WorldWideScience

Sample records for early detection intervention

  1. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).

  2. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on early intervention in psychosis and to evaluate relevant studies. METHOD: Early intervention was defined as intervention in the prodromal phase (primary prevention) and intervention after the onset of psychosis, i.e. shortening of duration of untreated psych...

  4. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  5. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  6. An Online Change of Activity in Energy Spectrum for Detection on an Early Intervention Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudergui, K.; Laine, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire de Modelisation et de Simulation des Systemes, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blanc, P. [IMS, Innovation and Measurement Systems, 94100 Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France); Deltour, A. [ECA Robotics, 91892 Orsay Cedex (France); Mozziconacci, S. [SDIS13, 13110 Port de Bouc (France)

    2015-07-01

    With the growth of industrial risks and the multiplication of CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological and explosive) attacks through toxic chemicals, biological or radiological threats, public services and military authorities face with increasingly critical situations, whose management is strongly conditioned by fast and reliable establishment of an informative diagnostic. Right after an attack, the five first minutes are crucial to define the various scenarios and the most dangerous for a human intervention. Therefore the use of robots is considered essential by all stakeholders of security. In this context, the SISPEO project (Systeme d'Intervention Sapeurs Pompiers Robotise) aims to create/build/design a robust response through a robotic platform for early intervention services such as civil and military security in hostile environments. CEA LIST has proposed an adapted solution to detect and characterize nuclear and radiological risks online and in motion, using a miniature embedded CdZnTe (CZT) crystal Gamma-ray spectrometer. This paper presents experimental results for this miniature embedded CZT spectrometer and its associated mathematical method to detect and characterize radiological threats online and in motion. (authors)

  7. An Online Change of Activity in Energy Spectrum for Detection on an Early Intervention Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudergui, K.; Laine, F.; Montagu, T.; Blanc, P.; Deltour, A.; Mozziconacci, S.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of industrial risks and the multiplication of CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological and explosive) attacks through toxic chemicals, biological or radiological threats, public services and military authorities face with increasingly critical situations, whose management is strongly conditioned by fast and reliable establishment of an informative diagnostic. Right after an attack, the five first minutes are crucial to define the various scenarios and the most dangerous for a human intervention. Therefore the use of robots is considered essential by all stakeholders of security. In this context, the SISPEO project (Systeme d'Intervention Sapeurs Pompiers Robotise) aims to create/build/design a robust response through a robotic platform for early intervention services such as civil and military security in hostile environments. CEA LIST has proposed an adapted solution to detect and characterize nuclear and radiological risks online and in motion, using a miniature embedded CdZnTe (CZT) crystal Gamma-ray spectrometer. This paper presents experimental results for this miniature embedded CZT spectrometer and its associated mathematical method to detect and characterize radiological threats online and in motion. (authors)

  8. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  9. Data management for early hearing detection and intervention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internationally, newborn hearing screening is becoming part of standard neonatal healthcare service guidelines for the implementation of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI initiatives, including screening, diagnosis, data management and intervention. Data management includes the processes of data collection and storage thereof, as well as analysis and interpretation of data to guide the future planning, implementation and evaluation of EHDI programmes. There have been limited studies on data management in the South African EHDI context. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the type of data management systems in use in South Africa and whether they allow for cross-disciplinary sharing and evaluation of the EHDI processes. A survey instrument on the management of EHDI data was developed and sent to HI HOPES referral agents in both public and private sectors. Results: A return rate of 80% was achieved, with 19 (59% public sector and 13 (41% private sector audiologists participating in the study. The data revealed that there was no uniform data management system in use nationally, and no consistent shared system within the public or private sectors. The majority of respondents (44% used a paper-based system for data recording. No institutions were using data management systems that enabled sharing of information with other medical professionals. Conclusion: Data management and tracking of the pathway from screening to diagnosis to intervention is necessary to ensure quality care and outcomes for children identified with hearing loss. International studies reveal the importance of effective implementation of data management systems; however, to date these have focussed on developed country contexts. Data management challenges identified in this study reflect international challenges as well as challenges unique to a developing country context.

  10. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    and brittle bones . 8 INFORM YOUR DOCTOR Certain activities, conditions, and substances can also affect PSA levels, including: • medicines (such as...Growth rates for this type of cancer can vary. Studies have shown that prostate tumors grow at different rates in different people . While some...This is one reason why early detection may be important. • When the cancer spreads beyond the prostate, it becomes more difficult to manage and the

  11. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  12. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  13. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  14. Initiatives on early detection and intervention to proactively identify health and social problems in older people: experiences from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Baan, Caroline A; van den Berg, Matthijs; de Bruin, Simone R

    2015-10-30

    Over the last years, several initiatives on early detection and intervention have been put in place to proactively identify health and social problems in (frail) older people. An overview of the initiatives currently available in the Netherlands is lacking, and it is unknown whether they meet the preferences and needs of older people. Therefore, the objectives of this study were threefold: 1. To identify initiatives on early detection and intervention for older people in the Netherlands and compare their characteristics; 2. To explore the experiences of professionals with these initiatives; and 3. To explore to what extent existing initiatives meet the preferences and needs of older people. We performed a qualitative descriptive study in which we conducted semi-structured interviews with seventeen experts in preventive elderly care and three group interviews with volunteer elderly advisors. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. We identified eight categories of initiatives based on the setting (e.g. general practitioner practice, hospital, municipality) in which they were offered. Initiatives differed in their aims and target groups. The utilization of peers to identify problems and risks, as was done by some initiatives, was seen as a strength. Difficulties were experienced with identifying the target group that would benefit from proactive delivery of care and support most, and with addressing prevalent issues among older people (e.g. psychosocial issues, self-reliance issues). Although there is a broad array of initiatives available, there is a discrepancy between supply and demand. Current initiatives insufficiently address needs of (frail) older people. More insight is needed in "what should be done by whom, for which target group and at what moment", in order to improve current practice in preventive elderly care.

  15. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  16. Importance of Early Detection and Cardiovascular Surgical Intervention in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelloStritto, Rita; Branham, Steve; Chemmachel, Christina; Patel, Jayna; Skolkin, Dayna; Gilani, Salima; Uleanya, Klever

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that affects multiple systems, including the skeletal, ligamentous, oculofacial, pulmonary, abdominal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems. Cardiovascular complications, which involve the aorta and aortic valve, contribute most significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. A literature review was conducted on pathophysiology of the disease and recommendations for early diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis largely relies on clinical features and a thorough history. Echocardiogram is used for monitoring aortic abnormalities and disease progression. Aortic valve-sparing surgery is indicated in any valvular abnormality and in patients with a murmur. Aortic root replacement is indicated prophylactically in women who want to give birth with diameters greater than 40 mm, anyone with a diameter greater than 50 mm, and progressive dilatation of greater than 5 mm per year. Medical management involves antihypertensive therapy. It is imperative for all health care providers to understand the clinical features, progression, and management of Marfan syndrome to appropriately care for their patients. Ensuring regular follow-up and adherence to medical and surgical prophylaxis is essential to patient well-being.

  17. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme ....... Wider dissemination of EI services will probably benefit from better integration of potential funders, promotion of joint targets and shared financial or budgetary incentives....... overcome these difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Funding for mental health in general and for EI services appears low relative to need. One key argument for better funding for EI can be found in its favourable cost-effectiveness, but not all stakeholders beyond mental health administrators are aware of this...

  18. Using Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Cancer Screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Carter, Aundrea; Kenney, Kristy; Myles, Zachary; Melillo, Stephanie; Royalty, Janet; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay; Miller, Jacqueline W

    2016-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase screening among all women. To collect baseline data on EBI use, evaluation of EBIs, and related training needs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Web-based survey in late 2013 among NBCCEDP grantees for the period July 2012 to June 2013. This was the first systematic assessment of EBIs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBCCEDP. Primarily program directors/coordinators for all 67 NBCCEDP grantees. Data captured were used to assess implementation of 5 EBIs, their evaluation, and related training needs. Frequencies and proportions were determined. Cluster analysis identified grantees with similar patterns of EBI use for NBCCEDP clients and providers. On average, 4.1 of 5 EBIs were implemented per grantee for NBCCEDP clients and providers. Four clusters were identified including "high overall EBI users," "high provider EBI users," "high EBI users with no provider assessment and feedback," and "high client EBI users." Only 1.8 EBIs were implemented, on average, with non-NBCCEDP clients and providers. Fewer than half (n = 32, 47.8%) of grantees conducted process or outcome evaluation of 1 or more EBIs. Overall, 47.6% of grantees reported high or medium training needs for client-oriented EBIs and 54.3% for provider-oriented EBIs. The NBCCEDP grantees are implementing EBIs extensively with clients and providers. Increased EBI use among non-NBCCEDP clients/providers is needed to extend the NBCCEDP's reach and impact. Grantee training and technical assistance is necessary across EBIs. In addition, grantees' use of process and outcome evaluation of EBI implementation must be increased

  19. The Impact of Health Education Intervention for Prevention and Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes in Women with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mirella Youssef

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational and postpartum weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed, with randomization at the level of Primary Health Care centers in three Egyptian cities. Eligible women with GDM were enrolled at 24 weeks pregnancy. The intervention group (n = 103) received health education intervention based on the HBM construct. Control subjects (n = 98) received the usual care. The outcomes measured were: women's knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention. Patients were investigated at baseline, at end of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. After the intervention, percentages of women who had high knowledge and beliefs scores had significantly increased from less than 50 % to more than 70 % in the intervention group (p < 0.001). More women in the intervention group reported practicing exclusive breast feeding (85.4 %) and screening for T2DM (43.7 %) at 6 weeks postpartum compared to the control group (63.3 and 19.4 % respectively) (p < 0.001). More women with excessive body mass index in the intervention group (65 %) compared to the control group (11.6 %) were meeting recommended GWG (p < 0.001), and postpartum weight (37.7, and 20.3 % respectively) (p < 0.01). This intervention significantly improved knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, and gestational and postpartum weight in patients with GDM. Further research is needed for investigating the effectiveness of applying early, multi-phase, and longer intervention.

  20. Case study of early detection and intervention of infectious disease outbreaks in an institution using Nursery School Absenteeism Surveillance Systems (NSASSy) of the Public Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kayo; Hirayama, Chifumi; Sakuma, Yoko; Itoi, Yoichi; Sunadori, Asami; Kitamura, Junko; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Detecting outbreaks early and then activating countermeasures based on such information is extremely important for infection control at childcare facilities. The Sumida ward began operating the Nursery School Absenteeism Surveillance System (NSASSy) in August 2013, and has since conducted real-time monitoring at nursery schools. The Public Health Center can detect outbreaks early and support appropriate intervention. This paper describes the experiences of Sumida Public Health Center related to early detection and intervention since the initiation of the system.Methods In this study, we investigated infectious disease outbreaks detected at 62 nursery schools in the Sumida ward, which were equipped with NSASSy from early November 2013 through late March 2015. We classified the information sources of the detected outbreak and responses of the public health center. The sources were (1) direct contact from some nursery schools, (2) messages from public officers with jurisdiction over nursery schools, (3) automatic detection by NSASSy, and (4) manual detection by public health center officers using NSASSy. The responses made by the health center were described and classified into 11 categories including verification of outbreak and advice for caregivers.Results The number of outbreaks detected by the aforementioned four information sources was zero, 25, 15, and 7 events, respectively, during the first 5 months after beginning NSASSy. These numbers became 5, 7, 53, and 25 events, respectively, during the subsequent 12 months. The number of outbreaks detected increased by 47% during the first 5 months, and by 87% in the following 12 months. The responses were primarily confirming the situation and offering advice to caregivers.Conclusion The Sumida Public Health Center ward could achieve early detection with automatic or manual detection of NSASSy. This system recently has become an important detection resource, and has contributed greatly to early

  1. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stop. Think. Delirium! A quality improvement initiative to explore utilising a validated cognitive assessment tool in the acute inpatient medical setting to detect delirium and prompt early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Angela; Harlan, Todd; Cobb, Janice

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the ability of nursing staff to detect delirium and apply early intervention to decrease adverse events associated with delirium. To characterise nursing practices associated with staff knowledge, delirium screening utilising the Modified Richmond Assessment Sedation Score (mRASS), and multicomponent interventions in an acute inpatient medical unit. Delirium incidence rates are up to 60% in frail elderly hospitalised patients. Under-recognition and inconsistent management of delirium is an international problem. Falls, restraints, and increased hospital length of stay are linked to delirium. A descriptive study. Exploration of relationships between cause and effect among cognitive screening, knowledge assessment and interventions. Success in identifying sufficient cases of delirium was not evident; however, multicomponent interventions were applied to patients with obvious symptoms. An increase in nursing knowledge was demonstrated after additional training. Delirium screening occurred in 49-61% of the target population monthly, with challenges in compliance and documentation of screening and interventions. Technological capabilities for trending mRASS results do not exist within the current computerised patient record system. Delirium screening increases awareness of nursing staff, prompting more emphasis on early intervention in apparent symptoms. Technological support is needed to effectively document and visualise trends in screening results. The study imparts future research on the effects of cognitive screening on delirium prevention and reduction in adverse patient outcomes. Evidence-based literature reveals negative patient outcomes associated with delirium. However, delirium is highly under-recognised indicating future research is needed to address nursing awareness and recognition of delirium. Additional education and knowledge transformation from research to nursing practice are paramount in the application of innovative strategies

  4. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  5. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  6. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  7. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  8. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  9. Skin self-examination education for early detection of melanoma: a randomized controlled trial of Internet, workbook, and in-person interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Gaber, Rikki; Hultgren, Brittney; Eilers, Steven; Blatt, Hanz; Stapleton, Jerod; Mallett, Kimberly; Turrisi, Rob; Duffecy, Jenna; Begale, Mark; Martini, Mary; Bilimoria, Karl; Wayne, Jeffrey

    2014-01-13

    Early detection of melanoma improves survival. Since many melanoma patients and their spouses seek the care of a physician after discovering their melanoma, an ongoing study will determine the efficacy of teaching at-risk melanoma patients and their skin check partner how to conduct skin self-examinations (SSEs). Internet-based health behavior interventions have proven efficacious in creating behavior change in patients to better prevent, detect, or cope with their health issues. The efficacy of electronic interactive SSE educational intervention provided on a tablet device has not previously been determined. The electronic interactive educational intervention was created to develop a scalable, effective intervention to enhance performance and accuracy of SSE among those at-risk to develop melanoma. The intervention in the office was conducted using one of the following three methods: (1) in-person through a facilitator, (2) with a paper workbook, or (3) with a tablet device used in the clinical office. Differences related to method of delivery were elucidated by having the melanoma patient and their skin check partner provide a self-report of their confidence in performing SSE and take a knowledge-based test immediately after receiving the intervention. The three interventions used 9 of the 26 behavioral change techniques defined by Abraham and Michie to promote planning of monthly SSE, encourage performing SSE, and reinforce self-efficacy by praising correct responses to knowledge-based decision making and offering helpful suggestions to improve performance. In creating the electronic interactive SSE educational intervention, the educational content was taken directly from both the scripted in-person presentation delivered with Microsoft PowerPoint by a trained facilitator and the paper workbook training arms of the study. Enrollment totaled 500 pairs (melanoma patient and their SSE partner) with randomization of 165 pairs to the in-person, 165 pairs to the

  10. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  11. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  12. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...

  13. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  14. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...

  15. News in early intervention in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Thevenet, Marion; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years. Data were extracted from systematic reviews and recent randomized controlled trials with moderate to high GRADE quality of evidence. Early intervention refers to brain plasticity theory. With the epidemiological studies of infant "at risk" there is an attempt to intervene earlier before full syndrome is present. Interventions tend to follow more on a developmental hierarchy of socio-communicative skills and to focus on the dyadic relation between the child and the caregivers to improve the core autistic symptoms. Over the last 6 years, there's been news and fine-tuned ways about early intervention, and more and more systematic evaluation. However, there are only few interventions which were evaluated in trial with a strong GRADE recommendation and all of them have methodological concerns. It is important to be cautious in recommendations for mental health politic, even if it is important to improve access to services for all children and their families, hence finance and design rigorous project in research.

  16. Challenges and limitations in early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at

  17. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  18. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  19. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  20. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    , identified by International Obesity Task Force criteria, aged 5-9 years. INTERVENTION: Model 1 with health consultations in general practice during a two-year period or Model 2, an educational programme for the children and their families in addition to the health consultations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change...... in body mass index (BMI) z-score in order to compare the results, independent of gender- and age-related changes over time. RESULTS: A total of 80 children were recruited with 35 and 45 children allocated to Model 1 and Model 2, respectively. No significant differences were found in the change in BMI z...

  1. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  2. [Basics of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Daniela F; Schönstedt, Marianne G; Angeli, Milagros; Herrrera, Claudia C; Moyano, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. They have a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population, although there are no national statistics. Even though their evolution is variable, it has been observed that early intervention is an important factor determining prognosis. The aim of this study is to update concepts regarding the current available evidence on the importance of early intervention. After analyzing the collected information, the importance of early intervention programs for children with ASD is confirmed, as well as the role of pediatricians and other health professionals in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  4. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  5. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  6. [The Outpatient Clinic for Adolescent Risk-taking and Self-harm behaviors (AtR!Sk) - A Pioneering Approach of Outpatient Early Detection and Intervention of Borderline Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Ghinea, Denisa; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz

    2017-07-01

    The Outpatient Clinic for Adolescent Risk-taking and Self-harm behaviors (AtR!Sk) - A Pioneering Approach of Outpatient Early Detection and Intervention of Borderline Personality Disorder Self-harm and risk-taking behaviors are frequently occurring problems in adolescents' everyday life and commonly challenge the present child and adolescent health-care system. Those behaviors are typical features of borderline-personality disorder (BPD), a severe mental disorder that is associated with immense psychological strain, increased risk of mortality and poor psychosocial functioning. Despite controversy in the past, recent evidence shows that BPD is a valid and reliable diagnosis in adolescence. Consequently, specified and effective intervention programs for this age group are necessary. Instead, present health-care services for children and adolescents in Germany are usually characterized by long waiting periods for specialized outpatient treatments and unnecessary expanses of unnecessary long inpatient stays. Alternatively, and in order to prevent serious long-term consequences, new concepts - integrated in an ambulatory setting and close to patients' daily routines - should focus on early detection and treatment of adolescents at-risk presenting with borderline personality features. The specialist outpatient clinic AtR!Sk at the University Hospital Heidelberg ensures a low-threshold initial contact service, comprehensive and accurate diagnosis of BPD features, and rapidly "tailored" therapy for young people presenting with any types of risk-taking and self-harm behavior. AtR!Sk - as a pioneering approach in south Germany - provides evidence-based early detection and intervention for adolescent BPD.

  7. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  8. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  9. Early mathematics intervention in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers......' feedback during the pilot process, how pilot teacher feedback was applied in material production, and the relations between the feedback and the project’s theoretical basis. The project is based on original theory (Math Holes theory), but international frameworks, like Mathematics Recovery, serve...

  10. Prevention of food allergy - Early dietary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.

  12. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva

    2017-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.

  13. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  14. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  15. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  16. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  17. VIA Family - Family Based Early Intervention Versus Treatment as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations

  18. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  19. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  20. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  1. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  2. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  3. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  4. Early Intervention Practices in China: Present Situation and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…

  5. Student Preparation for Professional Practice in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Jennifer R.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Subramanian, Anu

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of students for professional practice in the field of early intervention has changed as a result of mandates through Part C, Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this survey research was to describe the knowledge and skill areas, specific to early intervention, included in pre-professional curricula…

  6. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  7. Early Intervention for Families and Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…

  8. Mapping the Early Intervention System in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…

  9. Automated early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, M.D.; Reinhardt, J.M.; Russell, S.R.; Folk, J.C.; Mahajan, V.B.; Niemeijer, M.; Quellec, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, the Challenge2009, against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project.

  10. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...

  11. Early interventions to prevent retinal vasculopathy in diabetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison WW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease

  12. Early detection and intervention using neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may improve renal outcome of acute contrast media induced nephropathy: a randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing intra-arterial angiography (ANTI-CIN Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilcher, Gernot; Ribitsch, Werner; Otto, Ronald; Portugaller, Rupert H; Quehenberger, Franz; Truschnig-Wilders, Martini; Zweiker, Robert; Stiegler, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Weinhandl, Klemens; Horina, Joerg H

    2011-08-17

    Patients with pre-existing impaired renal function are prone to develop acute contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a new biomarker predictive for acute kidney injury (AKI), has been shown to be useful for earlier diagnosis of CIN; however, urinary NGAL values may be markedly increased in chronic renal failure at baseline. Results from those studies suggested that urinary NGAL values may not be helpful for the clinician. An intravenous volume load is a widely accepted prophylactic measure and possibly a reasonable intervention to prevent deterioration of renal function. The aim of our study is to evaluate NGAL as an early predictor of CIN and to investigate the clinical benefit of early post-procedural i.v. hydration. The study will follow a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled design. Patients requiring intra-arterial contrast media (CM) application will be included and receive standardized, weight-based, intravenous hydration before investigation. Subjects with markedly increased urinary NGAL values after CM application will be randomized into one of two study groups. Group A will receive 3-4 ml/kg BW/h 0.9% saline intravenously for 6 hours. Group B will undergo only standard treatment consisting of unrestricted oral fluid intake. The primary outcome measure will be CIN defined by an increase greater than 25% of baseline serum creatinine. Secondary outcomes will include urinary NGAL values, cystatin C values, contrast media associated changes in cardiac parameters such as NT-pro-BNP/troponin T, changes in urinary cytology, need for renal replacement treatment, length of stay in hospital and death.We assume that 20% of the included patients will show a definite rise in urinary NGAL. Prospective statistical power calculations indicate that the study will have 80% statistical power to detect a clinically significant decrease of CIN of 40% in the treatment arm if 1200 patients are recruited into the

  13. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

    2014-01-01

    in five Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 community-dwelling patients and their primary caregivers. INTERVENTION: Psychosocial counselling and support lasting 8-12 months after diagnosis and follow-up at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months in the intervention group or follow-up only in the control group. MAIN...... and the caregiver before aggregation for the main analysis. RESULTS: None of the observed cost and QALY measures were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although a tendency was noted for psychosocial care leading to cost increases with informal care that was not outweighed...

  14. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  15. Tuberculosis in Canada: Detection, Intervention and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Richardson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the current state of TB in Canada by referencing information presented at the workshop, “Tuberculosis: Detection, Prevention, and Compliance.” The workshop took place on November 14 and 15, 2012 in Ottawa. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Disease Modeling and the Public Health Agency of Canada as a two-day knowledge translation event that was comprised of scientific and policy focused presentations designed to address four key objectives: (1 Evaluate the success of current tuberculosis (TB health policies and control strategies in Canada and for specific Canadian sub-populations; (2 Determine the impact of detection, intervention, compliance, and education strategies in terms of TB incidence and prevalence; (3 Develop targets for future interventions by identifying key characteristics of TB epidemics that impact the success of TB health policies and control strategies; (4 Leverage our existing ties with public health decision makers, aboriginal health organizations, and organizations serving the homeless to develop a research community that is based on close collaboration, and will foster national TB control efforts. The workshop elicited robust discussions between experts from a variety of academic disciplines and government officials. A summary of the information presented, comments shared, and questions posed, will provide a comprehensive understanding of the status of TB in Canada and future directions to be taken for improved control of the disease.

  16. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Ethnic variations in pathways into early intervention services for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Sharif; Fisher, Helen L; Joyce, John; Major, Barnaby; Hobbs, Lorna; Soni, Sujata; Chisholm, Brock; Rahaman, Nikola; Papada, Peggy; Lawrence, Jo; Bloy, Sally; Marlowe, Karl; Aitchison, Katherine J; Power, Paddy; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services. In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services. Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies. Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  19. Early Interventions for At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, Frankie; Klassen, Eydie; Koontz, Barbara; Nottingham, Cheryl; Vierthaler, Charlene

    This is a report on a school-wide ethnographic study of intervention strategies for at-risk students in kindergarten through second grade. A group of 5 teachers from an elementary school of approximately 250 students in a Midwest community of about 18,000 people (2 first-grade teachers, 2 second-grade teachers, and 1 music teacher) comprised the…

  20. An Approach to Bilingualism in Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCradle, Peggy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the concepts, principles, and practical application of serving children who live in bilingual/bicultural households; explores possible reasons for delays identified in these children; and offers a population-based approach to intervention, using a case study of bicultural South Korean children and proposing a solution that…

  1. Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: a contemporary view

    OpenAIRE

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and evidence based. We conclude that early identification of children at risk of dyslexia followed by the implementation of intervention is a realistic aim for...

  2. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction...

  3. Early intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.

  4. Cost Analysis of Early Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, R.; Sørensen, J.; Waldorff, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. METHODS: Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163...

  5. Congenital heart disease in the newborn requiring early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Weon Yun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although antenatal diagnostic technique has considerably improved, precise detection and proper management of the neonate with congenital heart disease (CHD is always a great concern to pediatricians. Congenital cardiac malformations vary from benign to serious conditions such as complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA, critical pulmonary and aortic valvular stenosis/atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR, which the baby needs immediate diagnosis and management for survival. Unfortunately, these life threatening heart diseases may not have obvious evidence early after birth, most of the clinical and physical findings are nonspecific and vague, which makes the diagnosis difficult. High index of suspicion and astute acumen are essential to decision making. When patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is opened widely, many serious malformations may not be noticed easily in the early life, but would progress as severe acidosis/shock/cyanosis or even death as PDA constricts after few hours to days. Ductus dependent congenital cardiac lesions can be divided into the ductus dependent systemic or pulmonary disease, but physiologically quite different from each other and treatment strategy has to be tailored to the clinical status and cardiac malformations. Inevitably early presentation is often regarded as a medical emergency. Differential diagnosis with inborn error metabolic disorders, neonatal sepsis, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN and other pulmonary conditions are necessary. Urgent identification of the newborn at such high risk requires timely referral to a pediatric cardiologist, and timely intervention is the key in reducing mortality and morbidity. This following review deals with the clinical presentations, investigative modalities and approach to management of congenital cardiac malformations presenting in the early life.

  6. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  7. Preventing Poor Vocational Functioning in Psychosis Through Early Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between...... employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. RESULTS: Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative...

  8. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  9. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  10. ATTITUDE PARENTS TO EARLY INTERVENTION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries Visually Impaired children have been educated within the high walls of special schools (Loots ET al., 1992. It is only during the last decades that more and more Visually Impaired children were brought up in their own environment:· the integrated education is not a trend anymore, but an educational policy;· The Early Intervention has transferred into approach to young Visually Impaired children.Early Intervention is crucial because the Visually Impairment affects the early development of a child in several ways:· motor functioning;· concept development;· social skills;· range of experience;· ability to move independently;· play etc.All these obstacles in early development create the necessity of Early Intervention programs which should start immediately after child’s is diagnosed.As it was said above the best approach to involve parents in early Intervention programs is to develop strategies, which fit individual family needs. This means to take into account many factors important for each family. Some of them are:· future believes and expectations;· educational background and culture;· religion;· financial situation.

  11. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...... and the initiation of treatment. The average duration of untreated psychosis is around 1–2 years. During this period, brain function may continue to deteriorate and social networks can be irreversibly damaged. Studies have consistently linked longer duration of untreated psychosis with poorer outcomes......, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...

  12. Early detection strategies for untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan Olav; McGlashan, T H; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2001-01-01

    -year inclusion period (1997-2000) are described. It includes targeted information towards the general public, health professionals and schools, and ED teams to recruit appropriate patients into treatment as soon as possible. This plus easy access to psychiatric services via ED teams systematically changed......Some studies in first-episode schizophrenia correlate shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) with better prognosis, suggesting that timing of treatment may be important. A three-site prospective clinical trial in Norway and Denmark is underway to investigate the effect of the timing......-episode cases. The study ultimately will compare early detected with usual detected patients. This paper describes the study's major independent intervention variable, i.e. a comprehensive education and detection system to change DUP in first onset psychosis. System variables and first results from the four...

  13. Interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision

  14. Interventions to Promote Cancer Awareness and Early Presentation: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    J Austoker; C Bankhead; Lindsay J. L. Forbes; L Atkins; F Martin; K Robb; J Wardle; A J. Ramirez

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low cancer awareness contributes to delay in presentation for cancer symptoms and may lead to delay in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to raise cancer awareness and promote early presentation in cancer to inform policy and future research. Methods: We searched bibliographic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials of interventions delivered to individuals, and controlled or uncontrolled...

  15. Ethics of the early intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Degmecić, Dunja; Koić, Elvira; Benić, Domagoj

    2007-09-01

    When second generation antipsychotics were introduced in the mid 1990-s they offered the possibility of early psychopharmacological interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia. The idea applying antipsychotics in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia today is an realistic option. However ethical dilemmas about offering antipsychotics to the adolescents with at risk mental states, of whom only a few are real prodromes of schizophrenia remain for clinicians. In the literature about the ethics of the early interventions in psychiatry there are still many ethical questions which call for caution because of the low predictive value of at risk mental states, of which only 40% turn out to be a real prodrome of schizophrenia. These ethical questions can be addressed in three categories: - how to best identify who should receive early pharmacological intervention? - what this intervention should consist of? - how to evaluate treatment efficacy in the absence of illness base rates in the adolescents with a real prodrome of schizophrenia? Besides, arguing against the concept of early psychopharmacological interventions in the adolescent population are the fact of the unknown effect of antipsychotics on the developing brain as well as negative effects of stigma on those adolescents who receive them. The authors in the article analyse these ethical questions and take the side of those clinicians who think that caution and careful ethical judgment are needed before the prescribing of antipsychotics to adolescents with at risk mental states.

  16. Alzheimer's disease prevention: from risk factors to early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2017-09-12

    Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.

  17. THINGS THAT CAN BE CHANGED IN EARLY INTERVENTION IN CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, Špela; Marković, Jasminka; Perović, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7), who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50%) why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children's early age is vital.

  18. Employment and educational outcomes in early intervention programmes for early psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A

    2015-10-01

    Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.

  19. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  20. Effects of delayed psychosocial interventions versus early psychosocial interventions for women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could be part of

  1. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…

  2. The Underutilization of Occupational Therapy in Transdisciplinary Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, Carey

    2018-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are mandated by Part C of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The EI team, a multidisciplinary team overseen by individual states, is charged with providing family-centered services to support child development in the natural environment. This article examines the use of occupational…

  3. Early Identification and Interventions for Dyslexia: A Contemporary View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…

  4. Mystery in Milwaukee: Early Intervention, IQ, and Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…

  5. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  6. 75 FR 68613 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of non-competitive transfer of Part C funds from North General Hospital to the Institute for Family...

  7. Measuring prerequisites and effects of preventive intervention in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a

  8. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  9. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  10. Early Childhood Intervention in China from the Families' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…

  11. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis

  12. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  13. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  14. Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education. NCSER 2013-3001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…

  15. Integrating Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder and Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.

  16. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-04-01

    This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Rationale and design of a randomized trial of home electronic symptom and lung function monitoring to detect cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations: the early intervention in cystic fibrosis exacerbation (eICE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtzin, N; West, N; Allgood, S; Wilhelm, E; Khan, U; Mayer-Hamblett, N; Aitken, M L; Ramsey, B W; Boyle, M P; Mogayzel, P J; Goss, C H

    2013-11-01

    Acute pulmonary exacerbations are central events in the lives of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary exacerbations lead to impaired lung function, worse quality of life, and shorter survival. We hypothesized that aggressive early treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbation may improve clinical outcomes. Describe the rationale of an ongoing trial designed to determine the efficacy of home monitoring of both lung function measurements and symptoms for early detection and subsequent early treatment of acute CF pulmonary exacerbations. A randomized, non-blinded, multi-center trial in 320 individuals with CF aged 14 years and older. The study compares usual care to a twice a week assessment of home spirometry and CF respiratory symptoms using an electronic device with data transmission to the research personnel to identify and trigger early treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation. Participants will be enrolled in the study for 12 months. The primary endpoint is change in FEV1 (L) from baseline to 12 months determined by a linear mixed effects model incorporating all quarterly FEV1 measurements. Secondary endpoints include time to first acute protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbation, number of acute pulmonary exacerbations, number of hospitalization days for acute pulmonary exacerbation, time from the end of acute pulmonary exacerbation to onset of subsequent pulmonary exacerbation, change in health related quality of life, change in treatment burden, change in CF respiratory symptoms, and adherence to the study protocol. This study is a first step in establishing alternative approaches to the care of CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesize that early treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has the potential to slow lung function decline, reduce respiratory symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with CF. © 2013.

  18. Organizing the early detection of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdavaa, N.

    1995-01-01

    In early detection and diagnosing cancers: 1. organizing the preventive different examinations among the population in the servicing sphere, involving the family doctors to them. 2.Discharging the patients from hospitals after making the complex analysis to negate cancers and consulting with gynaecologist regardless the diagnosis of female in-patients aged over 20 who were hospitalized. 3.Making the analysis to negate cancers to the in-patients with indefinite diagnosis for the period of 14 days since their hospitalization and also the in-patients, who were shivered indefinitely.4.Making the analysis to negate cancers to all persons, who are first visited at out-patient clinics in the given year, who aged over 40, consulting the female patient, who aged over 25 with gynaecologist and making the USV examination to the persons, who were ill with infectious hepatitis now virus carriers at least 2 times for year

  19. Early Detection and Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    mainly characterized by the astronomical tide and white noise. TEDA has been tested on specific events recorded by Adak Island tide-gauge, in Alaska, and by DART buoys, located offshore Alaska, thanks to the collaboration with NCTR of PMEL/NOAA (NOAA Centre for Tsunami Research of Pacific and Marine Environmental Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Three methods for the characterization of the background signal have been tested and compared with different characterization settings, in order to find the most appropriate calibration. To evaluate the algorithm performance, different indicators have been taken into account, such as the number of false detections, the number of events detected, the delay of detection and the duration of the tsunami alert state. Particular attention has been reserved to the number of false detections, which compromise heavily the reliability of a detection algorithm and undermine the usefulness of the algorithm itself. The method to test TEDA is presented here and is proposed as an example of procedure to evaluate the performance of the tsunami detection algorithms used in the Tsunami Early Warning Systems practice.

  1. Equitable service provision for inclusive education and effective early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, K M

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.

  2. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  3. Knowledge and Use of Intervention Practices by Community-Based Early Intervention Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…

  4. Early intervention to improve hand function in hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Purna Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle: however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified constraint-induced movement therapy and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention.

  5. Early-Life Obesity Prevention: Critique of Intervention Trials During the First One Thousand Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Martin, Anne; Hughes, Adrienne R

    2017-06-01

    To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep). Finally, while obesity prevention interventions aim to modify body composition, few intervention trials have used body composition measures as outcomes, and this has limited their sensitivity to detect intervention effects. The new WHO Healthy Lifestyles Trajectory (HeLTI) initiative should address some of these weaknesses. Future early obesity prevention trials should be much more ambitious. They should, ideally: extend their interventions over the first 1000 days; have longer-term (childhood) outcomes, and improved outcome measures (body composition measures in addition to proxies for body composition such as the BMI for age); have greater emphasis on maternal smoking and child sleep; be global.

  6. Practices for Parent Participation in Early Intervention/ Early Childhood Special Education

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...

  7. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  8. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  9. Promoting early detection of melanoma during the mammography experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rzepecki, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman’s risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health. Methods: This was a pilot and feasibility study that was designed to promote the early detection of melanoma among women who undergo a mammogram at the Lynn Sage Breast Center at the Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The study was conducted in three phases: development of the materials, delivery of the program, and assessment of the program effectiveness. Results: Eighty six percent of women with scheduled mammogram appointments participated in the study (n = 560. Among these women, 68% noticed the SSE information in the changing rooms, 78% thought the information applied to them, and 68% identified with at least one of the risk factors for melanoma. Twenty percent of the patients checked their skin in the changing room, 13% noticed a concerning mole, and 60% of those women who noted a concerning lesion stated their intent to see a dermatologist for further evaluation. Conclusion: A large proportion of the women in our study had risk factors for developing a melanoma and noticed the SSE information in the screening center. Placing an intervention to encourage methods for the early detection of melanoma in an outpatient mammography environment is an effective strategy to increase awareness in a large proportion of at-risk women. Keywords: melanoma, skin self-examination, skin cancer screening

  10. Pulmonary berylliosis. Experimental induction. Early detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Stephane

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the biological reactivity of industrial and environmental aerosols, notably beryllium powder aerosols. In order to study beryllium toxicity under its metal form, and the dose-effect relationship and the suspected carcinogen effect, a pulmonary berylliosis has been experimentally induced in rat and monkey. In order to develop means of rapid detection of exposure and sensitisation to beryllium, the author studied early pathological cellular mechanisms occurring during a pulmonary granulomatosis. Quantitative and qualitative modifications have been searched for, more particularly at the level of endo-alveolar cellular populations of macrophages and lymphocytes. The study has also been extended to the sensitisation of lymphocytes with respect to beryllium. After some generalities about beryllium (properties, sources, uses, exposure sources), and an overview of its toxicity (epidemiology, pathologies, experiments, biological mechanisms, detoxification), the author reports the introduction of a chronic pulmonary berylliosis into animals, discusses the various noticed pathologies and their analysis, and reports in situ and in vitro studies [fr

  11. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub α/ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage

  12. Gender comparisons in children with ASD entering early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David

    2017-09-01

    Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Essential elements of an early intervention service for psychosis: the opinions of expert clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Shôn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early intervention teams attempt to improve outcome in schizophrenia through earlier detection and the provision of phase-specific treatments. Whilst the number of early intervention teams is growing, there is a lack of clarity over their essential structural and functional elements. Methods A 'Delphi' exercise was carried out to identify how far there was consensus on the essential elements of early intervention teams in a group of 21 UK expert clinicians. Using published guidelines, an initial list was constructed containing 151 elements from ten categories of team structure and function. Results Overall there was expert consensus on the importance of 136 (90% of these elements. Of the items on which there was consensus, 106 (70.2% were rated essential, meaning that in their absence the functioning of the team would be severely impaired. Conclusion This degree of consensus over essential elements suggests that it is reasonable to define a model for UK early intervention teams, from which a measure of fidelity could be derived.

  14. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biomarkers found in blood, tissues, or other bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and

  15. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention and the Role of Parents in Language Development of Hearing Loss Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shekari

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Research showed the effectiveness of early intervention in the early development of language and vocabulary. In addition, early detection of hearing loss in the first 6 months of age has a positive impact on children and families interactions and consequently, on language and vocabulary development. The primary focus in the implementation of early intervention services is to reduce the negative effects of risk factors and facilitate optimum development over time. Finally, the combination of early diagnosis and early intervention for children with hearing impairment is necessary.

  16. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  17. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  18. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  19. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  20. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  1. Theoretical constructs for early intervention programs in mathematics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Kirsted, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    . It is not a straightforward endeavour. One reason is that the term theory as well as the term practice may very well be given different meanings by different agents. This variation is in our view to be considered in “implementation research” and Lewin’s statement ought to be qualified by two questions “Who cares for a good...... theory?” and “What makes a good theory good for whom?” This paper explores this variation of how theory is perceived by mathematics teachers and by mathematics researchers involved in a developmental project on early intervention in mathematics education in Denmark. The paper exemplifies how agents...

  2. Music-caring within the framework of early intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Valgerdur

    2011-01-01

    Despite developments in the field of early intervention, and an increase in the variety of available services and number of specialists equipped to assist, the needs of caretakers of children with disabilities in times of crisis have not received enough attention. It seems that too often caretakers...... themselves get lost in the role given to them as their infants‟ best specialists, and in the emphasis which is placed on their children‟s developmental milestones. The caretakers and the potential psychological distress they experience having a disabled child are more often than not the forgotten component...

  3. Using Digital Media Advertising in Early Psychosis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Michael L; Garrett, Chantel; Baumel, Amit; Scovel, Maria; Rizvi, Asra F; Muscat, Whitney; Kane, John M

    2017-11-01

    Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis. A landing page was developed with the primary goal of encouraging help-seeking individuals in New York City to contact their local early psychosis intervention clinic. In order to provide the best opportunity to reach the intended audience, Google AdWords was utilized to link more than 2,000 selected search terms to strategically placed landing page advertisements. The campaign ran for 14 weeks between April 11 and July 18, 2016 and had a total budget of $1,427. The ads appeared 191,313 times and were clicked on 4,350 times, at a per-click cost of $.33. Many users took additional help-seeking steps, including obtaining psychosis-specific information/education (44%), completing a psychosis self-screener (15%), and contacting the local early treatment program (1%). Digital ads appear to be a reasonable and cost-effective method to reach individuals who are searching for behavioral health information online. More research is needed to better understand the many complex steps between online search inquiries and making first clinical contact.

  4. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Applicaton to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  5. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  6. The DREME Network: Research and Interventions in Early Childhood Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Hess, Crystal; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-01-01

    The DREME Network was created to advance the field of early mathematics research and improves the opportunities to develop math competencies offered to children birth through age 8 years, with an emphasis on the preschool years. All four main Network projects will have implications for interventions. Section 1 introduces the Network and its four projects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on one of these four projects, Making More of Math (MMM), in depth. MMM is directly developing an intervention for children, based on selecting high-quality instructional activities culled from the burgeoning curriculum resources. We first report a review of 457 activities from 6 research-based curricula, which describes the number of activities by content focus, type (nature), and setting of each activity. Given the interest in higher-order thinking skills and self-regulation, we then identified activities that had the potential to, develop both mathematics and executive function (EF) proficiencies. We rated these, selecting the top 10 for extensive coding by mathematics content and EF processes addressed. We find a wide divergence across curricula in all these categories and provide comprehensive reports for those interested in selecting, using, or developing early mathematics curricula. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  8. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...

  9. Power to Detect Intervention Effects on Ensembles of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.; Junker, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The hierarchical network model (HNM) is a framework introduced by Sweet, Thomas, and Junker for modeling interventions and other covariate effects on ensembles of social networks, such as what would be found in randomized controlled trials in education research. In this article, we develop calculations for the power to detect an intervention…

  10. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally; Munson, Jeffrey; Smith, Milani; Winter, Jamie; Greenson, Jessica; Donaldson, Amy; Varley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention, for improving outcomes of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-eight children diagnosed with ASD between 18 and 30 months of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) ESDM intervention, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and parents for 2 years; or (2) referral to community providers for intervention commonly available in the community. Compared with children who received community-intervention, children who received ESDM showed significant improvements in IQ, adaptive behavior, and autism diagnosis. Two years after entering intervention, the ESDM group on average improved 17.6 standard score points (1 SD: 15 points) compared with 7.0 points in the comparison group relative to baseline scores. The ESDM group maintained its rate of growth in adaptive behavior compared with a normative sample of typically developing children. In contrast, over the 2-year span, the comparison group showed greater delays in adaptive behavior. Children who received ESDM also were more likely to experience a change in diagnosis from autism to pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified, than the comparison group. This is the first randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate the efficacy of a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention for toddlers with ASD for improving cognitive and adaptive behavior and reducing severity of ASD diagnosis. Results of this study underscore the importance of early detection of and intervention in autism.

  11. Early interventions and lessons from Harvard Business Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Siow-Ann

    2007-11-01

    To describe the establishment and development of an Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore that is based on a business model and with concepts drawn from the corporate world. The author who directed this programme describes the circumstances that led to this initiative, the ideas borrowed and adapted from the corporate world, and the lessons learnt in setting up this intervention programme. The modus operandi of the programme is based on the Balanced Scorecard - a model which stresses four equally important components: customers, internal processes, financial health and learning and innovation. Other complementary actions like creating a sense of urgency, forging a vision with a core ideology, empowerment of team members, creating short-term wins, anchoring the changes and finding meaning in the work are vital for the programme to thrive. This model also emphasizes the importance of accountability through the measurability of indicators. These indicators included a significant reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis, a positive change in the referral patterns with better engagement of the primary health-care sector and an improvement in the quality of care for the patients. Much can be learnt from the business world in building and maintaining a public mental health programme. Effective change also requires effective leadership, and the successful implementation of certain strategic steps.

  12. Radial artery approach for coronary intervention - early experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, H.; Hadi, A.; Fahim, M.; Gul, A.M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, S.B.; Hafizullah, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To see the clinical outcome of patients undergoing Transradial Coronary Angioplasty with stable Angina. Methodology: This was a single center observational study with prospective data collection of 338 patients who underwent transradial coronary angioplasty from September 2009 to August 2011, at Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of both genders and all ages who had transradial coronary angioplasty for chronic stable angina were included in the study. Patients were clinically examined in out patients department on first month of hospital discharge and clinical outcome data was recorded. Results: A total of 338 patients were included in the study. Male were 58.8% and 41.2% were female with mean age of 52+-7 years. All the patients had coronary intervention through right radial artery. Baseline characteristics of the patients were; 48.2% diabetic, 43.2% hypertensive, 30.5% smokers, dyslipidemia was 45.7% and mean values of serum creatinine and Hemoglobin were 1.1+-0.3 and 11.5+-1.5, respectively. The frequency of various complications were as follow; hematoma 1.3%, nausea and vomiting 2.2%, pain in hand 11.2%, re admission to hospital for chest pain 6.5%, need for revascularization 2.2%, hand ischemia 1.8%, minor bleeding 0.9%, no major bleeding and 1.9% mortality. Conclusion: The radial artery approach for coronary intervention is useful with low degree of access site vascular complications and an early mobilization. (author)

  13. Radial artery approach for coronary intervention - early experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, H; Hadi, A; Fahim, M; Gul, A M; Irfan, M; Khan, S B; Hafizullah, M [Lady Reading Hospital and Khyber Medical University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2012-01-15

    Objective: To see the clinical outcome of patients undergoing Transradial Coronary Angioplasty with stable Angina. Methodology: This was a single center observational study with prospective data collection of 338 patients who underwent transradial coronary angioplasty from September 2009 to August 2011, at Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of both genders and all ages who had transradial coronary angioplasty for chronic stable angina were included in the study. Patients were clinically examined in out patients department on first month of hospital discharge and clinical outcome data was recorded. Results: A total of 338 patients were included in the study. Male were 58.8% and 41.2% were female with mean age of 52+-7 years. All the patients had coronary intervention through right radial artery. Baseline characteristics of the patients were; 48.2% diabetic, 43.2% hypertensive, 30.5% smokers, dyslipidemia was 45.7% and mean values of serum creatinine and Hemoglobin were 1.1+-0.3 and 11.5+-1.5, respectively. The frequency of various complications were as follow; hematoma 1.3%, nausea and vomiting 2.2%, pain in hand 11.2%, re admission to hospital for chest pain 6.5%, need for revascularization 2.2%, hand ischemia 1.8%, minor bleeding 0.9%, no major bleeding and 1.9% mortality. Conclusion: The radial artery approach for coronary intervention is useful with low degree of access site vascular complications and an early mobilization. (author)

  14. A Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…

  15. Responses to Struggling, K-2 Readers and Writers: Early Literacy Intervention in Three Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…

  16. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  17. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietdijk, J.; Dragt, S.; Klaassen, R.; Ising, H; Nieman, D.; Wunderink, L.; Delespaul, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Linszen, D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in

  18. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  19. Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.

  20. Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical screening with Luviva machine for early detection of cervical dysplasia: ... glandular cell (AGC), Atypical glandular cell favouring neoplasia (AGC-FN), ... in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was recorded among the patients.

  1. Fulfilling the potential of cancer prevention and early detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Susan J; Byers, Tim; Hewitt, Maria Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    .... The National Cancer Policy Board, part of the Institute of Medicine, outlines a national strategy to realize the promise of cancer prevention and early detection, including specific and wide-ranging recommendations...

  2. [Early detection of autism in children. Review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, E

    1997-01-01

    The difficulties with early detection of autistic disorder in children are discussed. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria are presented. Usefulness of clinical interview and clinical experiment in diagnosing autistic disorder are analyzed.

  3. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  4. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  5. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas C; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital

  6. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  7. The C'JAAD: a French team for early intervention in psychosis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppetit, Alice; Bourgin, Julie; Martinez, Gilles; Kazes, Mathilde; Mam-Lam-Fook, Célia; Gaillard, Raphael; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2018-04-01

    The aim is to describe a centre operating in Paris that pioneers the early intervention for young people at the onset and at high risk of psychosis in France. Comprehensive descriptive analysis of different clinical and service measures is used in describing the implementation of the C'JAAD (Evaluation Centre for Young Adults and Adolescents) using data from an ongoing prospective non-interventional research programme. Over a 2-year period, 151 patients were referred to the C'JAAD and included in the ICAAR research programme. After evaluation by the Comprehensive Assessment of the At-Risk Mental States Scale, 53.7% were identified at risk of developing a psychosis, 20.6% presented a full-blown psychosis and 25.7% were considered not at risk of developing a psychosis. A total of 84% of the at-risk subjects suffered from a psychiatric co-morbidity, of which anxiodepressive symptoms being the most frequent (39%). The global functioning of these at-risk subjects was seriously impaired (average Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale score = 48.9). More than one third of the patients was self-referred (33.8%), 22.5% were addressed by a psychiatrist whereas 10.6% were referred by a general practitioner. In this paper, we report for the first time the activities of the C'JAAD, the pioneer unit in France for early detection and treatment of young adults with early psychosis. These observations indicate that such early intervention centre is a feasible and sustainable extension of traditional care for people with mental disorders in this country and offers promising perspective for the development of further centres. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Determination of preservice special education teachers’ views on early childhood intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Baglama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with special needs or children who are at risk to have sufficient knowledge about early childhood intervention and be competent in this area. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the views of preservice special education teachers about early childhood intervention. This study used quantitative research method and a questionnaire form was used to collect the data. The results are discussed in detail with reference to relevant literature. Implications and recommendations for further research are also provided in order to improve the quality of education policies, programs and practices related with early childhood intervention and increase awareness and knowledge related with early childhood interventions among teacher candidates.

  9. Early intervention for psychotic disorders: Real-life implementation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gloria H Y; Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Xu, Jia-Qi; Lin, Jessie J X; Lai, Dik-Chee; Tam, Wendy; Kok, Joy; Chung, Dicky; Hung, S F; Chen, Eric Y H

    2012-03-01

    Hong Kong is among the first few cities in Asia to have implemented early intervention for psychosis in 2001. Substantial changes in psychosis service have since taken place. We reviewed available outcome data in Hong Kong, with reference to the philosophy of early intervention in psychosis, discussing experience and lessons learned from the implementation process, and future opportunities and challenges. Data accumulated in the past decade provided evidence for the benefits and significance of early intervention programmes: patients under the care of early intervention service showed improved functioning, milder symptoms, and fewer hospitalizations and suicides. Early intervention is more cost-effective compared with standard care. Stigma and misconception remains an issue, and public awareness campaigns are underway. In recent years, a critical mass is being formed, and Hong Kong has witnessed the unfolding of public service extension, new projects and organizations, and increasing interest from the community. Several major platforms are in place for coherent efforts, including the public Early Assessment Service for Young people with psychosis (EASY) programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention (PSI) research unit, the independent Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society (EPISO), the Jockey Club Early Psychosis (JCEP) project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. The first decade of early intervention work has been promising; consolidation and further development is needed on many fronts of research, service and education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The advantages of wavelet analysis over the Fourier analysis for the early detection of rogue waves are discussed. • The triangular wavelet spectra can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves. • The wavelet analysis is capable of detecting not only the emergence but also the location of a rogue wave. • Wavelet analysis is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. - Abstract: We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  11. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayındır, Cihan, E-mail: cihan.bayindir@isikun.edu.tr

    2016-01-08

    Highlights: • The advantages of wavelet analysis over the Fourier analysis for the early detection of rogue waves are discussed. • The triangular wavelet spectra can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves. • The wavelet analysis is capable of detecting not only the emergence but also the location of a rogue wave. • Wavelet analysis is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. - Abstract: We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  12. Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

  13. A Novel Early Intervention for Preschool Depression: Findings from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan; Lenze, Shannon; Tillman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background: Validation for depression in preschool children has been established; however, to date no empirical investigations of interventions for the early onset disorder have been conducted. Based on this and the modest efficacy of available treatments for childhood depression, the need for novel early interventions has been emphasized. Large…

  14. Brief Report: An Evaluation of an Australian Autism-Specific, Early Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Riley, Emma P.; Beamish, Wendi; Scott, James G.; Heussler, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in…

  15. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  16. Developing a Home-Based Early Intervention Personnel Training Program in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…

  17. The Role of Maternal Depression in Accessing Early Intervention Services for Children with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Siobhan Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal depression and children's access to early intervention services among a sample of children with developmental delay at age two who were determined to be eligible for early intervention services, were full term and of normal birth weight, and were not previously identified with any special…

  18. Early Child Disaster Mental Health Interventions: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Tucker, Phebe; Newman, Elana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The need to establish an evidence base for early child disaster interventions has been long recognized. Objective: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the empirical research on early disaster mental health interventions delivered to children within the first 3 months post event. Methods: Characteristics and findings of the…

  19. Effect of lutein intervention on visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of lutein intervention on visual function of patients with early age-related macular degeneration(AMD. METHODS: Totally 200 early AMD patients were divided into lutein intervention group(20mg/dand placebo group by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Questionnaire investigation, serum lutein concentration and visual function were conducted at baseline, 12, 24, 36 and 48wk respectively. RESULTS: The serum lutein concentration in lutein intervention group was higher than the baseline(PPPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Lutein intervention can improve the visual function of patients with early AMD.

  20. Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, K Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, (c) family communication decisions and linguistic diversity, (d) emerging research on DMLs, (e) considerations for early intervention providers and interpreters who work with culturally and linguistically diverse d/Dhh infants and toddlers, and (f) cultural reflections on ensuring smooth transitions from early intervention into preschool programs.

  1. Mode of entry to an early intervention service for psychotic disorders: determinants and impact on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Shamira; Durr, Georges; Pawliuk, Nicole; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    Specialized early intervention services for first-episode psychosis should treat a proportion of patients without using inpatient beds. This study compared such service users by their initial mode of treatment before entry-inpatient (N=157) or outpatient (N=102). On entry to a Montreal early intervention service, the groups were compared on baseline clinical and functional variables and on hospitalizations during two years of treatment. Initial presentation at an emergency service, shorter duration of untreated psychosis, lower functioning level, and aggressive and bizarre behavior were associated with the inpatient entry mode to early intervention services. During follow-up, individuals entering as inpatients spent more days hospitalized than those entering as outpatients, and their time to rehospitalization was shorter. Results suggest that entry into early intervention services via the hospital emergency department and presentation with behavioral and functional disturbances were more predictive than core psychotic symptoms of hospital inpatient status on referral to an early intervention service.

  2. Moderation and Mediation in Structural Equation Modeling: Applications for Early Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation early intervention research typically involves the specification of multivariate relations between interventions, outcomes, and other variables. Moderation and mediation involve variables or sets of variables that influence relations between interventions and outcomes. Following the framework of Baron and Kenny's (1986) seminal…

  3. Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions across the World: (Under) Investing in the Very Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…

  4. Utilisation of evidence-based practices by ASD early intervention service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M; Ferguson, Sarah; Fordyce, Kathryn; Joosten, Annette; Paku, Sofia; Stephens, Miranda; Trembath, David; Keen, Deb

    2017-02-01

    A number of autism intervention practices have been demonstrated to be effective. However, the use of unsupported practices persists in community early intervention settings. Recent research has suggested that personal, professional and workplace factors may influence intervention choices. The aim of this research was to investigate knowledge and use of strategies, organisational culture, individual attitudes, sources of information and considerations informing intervention choices by early intervention providers. An online survey was completed by 72 early intervention providers from four organisations across Australia. Providers reported high levels of trust and access of information from internal professional development, therapists and external professional development. A range of considerations including child factors, family values and research were rated as important in informing intervention choices. Participants reported greater knowledge and use of evidence-based and emerging practices than unsupported. Levels of use were linked to levels of knowledge, as well as some organisational and attitudinal factors. Areas for future research and implications are discussed.

  5. Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

  6. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  7. Preterm birth-associated cost of early intervention services: an analysis by gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Karen M; Barfield, Wanda D; Ayadi, M Femi; Wilber, Nancy

    2007-04-01

    Characterizing the cost of preterm birth is important in assessing the impact of increasing prematurity rates and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of therapies to prevent preterm delivery. To assess early intervention costs that are associated with preterm births, we estimated the program cost of early intervention services for children who were born in Massachusetts, by gestational age at birth. Using the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data Set, birth certificates for infants who were born in Massachusetts between July 1999 and June 2000 were linked to early intervention claims through 2003. We determined total program costs, in 2003 dollars, of early intervention and mean cost per surviving infant by gestational age. Costs by plurality, eligibility criteria, provider discipline, and annual costs for children's first 3 years also were examined. Overall, 14,033 of 76,901 surviving infants received early intervention services. Program costs totaled almost $66 million, with mean cost per surviving infant of $857. Mean cost per infant was highest for children who were 24 to 31 weeks' gestational age ($5393) and higher for infants who were 32 to 36 weeks' gestational age ($1578) compared with those who were born at term ($725). Cost per surviving infant generally decreased with increasing gestational age. Among children in early intervention, mean cost per child was higher for preterm infants than for term infants. At each gestational age, mean cost per surviving infant was higher for multiples than for singletons, and annual early intervention costs were higher for toddlers than for infants. Compared with their term counterparts, preterm infants incurred higher early intervention costs. This information along with data on birth trends will inform budget forecasting for early intervention programs. Costs that are associated with early childhood developmental services must be included when considering the long-term costs of prematurity.

  8. POSTSURGICAL RECURRENT CUSHING DISEASE: CLINICAL BENEFIT OF EARLY INTERVENTION IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL URINARY FREE CORTISOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ty B; Javorsky, Bradley R; Findling, James W

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of biochemical markers in the detection of recurrent Cushing disease (CD), as well as the potential benefit of early intervention in recurrent CD patients with elevated late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) and normal urinary free cortisol (UFC). The design was a single-center, retrospective chart review. Patients treated by the authors from 2008-2013 were included. Recurrence was defined by postsurgical remission of CD with subsequent abnormal LNSC, UFC, or dexamethasone suppression test (DST). We identified 15 patients with postsurgical recurrent CD after initial remission; all but one underwent testing with LNSC, DST, and UFC. Although 12 of 15 patients had normal UFC at time of recurrence, DST was abnormal in 11 of 15, and all 14 patients with LNSC results had ≥1 elevated measurement. Nine patients (7 with normal UFC) showed radiologic evidence of a pituitary tumor at time of recurrence. Among the 14 patients with available follow-up data, 12 have demonstrated significant improvement since receiving treatment. Five patients underwent repeat pituitary surgery and 4 achieved clinical and biochemical remission. Eight patients received mifepristone or cabergoline, and 6 showed clinical and/or biochemical improvement. Three patients (2 with prior mifepristone) underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and 2 demonstrated significant clinical improvements. LNSC is more sensitive than UFC or DST for detection of CD recurrence. Prompt intervention when LNSC is elevated, despite normal UFC, may yield significant clinical benefit for many patients with CD. Early treatment for patients with recurrent CD should be prospectively evaluated, utilizing LNSC elevation as an early biochemical marker. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome CV = coefficient of variation DST = dexamethasone suppression test IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol QoL = quality of life TSS = transsphenoidal

  9. Early breast cancer detection in the hospital setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, A.; Ortega, E.; Garcia-Valtuille, R.; Erasun, F.; Millan, R.; Garijo, F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefits of mammography in general and particularly as a screening method in the early detection of breast cancer in our hospital. All the cases of breast carcinoma registered in our section between 1989 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively. The total number of carcinomas was 775, 168 (22%) of which were diagnosed solely on the basis of mammography. The percentage of carcinomas detected on the basis of mammography alone increased progressively (from 13% in 1989-1990 to 28% in 1994-1995), coinciding with a progressive rise in the volume of screening mammography. Early carcinomas, referring to those in stages O or I, represented 67% of those detected by mammography in general and 17% of those detected by palpation (p<0.001). The proportion was even greater among cases of carcinoma detected exclusively by screening mammography (78 versus 17%; p<0.001). Although mammography has been instrumental in increasing the rate of early detection of breast carcinoma in our center, a large number of patients still present with palpable lesions. Thus, a greater effort should be made to increase the practice of mammography in asymptomatic women. (Author) 13 refs

  10. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  11. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.

  12. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  13. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  14. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  15. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  16. Sleep Spindles as Biomarker for Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of sleep spindles as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). The method is based on automatic detection of sleep spindles. The method may be combined with measurements of one or more further...

  17. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.

  18. Relevant test set using feature selection algorithm for early detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of feature selection is to find the most relevant features for classification. Thus, the dimensionality of the information will be reduced and may improve classification's accuracy. This paper proposed a minimum set of relevant questions that can be used for early detection of dyslexia. In this research, we ...

  19. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic

  20. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess methods available in clinical practice for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of fracture risk, and to set guidelines for their use. To make recommendations regarding cost-effective screening of asymptomatic subjects by physicians. Options. Three methods to predict fracture risk are ...

  1. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardoff, R; Luder, A S; Lorber, A; Dembo, L

    1989-04-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution.

  2. Early detection of infantile endocarditis by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardoff, R.; Luder, A.S.; Lorber, A.; Dembo, L.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    An infant with suspected soft tissue infection of the knee was studied by 67 Ga-scintigraphy. In addition to knee and hip joint increased activity, heart uptake was also demonstrated prior to the development of clinical signs of endocarditis. The early detection and treatment resulted in satisfactory clinical resolution. (orig.)

  3. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  4. Value of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, J.; Molina, L.; Jimenez, A.; Fernandez, E.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor in women; the etiopathogenesis is unknown and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In the fifties, different screening programs were developed for the early detection of breast cancer in the attempt to reduce the mortality attributed to this disease process. Mammography is one of the cornerstones of these programs because of its efficacy in the detection of subclinical tumors. We carried out a retrospective review of nine campaigns for the early detection of breast cancer, studying 11, 328 case reports; among these patients, there were 43 cases of breast cancer. Mammography was positive in 90.6% of these cases. Only in two patients did the image fail to reveal changes indicative of possible neoplasm; in both cases, the breasts involved were very dense. (Author) 26 refs

  5. Early detection of fungi damage in citrus using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Jose; Ortiz, Coral; Sabater, Maria D.; Molto, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    Early detection of defects and diseases in fruit helps to correctly classify them and make more adequate decisions about the destination of the product: internal market, export or industry. An early fungi infection detection is especially important because a few infected fruits can disseminate the infection to a whole batch, causing great economic losses and affecting to further exports. Ensure products with excellent quality and absolute absence of fungi infections is particularly important in those batches for long conservation or to be exported. The main objective of this work is to detect the fungi infections before they can be visible. Near Infrared spectroscopy has been employed in this work, because it is a non-destructive technique and can be easily implemented on line due to the high speed and simplicity of the process.

  6. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devescovi R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raffaella Devescovi,1 Lorenzo Monasta,2 Alice Mancini,3 Maura Bin,1 Valerio Vellante,1 Marco Carrozzi,1 Costanza Colombi4 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM, can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System.Methods: Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20–36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents’ and teachers’ active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months.Results: Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment.Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children

  7. Effects of early life stress: Opportunities for pharmacological intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M

    2016-01-01

    Moderate acute activation of the body’s stress response system is considered an adaptive mechanism that increases the chance of survival, but severe stressors early in life may disturb brain development. In agreement, epidemiological data suggest that adverse experiences early in life, such as

  8. Breast cancer: why link early detection to reproductive health interventions in developing countries? Cáncer de mama: ¿por qué integrar la detección temprana con las intervenciones en salud reproductiva en países en vías de desarrollo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Knaul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has not been sufficiently integrated into broader efforts either on maternal and child, or reproductive health and this presents an opportunity to strengthen early detection. The analysis is based on global breast cancer statistics and a bibliographic review of key global programs and strategies to promote women´s health in the developing world. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in all regions of the developing world and is striking many women during the reproductive phase. There is an opportunity to increase awareness among women and undertake clinical examination to detect breast cancer by linking to existing health interventions related to reproductive and maternal and child health in developing countries. These synergies should be tested and evaluated in developing countries to identify the potential impact on early detection and on reducing the proportion of cases that are found in more advanced stages.Los esfuerzos para integrar el tema de cáncer de mama a los programas dedicados a la salud materna e infantil y a la salud reproductiva han sido insuficientes. Esto representa una oportunidad para fortalecer la detección temprana del cáncer de mama. El análisis se basa en las estadísticas disponibles mundialmente y una revisión bibliográfica sobre los programas claves para promover la salud de la mujer en países en vías de desarrollo. El cáncer de mama es una de las principales causas de muerte por tumores cancerígenos en todas las regiones del mundo en vías de desarrollo y ataca a muchas mujeres durante su etapa reproductiva. Vincular las intervenciones relacionadas con la salud materno-infantil y reproductiva con el cáncer de mama constituye una oportunidad para concientizar a las mujeres y llevar a cabo examen clínico de mama. La posibilidad de aprovechar estas sinergias para impulsar la detección y así reducir la proporción de casos identificados en fases tardías, debe ser probada y

  9. [Offer early attention and intervention to patients with valvular heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengli; Ren, Chonglei

    2015-02-01

    As a key feature of the updates, early intervention of valvular heart disease is highlighted in the 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. This article reviewed the new guideline in regards to the issue of early intervention of diseases such as aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, mitral stenosis, mitral insufficiency, tricuspid insufficiency, and infective endocarditis, with discussion on the related topics according to the authors' understanding and practical experience in China. We conclude that valvular heart disease should receive early intervention and attention should also be paid on the progress of disease.

  10. A New Method for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  11. Using Intervention Mapping for child development and wellbeing programs in early childhood education and care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  13. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  14. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  15. EPA guidance on the early intervention in clinical high risk states of psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, S J; Schultze-Lutter, F; Schimmelmann, B G

    2015-01-01

    -analysis of current empirical evidence on the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological interventions in CHR samples. Eligible studies had to investigate conversion rate and/or functioning as a treatment outcome in CHR patients defined by the ultra-high risk and/or basic symptom criteria. Besides analyses...... on treatment effects on conversion rate and functional outcome, age and type of intervention were examined as potential moderators. Based on data from 15 studies (n=1394), early intervention generally produced significantly reduced conversion rates at 6- to 48-month follow-up compared to control conditions...... on conversion rates, but not on functional outcome relative to the control conditions. Early intervention in youth samples was generally less effective than in predominantly adult samples. Seven evidence-based recommendations for early intervention in CHR samples could have been formulated, although more...

  16. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  17. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  18. Individual responsibility in early detection of prostate gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodal Laugart, Ramon Lemay; Rodriguez Ardi, Maricel; Tamayo Tamayo, Iser

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the point that morbidity and mortality rate due to prostate gland cancer has increased in Santiago de Cuba, the authors of this work decided to analyze the relation to individual responsibility in order to early detect the aforementioned condition. Therefore, 48 men over 50 years old belonging to the health area of Frank Pais Garcia University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba were surveyed during the first months of the year 2011 to determine the factors that influenced on the low risk perception. Results showed the urgent need of carrying out actions of health promotion and disease prevention in order to achieve the individual feels more responsible of his health care. Of the case material, 85,4 % participants admitted they did not have the tests to guarantee the early diagnosis or detect this tumor.(author)

  19. EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

  20. Early diagnosis and intervention for autism spectrum disorder in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a qualitative mixed method case study. Literature ... communities may provide a valuable resource to ASD intervention strategies. ... eases, and in particular mental health,9,10 have been a low .... able to become an internationally recognised scientist in ..... Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2009 ...

  1. Crisis Intervention in Early Adolescence. First Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescence Resources Center, Sumter, SC.

    The basic premise under investigation is that systematic intervention in a predictable, natural occurring stress situation for population groups: (1) can promote acquisition of competence and coping skills; and (2) minimize pathological response to stress and eventual need for treatment. This study is an exploration of preadolescent development of…

  2. "Teacher, I Can Read!" The Marvels of Early Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jean C.; Hernandez, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    "Teacher, I can read!" exclaimed Saree, a fourth-quarter second grader who was placed in the lowest of reading groups at a southwest side elementary school in Chicago. This was her proud announcement after three weeks of intensive intervention with Ms. Gomez, a student teacher in her final semester at Chicago State University. "Ms.…

  3. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  4. The Role of Parents in Early Motor Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gerald; Perales, Frida

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss the results of a motor intervention study that we conducted with young children with Down syndrome and other disabilities (Mahoney, Robinson & Fewell, 2001). Results from this study indicated that neither of the two major treatment models that are commonly used with young children with motor impairments was effective at…

  5. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  6. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  7. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. DIAGNOSTIC GUIDANCE AND EARLY INTERVENTION IN CLASS III MALOCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinandri Charea Runizar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion has always been somewhat controversial. Many orthodontic pioneers like Angle, Tweed, and Graber have advocated early interception of class II malocclusion because this kind of skeletal discrepancy once established, would usually progress rapidly. What kind of early treatment would be appropriate for this malocclusion? Would this approach be effective and promises a stable result? Early orthodontic treatment is defined as a treatment that is initiated during the primary or mixed dentition stage to enhance skeletal and dental development. It is usually done in two phases. The first phase is intended to correct skeletal discrepancy by taking advantage of growth and development period. The second phase followed to improve occlusal relationship. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion is a possible alternative to improve skeletal discrepancy or at the very east may serve to prevent a worsening malocclusion. Principles of Class III early treatment depend on whether it is dental Class III, functional Class III, or skeletal Class III. Practitioners should consider positive and negative factors of a patient before initiating treatment. Likewise, they should understand factors that affect prognosis and stability of the results.

  9. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  10. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and...

  11. Are Audiologists Directly Referring Children with Hearing Loss to Early Intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola, Natalie; Shanahan, Bridget; Shanahan, Cailin; Kawai, Kosuke; Stiles, Derek J

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the ways that pediatric audiologists are directing infants into Early Intervention, and the related barriers and facilitators. Over one hundred pediatric audiologists responded to an online survey including questions on how audiologists provide direct and indirect referrals to Early Intervention for those infants that are diagnosed with hearing loss. Most respondents agreed that audiologists are the best person to provide this referral, but many audiologists did not mak...

  12. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lefio Celedón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

  13. Early tumour detection: a transillumination, time-resolved technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behin-Ain, S.; Van Doorn, T.; Patterson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research into transillumination techniques for the detection of tumours in soft tissue has been ongoing for over 70 years. The resolution and contrast, however, remain severely limited by scatter. Single photon detection techniques, with ideally infinite extinction coefficients, have been proposed to accumulate sub-hertz photon transmitted frequencies in the early part of a transmitted pulse. Computer based simulations have been undertaken to examine the theoretical performance requirements of the detector and the resultant image qualities that may be expected with this imaging technique. This paper reports on the computational techniques required for implementing these simulations in an efficient manner. Controlled Monte Carlo (CMC) and Convolution of Layers (CL) techniques were employed to constrain the photon to those having more chance of detection and hence enhance the detection statistics. Extrapolation techniques are proposed to reconstruct the early part of the temporal profile. Computational methods were implemented to evaluate Path Integrals, which are otherwise overly complex to evaluate. CMC and CL reduce the computational time by more than 10 orders of magnitude by only tracking those photons more likely to reach the detector. In the case of an optically thick medium with high scattering coefficient, extrapolation techniques are used to reconstruct the early part of temporal profile. Analytical solutions were found to be too involved for the simplest geometries. However the CL and implementation of computational techniques make Path integrals a useful analytical tool to compliment full Monte Carlo techniques. Results have shown that these methods collectively enable detection of small inhomogeneites within soft tissues. Reduced computation times and full reconstruction of the temporal profile of transmitted photons through optically thick medium enable fast simulations of single photon detectors to be achieved with the above described

  14. The DEBT Project: Early Intervention for Handicapped Children and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Daniel J.; And Others

    Project DEBT (Developmental Education Birth through Two), an early identification and intervention program for handicapped and at risk children and their parents, is described. The Koontz Child Developmental Program, the core curriculum for instructional planning and intervention in DEBT, is reviewed, and new data are presented. It is explained…

  15. Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomone, E.; Beranova, S.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Lauritsen, M.; Budisteanu, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Canal-Bedia, R.; Felhosi, G.; Fletcher-Watson, S.; Freitag, C.; Fuentes, J.; Gallagher, L.; Primo, P. Garcia; Gliga, F.; Gomot, M.; Green, J.; Heimann, M.; Jonsdottir, S.L.; Kaale, A.; Kawa, R.; Kylliainen, A.; Lemcke, S.; Markovska-Simoska, S.; Marschik, P.B.; McConachie, H.; Moilanen, I.; Muratori, F.; Narzisi, A.; Noterdaeme, M.; Oliveira, G.; Oosterling, I.; Pijl, M.; Pop-Jordanova, N.; Poustka, L.; Roeyers, H.; Roge, B.; Sinzig, J.; Vicente, A.; Warreyn, P.; Charman, T.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 years or younger (N = 1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions

  16. Use of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Beranová, Štepánka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Buitelaar, Jan; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Felhosi, Gabriella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Freitag, Christine; Fuentes, Joaquin; Gallagher, Louise; Garcia Primo, Patricia; Gliga, Fotinica; Gomot, Marie; Green, Jonathan; Heimann, Mikael; Jónsdóttir, Sigridur Loa; Kaale, Anett; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliainen, Anneli; Lemcke, Sanne; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Marschik, Peter B; McConachie, Helen; Moilanen, Irma; Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio; Noterdaeme, Michele; Oliveira, Guiomar; Oosterling, Iris; Pijl, Mirjam; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Poustka, Luise; Roeyers, Herbert; Rogé, Bernadette; Sinzig, Judith; Vicente, Astrid; Warreyn, Petra; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7?years or younger (N?=?1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable…

  17. Effectiveness of a Novel Community-Based Early Intervention Model for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…

  18. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  19. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  20. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  1. An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…

  2. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  3. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  4. A Simulation Model for Designing Effective Interventions in Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Edelstein, Burton L.; Frosh, Marcy; Anselmo, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood caries (ECC) — tooth decay among children younger than 6 years — is prevalent and consequential, affecting nearly half of US 5-year-olds, despite being highly preventable. Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. We developed a system dynamics model to determine which interventions, singly and in combination, could have the greatest effec...

  5. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  6. Early intervention for stuttering: similarities and differences between two programs

    OpenAIRE

    Aumont-Boucand, V.; Millard, S.; Packman, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two proponents of different approaches to early stuttering discuss how they would manage a hypothetical case of stuttering in a preschool-age girl. Two evidence-based approaches are discussed: Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and the Lidcombe Program. This paper arose from an oral discussion session held at the International Fluency Association Conference in Tours, France in 2012.

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Literacy Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…

  8. Kentucky's Individualized Kindergartens: A State Network Design for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B.; Cansler, D. P.

    The KIK (Kentucky Individualized Kindergartens) project, a collaborative project between Kentucky's Department of Education and the Chapel Hill (NC) Training-Outreach project, is designed to serve high risk children. KIK provides early identification of high risk kindergarteners, development of individualized education programs, and implementation…

  9. Environmental Change & Fragile States Early Warning and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services] Sources: Adapted from Maslow , 1943; Butts as reported by Damonte, 2006 8  Research...how positions of competing interests will evolve. Synthesizes political science, microeconomics, game theory , decision theory , and spatial...explanation of why outcomes occur (actor motivations ) Senturion Software 19 Integrated Crisis Early Warning System (ICEWS)  Developed By DARPA

  10. Families as Partners: Supporting Family Resiliency through Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Rebecca; Hansen, Sarah Grace; Squires, Jane; Machalicek, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Child development occurs within the context of the child's family, neighborhood, and community environment. Early childhood providers support positive outcomes, not only for the children with whom they directly work with but also for their families. Families of children with developmental delays often experience unique challenges. A family…

  11. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid; Chaabane, Sondes; Tahon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  12. 'RIG'- surgical gamma probe for early breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinjkar, P.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Kumar, Umesh; Pendharkar, A.S.; Choudhary, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, which if detected in early stage can be effectively treated and cured. Early detection is carried out by collecting a sentinel lymph node (SLN) and testing it for cancer. The surgical gamma probe is a hand-held device used in the localization of SLN. It enables the localization of the active node. Isotope Applications Division, BARC has developed indigenously a RIG Surgical Gamma Probe in consultation with the doctors from Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi. The system consists of microcomputer-based gamma counting system that displays the number of pulses detected by the probe in counts per second and has an audible signal in direct correlation with the count density. The detector probe is based on the scintillation detector housed in a stainless steel housing with lead collimator. The physical parameters are a high sensitivity of 5000 cps/MBq at probe tip with good spatial resolution. The performance of this probe was clinically evaluated on the basis of spatial resolution and accuracy to detect the active node. (author)

  13. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  14. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  15. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [The community-oriented experience of early intervention services in Taipei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng-Ying

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.

  17. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Intervention Outcomes for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes-Grosser, Donna M.; Elbaum, Batya; Wu, Yan; Siegenthaler, Kirsten M.; Cavalari, Rachel S.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be diagnosed as early as 18 months of age. State Early Intervention (EI) programs under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are serving increasing numbers of children with ASD; however, little is known about outcomes of these services. This study evaluated the impact of EI for…

  19. Early Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China: A Family Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueyun; Long, Toby; Chen, Lianjun; Fang, Junming

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were first reported in China in 1982. Since then, autism and other related disorders have been recognized by both the public and professionals. The importance of early intervention for children with ASD is becoming more accepted throughout China. A survey was designed to investigate the status of early intervention…

  20. Early intervention studies in infants and preschool children with cystic fibrosis: Are we ready?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stick; H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); P. Aurora (Paul); P. Gustafsson (Per); S. Ranganathan (Surabhi); P. Robinson; M. Rosenfeld (Margaret); P.D. Sly; F. Ratjen (Felix)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts early in life and progresses even in the absence of clinical symptoms. Therefore, sensitive outcome measures to quantify and track these early abnormalities in infants and young children are needed; both for clinical care and interventional

  1. Determination of Preservice Special Education Teachers' Views on Early Childhood Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglama, Basak; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli

    2016-01-01

    Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with…

  2. Early Intervention Programs: Opening the Door to Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Geranios, Christine A.; Keller, Jonathan E.; Moore, David E.

    This digest summarizes a larger document of the same title which examines early intervention programs providing services and resources to encourage low-income/minority youth to finish high school and enter college. It notes provisions of federal law which encourage such programs and the unifying mission of the National Early Intervention…

  3. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  4. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  5. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery W Bacher

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29-55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega. This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001, which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001. The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible.

  6. Development of methodology for early detection of BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Shin Chin; Kostadin Ivanov; Asok Ray; Fan-Bill Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The objective of the work presented in this paper research, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under the NEER program, is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology in order to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, based on the US NRC coupled code TRACE/PARCS, is being utilized as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The concept of the methodology is based on the fact that nonlinear systems show bifurcation, which is a change in the qualitative behavior as the system parameters vary. Some of these parameters may change on their own accord and account for the anomaly, while certain parameters can be altered in a controlled fashion. The non-linear, non-autonomous BWR system model considered in this research exhibits phenomena at two time scales. Anomalies occur at the slow time scale while the observation of the dynamical behavior, based on which inferences are made, takes place at the fast time scale. It is assumed that: (i) the system behavior is stationary at the fast time scale; and (ii) any observable non-stationary behavior is associated with parametric changes evolving at the slow time scale. The goal is to make inferences about evolving anomalies based on the asymptotic behavior derived from the computer simulation. However, only sufficient changes in the slowly varying parameter may lead to detectable difference in the asymptotic behavior. The need to detect such small changes in parameters and hence early detection of an anomaly motivate the utilized stimulus-response approach. In this approach, the model

  7. Mutually shared team competence of professionals in early childhood intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ališauskienė, Stefanija; Kairienė, Daiva

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on theoretical study as well as on written survey. The aim of theoretical analysis to present a theoretical model of the concept of the mutually shared team competence in an interprofessional team meeting early special needs of child and family and to find out presumptions of its development. The aim of survey is to reveal ECI professionals' reflections about competences necessary for teamwork. The mutually shared team competence is analysed on the basis of the teamwork p...

  8. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  9. Early intervention and management of adrenal insufficiency in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Sinéad

    2012-09-01

    The endocrine disorder adrenal insufficiency includes inadequate production of the steroid hormone cortisol. This results in poor physiological responses to illness, trauma or other stressors and risk of adrenal crisis. Management is based on administration of hydrocortisone. It is important to avoid under- or over-treatment and increase the dosage during times of physiological stress. To reduce morbidity, hospital admissions and mortality, the education and empowerment of parents and carers, and prompt intervention when necessary are essential. A steroid therapy card for adrenal insufficiency containing personal information on a patient\\'s condition was developed for use by families and their specialist centres.

  10. Early detection and integrated care for adolescents and young adults with severe psychotic disorders: rationales and design of the Integrated Care in Early Psychosis Study (ACCESS III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Schöttle, Daniel; Sengutta, Mary; Ruppelt, Friederike; Rohenkohl, Anja; Luedecke, Daniel; Nawara, Luise Antonia; Galling, Britta; Falk, Anne-Lena; Wittmann, Linus; Niehaus, Vivien; Sarikaya, Gizem; Handwerk, Ute; Rothländer, Wiebke; Rietschel, Liz; Gagern, Charlotte; Lange, Benjamin; Meigel-Schleiff, Christina; Naber, Dieter; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Krüger, Helmut; Unger, Hans-Peter; Sippel, Sven; Ott, Sabine; Romer, Georg; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Correll, Christoph U; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Bock, Thomas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Karow, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The Integrated Care in Early Psychosis (ACCESS III) Study examined the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined intervention consisting of strategies to improve early detection and quality of care (integrated care including therapeutic assertive community treatment) in adolescents and young adults in the early phase of a severe psychotic disorder from 2011 to 2014. This is a prospective, single-centre, 1-year cohort study comparing an intervention condition (early detection plus integrated care, n = 120) to the historical control condition (standard care, SC, n = 105) for adolescents and young adults aged 12-29 years suffering from a severe, early-phase psychotic disorder (i.e. within 2 years of treatment). Primary outcome is the rate of combined symptomatic (i.e. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) criteria) and functional (i.e. Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) ≥ 60 points criterion) remission over at least 6 months at study endpoint. Secondary outcome comprises the comparison of the reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis within the 4-year study duration between integrated care and SC, course of psychopathology, functioning, quality of life, satisfaction with care, cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in comparison to a historical control group. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study assessing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined intervention consisting of early detection strategies and strategies to improve quality of care in both adolescents and young adults with early-phase psychosis. The results will be published in 2016. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Practitioner-informed improvements to early childhood intervention performance checklists and practice guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Results from four early childhood practitioner field tests of performance checklists and early intervention practice guides are reported. Findings from the first field test were used to make changes and improvements in the checklists and practice guides evaluated in the second and third field tests, and findings from the latter two field tests were used to improve the checklist and practice guide evaluated in the fourth field test. Results indicated that changes made in response to practitioners’ suggestions and feedback were associated with (1 progressive increases in the practitioners’ social validity judgments of the checklists, practice guides, and checklist-practice guide correspondence, and (2 progressive decreases in the number of practitioner suggestions and feedback for improving the early intervention materials. The field-test research demonstrates the importance of practitioner input, suggestions, and feedback for improving the usefulness of early childhood intervention practices.

  12. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome, Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1 verbal and nonverbal communication, (2 reciprocal social interaction and (3 repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions: * What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? * What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? * What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? * Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results: In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT, Applied behavioural analysis (ABA. Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and

  13. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger's disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual?What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness?What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism?Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange communication system. Behaviour analytic interventions

  14. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange

  15. Early Seizure Detection Based on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Pavei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes changes in the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV reflects the regulation of cardiac activity and autonomic nervous system tone. The early detection of epileptic seizures could foster the use of new treatment approaches. This study presents a new methodology for the prediction of epileptic seizures using HRV signals. Eigendecomposition of HRV parameter covariance matrices was used to create an input for a support vector machine (SVM-based classifier. We analyzed clinical data from 12 patients (9 female; 3 male; age 34.5 ± 7.5 years, involving 34 seizures and a total of 55.2 h of interictal electrocardiogram (ECG recordings. Data from 123.6 h of ECG recordings from healthy subjects were used to test false positive rate per hour (FP/h in a completely independent data set. Our methodological approach allowed the detection of impending seizures from 5 min to just before the onset of a clinical/electrical seizure with a sensitivity of 94.1%. The FP rate was 0.49 h−1 in the recordings from patients with epilepsy and 0.19 h−1 in the recordings from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the dynamics of HRV parameters for the early detection and, potentially, the prediction of epileptic seizures.

  16. The Role of Breast Ultrasound in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huay-Ben Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection and characterization of breast lesions including the evaluation of breast cancer. Yet only few single-center cohort studies analyzing breast US in the framework of screening could be identified. In spite of mammography consider as the primary method for screening especially the noteworthy ability of microcalcifications detection. US is good in mass or mass- like lesion detection, especially in the dense breast population that proved by the study of ACRIN 6666. A lobular hypoechoic area; lesion with ductal extension and dilatation; and a hypoechoic nodular lesion with a dilated lactiferous duct leading to the retroareolar region, that were the common ultrasound findings in Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and probably related to nuclear grade of cancer. Computer programs have been developed and approved for use in clinical practice, the application including CAD (computer aided/assisted detection/diagnosis, ABUS (automated breast US, elastography and microbubbles in contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Furthermore the standardized scanning; improving with computer technology implementation and familiar to the picture of DCIS is necessary for progress the competence of early breast cancer detection.

  17. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  18. Early detection of Alzheimer disease: methods, markers, and misgivings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R

    1997-01-01

    There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening.

  19. Derived intervention levels in early stage of nuclear accident development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladar, M; Fojtik, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Stubna, M [Research Inst. of Nuclear Power Plants, Bohunuce (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the measures for protection of health and property of public in the case of nuclear accident are discussed. They are based on optimal application of so called intervention levels. The actual flow of decision depends on: (1) prognosis of mathematical modelling of possible course of nuclear accident, and (2) results of monitoring of radiation situation.The aim of this contribution was to analyze their mutual cooperation and to suggest such procedure of monitoring or radiation situation which could be used for suggestion of protective measures. In this contribution the zones of protection planning in the accident place surrounding for the urgent measures were specified : (1) regulation of free movement of persons; (2) sheltering; (3) iodine prophylaxis; (4) temporary evacuation; (5) long term or permanent emigration. At the specification of zones of planned protection it is also coming out that regulation of movement of persons, sheltering and iodine prophylaxis were ordered in advance based on the evaluation of the crashed establishment state. In such situation the decision on protective measures in the time interval 6 to 12 hours after the beginning of accidental release is forwarding to: withdrawing the accepted orders on measures and transition from sheltering to temporary evacuation. The criterion for temporary evacuation is: (1) probability of exceeding the effective dose 100 mSv for children up to 10 years of age and pregnant women and 500 mSv for other population within 48 hours after beginning of accidental release; (2) probability of averting the effective dose 50 mSv up to 7 days, 100 mSv up to 15 days and 150 mSv up to 30 days for all population groups. In next part the intervention level, interpretation of values of kerma dose rate in air and determination of the size of planned protection zones are discussed. (J.K.) 3 tabs.

  20. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.M.; Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease

  1. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.M. (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York); Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-05-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease.

  2. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  3. Early detection of structual changes in random signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yoshiteru; Yokota, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    Early detection of structual changes in observed random signal is very important from the point of system diagnosis. In this paper, the following procedures are applied to this problem and the results are compared. (1) auto-regressive model to random signal to calculate the prediction error, i.e., the defference between observed and predicted values. (2) auto-regressive method to caluculate the sum of the prediction error. (3) a method is based on AIC (Akaike Information Criterion). Simulation is made of these procedures, indicating their merits and demerits as a diagostic tools. (author)

  4. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  5. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-27

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital sensor was functionalized by immobilizing streptavidin agarose on the sensing area of the sensor to introduce selectivity for the antigen-antibody solution. Different concentrations of CTX-I were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the target molecule. Preliminary results are provided in the paper assisted with the respective equivalent circuit of the working technology on the sensor using Complex Non-linear Least Square (CNLS). The results are encouraging and will be used to develop a complete system for commercialization complementing the existing systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Yanai, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an early detection program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a primary care setting in Japan. Methods Participants of ≥40 years of age who regularly visited a general practitioner's clinic due to chronic disease were asked to complete a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD Population Screener; COPD-PS) and undergo simplified spirometry using a handheld spirometric device. Patients who showed possible COPD were referred to a respiratory specialist and underwent a detailed examination that included spirometry and chest radiography. Results A total of 111 patients with possible COPD were referred for close examination. Among these patients, 27 patients were newly diagnosed with COPD. The patients with COPD were older, had lower BMI values, and had a longer smoking history in comparison to non-COPD patients. COPD patients also had more comorbid conditions. A diagnosis of COPD was significantly associated with a high COPD-PS score (pearly detection of undiagnosed COPD in primary care.

  7. Can Early Childhood Interventions Decrease Inequality of Economic Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Magnuson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers whether expanding access to center-based early childhood education (ECE will reduce economic inequality later in life. A strong evidence base indicates that ECE is effective at improving young children's academic skills and human capital development. We review evidence that children from low-income families have lower rates of preschool enrollment than their more affluent peers. Our analysis indicates that increasing enrollments for preschoolers in the year before school entry is likely to be a worthy investment that will yield economic payoffs in the form of increased adult earnings. The benefits of even a moderately effective ECE program are likely to be sufficient to offset the costs of program expansion, and increased enrollment among low-income children may reduce later economic inequality.

  8. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Early intervention services of children with physical disabilities: complexity of child and family needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    To gain insight into the special issues confronting parents when accessing early intervention for children with physical disabilities where child and/or family characteristics indicate complex needs within the unique Australian context. Qualitative interviews with families receiving early intervention for their children with physical disabilities (N=10). Families with complex circumstances such as having children with high support needs, those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and single-parent families were recruited to the study. Families where parents had mental or health issues, parents/other family members had an identified disability, and/or where families lived in regional or rural locations were also purposively sampled. Participants highlighted issues around (i) the nature of early intervention services provided; (ii) the ways in which services were structured; and (ii) managing their child's needs/planning into the future. Parents stressed the importance of having access to a variety of early intervention services aside from therapy. They also emphasised the need for greater clarity about what to expect from services, the intensity of therapy, other services they could access and how long they would be able to receive these. Despite their complex circumstances and needs, participants' experiences of accessing early intervention services were largely consistent with the broader research literature. Of the parents interviewed, those with health problems and single mothers expressed most apprehension about managing their child's needs and planning for the future. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Early fault detection and diagnosis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Grini, R.; Masao Yokobayashi

    1988-01-01

    Fault detection based on a number of reference models is demonstrated. This approach is characterized by the possibility of detecting faults before a traditional alarm system is triggered, even in dynamic situations. Further, by a proper decomposition scheme and use of available process measurements, the problem area can be confined to the faulty process parts. A diagnosis system using knowledge engineering techniques is described. Typical faults are classified and described by rules involving alarm patterns and variations of important parameters. By structuring the fault hypotheses in a hierarchy the search space is limited which is important for real time diagnosis. Introduction of certainty factors improve the flexibility and robustness of diagnosis by exploring parallel problems even when some data are missing. A new display proposal should facilitate the operator interface and the integration of fault detection and diagnosis tasks in disturbance handling. The techniques of early fault detection and diagnosis are presently being implemented and tested in the experimental control room of a full-scope PWR simulator in Halden

  11. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  12. Assessing Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Intervention Programs. Overview and Application to the Starting Early Starting Smart Program. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karoly, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...

  13. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  14. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  15. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  16. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  17. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  18. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  19. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  20. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  1. Performance of mitochondrial DNA mutations detecting early stage cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakupciak, John P; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sidransky, David; O'Connell, Catherine D; Maragh, Samantha; Markowitz, Maura E; Greenberg, Alissa K; Hoque, Mohammad O; Maitra, Anirban; Barker, Peter E; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with cancer and many other disorders. These mutations can be point mutations or deletions, or admixtures (heteroplasmy). The detection of mtDNA mutations in body fluids using resequencing microarrays, which are more sensitive than other sequencing methods, could provide a strategy to measure mutation loads in remote anatomical sites. We determined the mtDNA mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 26 individuals with different early stage cancers (lung, bladder, kidney) and 12 heavy smokers without cancer. MtDNA was sequenced from three matched specimens (blood, tumor and body fluid) from each cancer patient and two matched specimens (blood and sputum) from smokers without cancer. The inherited wildtype sequence in the blood was compared to the sequences present in the tumor and body fluid, detected using the Affymetrix Genechip ® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 1.0 and supplemented by capillary sequencing for noncoding region. Using this high-throughput method, 75% of the tumors were found to contain mtDNA mutations, higher than in our previous studies, and 36% of the body fluids from these cancer patients contained mtDNA mutations. Most of the mutations detected were heteroplasmic. A statistically significantly higher heteroplasmy rate occurred in tumor specimens when compared to both body fluid of cancer patients and sputum of controls, and in patient blood compared to blood of controls. Only 2 of the 12 sputum specimens from heavy smokers without cancer (17%) contained mtDNA mutations. Although patient mutations were spread throughout the mtDNA genome in the lung, bladder and kidney series, a statistically significant elevation of tRNA and ND complex mutations was detected in tumors. Our findings indicate comprehensive mtDNA resequencing can be a high-throughput tool for detecting mutations in clinical samples with potential applications for cancer detection, but it is

  2. Justification for screening programs for early detection of HBV infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Leźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to collect the data on undetected hepatitis B virus (HBV in the frequently hospitalized (at least twice in the last 5 years population of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study results could be used by occupational health services and local governments to take preventive actions. Material and Methods: The study focused on empirical data derived from hepatitis B Screening Programme in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study comprised 6332 people tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen – HBsAg. They had been hospitalized at least twice. The diagnostic survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire, developed for this study. For the statistical analysis the Statistica 10.0 program was used. A level of statistical significance was assumed at a value of α = 0.05. The results showing that the probability test p satisfy the inequality p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: HBs antigen was detected in 34 patients (0.54%. There was no association between the detected infections and the gender of the respondents. There was no relationship between the detected infections and transfusion of blood and blood products before 1992. Surgical procedures performed in the patients did not increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Actions aimed at detecting asymptomatic infections should primarily focus on the 35–39 age group. Effective identification of chronically-infected people and application of optimal treatment play a key role in reducing the risk of disease progression in the whole population. Therefore, the implementation of screening programs is warranted for prevention and early detection of hepatitis B. Med Pr 2014;65(6:777–784

  3. When the healthcare does not follow the evidence: The case of the lack of early intervention programs for psychosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Celso; Bernardo, Miguel; Bonet, Pere; Cabrera, Ana; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Cuesta, Manuel J; González, Nel; Parrabera, Sílvia; Sanjuan, Julio; Serrano, Alfonso; Vieta, Eduard; Lennox, Belinda R; Melau, Marianne

    There is now sufficient evidence to support the importance of interventions in the early stages of psychosis. The delay in the detection and treatment of the first-episode psychosis is related to a lower and slower recovery, as well as a higher risk of relapse. Despite this fact, early intervention units or teams are still not regularly implemented in mental health service settings in Spain. In this opinion article, a review is presented of the main arguments for defending the need to implement these programs and strategies in order to achieve this aim. There are a number of programs for early intervention for psychosis currently working in other countries, with a therapeutic program that includes pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, together with public awareness, information dissemination, and family-professional collaboration activities. Published literature on the experience of these programs indicates that early intervention is not only effective in terms of the improvement of health status, but is also economically efficient. The main steps and recommendations needed to implement such early intervention programs in our country are described. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Early Identification and Intervention for Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotholz, David A; Kinsman, Anne M; Lacy, Kathi K; Charles, Jane

    2017-02-01

    To provide an example of a successful, novel statewide effort to increase early identification of young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a 2-tiered screening process with enhanced quality assessment, interagency policy collaboration and coordination. The South Carolina Act Early Team (SCAET) provided focused collaboration among leaders representing state agencies, universities, health care systems, private organizations, and families to improve quality of life for children with ASD. Specific focus was on implementing policy changes and training to result in earlier identification and home-based behavioral intervention for young children at risk for ASD. Policy changes, training, and modified state agency practices were accomplished. Presumptive eligibility, on the basis of a 2-tiered screening process was implemented by BabyNet (South Carolina's Early Intervention Program) in collaboration with the lead agency for developmental disability services. There was a fivefold increase in children eligible for early intensive behavioral intervention without waiting for a diagnosis of ASD, avoiding long waits for diagnostic evaluations. Only 16 children (2.5%) were later found not to have ASD from a comprehensive evaluation. Improvements in early identification and intervention are feasible through collaborative policy change. The South Carolina Act Early Team and its key stakeholders committed to improving outcomes for this population used existing tools and methods in new ways to improve early identification of children with ASD and to make available evidence-based intervention services. This example should be replicable in other states with key stakeholders working collaboratively for the benefit of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Detection of early warning signals of forest mortality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive forest mortality was observed in California during the most recent drought. Owing to complex interactions of physiological mechanisms under stress, prediction of climate-induced forest mortality using dynamic global vegetation models remains fraught with uncertainty. Given that forest ecosystems approaching mortality tend to exhibit reduction in resilience, we evaluate the time-varying resilience from time series of satellite images to detect early warning signals (EWSs) of mortality. Four metrics of EWSs are used: (1) low greenness, (2) high empirical autocorrelation of greenness, (3) high autocorrelation inferred using a Bayesian dynamic linear model considering the influence of seasonality and climate conditions, and (4) low recovery rate inferred from the drift term in the Langevin equation describing stochastic dynamics. Spatial accuracy and lead-time of these EWSs are evaluated by comparing the EWSs against observed mortality from aerial surveys conducted by the US Forest Service. Our results show that most forested areas in California that underwent mortality exhibit a EWS with a lead time of three months to two years ahead of observed mortality. Notably, EWS is also detected in some areas without mortality, suggesting reduced resilience during drought. Furthermore, the influence of the previous drought (2007-2009) may have propagated into the recent drought (2012-2016) through reduced resilience, hence contributing to the massive forest mortality observed recently. Methodologies developed in this study for detection of EWS will improve the near-term predictability of forest mortality, thus providing crucial information for forest and water resource management.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  7. Effects of early support intervention on workplace ergonomics--a two-year followup study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Johanna; Kaleva, Simo; Kivistö, Marketta; Seitsamo, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the controlled longitudinal study was to determine the effect of a tailored early support intervention method on workers' workplace ergonomics. The main areas of the early support intervention were training, guidance and support for supervisors in finding weak signals of impaired ergonomics. Supervisors were also trained to bring up these weak signals in discussion with employees and to make necessary changes at the workplace. The data consisted of 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects working in the field of commerce. The questionnaires were carried out in 2008 and in 2010, and the response rates among both groups were 45%. We used multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the difference in the groups at two points of time. The main result was that in the areas of work environment, the interaction between group and time was statistically significant (p=0.0004). The work environment improved in the intervention group, but deteriorated in the control. Working methods improved due to the interventions, but physical load factors increased over time in both groups. According to the study, tailored early support intervention has a generally beneficial impact on workers' workplace ergonomics in the areas of work methods, work environment and accident factors.

  8. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  9. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  10. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewcz, Sławomir; Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A - 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B - 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge - test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B - 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p 40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (padvanced state, and during 5 years in group C - in 4 men at an early development

  11. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth–Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Seema; Marwah, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case re...

  12. Integrative review of the nursing interventions used for the early detection of cervical uterine cancer Revisión integradora de las intervenciones de enfermería utilizadas para detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino Revisão integrativa das intervenções de enfermagem utilizadas para detecção precoce do câncer cérvico-uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a national program to combat cervical uterine cancer (CUC four basic elements should exist: primary prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliative care. Of these, early detection is the most effective modality. One of the purposes of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP is to encourage the use of research results with the assistance provided, reinforcing the importance of research for clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature regarding effective nursing interventions for the early detection of CUC. The selection of articles was performed in the databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, Lilacs and Cochrane. The sample of this review consisted of seven articles, with evidence levels 1, 2 or 3. The behavioral, cognitive and social interventions, showed positive effects in the early detection of CUC, especially the interactive cognitive interventions. It is suggested, when appropriate, to use a combination of interventions in order to obtain a more effective result.En un programa nacional de combate al cáncer cervicouterino (CCU deben existir cuatro elementos básicos: prevención primaria, detección precoz, diagnóstico/tratamiento y cuidados paliativos. De estos, la detección precoz es la modalidad más efectiva. Uno de los propósitos de la Práctica Basada en Evidencias es incentivar la utilización de resultados de investigación junto a la asistencia prestada, reforzando la importancia de la investigación para la práctica clínica. Este estudio objetivó evaluar las evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre las intervenciones de enfermería eficaces en la detección precoz del CCU. La selección de los artículos fue realizada en las bases: Scopus, Pubmed, CINAHL, LILACS y Cochrane. La muestra de esta revisión se constituye de 7 artículos, con niveles de evidencia 1, 2 o 3. Tanto las intervenciones comportamentales, como las cognitivas y sociales mostraron efectos positivos en la

  13. Clinical abnormalities, early intervention program of Down syndrome children: Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuengfoo, Adidsuda; Sakulnoom, Kim

    2014-06-01

    Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health is a tertiary institute of children in Thailand, where early intervention programs have been provided since 1990 by multidisciplinary approach especially in Down syndrome children. This aim of the present study is to follow the impact of early intervention on the outcome of Down syndrome children. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children was compared between regular early intervention and non-regular early intervention. The present study group consists of 210 Down syndrome children who attended early intervention programs at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between June 2008 and January 2012. Data include clinical features, school attendance developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 years of age using Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Developmental milestones have been recorded as to the time of appearance of gross motor, fine motor, language, personal-social development compared to those non-regular intervention patients. Of 210 Down syndrome children, 117 were boys and 93 were girls. About 87% received regular intervention, 68% attended speech training. Mean DQ at 3 years of age was 65. Of the 184 children who still did follow-up at developmental department, 124 children (59%) attended school: mainstream school children 78 (63%) and special school children 46 (37%). The mean age at entrance to school was 5.8 ± 1.4 years. The school attendance was correlated with maternal education and regular early intervention attendance. Regular early intervention starts have proven to have a positive effect on development. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children receiving regular early intervention was statistically and significantly higher than the number of Down syndrome children receiving non-regular early intervention was. School attendance correlated with maternal education and attended regularly early intervention. Regular early intervention together with maternal

  14. A systematic review of early intensive intervention for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Zachary; McPheeters, Melissa L; Sathe, Nila; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Glasser, Allison; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Early intensive behavioral and developmental interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may enhance developmental outcomes. To systematically review evidence regarding such interventions for children aged 12 and younger with ASDs. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) from 2000 to May 2010. Two reviewers independently assessed studies against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted data regarding participant and intervention characteristics, assessment techniques, and outcomes and assigned overall quality and strength-of-evidence ratings using predetermined criteria. Thirty-four unique studies met inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies were case series; 2 were randomized controlled trials. We rated 1 study as good quality, 10 as fair quality, and 23 as poor quality. The strength of the evidence overall ranged from insufficient to low. Studies of University of California Los Angeles/Lovaas-based interventions and variants reported clinically significant gains in language and cognitive skills in some children, as did 1 randomized controlled trial of an early intensive developmental intervention approach (the Early Start Denver Model). Specific parent-training approaches yielded gains in short-term language function and some challenging behaviors. Data suggest that subgroups of children displayed more prominent gains across studies, but participant characteristics associated with greater gains are not well understood. Studies of Lovaas-based approaches and early intensive behavioral intervention variants and the Early Start Denver Model resulted in some improvements in cognitive performance, language skills, and adaptive behavior skills in some young children with ASDs, although the literature is limited by methodologic concerns.

  15. Early detection of psychosis: finding those at clinical high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, Jean; Epstein, Irvin; Reynolds, Andrea; Furimsky, Ivana; Rudy, Laura; Mancini, Barbara; McMillan, Simone; Kirsopp, Diane; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-08-01

    In early detection work, recruiting individuals who meet the prodromal criteria is difficult. The aim of this paper was to describe the development of a research clinic for individuals who appear to be at risk of developing a psychosis and the process for educating the community and obtaining referrals. The outcome of all referrals to the clinic over a 4-year period was examined. Following an ongoing education campaign that was over inclusive in order to aid recruitment, approximately 27% of all referrals met the criteria for being at clinical high risk of psychosis. We are seeing only a small proportion of those in the community who eventually go on to develop a psychotic illness. This raises two important issues, namely how to remedy the situation, and second, the impact of this on current research in terms of sampling bias and generalizability of research findings. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Toward an early detection of PWR control rod anomalous dropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Vallejo, I.

    1998-01-01

    Some anomalous PWR control rods dropping occurred in the past. It is assumed to be caused by a geometrical deformation of its guide tube, which might be related with neutron fluence and its sharp changes. Now at days, this problem is an open field of research, oriented to the understanding and prevention of the event. Work here is focused toward early detection. A differential equation modelling control rod free fall movement is found. There result three acceleration terms: gravity; friction with fluid; and friction with its guide tube. From recorded Plant measurements, both friction coefficients are estimated. The one from guide tube experiences a large variation in case of anomalous dropping; so relationship with neutron fluence is proposed for the prevention purpose. (Author)

  17. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  18. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zask, Avigdor; Barnett, Lisa M; Rose, Lauren; Brooks, Lyndon O; Molyneux, Maxine; Hughes, Denise; Adams, Jillian; Salmon, Jo

    2012-10-22

    Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick) is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: 'Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools'. Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1), five (T2) and eight years (T3) for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no) and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0) was used. Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560). Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73). Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002), but intervention boys did not (p = .591). At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801). Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  19. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  20. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental

  1. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola ePitchford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-week period, for the equivalent of 30-minutes per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas. Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test.A final sample of 283 children from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standard 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child

  2. Important first encounter: Service user experience of pathways to care and early detection in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-01

    Long duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes. However, few systematic attempts have been made to reduce this delay and little is known of service users' experience of early detection efforts. We explored service users' experience of an early detection service and transition to specialized treatment service, including pathway to care, understanding of illness and barriers to adequate assessment and treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 service users (median age 21, range 18-27, five males and five females) who were diagnosed with a first-episode non-affective psychosis and who were seen by an early detection team (TOP) and currently enrolled in a specialized early intervention service for this disorder (OPUS). Stigma and fear of the 'psychiatric system' were reported as significant barriers to help seeking, while family members were seen as a crucial support. Moreover, the impact of traumatic events on the experience and development of psychosis was highlighted. Finally, participants were relieved by the prospect of receiving help and the early detection team seemed to create a trusting relationship by offering a friendly, 'anti-stigmatized' space, where long-term symptomatology could be disclosed through accurate and validating questioning. Early detection services have two important functions. One is to make accurate assessments and referrals. The other is to instil hope and trust, and to facilitate further treatment by forming an early therapeutic alliance. The findings in this study provide important insights into the way in which early detection efforts and pathways to care are experienced by service users, with direct implications for improving psychiatric services. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography: a new modality for early detection of angle neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Rajvardhan; Arora, Tarun; Sihota, Ramanjit; Chandra, Parijat; Mahajan, Deepankur; Sain, Siddarth; Sharma, Yograj

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the role of Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography in detecting neovascularization of the angle and correlate the same with gonioscopy in diabetic retinopathy. One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 patients (25 each of mild, moderate, severe, very severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); and PDR with high-risk characteristics) were recruited. They underwent complete ocular examination including applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography, and fundus fluorescein angiography. Using Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography, of 150 eyes neovascularization of the angle was detected in 37 eyes (24.66%) compared with 22 eyes (14.66%) on gonioscopy (P = 0.04). Small newly formed vessels were evident only with Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography. In 10 of 50 patients (20%) with severe/very severe NPDR, angle neovascularization was appreciable on Retcam fluorescein angiography compared with 5 patients (10%) on gonioscopy. Similarly, 25 of 50 patients (50%) with PDR/PDR with high-risk characteristics had neovascularization of the angle on Retcam gonioangiography compared with 17 (34%) on gonioscopy. Retcam fluorescein gonioangiography is a novel technique for early detection of angle neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy and hence preventing progression to neovascular glaucoma. The objective nature of this test helps in precise decision making compared with gonioscopy for early intervention especially in cases of pre-PDR.

  4. Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Implications for Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer J.; Willett, Marjorie; Ruminski, Christine; Spring, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of healthy relationships on child development is widely accepted. A healthy relationship between mother and child is at risk when a mother experiences symptoms of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mothers of children with special needs are at high risk for this disorder and early intervention (EI)…

  5. Career Pathways for Related Service Paratherapists Working in Early Intervention and Other Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues in personnel training practices for paraprofessionals providing related services in early intervention and education settings. The term paratherapist is used to refer to paraprofessionals working under the supervision of professionals in physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Presents a philosophy…

  6. Conceptualizing Child and Family Outcomes of Early Intervention Services for Children with ASD and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes-Grosser, Donna M.; Rosas, Scott R.; Goldman, Alyssa; Elbaum, Batya; Romanczyk, Ray; Callahan, Emily H.

    2013-01-01

    State early intervention programs (EIPs) have been encouraged to develop and implement comprehensive outcomes measurement systems. As the number of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families receiving services in state EIPs increases, disability-specific outcomes data are needed to better understand issues of access, costs,…

  7. Omid Early Intervention Resource Kit for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Omid early intervention resource kit containing information booklets on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related issues, five packs of tangible selected playthings and communication facilitating aids was developed and evaluated with 65 Iranian parents. Beside a pretest before the resource kit deliverance, parents in the control group took part…

  8. Early Intervention Experiences of Families of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Guerette, Amy R.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the unique experiences of families who have a young child at risk for or identified with an autism spectrum disorder and their experiences with early intervention. Thirty-nine parents of children with or at risk for an autism spectrum disorder receiving Part C services in a state in the…

  9. Occupational Therapy Contributions in Early Intervention: Implications for Personnel Preparation and Interprofessional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlenhaupt, Mary; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Schefkind, Sandra; Chandler, Barbara; Harvison, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy provides a unique contribution in early intervention programs for families and their children from birth to 3 years old who are at risk for, or who have, identified disabilities. This article describes occupational therapy's distinct value and presents the profession's perspective on services to enhance families' caregiving…

  10. Battlemind Debriefing and Battlemind Training as Early Interventions with Soldiers Returning from Iraq: Randomization by Platoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B.; Bliese, Paul D.; McGurk, Dennis; Hoge, Charles W.; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have found that there is an increase in mental heath problems as a result of military-related traumatic events, and such problems increase in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, researchers have not assessed the impact of early intervention efforts with this at-risk population. In the present study, the authors…

  11. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  12. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the

  13. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  14. A Study of Early Fine Motor Intervention in Down's Syndrome Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2009-01-01

    The marked delay in acquisition of fine motor skills in trisomic-21/Down's syndrome children is undeniable. In this study, we began with an affirmation that the cause of this deficit could be found in a different environment for which early intervention is essential. A sample of 30 Down's syndrome children was used to study at different ages: six…

  15. Knowledge Translation: Supports, Challenges, and Opportunities for Change in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Susan; Ray, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) provides a lens to examine the process of moving research-informed knowledge into early intervention practice (P. Sudsawad, 2007). The process of KT entails cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages that are mediated by factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the practitioner. Facilitators and barriers to this process may…

  16. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  17. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  18. Family Quality of Life: A Key Outcome in Early Childhood Intervention Services--A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopti, Anoo; Brown, Ted; Lentin, Primrose

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to identify factors influencing the quality of life of families of children with disability. The review also explored the scales used to measure family quality of life (FQOL) as an outcome in early childhood intervention services (ECIS). Multiple databases were searched from 2000 to 2013 to include studies pertinent…

  19. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..

  20. Caregiver Coaching Strategies for Early Intervention Providers: Moving toward Operational Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…

  1. Staff supported parental involvement in effective early interventions for at-risk children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Holm, Anders; Jensen, Bente

    The article presents a review of international research on the effect of early interventions with parental involvement. Ten international and national databases were searched. Hits were supplemented with references from the review group. The search process found 1933 unique references, which were...

  2. Child/Youth Homelessness: housing affordability, early intervention, and preventive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.

  3. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  4. Current Provision, Recent Developments, and Future Directions for Early Childhood Intervention in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Lim, Ai-Keow

    2012-01-01

    Singapore is a young island nation with a diverse population. Its support for young children at risk has its roots in the 1950s, but early childhood intervention (ECI) programs for young children with disabilities emerged only in the 1980s. ECI programs have proliferated in the subsequent years, offering an increasing range of service delivery…

  5. Developmental Phenotypes and Causal Pathways in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Potential Targets for Early Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention approaches have rarely been implemented for the prevention of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this paper we explore whether such an approach may represent an important new direction for therapeutic innovation. We propose that such an approach is most likely to be of value when grounded in and informed by…

  6. Parenting Interventions in Early Head Start: The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Boyd, Misty L.; Constantino, John N.; Hallam, Rena A.; Han, Myae; Hustedt, Jason; Harden, Brenda Jones; Raver, C. Cybele; Sarche, Michelle; Vu, Jennifer A.; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Meyer, Aleta; Fortunato, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium was created by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families to test preventive interventions for Early Head Start families facing toxic stress, as conceptualized by Shonkoff, Boyce, and McEwen in their influential 2009 article. Because relationships…

  7. The Emergence of Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…

  8. Early Childhood Education Intervention Programs in the Netherlands: Still Searching for Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…

  9. Nuestras Voces: (Our Voices): A Phenomenological Study of Latino Parents' Perceptions of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathleen Mary

    2013-01-01

    There is a rise in the Latino population, a growing need to close the achievement gap, and yet there exists a paucity of research on Latino infant and child development. This phenomenological study of Latino parents explores the thoughts and feelings of a representative sample of parents pertaining to the early intervention services that their…

  10. School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Preventative Interventions. Psychosocial Stress Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Kathleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…

  11. Medical Complications of the Critically Ill Newborn: A Review for Early Intervention Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Theresa C.; Blackman, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides early-intervention professionals with a basic familiarity and understanding of some of the newest technologies employed in the neonatal intensive care units for neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. Early…

  12. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County, Orlando..., 2010). The Orange County Health Department is known Statewide as an exceptional site for HIV/AIDS care...

  13. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  14. Early language intervention for children with intellectual disabilities: A neurocognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    For children with intellectual disabilities (ID), stimulation of their language and communication is often not a priority. Advancements in brain research provide guidelines for early interventions aimed at the stimulation of language and communication skills. In the present study, the effectiveness

  15. Early identification and intervention in children at risk for reading difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtvoort, A.G.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    In pre-readers, a familial background of dyslexia and/or delayed emergent literacy should be considered a not-to-ignore risk signalling problems with learning to read. This thesis aims to study early identification and intervention in at-risk children shortly before or after the start of formal

  16. Contributions to clinical Occupational Therapy in the area of early intervention in interdisciplinary team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Laura Peruzzolo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Specialized care for infants considers that the sooner the intervention in risk and symptoms occurs, the greater the possibility of obtaining better results. Aims: To describe the process of early intervention provided by an extension program of graduate studies in Occupational Therapy and Hearing, Speech and Languages Science courses and also discuss the theoretical and practical paths in the care for infants and in the Occupational Therapy area. Method: Case report with convenience sample. The study was carried out through an assessment interpreted in light of psychomotor, occupational therapeutic, and speech, hearing and language contributions. The intervention was under the responsibility of an occupational therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team. It occurred once a week from August 2011 to January 2012 and from March 2012 to July 2012. Data analysis was carried out by comparing the entry assessment test and the final assessment test. Results: The boy had not developed concepts of body schema and body image that could sustain his relationship with objects, space and other persons. He presented little linguistic evolution. Considering the contributions of occupational therapy in psychomotor clinic, the boy reconstructed his family place in early intervention. The possibility of language functioning connected to the boy’s demands allowed access to symbolism. Conclusion: The proposal of early occupational therapy intervention with a single therapist supported by an interdisciplinary team was able to overcome the structural and instrumental obstacles to the boy’s development.

  17. The importance of context in early autism intervention: A qualitative South African study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Jessy; de Vries, Petrus J; Seris, Noleen; Shabalala, Nokuthula; Franz, Lauren

    2017-09-01

    The majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder live in low- and middle-income countries and receive little or no services from health or social care systems. The development and validation of autism spectrum disorder interventions has almost exclusively occurred in high-income countries, leaving many unanswered questions regarding what contextual factors would need to be considered to ensure the effectiveness of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. This study qualitatively explored contextual factors relevant to the adaptation of a caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention in a low-resource South African setting. We conducted four focus groups and four in-depth interviews with 28 caregivers of young children with autism spectrum disorder and used thematic analysis to identify key themes. Eight contextual factors including culture, language, location of treatment, cost of treatment, type of service provider, support, parenting practices, and stigma emerged as important. Caregivers reported a preference for an affordable, in-home, individualized early autism spectrum disorder intervention, where they have an active voice in shaping treatment goals. Distrust of community-based health workers and challenges associated with autism spectrum disorder-related stigma were identified. Recommendations that integrate caregiver preferences with the development of a low-cost and scalable caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention are included.

  18. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  19. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  20. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  1. Vessel and oil spill early detection using COSMO satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Natalia V.; Delrieux, Claudio A.

    2017-10-01

    Oil spillage is one of the most common sources of environmental damage in places where coastal wild life is found in natural reservoirs. This is especially the case in the Patagonian coast, with a littoral more than 5000 km long and a surface above a million and half square km. In addition, furtive fishery activities in Argentine waters are depleting the food supplies of several species, altering the ecological equilibrium. For this reason, early oil spills and vessel detection is an imperative surveillance task for environmental and governmental authorities. However, given the huge geographical extension, human assisted monitoring is unfeasible, and therefore real time remote sensing technologies are the only operative and economically feasible solution. In this work we describe the theoretical foundations and implementation details of a system specifically designed to take advantage of the SAR imagery delivered by two satellite constellations (the SAOCOM mission, developed by the Argentine Space Agency, and the COSMO mission, developed by the Italian Space Agency), to provide real-time detection of vessels and oil spills. The core of the system is based on pattern recognition over a statistical characterization of the texture patterns arising in the positive and negative conditions (i.e., vessel, oil, or plain sea surfaces). Training patterns were collected from a large number of previously reported contacts tagged by experts in the National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE). The resulting system performs well above the sensitivity and specificity of other avalilable systems.

  2. [Early detection of occupational skin diseases in sewer workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A

    2018-04-25

    Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.

  3. Informing early intervention: preschool predictors of anxiety disorders in middle childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hudson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine. METHOD: 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited aged 3-4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, were then conducted five years later. RESULTS: Behavioural inhibition, maternal anxiety, and maternal overinvolvement were significant predictors of clinical anxiety, even after controlling for baseline anxiety (p.1. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children who show anxiety, are inhibited, have overinvolved mothers and mothers with anxiety disorders are at increased risk for anxiety in middle childhood. These factors can be used to identify suitable participants for early intervention and can be targeted within intervention programs.

  4. The environmental radiation monitoring system and in-situ measurements for early notification and OIL (Operational Intervention Levels) calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Ne'eman, E.; Brenner, S.; Lavi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of the environmental radiation monitoring, low level laboratory and in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry are evaluated as the systems for early notification and for determination of dose rate in air, surface contamination and activity concentration in food during emergencies for Operational Intervention Levels (OIL) recalculation.The National Environmental Radiation Monitoring System has proved its efficiency in the early detection of unregistered radiography work. A mobile station of the network can be used for absorbed dose rate measurement during emergencies in contaminated areas. The calibrated in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry system in an open phosphate ore mine has showed the efficiency of this technique for fast and accurate determination of soil activity concentration. The calibration for an uniform depth distribution can be easily mathematically converted to an exponential depth distribution in cases of radioactive material fallout

  5. Early intervention for vulnerable infants and their families: an emerging agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, M O; Thomasgard, M C; Shonkoff, J P

    1989-12-01

    Early childhood development is a complex dynamic process that begins at birth and unfolds in a transactional manner as infants interact with their environment. Children are highly adaptive organisms with powerful homeostatic mechanisms; consequently, most high-risk infants do well. Environmental factors are powerful mediators in this process, and a supportive and responsive environment may alleviate many early developmental insults, while a deficient environment can exacerbate developmental weaknesses. Available data suggest that appropriately designed early intervention services can be effective in facilitating both child and family adaptation for a variety of target groups. However, many important questions remain unanswered. For example, although interventions have been shown to improve cognitive function, effects in other important areas such as social and emotional functioning and family coping have not been well studied. Information about the impact of family variables is also incomplete as is our knowledge about which services work best for which children and families. Finally, the influence of protective factors in the child and in the environment requires further exploration. The perinatologist can make several critical contributions to the comprehensive care of high risk infants beyond their medical management. He or she can play a pivotal role in identifying those neonates who need early intervention on the basis of their biologic vulnerability, their environmental risk factors, or both. Perinatologists are also in the best position to facilitate early entry into an appropriate service system and can be important collaborators in providing comprehensive services and long-term follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Promoting language and social communication development in babies through an early storybook reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-12-15

    This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.

  7. The uses of outcome measures within multidisciplinary early childhood intervention services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Samuel; Ward, Roslyn; Jones, Megan; Johnston, Jenelle; Claessen, Mary

    2017-07-18

    Purpose of the article: To review the use of outcome measures, across the domains of activity, participation, and environment, within multidisciplinary early childhood intervention services. A systematic literature search was undertaken that included four electronic databases: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. Inclusion criteria were age 0-24 months, having or at risk of a developmental disability, in receipt of multidisciplinary early childhood intervention services, and included outcome measures across all domains of the International Classification of Functioning-Child & Youth (ICF-CY). Only peer-reviewed journal articles were considered. Eligible studies were coded using the Oxford Levels of Evidence. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale for randomised controlled trials and the QualSyst for non-randomised control trials. Of the total of 5764 records identified, 10 were considered to meet inclusion criteria. Fourteen outcome measures were identified, addressing the domains of activity, participation, and environment. Of these, eight have been recommended in the early intervention literature. While the methodological quality of the 10 studies varied, these papers make a contribution to the body of research that acknowledges the role of routine and enriched environments. Implications for Rehabilitation Core practice elements of multidisciplinary early childhood intervention services indicate it is necessary to select outcome measures framed within the International Classification of Functioning-Child & Youth to inform clinical decision-making for measuring intervention effectiveness across the domains of activity, participation and environment. Of the identified measures, three (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and Goal Attainment Scaling) are well-established and identified in the literature as

  8. A Qualitative Study on Knowledge and Attitude towards Risk Factors, Early Identification and Intervention of Infant Hearing Loss among Puerperal Mothers- A Short Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudda, Ravi; Muniyappa, Hanumanth Prasad; Puttaraju, Sahana; Lakshmi, M S

    2017-07-01

    Maternal active participation and their support are critical for the success of early hearing loss detection program. Erroneous maternal decisions may have large life long consequences on the infant's life. The mothers' knowledge and their attitudes towards infant hearing loss is the basis for their decisions. The present study was done to determine the mothers' knowledge and their attitude towards risk factors of infant hearing loss, its early identification and intervention and also awareness of effect of consanguinity on hearing loss. In this cross-sectional questionnaire survey study, a total of 100 mothers were interviewed using the questionnaire which consisted of three sections namely risk factors, early identification and early intervention of hearing loss. Chi-square test was used to establish relationship between consanguineous and non-consanguineous mother's responses to its effect on hearing loss. A p-value consanguinity and benefits of early identification. However, mothers were least aware of neonatal jaundice, NICU admission (>5 days), signs of late-onset and neural hearing loss, management of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and therapy necessity, which might interfere in early detection and intervention of hearing loss. It is crucial to educate mothers on few risk factors and management of hearing loss to reduce its consequences.

  9. Paediatric Early Warning Score - A multi-center randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    Paediatric Early Warning System on evolving critical illness and intervention in hospitalised children; a regional multicentre study on implementation of a Paediatric Early Warning System Background: Critical illness in the patient and death can potentially be predicted and prevented. Deterioration...... is critically ill are related to the child’s symptoms of serious illness often being uncharacteristic. Children can seem relatively unaffected until a short time before circulatory insufficiency and cardiac arrest. Thus, there is a need for developing and investigating if an Paediatric Early Warning System...... of the intervention and evaluation. The study involves all paediatric departments and some acute departments in Central Denmark Region. The project both includes quantitative studies and a qualitative evaluation study. The studies will have different designs: • Registry study - exploring and describing life...

  10. Early intervention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental Health, Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University. Catherine Ward is with ... engage in violent behaviour, rape and intimate partner violence during later ... This evidence suggests that primary prevention initiatives for violence ...

  11. Community-based interventions to optimize early childhood development in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-08-01

    Interventions targeting the early childhood period (0 to 3 years) help to improve neuro-cognitive functioning throughout life. Some of the more low cost, low resource-intensive community practices for this age-group are play, reading, music and tactile stimulation. This research was conducted to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of such strategies on child development, with particular focus on techniques that may be transferable to developing countries and to children at risk of developing secondary impairments. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for studies involving the above strategies for early intervention. Reference lists of these studies were scanned and other studies were incorporated based on snow-balling. Overall, 76 articles corresponding to 53 studies, 24 of which were randomized controlled trials, were identified. Sixteen of those studies were from low- and middle-income countries. Play and reading were the two commonest interventions and showed positive impact on intellectual development of the child. Music was evaluated primarily in intensive care settings. Kangaroo Mother Care, and to a lesser extent massage, also showed beneficial effects. Improvement in parent-child interaction was common to all the interventions. Play and reading were effective interventions for early childhood interventions in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to judge the effectiveness of music. Kangaroo Mother Care is effective for low birth weight babies in resource poor settings, but further research is needed in community settings. Massage is useful, but needs more rigorous research prior to being advocated for community-level interventions.

  12. Promoting Early Child Development With Interventions in Health and Nutrition: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  15. T42. WHEN SHOULD EARLY INTERVENTION START, AND FOR HOW LONG SHOULD IT LAST?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Early intervention in psychosis facilities have often failed to integrate the two main elements of early intervention. While some facilities have focused on early, and have had Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) as their main target, others have focused on the intervention and the treatment provided when patients were diagnosed. As both DUP reduction and specialized early intervention (SEI) has proved to have an effect on the treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis one could hope of a synergetic effect if the two strategies were integrated. In this study, we use data from a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of prolonged early intervention (5 years) compared to standard specialized early intervention (2 years). Overall the study found that both treatment groups remained stable or improved in psychopathology, functioning and cognition and that there was no further beneficial effect of the prolonged the treatment. Participants had a long DUP (median 52 weeks). For this specific sub-study we hypothesized that patients who were treated early in their course of illness would have a beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment compared to those who only received 2 years of specialized treatment. Methods 296 participants with a psychotic diagnosis within the schizophrenia spectrum (ICD 10 – F2x, excluding F21) were included. DUP start was assessed from first psychotic symptom equivalent to 3 or above on a global SAPS item. DUP stop was when patients started antipsychotic treatment or specialized early intervention treatment. To assess if there were a delay within the mental health referral system we used the national register to identify when participants first were diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis and calculated the time until they started SEI treatment. Finally, we added the DUP and the treatment delay together to assess the time from first psychotic symptom until the start of adequate treatment (both

  16. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    measurements. These studies demonstrate the ability to use two quantitative microscopic imaging techniques, microCT and microMRI, to detect microscopic changes in collagen and GAG from healthy, biochemically degraded, and early OA cartilage. The capability for microscopic imaging to detect alterations at the earliest stages of OA will ultimately improve the understanding of degradation and may help aid in the detection for the prevention of disease and repair of damaged cartilage.

  17. Early Detection and Identification of Anomalies in Chemical Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, Stefan; Smiesko, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief information about the basic features of a newly developed diagnostic system for early detection and identification of anomalies incoming in the water chemistry regime of the primary and secondary circuit of VVER-440 reactor. This system, called SACHER (System of Analysis of CHEmical Regime) is being installed within the major modernization project at the NPP-V2 Bohunice in the Slovak Republic. System SACHER has been developed fully in MATLAB environment. The availability of prompt information about the chemical conditions of the primary and secondary circuit is very important to prevent the undue corrosion and deposit build-up. The typical chemical information systems that exist and work at the NPPs give the user values of the measured quantities together with their time trends and other derived values. It is then the experienced user's role to recognize the situation the monitored process is in and make the subsequent decisions and take the measures. The SACHER system, based on the computational intelligence techniques, inserts the elements of intelligence into the overall chemical information system. It has the modular structure with the following most important modules: normality module- its aim is to recognize that the process starts to deviate from the normal one and serves as the early warning to the staff to take the adequate measures, fuzzy identification module- its aim is to identify the anomaly on the basis of a set of fuzzy rules, time-prediction module- its aim is to predict the behavior/trend of selected chemical quantities 8 hours ahead in 15 min step from the moment of request, validation module- its aim is to validate the measured quantities, trend module- this module serves for showing the trends of the acquired quantities

  18. Early Interventions Following the Death of a Parent: Protocol of a Mixed Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana; Johnsen, Iren; Hauken, May Aa; Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Atle

    2017-06-29

    Previous meta-analyses examined the effectiveness of interventions for bereaved children showing small to moderate effect sizes. However, no mixed methods systematic review was conducted on bereavement interventions following the loss of a parent focusing on the time since death in regard to the prevention of grief complications. The overall purpose of the review is to provide a rigorous synthesis of early intervention after parental death in childhood. Specifically, the aims are twofold: (1) to determine the rationales, contents, timeframes, and outcomes of early bereavement care interventions for children and/or their parents and (2) to assess the quality of current early intervention studies. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods intervention studies that start intervention with parentally bereaved children (and/or their parents) up to 6 months postloss will be included in the review. The search strategy was based on the Population, Interventions, Comparator, Outcomes, and Study Designs (PICOS) approach, and it was devised together with a university librarian. The literature searches will be carried out in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), PsycINFO, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool will be used to appraise the quality of eligible studies. All data will be narratively synthetized following the Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis in Systematic Reviews. The systematic review is ongoing and the data search has started. The review is expected to be completed by the end of 2017. Findings will be submitted to leading journals for publication. In accordance with the current diagnostic criteria for prolonged grief as well as the users' perspectives literature, this systematic review outlines a possible sensitive period for early intervention following the death of a parent. The hereby presented protocol ensures

  19. Training radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Caroline; Teasdale, Emma; Omar, Lynne; Tucker, Lorraine; Ramirez, Amanda-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer to all older women attending for their final routine mammogram within the NHS Breast Screening Programme. If the Promoting Early Presentation (PEP) intervention is demonstrated to be cost-effective, it may be implemented across the NHS requiring at least four radiographers per screening service to deliver the intervention. Methods: A pilot study in a single breast screening service was conducted to assess the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to meet this objective. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the impact of training on participating radiographers and the screening service. Competency to deliver the intervention was assessed at key points during training according to quality criteria based on delivery of the key messages and style of delivery. Confidence to deliver the intervention was assessed using a self-report measure before and after training. Radiographers' experiences of training were elicited in face-to-face qualitative interviews. Results: Seven of eight radiographers who were released to undertake the training achieved the required level of competency to deliver the intervention within four months. All improved over time in their confidence to deliver the key messages of the intervention. The qualitative analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of training from the perspective of the radiographers. Conclusion: It was feasible and acceptable to train sufficient radiographers to deliver the PEP Intervention. The training package will be streamlined to improve efficiency for large implementation trials and clinical practice across the NHS.

  20. A simulation model for designing effective interventions in early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gary B; Edelstein, Burton L; Frosh, Marcy; Anselmo, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC)--tooth decay among children younger than 6 years--is prevalent and consequential, affecting nearly half of US 5-year-olds, despite being highly preventable. Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. We developed a system dynamics model to determine which interventions, singly and in combination, could have the greatest effect in reducing caries experience and cost in a population of children aged birth to 5 years. System dynamics is a computer simulation technique useful to policy makers in choosing the most appropriate interventions for their populations. This study of Colorado preschool children models 6 categories of ECC intervention--applying fluorides, limiting cariogenic bacterial transmission from mothers to children, using xylitol directly with children, clinical treatment, motivational interviewing, and combinations of these--to compare their relative effect and cost. The model projects 10-year intervention costs ranging from $6 million to $245 million and relative reductions in cavity prevalence ranging from none to 79.1% from the baseline. Interventions targeting the youngest children take 2 to 4 years longer to affect the entire population of preschool-age children but ultimately exert a greater benefit in reducing ECC; interventions targeting the highest-risk children provide the greatest return on investment, and combined interventions that target ECC at several stages of its natural history have the greatest potential for cavity reduction. Some interventions save more in dental repair than their cost; all produce substantial reductions in repair cost. By using data relevant to any geographic area, this system model can provide policy makers with information to maximize the return on public health and clinical care investments.

  1. [Effects of an early psychological intervention on parents of children with cleft lip/palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Xin, Yanhua; Ma, Jian; Xin, Xiuhong; Shi, Bing; Huang, Yongqing

    2013-08-01

    To provide basis for effects of an early psychological intervention on parents of children with cleft lip/palate, and investigate the effects of an early psychological intervention to them. One self-administered questionnaire (SCL-90) was applied in 102 parents of children with cleft lip/palate, compared to 126 parents of healthy individuals on the day of admission. They were given the psychological intervention during hospitalization and 3 months after discharge. The questionnaire (SCL-90) was again applied to them on the day of discharge and 3 months after discharge. Using the questionnaire (SCL-90), the answer scores of somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression and anxiety etc. were significantly higher than those of the control group (P 0.05). There were no statistical differences on the day of admission and on the day of discharge (P > 0.05), but there were statistical difference on the day of admission and 3 months after discharge (P palate is poor. It's important and greatly significant that we conduct early psychological intervention to parents of children with cleft lip/palate and to the children's psychosomatic health.

  2. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-11-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Welden; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2012-01-01

    ill patients dropping out of the study in the usual-detection area. Except for higher levels of excitative symptoms in the early-detection area, there were no symptom differences between the groups. Early-detection recovery rates were higher largely because of higher employment rates for patients...

  6. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9–16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (pepidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

  7. Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: an Internet-based virtual reality treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Freedman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.

  8. The motivation for very early intervention for infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J H; Kelly, Jean; Dawson, Geraldine

    2014-02-01

    The first Autism Research Matrix (IACC, 2003) listed the identification of behavioural and biological markers of risk for autism as a top priority. This emphasis was based on the hypothesis that intervention with infants at-risk, at an early age when the brain is developing and before core autism symptoms have emerged, could significantly alter the developmental trajectory of children at risk for the disorder and impact long-range outcome. Research has provided support for specific models of early autism intervention (e.g., Early Start Denver Model) for improving outcomes in young children with autism, based on both behavioural and brain activity measures. Although great strides have been made in ability to identify risk markers for autism in younger infant/toddler samples, how and when to intervene during the prodromal state remains a critical question. Emerging evidence suggests that abnormal brain circuitry in autism precedes altered social behaviours; thus, an intervention designed to promote early social engagement and reciprocity potentially could steer brain development back toward the normal trajectory and remit or reduce the expression of symptoms.

  9. The gains from early intervention in Europe: Fiscal surveillance and fiscal planning using cash data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hughes Hallett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time cash data allows us to make accurate intra-annual forecasts of an economy’s fiscal position, and to issue early warning signals for the need to correct fiscal imbalances. This paper shows how those signals can be used to design the necessary fiscal corrections, and discusses the gains that can be achieved from such interventions. Examples from Germany and Italy show that large corrections are often necessary early on to make adjustments later on acceptable and to keep debt ratios from escalating. There is a credibility issue here; we find the difference between front-loaded and back-loaded adjustment schemes is likely to be vital for the time consistency of fiscal policymaking. We also show that, without early interventions, the later deficit reductions typically double in size – meaning governments become subject to the excessive deficit procedure and significant improve-ment tests more often. Thus the budget savings from early intervention and the use of cash data are significant; in our examples they are similar in size to the operating budget of the department of housing and urban development in Germany. Similar results apply in other Eurozone countries.

  10. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. The Development of Children's Algebraic Thinking: The Impact of a Comprehensive Early Algebra Intervention in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Stephens, Ana; Knuth, Eric; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Isler, Isil; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2015-01-01

    This article reports results from a study investigating the impact of a sustained, comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade. Participants included 106 students; 39 received the early algebra intervention, and 67 received their district's regularly planned mathematics instruction. We share and discuss students' responses to a written…

  12. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  13. 78 FR 75997 - Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... 32 CFR Part 57 Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD...-2011-OS-0095] RIN 0790-AI77 Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible... (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION..., Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly to...

  15. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  16. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  17. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY...: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive Award To... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  18. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  19. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early Intervention Services One-Time... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  20. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Become Related: FIAS, an Intensive Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Kievit, Esther; Spiegel, René; Dima, Diana; Goth, Kirstin; Schmeck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), impairments in fundamental social abilities and a lack of interest in social stimuli become apparent early in life. These impairments are thought to negatively affect further brain and behavioural development. Early intensive interventions can help to attenuate social-development and other risk factors and, thus, to ameliorate the deficits associated with ASDs. We present FIAS, an intensive early intervention approach for young children with ASD, which aims at developing children's social motivation. During 18 days, therapists work continuously for 6 h a day with the affected child, involving the whole family in a day care setting. Follow-up care at home over 1 year as well as fresh-up interventions and inclusion in kindergarten or a play group should stabilise the effects and help to respond to further challenges. Here, we present observations from the first 12 patients (25-48 months of age) treated according to the FIAS approach. We evaluated changes in core autistic symptoms and level of functioning after the 18 days of intensive intervention. Beyond standardised assessment, two innovative video-based instruments (Autism Behaviour Coding System and Evaluationsfragebogen) have been developed to assess autistic symptoms and interaction parameters during intervention. Improvements were noted in most core autistic symptom domains, with the highest effect sizes in domains like eye contact, communication, repetitive behaviour, imitation, motivation and reciprocity. In addition, the level of functioning significantly improved. The first evaluation of the FIAS approach shows promising results, as the FIAS intervention appears to improve core autistic symptom domains as well as the level of everyday functioning. Limitations of this study are the small sample size and the lack of a control group. A more comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation is in progress; this will focus on the stability of the observed effects and will attempt to

  2. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, Elena D.

    2001-01-01

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  3. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child’s life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure’s reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children’s developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children’s needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing

  4. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vitor; Melo, Madalena; Santos, Graça; Apolónio, Ana; Amaral, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure's reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children's developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children's needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing educational policies that

  5. Paying for Early Interventions in Psychoses: A Three-Part Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard G; Glied, Sherry A; McGuire, Thomas G

    2015-07-01

    Widespread dissemination of early interventions for psychosis, such as the intervention offered in the RAISE study (Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode), requires a funding mechanism that is both compatible with approaches already used by payers and generates incentives for providers that promote the desired behaviors. The authors propose a funding model with three components: a prospective per-case payment made conditional on patient engagement in treatment, a per-service component to cover the costs of clinical services, and an outcome-based component conditional on achieving measurable outcome milestones. The authors describe the components and how such a payment mechanism might be implemented.

  6. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  7. Awareness of Skin Cancer, Prevention, and Early Detection among Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyafet Ugurlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 404 students in a university located in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. A 35-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Less than half of the students (37.9% had knowledge about skin cancer mostly through the internet (24.5% and media (24.1%. Half of them aware of the risk factors; mostly as avoiding direct exposure to the Sun between 10 am and 4 pm (45.3%; smoking and alcohol (38.4%; having fair skin color (34.9%; and ultraviolet light exposure (25.7%. Only one-third of them (32.9% are knowledgeable about skin cancer signs and symptoms, such as a change in color and appearance of the nevus/moles (24%. The majority of the responders (77.3% did not know about screening tests for skin cancer and only 18 (4.5% students were practicing skin self-examination. Conclusions: This study showed a lack of knowledge about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students and reported the need for educational interventions to raise awareness in this target group.

  8. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high

  9. Early intervention in panic: randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Balkom Anton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD is a common, severe and persistent mental disorder, associated with a high degree of distress and occupational and social disability. A substantial proportion of the population experiences subthreshold and mild PD and is at risk of developing a chronic PD. A promising intervention, aimed at preventing panic disorder onset and reducing panic symptoms, is the 'Don't Panic' course. It consists of eight sessions of two hours each. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this early intervention – based on cognitive behavioural principles – on the reduction of panic disorder symptomatology. We predict that the experimental condition show superior clinical and economic outcomes relative to a waitlisted control group. Methods/design A pragmatic, pre-post, two-group, multi-site, randomized controlled trial of the intervention will be conducted with a naturalistic follow-up at six months in the intervention group. The participants are recruited from the general population and are randomized to the intervention or a waitlist control group. The intervention is offered by community mental health centres. Included are people over 18 years of age with subthreshold or mild panic disorder, defined as having symptoms of PD falling below the cut-off of 13 on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report (PDSS-SR. Primary outcomes are panic disorder and panic symptoms. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of agoraphobia, anxiety, cognitive aspects of panic disorder, depressive symptoms, mastery, health-related quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: cognitive aspects of panic disorder, symptoms of agoraphobia, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics, panic disorder, agoraphobia, treatment credibility and mastery. Discussion This study was designed to evaluate the (cost effectiveness of an

  10. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  11. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-08-02

    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  12. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? Methods We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6% in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. Results A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250. The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. Conclusions This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  13. Detecting Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction in Contemporary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Ernest; de Vries, Ton; Cavalcante, Rafael; Tuinman, Marieke; Rademaker-Havinga, Tessa; Alkema, Maaike; Morel, Marie-Angele; Soliman, Osama I.; Onuma, Yoshinobu; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; McFadden, Eugene; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the differences in detecting (e.g., triggering) periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) among 3 current definitions. PMI is a frequent component of primary endpoints in coronary device trials. Identification of all potential suspected events is critical for

  14. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Kronborg, C; Bertelsen, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Information about the cost-effectiveness of early intervention programmes for first-episode psychosis is limited. Aims To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intensive early-intervention programme (called OPUS) (trial registration NCT00157313) consisting of enriched assertive community...... treatment, psychoeducational family treatment and social skills training for individuals with first-episode psychosis compared with standard treatment. Method An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial, adopting a public sector perspective was undertaken. Results The mean...... treatment group (51.13, s.d. = 15.92). However, the mean GAF did not differ significantly between the groups at 5-year follow-up (55.35 (s.d. = 18.28) and 54.16 (s.d. = 18.41), respectively). Cost-effectiveness planes based on non-parametric bootstrapping showed that OPUS was less costly and more effective...

  15. Children's parasympathetic reactivity to specific emotions moderates response to intervention for early-onset aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.

  16. Overall outcomes following early interventions for intracranial arteriovenous malformations with hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy Kumar; Konar, Subhas; Nanda, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the timing and predictors of surgical intervention for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with hematoma. A ruptured intracranial AVM with hematoma is an emergency condition, and the optimal timing for surgical intervention is not well understood. In addition, the outcome predictors of surgical intervention have rarely been reported. We identified and analyzed 78 patients treated with microsurgical resection for pathologically proven AVM at Louisiana State University Health in Shreveport from February 1992 to December 2004. All 78 patients were diagnosed with ruptured AVM before surgery. The independent variables, including patient demographics, timing of surgery, location of the AVM and comorbidities were analyzed to assess outcome. The results of this series revealed that surgical intervention after 48hours resulted in poor outcomes for patients with hematoma, following a ruptured AVM. Several other prognostic factors, including younger age (11-40years), Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II, and AVM in a supratentorial location, had significant positive effects on outcomes. However, hypertension, smoking, and a prior embolization showed significant negative effects on outcomes after surgery. The multiple logistic regression analyses also revealed that the timing of surgical intervention had a significant effect on outcomes in patients with hematoma following ruptured AVM. Early intervention is the key to success in these patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Can early intervention policies improve wellbeing? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Daly; Liam Delaney; Orla Doyle; Nick Fitzpatrick; Christine O'Farrelly

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of well-being, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal well-being in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global...

  18. Can Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; O'Farrelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of wellbeing, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal wellbeing in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global w...

  19. Mental health: early intervention and prevention in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membride, Heather

    It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

  20. Informing early intervention: preschool predictors of anxiety disorders in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, J. L.; Dodd, Helen F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine.\\ud \\ud Method: 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited) aged 3–4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Dis...

  1. Monumental Misjudgements? Early Conservative Interventions and their Impact on Orcadian Neolithic Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary experience of visiting many Neolithic sites in Orkney is dominated by the physical manifestations of early conservative interventions; the most striking of these being a series of cover-houses, installed over chambered tombs to ensure their protection from the elements. These shelters range in scale from small concrete domes enclosing the interior of the monuments (such as that over the Knowe of Yarso, depicted in the cover image), to a vast free-standing steel enclosure (see...

  2. Estimation for aerial detection effectiveness with cooperation efficiency factors of early-warning aircraft in early-warning detection SoS under BSC framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Hu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Rui; Li, Kaiming; Yang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    In the military field, the performance evaluation of early-warning aircraft deployment or construction is always an important problem needing to be explored. As an effective approach of enterprise management and performance evaluation, Balanced Score Card (BSC) attracts more and more attentions and is studied more and more widely all over the world. It can also bring feasible ideas and technical approaches for studying the issue of the performance evaluation of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft which is the important component in early-warning detection system of systems (SoS). Therefore, the deep explored researches are carried out based on the previously research works. On the basis of the characteristics of space exploration and aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS and the cardinal principle of BSC are analyzed simply, and the performance evaluation framework of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft is given, under this framework, aimed at the evaluation issue of aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS with the cooperation efficiency factors of the early-warning aircraft and other land based radars, the evaluation indexes are further designed and the relative evaluation model is further established, especially the evaluation radar chart being also drawn to obtain the evaluation results from a direct sight angle. Finally, some practical computer simulations are launched to prove the validity and feasibility of the research thinking and technologic approaches which are proposed in the paper.

  3. Early interventions for youths at high risk for bipolar disorder: a developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarous, Xavier; Consoli, Angèle; Milhiet, Vanessa; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, ongoing research programmes on primary prevention and early identification of bipolar disorder (BD) have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the principal forms of evidence that support preventive interventions for BD in children and adolescents and the main challenges associated with these programmes. We performed a literature review of the main computerised databases (MEDLINE, PUBMED) and a manual search of the literature relevant to prospective and retrospective studies of prodromal symptoms, premorbid stages, risk factors, and early intervention programmes for BD. Genetic and environmental risk factors of BD were identified. Most of the algorithms used to measure the risk of developing BD and the early interventions programmes focused on the familial risk. The prodromal signs varied greatly and were age dependent. During adolescence, depressive episodes associated with genetic or environmental risk factors predicted the onset of hypomanic/manic episodes over subsequent years. In prepubertal children, the lack of specificity of clinical markers and difficulties in mood assessment were seen as impeding preventive interventions at these ages. Despite encouraging results, biomarkers have not thus far been sufficiently validated in youth samples to serve as screening tools for prevention. Additional longitudinal studies in youths at high risk of developing BD should include repeated measures of putative biomarkers. Staging models have been developed as an integrative approach to specify the individual level of risk based on clinical (e.g. prodromal symptoms and familial history of BD) and non-clinical (e.g. biomarkers and neuroimaging) data. However, there is still a lack of empirically validated studies that measure the benefits of using these models to design preventive intervention programmes.

  4. WHO global consultation on public health intervention against early childhood caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health...... solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC......-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be conducted to evaluate interventions aimed at preventing ECC in different population groups....

  5. Early detection of neurodevelopment disorders in the first years of life in children with congenital heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Rosario Mendoza Carretero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to report on existing morbidities in the development of children with congenital heart disease (CHD who underwent Extracorporeal Circulation (ECC surgery. The purpose of the study is also to design guidelines for the monitoring and early intervention of these conditions. A quantitative study (N=30, based on the following inclusion criteria: age, type of CHD and surgery by ECC, located in an age range of 11 to 42 months, was made. The motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with help of the Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Bayley-III. The results highlight that the participants present morbidities in the communicative-linguistic and the motor areas. There are biomedical indicators (age in the maturational development. In order to normalize their development the children would need to participate in early intervention programs (EIP. The conclusion is that this population needs early intervention (EI and interdisciplinary protocols for detection, screening and intervention that, on this time, are not available.

  6. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention for Malaysian families: Four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  9. Evolution of care indicators after an early discharge intervention in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-López, Isabel; González-Carrión, María Pilar; Rivas-Campos, Antonio; Lafuente-Lorca, Justa; Castillo-Vera, Josefa; de Casas, Carmen; Peña-Caballero, Manuela

    To evaluate the evolution of health outcomes in preterm infants included in an early discharge programme. Controlled, non-randomised trial with an intervention group and a control group children admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves of Granada were included in the study. The intervention group comprised preterm infants admitted to the neonatal unit clinically stable, whose family home was located within 20km. from the hospital. They were discharged two weeks before the established time and a skilled nurse in neonatal care monitored them at home. The control group comprised infants who could not be included in home monitoring due to the distance to the hospital criterion or because their families did not give their consent and who received the usual care until their discharge. The study variables were the outcome indicators of the Nursing Outcomes Classification. Differences were found in the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. The early discharge of preterm infants followed up at home by an expert nurse in neonatal care is a health service that achieves results in preparating parents for the care of their child, enabling them to learn about the health services, adapt to their new life, and establishbreastfeeding times. It constitutes safe intervention for children and is beneficial to parents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitigating the Effects of Family Poverty on Early Child Development through Parenting Interventions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2016-04-01

    Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Deteriorating Patients on Surgical Wards Outside the ICU by an Automated MEWS-Based Early Warning System With Paging Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Axel R; Mees, Sören T; Lauterwald, Benjamin; Reeps, Christian; Koch, Thea; Weitz, Jürgen

    2018-05-16

    The establishment of early warning systems in hospitals was strongly recommended in recent guidelines to detect deteriorating patients early and direct them to adequate care. Upon reaching predefined trigger criteria, Medical Emergency Teams (MET) should be notified and directed to these patients. The present study analyses the effect of introducing an automated multiparameter early warning score (MEWS)-based early warning system with paging functionality on 2 wards hosting patients recovering from highly complex surgical interventions. The deployment of the system was accompanied by retrospective data acquisition during 12 months (intervention) using 4 routine databases: Hospital patient data management, anesthesia database, local data of the German Resuscitation Registry, and measurement logs of the deployed system (intervention period only). A retrospective 12-month data review using the same aforementioned databases before the deployment of the system served as control. Control and intervention phases were separated by a 6-month washout period for the installation of the system and for training. Data from 3827 patients could be acquired from 2 surgical wards during the two 12-month periods, 1896 patients in the control and 1931 in the intervention cohorts. Patient characteristics differed between the 2 observation phases. American Society of Anesthesiologists risk classification and duration of surgery as well as German DRG case-weight were significantly higher in the intervention period. However, the rate of cardiac arrests significantly dropped from 5.3 to 2.1 per 1000 admissions in the intervention period (P automated MEWS-based early warning system with paging functionality.

  12. Network analysis in detection of early-stage mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Huangjing; Qin, Jiaolong; Zhou, Luping; Zhao, Zhigen; Wang, Jun; Hou, Fengzhen

    2017-07-01

    The detection and intervention for early-stage mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) is of vital importance However, the pathology of EMCI remains largely unknown, making it be challenge to the clinical diagnosis. In this paper, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data derived from EMCI patients and normal controls are analyzed using the complex network theory. We construct the functional connectivity (FC) networks and employ the local false discovery rate approach to successfully detect the abnormal functional connectivities appeared in the EMCI patients. Our results demonstrate the abnormal functional connectivities have appeared in the EMCI patients, and the affected brain regions are mainly distributed in the frontal and temporal lobes In addition, to quantitatively characterize the statistical properties of FCs in the complex network, we herein employ the entropy of the degree distribution (EDD) index and some other well-established measures, i.e., clustering coefficient (CC) and the efficiency of graph (EG). Eventually, we found that the EDD index, better than the widely used CC and EG measures, may serve as an assistant and potential marker for the detection of EMCI.

  13. SPIRIT advance care planning intervention in early stage dementias: An NIH stage I behavioral intervention development trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Hepburn, Kenneth; Paul, Sudeshna; Shah, Raj C; Morhardt, Darby J

    2018-06-02

    People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are encouraged to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while they are still competent to appoint a surrogate decision maker and meaningfully participate in ACP discussions with the surrogate. In this NIH Stage I behavioral intervention development trial, we will adapt and test an efficacious ACP intervention, SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), with people with mild dementia and their surrogates to promote open, honest discussions while such discussions about end-of-life care are possible. We will first adapt SPIRIT (in person) to target people with mild dementia and their surrogates through a process of modification-pretesting-refinement using stakeholders (persons with mild dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians) and experts, including adapting the delivery mode to interactive web-based videoconference format (SPIRIT-remote). Then in a 3-group RCT with 120 patient-surrogate dyads, we will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SPIRIT in-person and SPIRIT remote, and preliminary efficacy of SPIRIT compared to usual care on preparedness outcomes for end-of-life decision making (dyad congruence on goals of care, patient decisional conflict, and surrogate decision-making confidence) shortly after the intervention. This Stage I research of SPIRIT will generate valuable insights regarding how to improve ACP for people with mild dementia who will progress to an advanced stage of the disease in the foreseeable future. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03311711, Registered 10/12/2017. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Early renin-angiotensin system intervention is more beneficial than late intervention in delaying end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schievink, B; Kröpelin, T; Mulder, S

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To develop and validate a model to simulate progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) from early onset until end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to assess the effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) intervention in early, intermediate and advanced stages of DKD. METHODS: We used data from...

  15. A pragmatic approach to measuring, monitoring and evaluating interventions for improved tuberculosis case detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Lucie; Creswell, Jacob; Stevens, Robert; Brouwer, Miranda; Ramis, Oriol; Weil, Olivier; Klatser, Paul; Sahu, Suvanand; Bakker, Mirjam I.

    2014-01-01

    The inability to detect all individuals with active tuberculosis has led to a growing interest in new approaches to improve case detection. Policy makers and program staff face important challenges measuring effectiveness of newly introduced interventions and reviewing feasibility of scaling-up

  16. A pragmatic approach to measuring, monitoring and evaluating interventions for improved tuberculosis case detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, L; Creswell, J; Stevens, R.; Brouwer, M; Ramis, O; Weil, O; Klatser, P.R.; Sahu, S; Bakker, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    The inability to detect all individuals with active tuberculosis has led to a growing interest in new approaches to improve case detection. Policy makers and program staff face important challenges measuring effectiveness of newly introduced interventions and reviewing feasibility of scaling-up

  17. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.

  18. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  19. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  20. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  1. Interventions to increase tuberculosis case detection at primary healthcare or community-level services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Cuevas, Luis E; Dacombe, Russell; Mkopi, Abdallah; Sinclair, David

    2017-11-28

    screening, using house-to-house visits, sometimes combined with printed information about going to clinic, may increase tuberculosis case detection (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.79; 4 trials, 6,458,591 participants in 297 clusters, low-certainty evidence); and probably increases case detection in areas with tuberculosis prevalence of 5% or more (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.09; 3 trials, 155,918 participants, moderate-certainty evidence; prespecified stratified analysis). These interventions may lower the early default (prior to starting treatment) or default during treatment (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; 3 trials, 849 participants, low-certainty evidence). However, this intervention may have may have little or no effect on treatment success (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.15; 3 trials, 849 participants, low-certainty evidence), and we do not know if there is an effect on treatment failure or mortality. One study investigated long-term prevalence in the community, but with no clear effect due to imprecision and differences in care between the two groups (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.00; 1 trial, 556,836 participants, very low-certainty evidence).Four studies examined health promotion activities to encourage people to attend for screening, including mass media strategies and more locally organized activities. There was some increase, but this could have been related to temporal trends, with no corresponding increase in case notifications, and no evidence of an effect on long-term tuberculosis prevalence. Two studies examined the effects of two to six nurse practitioner educational sessions in tuberculosis diagnosis, with no clear effect on tuberculosis cases detected. One trial compared mobile clinics every five days with house-to-house screening every six months, and showed an increase in tuberculosis cases.There was also insufficient evidence to determine if sustained improvements in case detection impact on long-term tuberculosis prevalence; this was evaluated in one study, which

  2. The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Silke; Burgoyne, Kelly; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Kyriacou, Maria; Zosimidou, Alexandra; Maxwell, Liam; Lervåg, Arne; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2017-10-01

    Oral language skills are a critical foundation for literacy and more generally for educational success. The current study shows that oral language skills can be improved by providing suitable additional help to children with language difficulties in the early stages of formal education. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 394 children in England, comparing a 30-week oral language intervention programme starting in nursery (N = 132) with a 20-week version of the same programme starting in Reception (N = 133). The intervention groups were compared to an untreated waiting control group (N = 129). The programmes were delivered by trained teaching assistants (TAs) working in the children's schools/nurseries. All testers were blind to group allocation. Both the 20- and 30-week programmes produced improvements on primary outcome measures of oral language skill compared to the untreated control group. Effect sizes were small to moderate (20-week programme: d = .21; 30-week programme: d = .30) immediately following the intervention and were maintained at follow-up 6 months later. The difference in improvement between the 20-week and 30-week programmes was not statistically significant. Neither programme produced statistically significant improvements in children's early word reading or reading comprehension skills (secondary outcome measures). This study provides further evidence that oral language interventions can be delivered successfully by trained TAs to children with oral language difficulties in nursery and Reception classes. The methods evaluated have potentially important policy implications for early education. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study

  4. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of

  5. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  6. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Fratila, M; Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Rosu, S

    2014-01-01

    . Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association

  7. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Three year outcomes in an early intervention service for psychosis in a multicultural and multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Persaud, Albert; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2008-12-01

    Concern has been expressed that it may be difficult to provide certain interventions to some ethnic groups in an Early Intervention Service for Psychosis, and that as a consequence, three-year outcomes for the different Ethnic Groups may be different in different groups. To test whether there are differences between the three year outcomes of different ethnic groups represented in the patient population of an Early Intervention service for Psychosis. The three-year outcomes for the first group of 62 Patients to receive three years treatment in the Early Intervention Service in Luton, Bedfordshire were examined. This group well represented the ethnic mix of the population of Luton. It does not appear that there are major differences between the three-year outcomes of any one of the three groups studied. However the South Asian Patients appear to present earlier, with shorter DUPs, seemed more likely to marry, live with their families, and seem more likely to return to higher education after a first psychotic episode of psychosis compared to the Caucasians. Afro-Carribeans and South Asians were more likely to be unemployed, but many South Asians were employed, as were Caucasians. The fewest persons employed were in the Afro-Caribbean group. While slightly more South Asians and Afro-Carribeans were admitted compulsorily under the mental health act over the three years, 60% of each of the two non-white groups were never admitted compulsorily. This is different from the reported national trends of the Mental Health act being used excessively with the Afro-Caribbean population. No previous study has looked at the outcomes of Early Intervention Services for First Psychotic Episodes according to the Ethnic Origin of the Clients. The better outcomes seen with South Asians are probably due to cultural factors among the South Asians born in this country, rather than to issues related to the Psychotic Illness itself. These findings are important in planning services in areas

  9. Vocabulary development and intervention for English learners in the early grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Ortiz, Miriam; Correa, Vivian; Cole, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.

  10. Nurses' experience of using an application to support new parents after early discharge: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe Danbjørg, Dorthe; Wagner, Lis; Rønde Kristensen, Bjarne; Clemensen, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses' ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital.

  11. Nurses’ Experience of Using an Application to Support New Parents after Early Discharge: An Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Boe Danbjørg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses’ ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital.

  12. The Role of Language Skill in Child Psychopathology: Implications for Intervention in the Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann

    2016-12-01

    In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.

  13. Markers for prediction and early detection of Pneumoconiosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available pathological mechanisms in the pathway from silica exposure to the development of silicosis have been elucidated. If scientifically acceptable existing biomarkers for silica dust exposure can be identified, industry could utilise these for the early...

  14. Results from a pediatric surgical centre justify early intervention in disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer M; Warne, Garry; Grover, Sonia; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2009-02-01

    Controversy persists surrounding early management of disorders of sex development. We assessed genital appearance, gender identity, and quality of life in prepubertal children who have had early surgical intervention. Children treated for disorders of sex development who were 5 to 10 years of age were eligible (n = 54). Children were scored (modified Creighton scale) for anatomical and cosmetic outcome, and both patients and parents completed PedsQL quality-of-life and gender identity questionnaires, with ethics approval. Of 54 patients, 41 presented for review. Treatment began at 13.2 (1.8-250.1) months (median; range) and were reviewed at 7.5 +/- 2.1 (mean +/- SD) years of age. Nineteen were raised as girls and 22 as boys. Girls had good (85%) or satisfactory (15%) anatomical/cosmetic outcome, whereas 52% boys had good, 38% satisfactory, and 10% poor cosmetic outcomes. On gender identity questionnaire, boys scored 3.9 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) and girls 3.6 +/- 0.5; 1 of 19 boys and 3 of 19 girls had lower scores, suggesting risk of gender identity disorder. Quality-of-life scores were 80+ for physical and 65 to 80 for psychosocial scores. Early intervention is generally associated with positive outcomes for patients and parents. Girls had better anatomical outcomes than boys, and gender dysphoria risks were low in both sexes.

  15. Cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions: ethical challenges for early human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, D J H; Sugarman, J; Bok, H; Blass, D M; Coyle, J T; Duggan, P; Finkel, J; Greely, H T; Hillis, A; Hoke, A; Johnson, R; Johnston, M; Kahn, J; Kerr, D; Kurtzberg, J; Liao, S M; McDonald, J W; McKhann, G; Nelson, K B; Rao, M; Regenberg, A; Siegel, A W; Smith, K; Solter, D; Song, H; Vescovi, A; Young, W; Gearhart, J D; Faden, R

    2008-07-22

    Attempts to translate basic stem cell research into treatments for neurologic diseases and injury are well under way. With a clinical trial for one such treatment approved and in progress in the United States, and additional proposals under review, we must begin to address the ethical issues raised by such early forays into human clinical trials for cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. An interdisciplinary working group composed of experts in neuroscience, cell biology, bioethics, law, and transplantation, along with leading disease researchers, was convened twice over 2 years to identify and deliberate on the scientific and ethical issues raised by the transition from preclinical to clinical research of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. While the relevant ethical issues are in many respects standard challenges of human subjects research, they are heightened in complexity by the novelty of the science, the focus on the CNS, and the political climate in which the science is proceeding. Distinctive challenges confronting US scientists, administrators, institutional review boards, stem cell research oversight committees, and others who will need to make decisions about work involving stem cells and their derivatives and evaluate the ethics of early human trials include evaluating the risks, safety, and benefits of these trials, determining and evaluating cell line provenance, and determining inclusion criteria, informed consent, and the ethics of conducting early human trials in the public spotlight. Further study and deliberation by stakeholders is required to move toward professional and institutional policies and practices governing this research.

  16. Face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jessica; Synnot, Anneliese; Ryan, Rebecca; Hill, Sophie; Horey, Dell; Willis, Natalie; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2013-05-31

    Childhood vaccination (also described as immunisation) is an important and effective way to reduce childhood illness and death. However, there are many children who do not receive the recommended vaccines because their parents do not know why vaccination is important, do not understand how, where or when to get their children vaccinated, disagree with vaccination as a public health measure, or have concerns about vaccine safety.Face to face interventions to inform or educate parents about routine childhood vaccination may improve vaccination rates and parental knowledge or understanding of vaccination. Such interventions may describe or explain the practical and logistical factors associated with vaccination, and enable parents to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination for their family or community. To assess the effects of face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination on immunisation uptake and parental knowledge. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to July 2012); EMBASE + Embase Classic (OvidSP) (1947 to July 2012); CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1981 to July 2012); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to July 2012); Global Health (CAB) (1910 to July 2012); Global Health Library (WHO) (searched July 2012); Google Scholar (searched September 2012), ISI Web of Science (searched September 2012) and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for ongoing trials in The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched August 2012) and for grey literature in The Grey Literature Report and OpenGrey (searched August 2012). We also contacted authors of included studies and experts in the field. There were no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs evaluating the effects of face to face interventions delivered to individual parents or groups of parents to inform or educate

  17. Social marketing approaches to nutrition and physical activity interventions in early care and education centres: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S

    2017-12-01

    Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Development and psychometric testing of the 'Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index. Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The primary strategy used to prevent skin cancer is promotion of sun avoidance and the use of sun protection. However, despite costly and extensive campaigns, cases of skin cancer continue to increase. If found and treated early, skin cancer is curable. Early detection is, therefore, very important. The study was conducted in 2013. Instrument Development. A literature review and a survey identified barriers (factors that hinder) and levers (factors that help) to skin self-examination. These were categorized according to a the Theoretical Domains Framework and this formed the basis of an instrument, which was tested for validity and reliability using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively. A five-factor 20-item instrument was used that tested well for reliability and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was good for all items and domains. The five factors were: (i) Outcome expectancies; (ii) Intention; (iii) Self-efficacy; (iv) Social influences; (v) Memory. The Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index provides a reliable and valid method of assessing barriers and levers to skin self-examination. The next step is to design a theory-based intervention that can be tailored according to individual determinants to behaviour change identified by this instrument. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of women knowledge and attitude regarding cervical cancer early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădulescu, F; Prejbeanu, Ileana; Rada, Cornelia; Pătraşcu, Anca; Dragomir, Manuela; Popescu, Florina Carmen

    2011-01-01

    At European level, Romania unfortunately comes first as far as mortality due to cervical cancer is concerned, mortality rate recording a continuous increase due to disease detection in advanced stages. In this context, we followed an assessment of women's cognitive and attitudinal fund in relation to early detection of cervical cancer, through the application of a questionnaire on a batch of 617 women with ages from 18 to 75-year-old, with various levels of education, residents of Craiova City and communes from Dolj County. Statistic processing of their answers indicates that 43.3% of the inquired subjects have not had a routine gynecological exam for at least seven years (or even never), which is more often found in the subgroup of women from the rural environment, with ages over 35 years and with an elementary educational level (plevel being once again discrimination factors between the subgroups. The reasons usually put forward as a justification for the failure to do the cytological test for the past three years are negligence (23.8%), the lack of information on the existence of such an investigation (18.2%), the absence of a genital pathology (12.8%) or of a medical recommendation (11.8%). Results suggest the need to provide uniform accessibility of the population to health services, by developing and implementing new strategies of educational and sanitary intervention mainly in rural communities.

  20. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  1. Youth mental health in deprived urban areas: a Delphi study on the role of the GP in early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schaffalitzky, E

    2014-09-06

    GPs, as healthcare professionals with whom young people commonly interact, have a central role in early intervention for mental health problems. However, successfully fulfilling this role is a challenge, and this is especially in deprived urban areas.

  2. The effect of IPS-modified, an early intervention for people with mood and anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lone; Bech, Per; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    that Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has a positive effect on employment when provided to people with severe mental illness. This modified IPS intervention is aimed at supporting people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in regaining their ability to work and facilitate their return......Anxiety and affective disorders can be disabling and have a major impact on the ability to work. In Denmark, people with a mental disorder, and mainly non-psychotic disorders, represent a substantial and increasing part of those receiving disability pensions. Previous studies have indicated...... to work or education.Aim: To investigate whether an early modified IPS intervention has an effect on employment and education when provided to people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in a Danish context.Methods/design: The trial is a randomised, assessor-blinded, clinical superiority...

  3. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  4. Efficient drilling problem detection. Early fault detection by the combination of physical models and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, Roar

    2009-09-15

    The drilling of an oil or gas well is an expensive undertaking. Hence, it is not surprising that mistakes and accidents during drilling incur a high cost. Accidents could result in the loss of expensive equipment and subsequent delays setting back the operation for days or weeks and thus running up large bills on rig-time and personnel hours. Some types of accidents also pose a risk to the personnel or the environment. In this dissertation we study alarm systems which could give the driller an early warning of upcoming problems, and thus provide time to avoid these accidents. We explore alarm systems which combine advanced physical models of the well and drilling process with artificial intelligence and time series analysis. Finally, we determine the advantages as well as the challenges of this approach. It is our hope that this dissertation is accessible to both practitioners in machine learning and control engineering, as well as to petroleum engineers with a passing familiarity with machine learning. Hence this dissertation starts with a quick introduction to drilling problems and some terms from time series analysis and machine learning. We then briefly describe the theory of observer-based fault detection and isolation. Theories of supervisory control systems are also introduced, as these concern both the choice of algorithms and how AI-based alarm systems integrate with the rest of the operation. From chapter 6 and onward, the challenges to fault detection in drilling are discussed. We focus on clarifying what restrictions the available training data put on our choice of machine learning methods. In chapter 8 and 9, we propose ways to combine machine learning and observer-based fault detection. Experimental results are presented in chapter 10, before we end with concluding remarks in chapter 11. Our main conclusion, reflected in our experimental results, is that physical models and artificial intelligence can be combined to produce hybrid alarm systems that

  5. Investigating service features to sustain engagement in early intervention mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mackenzie; Cunningham, Charles E; Christensen, Bruce K; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Madsen, Victoria; Bieling, Peter; Chen, Yvonne; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2017-08-23

    To understand what service features would sustain patient engagement in early intervention mental health treatment. Mental health patients, family members of individuals with mental illness and mental health professionals completed a survey consisting of 18 choice tasks that involved 14 different service attributes. Preferences were ascertained using importance and utility scores. Latent class analysis revealed segments characterized by distinct preferences. Simulations were carried out to estimate utilization of hypothetical clinical services. Overall, 333 patients and family members and 183 professionals (N = 516) participated. Respondents were distributed between a Professional segment (53%) and a Patient segment (47%) that differed in a number of their preferences including for appointment times, individual vs group sessions and mode of after-hours support. Members of both segments shared preferences for many of the service attributes including having crisis support available 24 h per day, having a choice of different treatment modalities, being offered help for substance use problems and having a focus on improving symptoms rather than functioning. Simulations predicted that 60% of the Patient segment thought patients would remain engaged with a Hospital service, while 69% of the Professional segment thought patients would be most likely to remain engaged with an E-Health service. Patients, family members and professionals shared a number of preferences about what service characteristics will optimize patient engagement in early intervention services but diverged on others. Providing effective crisis support as well as a range of treatment options should be prioritized in the future design of early intervention services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O'Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  7. WHO Global Consultation on Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik; Evans, Wendell; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Lo, Edward; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad H; Baez, Ramon; Varenne, Benoit; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Songpaisan, Yupin; Woodward, Margaret; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Ungchusak, Chantana

    2018-01-30

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is prevalent around the world, but in particular the disease is growing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries in parallel with changing diet and lifestyles. In many countries, ECC is often left untreated, a condition which leads to pain and adversely affects general health, growth and development, and quality of life of children, their families and their communities. Importantly, ECC is also a global public health burden, medically, socially and economically. In many countries, a substantial number of children require general anaesthesia for the treatment of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC. These should align with existing international initiatives such as the Sixtieth World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 60.17 Oral health: action plan for promotion and integrated disease prevention, WHO Guideline on Sugars and WHO breastfeeding recommendation. ECC prevention and control interventions should be integrated into existing primary healthcare systems. WHO public health principles must be considered when tackling the effect of social determinants in ECC. Initiatives aimed at modifying behaviour should focus on families and communities. The involvement of communities in health promotion, and population-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be

  8. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children's school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems.Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing.The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM. Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday.The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments.

  9. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  10. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  11. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  12. [Child maltreatment and new morbidity in pediatrics : Consequences for early child support and child protective interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Heinz

    2016-10-01

    The effects of child maltreatment on children's chronic health conditions have become more visible during recent years. This is true for mental health problems as well as some chronic physical conditions, both summarized as new morbidity within pediatrics. As several Bradford Hill criteria (criteria from epidemiology for the determination of the causal nature of a statistical association) are met, the likely causal nature of underlying associations is discussed. Early family support may have the potential to modify such associations, although empirical evidence is lacking. At least for attachment-based interventions with foster carerers after child maltreatment, positive effects on child HPA axis dysregulation have been demonstrated.

  13. Baby or bathwater? Referrals of "non-cases" in a targeted early identification intervention for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gerald; Kinkaid, Miriam; Iyer, Srividya N; Joober, Ridha; Goldberg, Karen; Malla, Ashok; Shah, Jai L

    2018-03-14

    To explore the unintended impact of a targeted case identification (TCI) campaign for first episode psychosis (FEP) on people not experiencing FEP ("non-cases") with respect to referral patterns and reasons for being a non-case. Sources of referral, reasons for being a non-case, and subsequent referral destinations of non-cases were examined before and after a TCI. Following the TCI, a greater proportion of non-cases lived outside the study catchment area. A smaller proportion was referred by the parent hospital's emergency room or had a substance-induced psychosis. TCIs for FEP may have unintended effects, with implications for early case identification and early intervention services.

  14. Early signs of mobility decline and physical activity counseling as a preventive intervention in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina

    indicate that self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history should be considered as important early indicators of functional decline among community-dwelling older adults. In addition, the results suggest that physical activity counseling for older adults may provide an effective means......The purpose of this study was to examine the early signs of mobility decline and falls in older people. In addition, the effects of physical activity counseling on the development of mobility limitation in an older community-dwelling population were studied. Data from two larger studies were used......: Screening and Counseling for Physical activity and Mobility among Older People, SCAMOB, a 2-year single-blinded randomized controlled trial (n=632) with a 1.5-year post-intervention follow-up, focused on 75 to 81-year-old community-dwelling people and the FITSA study, a 3-year prospective observational...

  15. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01 and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01. Conclusions Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established.

  17. Interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate about early childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterdal, Ingvil; Lewin, Simon; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Glenton, Claire; Munabi-Babigumira, Susan

    2014-11-19

    -making regarding childhood vaccination (adjusted mean difference 0.043, 95% CI -0.009 to 0.097).The studies did not assess knowledge among participants of vaccine service delivery; participant confidence in the vaccination decision; intervention costs; or any unintended harms as a consequence of the intervention. We did not identify any studies that compared interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate with interventions directed to individual parents or caregivers, or studies that compared two interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate about childhood vaccination. This review provides limited evidence that interventions aimed at communities to inform and educate about early childhood vaccination may improve attitudes towards vaccination and probably increase vaccination uptake under some circumstances. However, some of these interventions may be resource intensive when implemented on a large scale and further rigorous evaluations are needed. These interventions may achieve most benefit when targeted to areas or groups that have low childhood vaccination rates.'

  18. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. AIMS: A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3....... An adequately powered randomized clinical trial is warranted....

  19. Maternal Locus of Control and Perception of Family Status at Entry and Exit of Birth to Three Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffaro, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  1. Early Intervention for Preschoolers at Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Preschool First Step to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Edward G.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Golly, Annemieke; Forness, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the Preschool First Step (PFS) to Success early intervention for children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PFS is a targeted intervention for children 3-5 years old with externalizing behavior problems and addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. As part of a larger…

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental areas: (i) Cognitive development. (ii) Physical development, including vision and hearing. (iii... Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities and Their Families A Appendix A to Part 57... Appendix A to Part 57—Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers...

  3. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    .... We proposed to use molecular beacon technology to detect the level of expression of several biomarker genes that are highly expressed in breast cancer cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells...

  4. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  5. Early detection of breast cancer: results of a screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahrs, O.H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a mammography screening programme launched by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute are discussed. Twenty-seven Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Projects (BCDDP) screened 280,000 women annually for 5 years. During the first 2 screenings, 1810 cancers were detected. An increased rate of discovery in all age groups was achieved. The radiation risk of mammography is also discussed. The results of the BCDDP were evaluated by a review panel. Of the 1810 cancers detected, 45% had been detected by mammography alone, 47% by mammography and physical examination and only 7% by physical examination alone. 592 of the cancers were < 1 cm in diameter. Two-thirds of these lesions were considered to be in-situ carcinoma and one-third invasive cancer. In 66 instances, the tissue first presented was considered not to be cancerous; these cases were further studied clinically and pathologically. It is concluded that, in the experience of the BCDDP, mammography proved to be an excellent method of detection, but it does have a small theoretical risk. As a widely used approach to detection, mammography is probably not practical due to the number of experts necessary for image evaluation. (UK)

  6. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus noninterve...

  7. Early Detection of Brain Pathology Suggestive of Early AD Using Objective Evaluation of FDG-PET Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for early detection of AD becomes critical as disease-modifying agents near the marketplace. Here, we present results from a study focused on improvement in detection of metabolic deficits related to neurodegenerative changes consistent with possible early AD with statistical evaluation of FDG-PET brain images. We followed 31 subjects at high risk or diagnosed with MCI/AD for 3 years. 15 met criteria for diagnosis of MCI, and five met criteria for AD. FDG-PET scans were completed at initiation and termination of the study. PET scans were read clinically and also evaluated objectively using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Using standard clinical evaluation of the FDG-PET scans, 11 subjects were detected, while 18 were detected using SPM evaluation. These preliminary results indicate that objective analyses may improve detection; however, early detection in at-risk normal subjects remains tentative. Several FDA-approved software packages are available that use objective analyses, thus the capacity exists for wider use of this method for MCI/AD.

  8. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. A Pilot Study of a Culturally Adapted Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Yang, Jian; Yao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Xiangxiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lee, Gabrielle T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effects of a culturally adapted early intervention influenced by the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on reduction of autism symptoms and severity categorization for young children with autism spectrum disorders in China. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control or intervention…

  10. A partnership model of early intervention in psychosis programme--a Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Lamidi Kola; Savage, Troy

    2009-08-01

    To describe how a new partnership model of early intervention in psychosis, early intervention in psychosis (EIP) programme delivery in Canada attracted the interest of the community and acquired government funding. The process by which a few individuals used a conceptual framework of integrated, collaborative, flexible and recovery focused principles to engage community partners and attract government funding is described. The establishment of a small EIP programme and its expansion to a regional programme serving an area of 20,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 500,000 people were achieved. A programme specific logic prototype was developed. A synergy of public, private and academic services emerged with an infrastructure for ongoing cohesiveness and productivity. Annual clinic visits increased from 641 in 2002 to 1904 in 2007 and annual new patients enrollments grew from 46 to 128 within the same period. Staffing grew from an interdisciplinary staff of 1.5 full-time equivalent (FTE) to the current 10.0 FTE. A carefully orchestrated programme organization that is inclusive rather than exclusive can produce a balance of evidence-based best practices in client focused service, community mental health integration and academic productivity. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Provision of Early Intervention and Special Education Services to Eligible DoD Dependents. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-25

    This rule reissues the current regulations and: Establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and implements the non-funding and non-reporting provisions in DoD for: Provision of early intervention services (EIS) to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families, as well as special education and related services to children with disabilities entitled under this part to receive education services from the DoD; implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary program of EIS for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families who, but for age, are eligible to be enrolled in DoD schools; provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE), including special education and related services, for children with disabilities, as specified in their individualized education programs (IEP), who are eligible to enroll in DoD schools; and monitoring of DoD programs providing EIS, and special education and related services for compliance with this part. This rule also establishes a DoD Coordinating Committee to recommend policies and provide compliance oversight for early intervention and special education.

  12. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Zaytseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement.

  13. Case management in early psychosis intervention programme: Perspectives of clients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Horng Hien; Yong, Yee Huei; Shahwan, Shazana; Cetty, Laxman; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Hon, Charlene; Lee, Helen; Loh, Christopher; Abdin, Edimansyah; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-12-14

    This qualitative study explored the perspectives of clients and caregivers on case management provided by the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP), with the intent to understand the salient aspects of case management from their perspective. Clients and their caregivers were recruited from the EPIP outpatient clinics. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at a community centre outside the hospital with 47 clients and 19 caregivers. Facilitators were experienced researchers who were not involved in the care of the clients and trained in qualitative research methodologies. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim with all participants' identifiers omitted to protect confidentiality. Qualitative data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. There were 11 themes that emerged from the FGDs: therapeutic alliance, holistic monitoring, collaborative role with other care providers, counselling and guidance, crisis management, bridging role, client-centred care, client empowerment and strength building, psychoeducation/education on illness, support and problem solving. "Problem solving" surfaced only from the client FGDs; the remaining themes were common to both groups. The voices of clients and caregivers are important to EPIP case management service. This study has provided insights into their perspectives, understandings and lived experiences of case management and its impact on clients and caregivers. © 2017 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The biospeckle method for early damage detection of fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen

    2017-07-01

    In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.

  15. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers.

  16. Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

  17. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  18. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....

  19. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  20. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.