutation may already take place in the first infected flock; hence early detection of LPAIV

  6. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  7. Early Detection of Lung Cancer : “A Role for Serum Biomarkers?”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Broodman (Ingrid)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mort

  8. Allostatic Load Assessment for Early Detection of Stress in the Workplace in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Sayed Ali

    2016-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Female gender and the old age of the Egyptian workforce under study are at higher risk of chronic diseases. Using an alternative way -for example, the cut-point method- instead of the risk quartiles for dichotomization of markers used in ALI calculation could be more precise for early detection of stress among healthy individuals.

  9. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  10. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  11. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  12. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  13. Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe's Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes' statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

  14. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  15. 基于人群搜索算法的上市公司的 Z-Score 模型财务预警研究%The Z-Score Model Financial Early Warning for Listed Companies Based on Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海蕾; 周方召; 金德环

    2015-01-01

    针对传统的 Z-Score 财务预警模型预警能力的不足,导致无法准确判定上市公司的财务风险状况,将 SOA 算法的良好寻优能力和 Z-Score 财务预警模型结合起来,提出一种改进的 Z-Score 财务预警模型,构建出 SOA 算法优化 Z-Score 财务预警模型的适应度函数。仿真对比发现,改进的 Z-Score 财务预警模型其平均识别率高达96.33%,远远高于 SVM 算法和 AdaBoost 算法的平均识别率,改进的算法极大地提升了 Z-Score 财务预警模型的预测能力,使其更具适应性。%The conventional Z-Score model financial early warning lacks predicative power, making it impossible to accurately determine the financial risk profile of listed companies.It needs to be further optimized to enhance its power.This article combines the optimization ability of SOA with Z-Score financial early warning model algorithms,and proposes an improved Z-Score financial early warning model to construct a SOA algorithm optimization fitness function for the new early warning model.Our simulation result show that the improved Z-Score financial early warning model increases the average recognition rate up to 96.33%,much higher than the aver-age recognition rate of SVM algorithm and AdaBoost algorithm;and the improved algorithm greatly enhances the ability of the Z-Score Financial Early Warning Model by making it more a-daptable.

  16. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  17. Adoption of new technologies for early detection of melanoma in dermatologic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveria, Susan A; Sachs, Dana; Belasco, Kevin T; Halpern, Allan C

    2003-11-01

    The identification and diagnosis of early melanoma will reduce unnecessary operations and may be important in reducing mortality from melanoma and impacting cost savings to the health system. New technologies are being developed and used at some specialized centers to facilitate the detection and diagnosis of early melanoma for patients at high risk. These technologies include but are not limited to digital photography, dermoscopy, computerized image analysis systems, and confocal scanning laser microscopy. To most effectively implement these novel approaches, it is important to identify the key factors that influence the adoption or diffusion of new medical technologies. We propose patient-, physician-, and health care system-related factors that influence the diffusion of new technologies for the early detection of skin cancer. Studies involving physicians and patients in a variety of clinical settings need to be conducted to achieve a greater understanding of the barriers to the adoption of these new technologic tools that are intended to aid in skin cancer screening.

  18. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as your ... the syringe, but is blue; her one minute Apgar score would be 8—two points off because she ...

  19. Early Detection and Treatment of Psychosis: The Bern Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Schultze-Lutter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly conceptualized as neurodevelopmental disorders of yet poorly understood aetiology, schizophrenia and other nonorganic psychoses remain one of the most debilitating illnesses with often poor outcome despite all progress in treatment of the manifest disorder. Drawing on the frequent poor outcome of psychosis and its association with the frequently extended periods of untreated first-episode psychosis (FEP including its prodrome, an early detection and treatment of both the FEP and the preceding at-risk mental state (ARMS have been increasingly studied. Thereby both approaches are confronted with different problems, for example, treatment engagement in FEP and predictive accuracy in ARMS. They share, however, the problems related to the lack of understanding of developmental, that is, age-related, peculiarities and of the presentation and natural course of their cardinal symptoms in the community. Most research on early detection and intervention in FEP and ARMS is still related to clinical psychiatric samples, and little is known about symptom presentation and burden and help-seeking in the general population related to these experiences. Furthermore, in particular in the early detection of an ARMS, studies often address adolescents and young adults alike without consideration of developmental characteristics, thereby applying risk criteria that have been developed predominately in adults. Combining our earlier experiences described in this paper in child and adolescent, and general psychiatry as well as in both lines of research, that is, on early psychosis and its treatment and on the early detection of psychosis, in particular in its very early states by subjective disturbances in terms of basic symptoms, age-related developmental and epidemiological aspects have therefore been made the focus of our current studies in Bern, thus making our line of research unique.

  20. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  1. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  2. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  3. Early-stage tumor detection using photoacoustic microscopy: a pattern recognition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Wang, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Song; Sohn, Rebecca E.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    We report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of arteriovenous (AV) shunts in early stage tumors in vivo, and develop a pattern recognition framework for computerized tumor detection. Here, using a high-resolution photoacoustic microscope, we implement a new blood oxygenation (sO2)-based disease marker induced by the AV shunt effect in tumor angiogenesis. We discovered a striking biological phenomenon: There can be two dramatically different sO2 values in bloodstreams flowing side-by-side in a single vessel. By tracing abnormal sO2 values in the blood vessels, we can identify a tumor region at an early stage. To further automate tumor detection based on our findings, we adopt widely used pattern recognition methods and develop an efficient computerized classification framework. The test result shows over 80% averaged detection accuracy with false positive contributing 18.52% of error test samples on a 50 PAM image dataset.

  4. The difficulties of early detection for infectious disease outbreak in China:A qualitative investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weirong Yan; Yikai Zhou; Shen Wei; Huijuan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To make intensified analysis upon the existing difficulties in early detection for the infectious diseases outbreak in China and put forward some effective measures to improve it. Methods: Field investigation and in-depth interview were applied in 23 interviewees from different-level CDC. Results:The study findings suggest that although the timeliness of outbreak detection has been improved since SARS epidemic in China, some problems still exist, such as: ① lacking syndrome surveillance; ② report quality of infectious disease should be improved; ③ difficulties of identifying the cases at lower social economic status; ④ a definite financial compensation mechanism for the operation of web-based report system is absent; ⑤ insufficient information exchange among different branches. Conclusion:Some effective measures must be taken including developing syndrome surveillance system; affording more education and training for related staff; increasing payout on surveillance and establishing an information exchange platform for early detection of disease outbreak.

  5. Proficient Feature Extraction Strategy for Performance Enhancement of NN Based Early Breast Tumor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khondker Jahid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra Wideband is one of the promising microwave imaging techniques for breast tumor prognosis. The basic principle of tumor detection depends on the dielectric properties discrepancies between healthy and tumorous tissue. Usually, the tumor affected tissues scatter more signal than the healthy one and are used for early tumor detection through received pulses. Feedforward backpropagation neural network(NN was so far used for some research works by showing its detection efficiency up to 1mm (radius size with 95.8% accuracy. This paper introduces an efficient feature extraction method to further improve the performance by considering four main features of backpropagation NN. This performance is being increased to 99.99%. This strategy is well justified for classifying the normal and tumor affected breast with 100% accuracy in its early stage. It also enhances the training and testing performances by reducing the required duration. The overall performance is 99.99% verified by using thirteen different tumor sizes.

  6. Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Shan, Bohan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore L.

    2014-09-01

    Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

  7. Validation of the "early detection Primary Care Checklist" in an Italian community help-seeking sample: The "checklist per la Valutazione dell'Esordio Psicotico".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Raballo, Andrea; Semrov, Enrico; Chiri, Luigi Rocco; Azzali, Silvia; Scazza, Ilaria; Garlassi, Sara; Paterlini, Federica; Fontana, Francesca; Favazzo, Rosanna; Pensieri, Luana; Fabiani, Michela; Cioncolini, Leonardo; Pupo, Simona

    2017-07-26

    To establish the concordant validity of the "Checklist per la Valutazione dell'Esordio Psicotico" (CVEP) in an Italian help-seeking population. The CVEP is the Italian adaptation of the "early detection Primary Care Checklist," a 20-item tool specifically designed to assist primary care practitioners in identifying young people in the early stages of psychosis. The checklist was completed by the referring practitioners of 168 young people referred to the "Reggio Emilia At Risk Mental States" Project, an early detection infrastructure developed under the aegis of the Regional Project on Early Detection of Psychosis in the Reggio Emilia Department of Mental Health. The concordant validity of the CVEP was established by comparing screen results with the outcome of the "Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States" (CAARMS), a gold standard assessment for identifying young people who may be at risk of developing psychosis. The simple checklist as originally conceived had excellent sensitivity (98%), but lower specificity (58%). Using only a CVEP total score of 20 or above as cut-off, the tool showed a slightly lower sensitivity (93%) with a substantial improvement in specificity (87%). Simple cross-tabulations of the individual CVEP item scores against CAARMS outcome to identify the more discriminant item in terms of sensitivity and specificity were carried out. In comparison to other, much longer, screening tools, the CVEP performed well to identify young people in the early stages of psychosis. Therefore, the CVEP is well suited to optimize appropriate referrals to specialist services, building on the skills and knowledge already available in primary care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rate, of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for Cs-137 and even lower for I-131...... For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components...... radioactive sources need to be detected....

  9. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  10. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo M; Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-06-30

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes.

  11. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27546934

  12. Rheumatologists' adherence to a disease activity score steered treatment protocol in early arthritis patients is less if the target is remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, G; Markusse, I M; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Y P M; Steup-Beekman, G M; Grillet, B A M; Kerstens, P J S M; Lems, W F; Huizinga, T W J; Allaart, C F

    2017-02-01

    To compare rheumatologists' adherence to treatment protocols for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) targeted at Disease Activity Score (DAS) ≤2.4 or <1.6. The BeSt-study enrolled 508 early RA (1987) patients targeted at DAS ≤2.4. The IMPROVED-study included 479 early RA (2010) and 122 undifferentiated arthritis patients targeted at DAS <1.6. We evaluated rheumatologists' adherence to the protocols and assessed associated opinions and conditions during 5 years. Protocol adherence was higher in BeSt than in IMPROVED (86 and 70 %), with a greater decrease in IMPROVED (from 100 to 48 %) than in BeSt (100 to 72 %). In BeSt, 50 % of non-adherence was against treatment intensification/restart, compared to 63 % in IMPROVED and 50 vs. 37 % were against tapering/discontinuation. In both studies, non-adherence was associated with physicians' disagreement with DAS or with next treatment step and if patient's visual analogue scale (VAS) for general health was ≥20 mm higher than the physician's VAS. In IMPROVED, also discrepancies between swelling, pain, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and VASgh were associated with non-adherence. Adherence to DAS steered treatment protocols was high but decreased over 5 years, more in a DAS <1.6 steered protocol. Non-adherence was more likely if physicians disagreed with DAS or next treatment step. In the DAS <1.6 steered protocol, non-adherence was also associated with discrepancies between subjective and (semi)objective disease outcomes, and often against required treatment intensification. These results may indicate that adherence to DAS-steered protocols appears to depend in part on the height of the target and on how physicians perceive the DAS reflects RA activity.

  13. Combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Takuya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Ogawa, Yuki; Iizaka, Shinji; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-10-01

    Early detection and intervention of deep tissue injury are important to lead good outcome. Although the efficiency of ultrasonographic assessment of deep tissue injury has been reported previously, it requires a certain level of skill for accurate assessment. In this study, we present an investigation of the combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury. We retrospectively reviewed 28 early-stage pressure ulcers (21 patients) presenting at the University of Tokyo Hospital between April 2009 and February 2010, surveying the associated thermographic and ultrasonographic findings. The wound temperature patterns were divided into low, even and high compared with the surrounding skin. Ultrasonographic findings were classified into unclear layer structure, hypoechoic lesion, discontinuous fascia and heterogeneous hypoechoic area. All 13 ulcers that were associated with low temperature showed good outcome; three ulcers had even temperatures and 12 ulcers showed high temperature on thermographic assessment. The two deep tissue injuries were rated high on thermographic assessment and showed heterogeneous hypoechoic area findings on ultrasonographic assessment. No non-deep tissue injury lesion was associated with these two findings simultaneously. The combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments is expected to increase the accuracy of the early detection of deep tissue injuries.

  14. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  15. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  17. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  18. Detection of Adhesion Molecules on Inflamed Macrophages at Early-Stage Using SERS Probe Gold Nanorods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dakrong Pissuwan; Yusuke Hattori

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that inflammatory biomarkers can be used as an effective signal for disease diagnoses. The early detection of these signals provides useful information that could prevent the occurrence of severe diseases. Here, we employed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe gold nanorods (GNRs) as a tool for the early detection of inflammatory molecules in inflamed cells. A murine macrophage cell line (Raw264.7) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as a model in this study. The prepared SERS probe GNRs containing 4-mercapto-benzoic acid as a Raman reporter to generate SERS signals were used for detection of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in macrophages after treatment with LPS for varying lengths of time. Our results show that SERS probe GNRs could detect significant differences in the expression of ICAM-1 molecules in LPS-treated macrophages compared to those in untreated macrophages after only 1 h of LPS treatment. In contrast, when using fluorescent labeling or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to detect ICAM-1, significant differences between inflamed and un-inflamed macrophages were not seen until the cells had been treated with LPS for 5 h. These results indicate that our SERS probe GNRs provide a higher sensitivity for detecting biomarker molecules in inflamed macrophages than the conventional fluorescence and ELISA techniques, and could therefore be useful as a potential diagnostic tool for managing disease risk.

  19. Topological characterization and early detection of bifurcations and chaos in complex systems using persistent homology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Khushboo; Gupta, Shalabh

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of bifurcations and chaos and understanding their topological characteristics are essential for safe and reliable operation of various electrical, chemical, physical, and industrial processes. However, the presence of non-linearity and high-dimensionality in system behavior makes this analysis a challenging task. The existing methods for dynamical system analysis provide useful tools for anomaly detection (e.g., Bendixson-Dulac and Poincare-Bendixson criteria can detect the presence of limit cycles); however, they do not provide a detailed topological understanding about system evolution during bifurcations and chaos, such as the changes in the number of subcycles and their positions, lifetimes, and sizes. This paper addresses this research gap by using topological data analysis as a tool to study system evolution and develop a mathematical framework for detecting the topological changes in the underlying system using persistent homology. Using the proposed technique, topological features (e.g., number of relevant k-dimensional holes, etc.) are extracted from nonlinear time series data which are useful for deeper analysis of the system behavior and early detection of bifurcations and chaos. When applied to a Logistic map, a Duffing oscillator, and a real life Op-amp based Jerk circuit, these features are shown to accurately characterize the system dynamics and detect the onset of chaos.

  20. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Norberto V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development

  1. Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2001-10-01

    Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

  2. A situational analysis of breast cancer early detection services in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Kimberly; Rampersad, Fidel; Warner, Wayne A; Toriola, Adetunji T; Mohammed, Hamish; Scheffel, Harold-Alexis; Ali, Rehanna; Moosoodeen, Murrie; Konduru, Siva; Russel, Adaila; Haraksingh, Rajini

    2017-08-11

    A situational analysis of breast cancer (BC) early detection services was carried out to investigate whether Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) has the framework for successful organized national screening. An online survey was designed to assess the availability, accessibility, quality control and assurance (QC&A), and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanisms for public and private BC early detection. A focus group with local radiologists (n = 3) was held to identify unaddressed challenges and make recommendations for improvement. Major public hospitals offer free detection services with wait times of 1-6 months for an appointment. Private institutions offer mammograms for TTD$240 (USD$37) at minimum with same day service. Both sectors report a lack of trained staff. Using 1.2 mammograms per 10,000 women ≥40 years as sufficient, the public sector's rate of 0.19 mammograms per 10,000 women ≥40 years for screening and diagnosis is inadequate. Program M&E mechanisms, QC&A guidelines for machinery use, delays in receipt of pathology reports, and unreliable drug access are further unaddressed challenges. T&T must first strengthen its human and physical resources, implement M&E and QC&A measures, strengthen cancer care, and address other impediments to BC early detection before investing in nationally organized BC screening.

  3. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle.

  4. Diagnostic Proteomics: Serum Proteomic Patterns for the Detection of Early Stage Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Yu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interrogate thousands of proteins found in complex biological samples using proteomic technologies has brought the hope of discovering novel disease-specific biomarkers. While most proteomic technologies used to discover diagnostic biomarkers are quite sophisticated, "proteomic pattern analysis" has emerged as a simple, yet potentially revolutionary, method for the early diagnosis of diseases. Utilizing this technology, hundreds of clinical samples can be analyzed per day and several preliminary studies suggest proteomic pattern analysis has the potential to be a novel, highly sensitive diagnostic tool for the early detection of cancer.

  5. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Go, Vay Liang W; Chari, Suresh T; Goldberg, Ann E; Rothschild, Laura J

    2017-09-26

    A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating owing to its poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 9%. Currently, most individuals are diagnosed at a late stage when treatment options are limited. Early detection of pancreatic cancer provides the greatest hope for making substantial improvements in survival. The Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association has sponsored a series of fora to stimulate discussion and collaboration on early detection of pancreatic cancer. At the first forum in 2014, "Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference," a strategic plan was set forth by an international group of interdisciplinary scientific representatives and subsequently The Strategic Map for Innovation was generated. The current conference report is the third forum in the series, "Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers," which was held in Boston, Massachusetts, on October 27, 2016. This report provides an overview of examples of innovative initiatives by industry and confirms the critical need for collaboration among industry, government, research institutions, and advocacy groups in order to make pancreatic cancer more easily detectable in its earlier stages, when it is more treatable.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  6. A Novel Approach of Impulsive Signal Extraction for Early Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Aijun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault signals of rolling element bearing are often characterized by the presence of periodic impulses, which are modulated high-frequency harmonic components. The features of early fault in rolling bearing are very weak, which are often masked by background noise. The impulsiveness of the vibration signal has affected the identification of characteristic frequency for the early fault detection of the bearing. In this paper, a novel approach based on morphological operators is presented for impulsive signal extraction of early fault in rolling element bearing. The combination Top-Hat (CTH is proposed to extract the impulsive signal and enhance the impulsiveness of the bearing fault signal, and the envelope analysis is applied to reveal the fault-related signatures. The impulsive extraction performance of the proposed CTH is compared with that of finite impulse response filter (FIR by analyzing the simulated bearing fault signals, and the result indicates that the CTH is more effective in extracting impulsive signals. The method is evaluated using real fault signals from defective bearings with early rolling element fault and early fault located on the outer race. The results show that the proposed method is able to enhance the impulsiveness of early bearing fault signals.

  7. DESIGN OF A LOW LATENCY ASYNCHRONOUS ADDER USING EARLY COMPLETION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOK KEONG LAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for designing completion detection for asynchronous adders is introduced. The new completion detection is based on the property of a carrymerge tree for parallel-prefix adders where a generate bit at one level will have the same value as that in the previous level if there is no carry into the sequence of bits. This method has the advantages of a bundled data approach, allowing the use of single-rail completion detection design methodology, yet it allows the detection of early completion with very minimal gate count overhead. An alternative to "speculative completion," this method has approximately 10% improvement in performance at the costs of a 4% increase in area and a negligible increase in power consumption for Hybrid Skalansky Carry-Select and self-timed Kogge-Stone parallel prefix adders.

  8. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and...

  9. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  10. Early and efficient detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by microscopic observation of broth cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson R Kidenya

    Full Text Available Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3% pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3% versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8% (p = 0.0007. The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7-13, versus 21 days (IQR 14-28 (p<0.0001. The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings.

  11. Low-luminance contrast stimulation is optimal for early detection of glaucoma using multifocal visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind, Hemamalini; Klistorner, Alexander; Grigg, John; Graham, Stuart L

    2011-06-01

    The blue-on-yellow multifocal visual evoked potential (BonY mfVEP) stimulus is more sensitive than the conventional black-and-white pattern-reversal stimulus in identifying early glaucoma. BonY employs pattern-onset stimulation and lower luminance contrast (40%) in addition to color. This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the enhanced performance of the BonY stimulus. Multifocal pattern-onset VEPs were recorded in response to BonY, high-luminance contrast achromatic (HLA) and low-luminance contrast achromatic (LLA) stimulations in 30 normal subjects (to construct normative databases) and 23 patients with early glaucoma (mean deviation [MD] < 6 dB). In addition, the specificity of BonY and LLA stimulation was examined in a subset of 25 normal subjects. In normal subjects, LLA mfVEPs had significantly lower amplitudes than did BonY and HLA mfVEPs (P < 0.001), which were not significantly different from each other. In glaucomatous eyes, all three stimuli demonstrated significantly reduced amplitudes in comparison with those of normal eyes. Although the sensitivities of both BonY and LLA in identifying subjective visual field defects were similarly high (93% and 89.7%, respectively), HLA showed only a 79.3% detection rate. BonY and LLA demonstrated significantly higher defect severity scores than did HLA (P < 0.05 for both). Specificities for BonY and LLA were similar (96%). BonY and LLA mfVEPs performed comparably, and both were significantly better than the HLA mfVEP in identifying early glaucoma. Enhanced performance of BonY stimulation is most likely due to its low-luminance contrast component rather than the pattern-onset mode of presentation or its chromatic properties.

  12. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  13. Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostashari Farzad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School absenteeism data may have utility as an early indicator of disease outbreaks, however their value should be critically examined. This paper describes an evaluation of the utility of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection in New York City (NYC. Methods To assess citywide temporal trends in absenteeism, we downloaded three years (2001–02, 2002–03, 2003–04 of daily school attendance data from the NYC Department of Education (DOE website. We applied the CuSum method to identify aberrations in the adjusted daily percent absent. A spatial scan statistic was used to assess geographic clustering in absenteeism for the 2001–02 academic year. Results Moderate increases in absenteeism were observed among children during peak influenza season. Spatial analysis detected 790 significant clusters of absenteeism among elementary school children (p Conclusion Monitoring school absenteeism may be moderately useful for detecting large citywide epidemics, however, school-level data were noisy and we were unable to demonstrate any practical value in using cluster analysis to detect localized outbreaks. Based on these results, we will not implement prospective monitoring of school absenteeism data, but are evaluating the utility of more specific school-based data for outbreak detection.

  14. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  15. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  16. Development of a metabolic biosignature for detection of early Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Claudia R; Ashton, Laura V; Wormser, Gary P; Hess, Ann M; Delorey, Mark J; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Schriefer, Martin E; Belisle, John T

    2015-06-15

    Early Lyme disease patients often present to the clinic prior to developing a detectable antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent. Thus, existing 2-tier serology-based assays yield low sensitivities (29%-40%) for early infection. The lack of an accurate laboratory test for early Lyme disease contributes to misconceptions about diagnosis and treatment, and underscores the need for new diagnostic approaches. Retrospective serum samples from patients with early Lyme disease, other diseases, and healthy controls were analyzed for small molecule metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A metabolomics data workflow was applied to select a biosignature for classifying early Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patients. A statistical model of the biosignature was trained using the patients' LC-MS data, and subsequently applied as an experimental diagnostic tool with LC-MS data from additional patient sera. The accuracy of this method was compared with standard 2-tier serology. Metabolic biosignature development selected 95 molecular features that distinguished early Lyme disease patients from healthy controls. Statistical modeling reduced the biosignature to 44 molecular features, and correctly classified early Lyme disease patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 88% (84%-95%), and a specificity of 95% (90%-100%). Importantly, the metabolic biosignature correctly classified 77%-95% of the of serology negative Lyme disease patients. The data provide proof-of-concept that metabolic profiling for early Lyme disease can achieve significantly greater (P Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  18. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  19. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Bronchoscopy for Detection and Localization of Early Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shusen; LI Buhong; LI Hui; ZHENG Wei; LU Zukang

    2001-01-01

    Experimenatal results on the development of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Bronchoscopy(LIFB) for the detection and localization of early lung cancer are reported in this paper. The system utilizes fluorescence of photosensitizer drug to provide real time video imaging for the examined lung tissue. Color filters are used to differentiate signal from background and a computer image processing technique is also applied to subtract the background. Moreover, a pseudocolor contrast enhancement method was developed to enhance the fluorescence image displayed on the vidio monitor. Suspicious areas are identified by pseudocolor image to guide biopsy, and several clinical trials show that sensitivity and contrast capability of the system should permit the detection and localization of early lung cancer.

  20. Early detection of tooth wear by en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Eniko; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-02-01

    Excessive dental wear (pathological attrition and/or abfractions) is a frequent complication in bruxing patients. The parafunction causes heavy occlusal loads. The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-face optical coherence tomography was used for investigating and imaging of several extracted tooth, with a normal morphology, derived from patients with active bruxism and from subjects without parafunction. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks in patients with first degree bruxism and with a normal tooth morphology. We conclude that the en-face optical coherence tomography is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for the early detection of occlusal overload, before it becomes clinically evident as tooth wear.