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Sample records for early concurrent conventional

  1. Concurrent Use of Conventional Drugs with Chinese Herbal Products in Taiwan: A Population-based Study

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    Ming-Chen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs worldwide has raised the concern of herb–drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH+D and a conventional drug alone (D-alone. The prevalence of the CH+D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients.

  2. CAM use in pediatric neurology: an exploration of concurrent use with conventional medicine.

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    Elaine Galicia-Connolly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO in Ottawa. RESULTS: Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%, vitamin C (37%, homeopathic remedies (24%, and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%. The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%, chiropractic (37%, faith healing (18%, aromatherapy (16%, homeopathy (16%, and relaxation (16%. Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57% discussed this concurrent use with their physician. CONCLUSION: CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies.

  3. Concurrent Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM and Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy in the Management of Children with Developmental Disorders

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    Soo Yeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the concurrent use of conventional rehabilitations and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies for the long-term management of children with developmental disorders (DDs. Methods. The parents or caregivers of 533 children with DDs (age range, 1–19 years who visited the rehabilitation centers were surveyed using in depth face-to-face interviews. Results. Of the 533 patients enrolled, 520 completed the questionnaire (97% response rate. A total of 292 (56% children were receiving multiple therapies, more than two conventional rehabilitations and CAM, at the time of the interview. A total of 249 (48% children reported lifetime CAM use, 23% used CAM at the time of the interview, and 62% of the patients planned to use CAM therapy in the future. Conventional rehabilitation therapies used at the time of the interview included physical therapy (30%, speech therapy (28%, and occupational therapy (19%, and the CAM therapies included herbal medicine (5% and acupuncture or moxibustion (3%. The respondents indicated that in the future they planned to use acupuncture or moxibustion (57%, occupational therapy (18%, cognitive behavioral therapy (16%, speech therapy (10%, and physical therapy (8%. Conclusion. Concurrent management as conventional rehabilitations and CAM therapies is widely used by children with DDs.

  4. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

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    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II tri...

  5. Broad CTL Response in Early HIV Infection Drives Multiple Concurrent CTL Escapes.

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    Leviyang, Sivan; Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the ability of HIV to escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses that concurrently target multiple viral epitopes. Yet, the viral dynamics involved in such escape are incompletely understood. Previous analyses have made several strong assumptions regarding HIV escape from CTL responses such as independent or non-concurrent escape from individual CTL responses. Using experimental data from evolution of HIV half genomes in four patients we observe concurrent viral escape from multiple CTL responses during early infection (first 100 days of infection), providing confirmation of a recent result found in a study of one HIV-infected patient. We show that current methods of estimating CTL escape rates, based on the assumption of independent escapes, are biased and perform poorly when CTL escape proceeds concurrently at multiple epitopes. We propose a new method for analyzing longitudinal sequence data to estimate the rate of CTL escape across multiple epitopes; this method involves few parameters and performs well in simulation studies. By applying our novel method to experimental data, we find that concurrent multiple escapes occur at rates between 0.03 and 0.4 day(-1), a relatively broad range that reflects uncertainty due to sparse sampling and wide ranges of parameter values. However, we show that concurrent escape at rates 0.1-0.2 day(-1) across multiple epitopes is consistent with our patient datasets.

  6. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

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    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  7. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

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    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  8. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  9. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II trials and three randomized phase three trials evaluating concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant of breast cancer. In patients with early breast cancer having positive lymph nodes, phases III clinical trials showed that CCRT improved local control after conservative breast surgery. However, these randomized trials used non-standard regimen: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF or fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FNC. In addition, in phases II clinical trials, concurrent use of taxanes and anthracycline with standard whole-breast irradiation showed high rate of toxicity: Pulmonary toxicity with taxane; and cardiac and skin toxicity with anthracycline. Consequentely, CCRT is not be used in practice because of concerns of toxicity with the standard drugs (anthracyclines and taxanes and radiation. Anthracyclines with partial breast irradiation (PBI was feasible according to one phase I clinical trial, and should be investigated in randomized clinical trials. Concurrent Trastuzumab plus radiotherapy is safe and can be used in HER2-positive breast cancer; in this case, cardiac volume sparing and patient selections for internal mammary chain irradiation are highly recommended. The present paper aimed to review the current data evaluating the efficacy and safety of CCRT in early breast cancer.

  10. Early detection of gray mold in grape using conventional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2012-10-25

    Oct 25, 2012 ... symptomatic, quiescent infection in berry development. ... highly expensive, it appeared to be more rapid and sensitive than the conventional selective .... Fluorescent DNA quantitative kit (Bio-Rad, California, USA) and a.

  11. Temperamental approach/withdrawal and food neophobia in early childhood: Concurrent and longitudinal associations.

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    Moding, Kameron J; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether temperamental approach/withdrawal processes were concurrently and longitudinally associated with parent ratings and behavioral observations of food neophobia at 4.5 years of age. Additionally, maternal feeding practices were examined as potential moderators of the association between toddler temperament and food neophobia. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study following individuals (n = 82) from infancy through early childhood. At 18 months of age, toddlers were observed in an unfamiliar laboratory setting with an experimenter and their reactions were coded. At 4.5 years of age, the children were again observed in an unfamiliar setting and were also offered three novel foods (lychee, nori, and haw jelly). The number of foods they refused to taste was used as a measure of behavioral neophobia. Finally, mothers reported on their child's food neophobia and temperament, as well as their own feeding practices. As expected, temperament was associated with concurrent measures of food neophobia at 4.5 years of age. Also, low approach children who exhibited high negative affect and low positive affect in response to novelty at 18 months of age had higher levels of food neophobia at 4.5 years of age compared to their peers. Furthermore, evidence emerged to show that these neophobic tendencies in low approach children were strengthened by a maternal pressuring feeding style. Collectively, the results of this study emphasize that children who have low levels of temperamental approach are at a heightened risk for developing food neophobia during childhood.

  12. Concurrent and Longitudinal Patterns and Trends in Performance on Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures in Kindergarten through Third Grade

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    Missall, Kristen N.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Casebeer, Dian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement" (TEN-CBM) tools by examining concurrent and predictive relations from kindergarten through third grade. Using a longitudinal sample of 535 students, this study included logistic regression, latent cluster, and latent transition…

  13. Concurrent and Longitudinal Patterns and Trends in Performance on Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures in Kindergarten through Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, Kristen N.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Casebeer, Dian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measurement" (TEN-CBM) tools by examining concurrent and predictive relations from kindergarten through third grade. Using a longitudinal sample of 535 students, this study included logistic regression, latent cluster, and latent…

  14. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

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    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  15. Early diagnostic of concurrent gear degradation processes progressing under time-varying loads

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    Guilbault, Raynald; Lalonde, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    This study develops a gear diagnostic procedure for the detection of multi- and concurrent degradation processes evolving under time-varying loads. Instead of a conventional comparison between a descriptor and an alarm level, this procedure bases its detection strategy on a descriptor evolution tracking; a lasting descriptor increase denotes the presence of ongoing degradation mechanisms. The procedure works from time domain residual signals prepared in the frequency domain, and accepts any gear conditions as reference signature. To extract the load fluctuation repercussions, the procedure integrates a scaling factor. The investigation first examines a simplification assuming a linear connection between the load and the dynamic response amplitudes. However, while generally valuable, the precision losses associated with large load variations may mask the contribution of tiny flaws. To better reflect the real non-linear relation, the paper reformulates the scaling factor; a power law with an exponent value of 0.85 produces noticeable improvements of the load effect extraction. To reduce the consequences of remaining oscillations, the procedure also includes a filtering phase. During the validation program, a synthetic wear progression assuming a commensurate relation between the wear depth and friction assured controlled evolutions of the surface degradation influence, whereas the fillet crack growth remained entirely determined by the operation conditions. Globally, the tested conditions attest that the final strategy provides accurate monitoring of coexisting isolated damages and general surface deterioration, and that its tracking-detection capacities are unaffected by severe time variations of external loads. The procedure promptly detects the presence of evolving abnormal phenomena. The tests show that the descriptor curve shapes virtually describe the constant wear progression superimposed on the crack length evolution. At the tooth fracture, the mean values of

  16. The effects of anodal-tDCS on corticospinal excitability enhancement and its after-effects: conventional versus unihemispheric concurrent dual-site stimulation

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    Bita eVaseghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have approved the ability of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of concurrent stimulation of M1 and a functionally connected cortical site of M1 on CSE modulation. This new technique is called unihemispheric concurrent dual-site a-tDCS (a-tDCSUHCDS. The secondary aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of this new approach in healthy individuals. In a randomized crossover study, 12 healthy right-handed volunteers received a-tDCS under five conditions: a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCSUHCDS of M1– dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, a-tDCSUHCDS of M1– primary sensory cortex (S1, a-tDCSUHCDS of M1– primary visual cortex (V1, and sham a-tDCSUHCDS. Peak-to-peak amplitude of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS induced MEPs, short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation were assessed before and four times after each condition. A-tDCSUHCDS conditions induced larger MEPs than conventional a-tDCS. The level of M1 CSE was significantly higher following a-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC than other a-tDCSUHCDS conditions (P < 0.001, and lasted for over 24 hours. The paired-pulse TMS results after a-tDCS of M1-DLPFC showed significant facilitatory increase and inhibitory change. A-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC increases M1 CSE twofold that of conventional a-tDCS. A-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC enhances the activity of glutamergic mechanisms for at least 24 hours. Such long-lasting M1 CSE enhancement induced by a-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC could be a valuable finding in clinical scenarios such as learning, motor performance, or pain management.The present study has been registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ with registry number of ACTRN12614000817640.

  17. Early escharectomy and concurrent composite skin grafting over human acellular dermal matrix scaffold for covering deep facial burns.

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    Tang, Bing; Zhu, Bin; Liang, Yue-Ying; Bi, Liang-Kuan; Chen, Bin; Hu, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Jia-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Although escharectomy and full-thickness skin autografting have been widely used to treat deep facial burns, the clinical outcomes remain unacceptable. Composite razor-thin skin grafting over acellular dermal matrix scaffold has been used successfully in repairing burns of the trunk and limbs, but its use in covering deep facial burns has rarely been reported. In this study, the authors investigated the clinical outcomes of early escharectomy and concurrent composite razor-thin skin autografting and acellular dermal matrix scaffold for treating deep facial burns. Patients with deep facial burns (n = 16) involving 8 to 30 percent of the total body surface area received early escharectomy by postburn day 3 and concurrent, one-stage, large, razor-thin skin autografting on top of human acellular dermal matrix scaffold. Wound dressings were changed on postoperative days 7, 9, and 12 to examine the survival of skin autografts. Patients were followed up for 12 months to evaluate their facial profiles. The take rate of composite skin autografts was 97.3 percent at postoperative day 12. At the follow-up visit, the skin autografts appeared normal in color, with soft texture and good elasticity. The skin junctures showed little scarring. The patients exhibited a chubby facial appearance and abundant expression, except for one patient with microstomia and two patients with ectropion who required further plastic surgical interventions. Early escharectomy and concurrent composite razor-thin skin autografting on top of acellular dermal matrix scaffold constitute an effective and favorable option for covering deep facial burns, especially for patients with limited donor sites.

  18. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Compared With Conventional Radiotherapy in Patients Treated With Concurrent Carboplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Clavel, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.clavel@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen, David H.A.; Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Khaouam, Nader [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, the toxicity and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in patients treated with concomitant carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 249 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. One hundred patients had 70 Gy in 33 fractions using IMRT, and 149 received CRT at 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 42 months. Three-year actuarial rates for locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.005), 85.3% vs. 69.3% (p = 0.001), and 92.1% vs. 75.2% (p < 0.001) for IMRT and CRT, respectively. The benefit of the radiotherapy regimen on outcomes was also observed with a Cox multivariate analysis. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with less acute dermatitis and less xerostomia at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Conclusions: This study suggests that simultaneous integrated boost using IMRT is associated with favorable locoregional control and survival rates with less xerostomia and acute dermatitis than CRT when both are given concurrently with chemotherapy.

  19. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N.A. Milne; R. Carvalho; F.M. Morsink; A.R. Musler; W.W.J. de Leng; A. Ristimaki; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2006-01-01

    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (<= 45 years old) and conventional gastric cancers. Expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in g

  20. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Codina, Marta; Araujo, M. Caridad; Attanasio, Orazio; Muñoz, Pablo; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), measuring early childhood development (ECD) with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests (‘short tests’) are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3), Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II), Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2)) and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII), WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor)) in 1,311 children 6–42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III), taken as the ‘gold standard’. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests’ cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales’ concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  1. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Codina, Marta; Araujo, M Caridad; Attanasio, Orazio; Muñoz, Pablo; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), measuring early childhood development (ECD) with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests') are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3), Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II), Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2)) and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII), WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor)) in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III), taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence below 19

  2. Simplified spacecraft vulnerability assessments at component level in early design phase at the European Space Agency's Concurrent Design Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

    2016-12-01

    During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.

  3. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  4. Evaluating Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education: The Use of a Concurrent Time Series Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.

    2009-01-01

    As assistive technology applications are increasingly implemented in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or who have disabilities, it is critical that teachers utilize observational approaches to determine whether targeted assistive technology-supported interventions make a difference in children's learning. One structured…

  5. Concurrent early-onset peripartum cardiomyopathy in a preeclampsia patient with acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen, Erdal; Tipi, Fahri Fatih; Helvaci, Aysen; Bayyigit, Akif

    2015-01-01

    We herein report the case of a preeclampsia patient with comorbid peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCMP). A 22-year-old woman in the 26th week of gestation was admitted with acute pulmonary edema. Hypertension and proteinuria were detected, and echocardiography showed an ejection fraction of 33%. It is remarkable that PPCMP particularly that associated with preeclampsia was observed in the early gestational period. In conclusion, while dyspnea and pretibial edema are often noted during normal pregnancies, the potential for PPCMP should be considered if these symptoms are excessive and/or comorbid paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and orthopnea are present, even in patients with preeclampsia.

  6. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis: roles of magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Efficient methods for diagnosis, monitoring and prognostication are essential in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While conventional X-rays only visualize the late signs of preceding disease activity, there is evidence for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography being highly sensitive...... for early inflammatory and destructive changes in RA joints, and for MRI findings being sensitive to change and of predictive value for future progressive X-ray damage. Reviewing the data on X-ray, computed tomography, MRI and ultrasonography in RA, this paper discusses current and future roles...... of these imaging modalities in the management of early RA. The main focus is on recent advances in MRI and ultrasonography. Suggestions on clinical use and research priorities are provided...

  7. Early Thiopurines Versus Conventional Step-Care Therapy for Modifying the Disease Course of Early Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yun; Chen, Bai-Li; Mao, Ren; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; He, Yao; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Min-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The impact of thiopurines (TP) on the long-term outcome of early Crohn disease (CD) is still controversial. The present study designed as a comparison of conventional step-care to alternative treatment paradigms for disease progression. This longitudinal cohort study examined the established CD patients from a university-based inflammatory bowel disease referral center. Outcomes of mucosal healing (MH), CD-related surgery or hospitalization, and clinical remission were compared based on timing of initiation of TP therapy. The cumulative incidence of events was estimated by Kaplan–Meier method. One-hundred ninety patients with early CD were included. After a median follow-up of 57 months (interquartile range, 31.3–76.2), 29 patients undergone abdominal surgeries, 48 patients hospitalized, and 68 patients experienced clinical flares. A higher cumulative proportion of patients in the top-down (TD) group achieving MH than both the accelerated step-up (AC) group and conventional management (CM) group at month 36 (78.8% vs 39.9% and 42.2%, respectively; P = 0.001). There was a trend, albeit not significant, for an increased proportion of patients free of CD-related intestinal surgery in the TD group at month 60 (P = 0.16). However, among secondary outcomes, an early TP-based AC or TD strategy was not associated with improvement in clinical remission rates compared with a CM strategy at month 60 (P = 0.79). No significant difference was observed between early TP and CM for rates of MH, CD-related intestinal surgery or hospitalization, and clinical remission. Both AC and CM strategy were minimally effective for disease modification. TD strategy has the potential of achieving higher rates MH. Our results support the TD strategy in patients with early CD at risk for a disabling course. PMID:26252273

  8. Evaluation of the margins of differentiated early gastric cancer by using conventional endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Takisawa, Hajime; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Saito, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the determination of the margin of differentiated-type early gastric cancers by using conventional endoscopy. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 364 differentiated early gastric cancers that were endoscopically resected as en-bloc specimens and diagnosed pathologically in detail between November 2007 and October 2008. All procedures were done with conventional endoscopes and all endoscopic samples, before and after indigo carmine dye, were re-evaluated using a digital filing system by one endoscopist. We analyzed the incidence of lesions with unclear margins and the relationship between unclear margins and relevant clinicopathological findings. RESULTS: The rate of lesions with unclear margins was 20.6% (75/364). Multivariate regression analysis suggested that the factors that make the determination of the margin difficult were normal color, presence of components of flat area (0-IIb), a diameter ≥ 21 mm, ulceration, and components of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the mucosal surface. CONCLUSION: As many as 20% of differentiated early gastric cancers show unclear margins. Consideration of the factors associated with unclear margins may help endoscopists to accurately determine the margins of the lesion. PMID:26078834

  9. Prediction of response by FDG PET early during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zi; Oh, So Won; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yu Kyeong [SMG-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the predictive value of the early response of 18F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). FDG PET was performed before and during CCRT for 13 NSCLC patients. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured and the changes were calculated. These early metabolic changes were compared with the standard tumor response by computed tomograms (CT) one month after CCRT.One month after the completion of CCRT, 9 patients had partial response (PR) of tumor and 4 patients had stable disease. The percent changes of SUVmax (%DeltaSUVmax) were larger in responder group than in non-responder group (55.7% +/- 15.6% vs. 23.1% +/- 19.0%, p = 0.01). The percent changes of SUVmean (%DeltaSUVmean) were also larger in responder group than in non-responder group (54.4% +/- 15.9% vs. 22.3% +/- 23.0%, p = 0.01). The percent changes of MTV (%DeltaMTV) or TLG (%DeltaTLG) had no correlation with the tumor response after treatment. All the 7 patients (100%) with %DeltaSUVmax > or = 50% had PR, but only 2 out of 6 patients (33%) with %DeltaSUVmax < 50% had PR after CCRT (p = 0.009). Likewise, all the 6 patients (100%) with %DeltaSUVmean > or = 50% had PR, but only 3 out of 7 patients (43%) with %DeltaSUVmean < 50% had PR after CCRT (p = 0.026). The degree of metabolic changes measured by PET-CT during CCRT was predictive for NSCLC tumor response after CCRT.

  10. Effectiveness of a telemonitoring intensive strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with the conventional management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Marco; Gasparini, Stefania; Farah, Sonia; Gutierrez, Marwin

    2016-04-02

    The advent of Internet and World Wide Web has created new perspectives toward interaction between patients and healthcare professionals. Telemonitoring patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an emerging concept to guide the collaborative management treatment and improve outcomes in patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an intensive treatment strategy, according to a telemonitoring protocol, is more effective than conventional management strategy in reaching remission and comprehensive disease control (CDC) after 1 year in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients. Forty-four ERA patients were randomly allocated into two groups: the telemonitoring intensive strategy (TIS) group (group 1) or the conventional strategy (CS) group (group 2). Three patients refused to participate. In group 1 (n = 21), a remote monitoring system of disease activity, in combination with protocolised treatment adjustments aiming for remission was applied. In group 2 (n = 20), patients were treated according to daily clinical practice, with regular evaluation of disease activity, but without protocolised treatment adjustments. A telemedical care called "REmote TElemonitoring for MAnaging Rheumatologic Condition and HEaltcare programmes" (RETE-MARCHE), was developed to perform the remote monitoring. A higher percentage of patients in the TIS group achieved CDAI remission vs patients in the CS group (38.1 % vs 25 % at year 1, p telemonitoring leads to more effective disease remission and more rapid CDC than treatment according to conventional management strategy in ERA. ISRCTN13142685 Date of registration: March, 17(th) 2016.

  11. Investigating Early and Late Complications in Conventional and LigaSure Hemorroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The traditional Milligan-Morgan and the Ferguson operations are still the most used for patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids of III and IV degrees. Nowadays LigaSure is used as a new technique to decrease the complications resulting from conventional hemorroidectomy. In this study, patients were investigated on the basis of the following main outcomes: mean operative time, postoperative pain (score and duration, bleeding loss in operation, early (within the first month after surgery and late (after the first month complications in conventional as well as LigaSure hemorroidectomy. Methods: it is an analytical study conducted on 101 patients aged 19–80 years old of both males and females with III and IV-degree hemorrhoids who had been gone to Shahid Sadoughi hospital between 2011 and 2012. Forty-three patients were treated by conventional diathermy and fifty -eight by LigaSure. Patients received analgesic administration for about 24 hours after operations and, after hospital discharge. In fact, analgesia was administered until 5 days (three times a day. All patients were required to record pain from the first postoperative day until the 28th postoperative day on a self-administered NAS scale (0–10. Results: Patients completed a questionnaire face to face one week, one month, six, and twelve months after the operation. The mean operative time, bleeding loss in operation and return to work were significantly shorter in LS group, whereas there were no difference in hospital stay period, anal stenosis, healing time of wound and retention of urinary. A statistically significant difference in pain score was observed three and four days after the operation. Finally, patients with LigaSure haemorrhoidectomy recovered from pain earlier than those with conventional diathermy. Conclusions: although LigaSure proposes additional costs, it is an effective instrument in order to treat hemorrhoids of III and IV degrees.

  12. Resistance Evaluation of Some Hybrid Rice, Conventional Early Indica and Late Japonica Rice to Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Adreit Henry; ZHU Xu-dong; Milazzo Joelle; CHEN Hong-qi; Tharreau Didier

    2003-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Magnaporthe grisea collected from 18 provinces/cities representing 21 pathotypes and 9 different lineages were inoculated to rice varieties with known resistance genes and some hybrid rices,conventional early indica and late japonica varieties cultivated recently in China.Virulence spectrum of the 30 isolates was very different,showing that they recognize numerous different resistance genes.Varieties also revealed very different resistance patterns showing that they carry different resistance genes or combinations of resistance genes.On the basis of comparisons with international differential varieties with known resistance genes,resistance genes in certain Chinese varieties could be speculated.The results indicated that some of them were resistant to most of the isolates tested and that they could be of interest as resistance sources for hybrid parents or to be planted in the field directly.

  13. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Codina, Marta; Araujo, María Caridad; Attanasio, Orazio P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs) measuring early childhood development (ECD) with standard tests in large scale surveys (i.e. evaluations of interventions) is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests') are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examine the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners -the Ages and Stages Questionnaires ...

  14. Comparison of the diagnostic utility of the ultrathin endoscope and the conventional endoscope in early gastric cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Suganuma, Takanori; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nego, Masami; Imada, Shin-Ichi; Imai, Mizuka; Yoshimoto, Kazuhito; Ueki, Nobue; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Uragami, Naoyuki; Tsuchida, Tomohiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Hoshino, Etsuo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2009-04-01

    Currently, transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy using an ultrathin endoscope is being widely carried out as a screening test for early gastric cancer. We compared the diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy with that of conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy in detecting 42 lesions of early gastric cancer that had a diameter of stomach and variegated lesions. In conclusion, the diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy might be lower than that of conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy in terms of screening for early gastric cancer. The disadvantages of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy should be taken carefully into consideration while examining lesions.

  15. Prospective randomized trial to compare accelerated (six fractions a week radiotherapy against concurrent chemoradiotherapy (using conventional fractionation in locally advanced head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT is currently considered to be the standard of care in locally advanced head and neck cancer. The optimum radiotherapy schedule for best local control and acceptable toxicity is not yet clear. We aimed at shortening of treatment time by using accelerated radiation, thereby comparing the disease response, loco-regional tumor control and tolerability of accelerated radiation (six fractions per week against CCRT in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted the prospective randomized study for a period of 2 years from June 2011 to May 2013 in 133 untreated patients of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Study group (66 patients received accelerated radiotherapy with 6 fractions per week (66Gy/33#/5½ weeks. Control group (67 patients received CCRT with 5 fractions per week radiation (66 Gy/33#/6½ weeks along with intravenous cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 weekly. Tumor control, survival, acute and late toxicities were assessed. Results: Median overall treatment time was 38 days and 45 days in the accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation arm, respectively. At a median follow up of 12 months, 41 patients (62.1% in the accelerated radiotherapy arm and 47 patients (70.1% in the CCRT arm were disease free (P = 0.402. Local disease control was comparable in both the arms. Acute toxicities were significantly higher in the CCRT arm as compared with accelerated radiotherapy arm. There was no difference in late toxicities between the two arms. Conclusion: We can achieve, same or near to the same local control, with lower toxicities with accelerated six fractions per week radiation compared with CCRT especially for Indian population.

  16. Primary transoral robotic surgery with concurrent neck dissection for early stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma implemented at a Danish head and neck cancer center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubek, Niclas; Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg

    2017-01-01

    (RT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy. This is the first study in Scandinavia from a head and neck cancer centre that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of performing primary transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and concurrent neck dissection for patients with early stage OPSCC. Between September...... bilateral neck dissection. Due to an upstaging following surgery, 13 patients were referred to adjuvant therapy. Four of these patients received RT and two patients received concomitant chemo-radiation (CCR) therapy. Seven patients declined the recommended adjuvant therapy one of whom later developed an N......-site recurrence and received salvage surgery with postoperative RT. In summary, 43% of the patients were referred to adjuvant therapy following primary surgery which was mainly due to N-site stage migration and ECE. Primary TORS and concurrent neck dissection is a safe and feasible procedure that may...

  17. Numerical assessment of bone remodeling around conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kıvanç; Eser, Atılım; Çavuşoğlu, Yeliz; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Çehreli, Murat Cavit

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants by three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Three-dimensional model of a dental implant was created and a thread area was established as a region of interest in trabecular bone to study a localized part of the global model with a refined mesh. The peri-implant tissues around conventionally loaded (model 1) and early loaded (model 2) implants were implemented and were used to explore principal stresses, displacement values, and equivalent strains in the peri-implant region of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants under static load of 300 N with or without 30° inclination applied on top of the abutment surface. Under axial loading, principal stresses in both models were comparable for both implants and models. Under oblique loading, principal stresses around titanium-zirconium implants were slightly higher in both models. Comparable stress magnitudes were observed in both models. The displacement values and equivalent strain amplitudes around both implants and models were similar. Peri-implant bone around titanium and titanium-zirconium implants experiences similar stress magnitudes coupled with intraosseous implant displacement values under conventional loading and early loading simulations. Titanium-zirconium implants have biomechanical outcome comparable to conventional titanium implants under conventional loading and early loading.

  18. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  19. Effect of α-lipoic acid combined with conventional therapy on serum markers of early diabetic nephropathy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Dong Jin; Xiang-Dong Liu; Xi-Ping Niu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect ofα-lipoic acid combined with conventional therapy on serum markers of early diabetic nephropathy patients.Methods: Patients with early diabetic nephropathy treated in our hospital from May 2012 to May 2014 were chosen for study and randomly divided into two groups. Lipoic acid group received α-lipoic acid combined with conventional drug therapy; conventional group received conventional drug therapy. Then renal function, oxidative stress, podocyte injury degree, mitochondrial fusion and fission protein contents of both groups were compared.Results:(1) renal function and oxidative stress indicators: serum CysC, RBP, 8-OHdG, NT, MDA and F2-aisoprostanes contents of lipoic acid group showed a decreasing trend; (2) podocyte injury indicators: serum Nephrin, Podocin, Desmin and CD2AP contents of lipoic acid group showed a significantly increasing trend; (3) mitochondrial indicators: serum Mfs1, Mfs2 and Opa1 contents of lipoic acid group significantly increased; Fis1, Mff and GDAP1 contents significantly decreased.Conclusion:α-lipoic acid combined with conventional therapy is helpful to improve renal function, relieve oxidative stress and protect podocyte structure and mitochondrial function; it’s an ideal method in treating early diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Early apoptotic changes in human spermatozoa and their relationships with conventional semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Bo Zhang; Shao-Ming Lu; Chun-Yan Ma; Li Wang; Xiao Li; Zi-Jiang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether early apoptotic changes in spermatozoa can be significant markers for sperm quality.Methods: Two early apoptotic changes in the semen of 56 men were assessed using Annexin V (AN)/propidium iodide (PI) staining for phosphatidylserine externalization and JC-1 staining for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The results were compared with conventional semen parameters and DNA fragmentation identified using the TUNEL assay. Results: The different labeling patterns in the bivariate Annexin V/PI analysis identified four distinc-tive spermatozoa populations. The percentage of AN-/PI- spermatozoa positively correlated with conventional semen parameters and MMP, but negatively correlated with TUNEL (+) spermatozoa. As for the AN-/PI+ fraction, we found an opposite result in comparison to AN-/PI- spermatozoa. The level of early apoptotic AN+/PI- spermatozoa negatively correlated with MMP and sperm motility. The level of late apoptotic AN+/PI+ spermatozoa negatively correlated with conventional semen parameters and MMP, and positively correlated with TUNEL (+) spermatozoa. MMP positively correlated with conventional semen parameters, but negatively correlated with TUNEL (+) spermatozoa. Conclusion:Although early apoptotic AN+/PI- spermatozoa only negatively correlates with sperm motility, the differences in proportion of each subpopulation of spermatozoa (especially, the percentage of AN-/PI-spermatozoa), and decreased MMP might be significant markers for diagnosing male infertility. They possibly bring additional information to predict the outcome of in vitro fertilization.

  1. Concurrency engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesshope, C.; Shafarenko, A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a discussion paper on a very important topic that is about to become mainstream. It deals with the issues of software engineering in concurrent systems. It introduces this topic and illustrates the arguments for a change of perspective. It underlines these arguments with two examples, an

  2. Pretreatment performance status and nutrition are associated with early mortality of locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Hung; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Jen-Seng; Lai, Chien-Hong; Wu, Tsung-Han; Lan, Yii-Jenq; Tsai, Jason Chien-Sheng; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Yang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Unexpected fatal events in patients with head and neck cancers undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy are a clinical concern. Malnutrition, which is reported frequently in head and neck cancer patients, are associated with immunity derangement. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for early death of patients undergoing chemoradiation. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 194 stage III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer patients who were treated with chemoradiation between 2007 and 2009. We defined early death as death while receiving chemoradiation or within 60 days of treatment completion. Risk factors for early death were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. Fourteen patients (7.2 %) experienced early death, 78.6 % of whom died of infection. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlations between early death and several pretreatment variables, including Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) >1, hemoglobin total lymphocyte count 1, BMI total lymphocyte count malnutrition before chemoradiation independently predict early death in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation. Cautious management of head and neck cancer patients with these risk factors is required throughout chemoradiation period.

  3. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  4. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Nikiéma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further

  5. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  6. Concurrent Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Budimlić; Michael Burke; Vincent Cavé; Kathleen Knobe; Geoff Lowney; Ryan Newton; Jens Palsberg; David Peixotto; Vivek Sarkar; Frank Schlimbach; Sağnak Taşırlar

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications an...

  7. Using Behavioral Consensus To Learn About Social Conventions In Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults make inferences about the conventionality of others’ behaviours based on their prevalence across individuals. Here, we look at whether children use behavioural consensus as a cue to conventionality, and whether this informs which cultural models children choose to learn from. We find that 2- to 5-year old children exhibit increasing sensitivity to behavioural consensus with age, suggesting that like adults, young humans use behavioural consensus to identify social conventions. However, unlike previous studies showing children’s tendencies to prefer and to learn from members of a consensus, the present study suggests that there are contexts in which children prefer and learn from unconventional individuals. The implications of these different preferences are discussed.

  8. Salvage radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy for pelvic recurrence after hysterectomy alone for early-stage uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Won [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Mison; Oh, Young-Taek [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hee-Sug; Chang, Suk-Joon; Kong, Tae Wook [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Treatment outcomes of patients with pelvic recurrence after hysterectomy alone for uterine cervical cancer who received salvage radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy were investigated. Salvage RT for recurrent cervical cancer confined to the pelvic cavity after hysterectomy alone was received by 33 patients. The median interval between initial hysterectomy and recurrence was 26 months. Whole-pelvic irradiation was delivered to median dose of 45 Gy, followed by a boost with a median dose of 16 Gy to the gross tumor volume. Cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 29 patients. The median follow-up period was 53 months for surviving patients. Most patients (97.0%) completed salvage RT of ≥45 Gy. Complete response (CR) was achieved in 23 patients (69.7%). Pelvic sidewall involvement and evaluation with positron-emission tomography-computed tomography were significantly associated with CR. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 62.7, 79.5, 72.5, and 60.1%, respectively. Initial International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, pelvic sidewall involvement, and CR status were significant factors for PFS and OS rates in multivariate analysis. The incidence of severe acute and late toxicities (≥grade 3) was 12.1 and 3.0%, respectively. Aggressive salvage RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy for recurrent cervical cancer confined to the pelvic cavity was feasible, with promising treatment outcomes and acceptable toxicities. However, even more intensive novel treatment strategies should be investigated for patients with unfavorable prognostic factors. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Behandlungsergebnisse von Patientinnen mit Beckenrezidiv nach alleiniger Hysterektomie bei Zervixkarzinom, die eine Salvage-Radiotherapie (RT) mit oder ohne begleitende Chemotherapie erhalten hatten. Insgesamt 33 Patientinnen erhielten

  9. Reading with a Crayon: Pre-Conventional Marginalia as Reader Response in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Child-produced marginalia, annotations written or drawn in the margins of a text by a young reader, have been stigmatized as devaluing the book on which it was created and often dismissed as "graffiti." Recent historical studies of marginalia created by older children, those who have mastered conventional writing and drawing, have…

  10. Early kangaroo mother care vs. conventional method in stabilizing low birth weight infant: physiologic parameters (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulina Suradi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC has been accepted as an effective method in nursing low birth weight infant (LBWI. However, the application of this method in the early life of infants has not been studied in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate some physiologic parameters of LBWI treated with early KMC compared to conventional method. Methods This was a randomized clinical-trial, which compared early KMC to conventional method in stabilizing LBWI in the first 4 hours of life. All LBWI (birth weight 1500-2499 g bom at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Budi Kemuliaan Matemity Hospital Jakarta were recruited consecutively in the period of November 2001 until March 2002. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous delivery, APGAR scores 13t and 5th minute 37, and parental consent. Results Sixty-four subjects distributed evenly into early KMC group and control group. One subject in the KMC group and three subjects in the control group were excluded due to respiratory distress. The mean birth weight was 2091 (SO 299.4 g in the KMC group and 2184 (SO 214.9 g inthe control group. The mean gestational-age in both groups was 35.6 (SO 3.0 weeks. There were no statistical differences in mean temperature (P=0.281, heart rate (P=0.956, and respiratory rate (P=0.898 between the two groups during the first 4 hours of life. We found a larger proportion of infants reaching the temperature of 36.5QC in the KMC group, especially at one hour (49% vs. 7%; the difference of proportion was 0.42 (95%CI 0.22 to 0.61. Conclusion Early KMC method is proved to be as safe as conventional method in stabilizing healthy LBWI.

  11. Concurrent Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Budimlić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications and show that CnC offers performance and scalability equivalent to or better than that offered by lower-level parallel programming models.

  12. Conventional Audiometry, Extended High-Frequency Audiometry, and DPOAE for Early Diagnosis of NIHL

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; MOSTAGHACI, Mehrdad; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Bahaloo, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyyed Hesam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noise most frequently affects hearing system, as it may typically cause a bilateral, progressive sensorineural hearing loss at high frequencies. Objectives: This study was designed to compare three different methods to evaluate noise-induced hearing loss (conventional audiometry, high-frequency audiometry, and distortion product otoacoustic emission). Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 19) using chi square, T test and repeated m...

  13. Effectiveness of a telemonitoring intensive strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with the conventional management approach

    OpenAIRE

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Marco; Gasparini, Stefania; Farah, Sonia; Gutierrez, Marwin

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of Internet and World Wide Web has created new perspectives toward interaction between patients and healthcare professionals. Telemonitoring patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an emerging concept to guide the collaborative management treatment and improve outcomes in patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an intensive treatment strategy, according to a telemonitoring protocol, is more effective than conventional management strategy in re...

  14. From "What Did I Write?" to "Is This Right?": Intention, Convention, and Accountability in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    When children enter public kindergartens in the current atmosphere of high-stakes testing, they often encounter an emphasis on correctness that casts doubt on the integrity of their personally invented messages, prompting them to ask not "What did I write?" but "Is this right?" This ethnographic case study examines early writing by 23 kindergarten…

  15. Early Versus Delayed Initiation of Concurrent Palliative Oncology Care: Patient Outcomes in the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie A; Tosteson, Tor D; Li, Zhigang; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Frost, Jennifer; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Hegel, Mark T; Azuero, Andres; Ahles, Tim A

    2015-05-01

    Randomized controlled trials have supported integrated oncology and palliative care (PC); however, optimal timing has not been evaluated. We investigated the effect of early versus delayed PC on quality of life (QOL), symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use. Between October 2010 and March 2013, 207 patients with advanced cancer at a National Cancer Institute cancer center, a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and community outreach clinics were randomly assigned to receive an in-person PC consultation, structured PC telehealth nurse coaching sessions (once per week for six sessions), and monthly follow-up either early after enrollment or 3 months later. Outcomes were QOL, symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use (hospital/intensive care unit days, emergency room visits, chemotherapy in last 14 days, and death location). Overall patient-reported outcomes were not statistically significant after enrollment (QOL, P = .34; symptom impact, P = .09; mood, P = .33) or before death (QOL, P = .73; symptom impact, P = .30; mood, P = .82). Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival rates were 63% in the early group and 48% in the delayed group (difference, 15%; P = .038). Relative rates of early to delayed decedents' resource use were similar for hospital days (0.73; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.27; P = .26), intensive care unit days (0.68; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.02; P = .49), emergency room visits (0.73; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.19; P = .21), chemotherapy in last 14 days (1.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 6.7; P = .27), and home death (27 [54%] v 28 [47%]; P = .60). Early-entry participants' patient-reported outcomes and resource use were not statistically different; however, their survival 1-year after enrollment was improved compared with those who began 3 months later. Understanding the complex mechanisms whereby PC may improve survival remains an important research priority. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample: Early concurrent and long-term effects on infant cognitive, language, and motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Krogh, Marianne Thode; Vaever, Mette Skovgaard

    2016-12-01

    This study examined early and long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression on cognitive, language, and motor development in infants of clinically depressed mothers. Participants were 83 mothers and their full-term born children from the urban region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Of this group, 28 mothers were diagnosed with postnatal depression three to four months postpartum in a diagnostic interview. Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition, when the infants were 4 and 13 months of age. We found that maternal postpartum depression was associated with poorer cognitive development at infant age four months, the effect size being large (Cohen's d = 0.8) and with similar effects for boys and girls. At 13 months of age infants of clinical mothers did not differ from infants of non-clinical mothers. At this time most (79%) of the clinical mothers were no longer, or not again, depressed. These results may indicate that maternal depression can have an acute, concurrent effect on infant cognitive development as early as at four months postpartum. At the same time, in the absence of other risk factors, this effect may not be enduring. The main weaknesses of the study include the relatively small sample size and that depression scores were only available for 35 of the non-clinical mothers at 13 months. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Differentiation between early rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy persons by conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Ejbjerg, B J; Hetland, M L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter that best differentiates healthy persons and patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigated responsiveness to treatment of various MRI parameters. METHOD: Conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE......)-MRI of the hand were performed once for 26 healthy persons, and before and after 6 and 12 months of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment for 14 early RA patients, using a 1.0-T MRI unit. One-slice DCE-MRI was analysed using Dynamika version 4.2. The number of enhancing voxels (Nvoxel...... was demonstrated in 61.5% of healthy persons and in 91.7% of RA patients at baseline, with a median Nvoxel of 3 and 362, respectively. At baseline, all parameters were higher for patients than for healthy persons (all p ≤ 0.003). Only one patient had a baseline RAMRIS synovitis score below the 95th percentile...

  18. Effectiveness and efficiency of CT-colonography compared to conventional colonoscopy for the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiebinger, Cora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Colorectal cancer (CC is the second most common cancer and cause of cancer death for both men and women in Germany. Various methods for early detection of CC exist, including conventional coloscopy which is reimbursed within the scope of cancer screening, as well as computertomography-coloscopy (CTC which is currently not reimbursed. Scientific background: CTC is a mere diagnostic procedure which has a lower risk of perforation than conventional coloscopy. However, as it is an x-ray procedure, it exposes the patient to radiation. Conventional coloscopy is considered the gold standard due to its high sensitivity and specificity for locating adenomas. Furthermore, it offers the advantage that in addition to extended diagnostic measures therapeutic measures can be undertaken during the procedure. Research questions: This HTA-report aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of CTC in comparison to conventional coloscopy in the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer and/or its precursors and which ethical and legal aspects have to be considered. Methods: The systematic literature search (27 international literature data bases yielded a total of 1,713 abstracts. After a two-step selection process 36 publications remained to be assessed. Results: The results regarding the effectivity of CTC in diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer and/or its precursors are partly promising, however, they are very heterogeneous. Therefore, regarding its sensitivity and specificity, CTC cannot be considered an equivalent alternative to conventional coloscopy for diagnosis and screening. The heterogeneity of results is due to technical (device type, settings, patient dependent (preparation and operator dependent (training factors. No economic results for a comparison of the procedures for diagnosis exist. Regarding the cost-effectiveness of a CTC-screening, international model calculations are available. According

  19. An observational study on early-lactation metabolic profiles in Swedish organically and conventionally managed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, N; Gröhn, Y T; Forslund, K; Essen-Gustafsson, B; Niskanen, R; Emanuelson, U

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this observational study was to compare indicators of energy balance in early lactation in organically managed dairy cows (OMC) and conventionally managed dairy cows (CMC) under field conditions. The diets of OMC and CMC differ as a consequence of the rules and principles of organic dairy farming. The study was based on clinical examinations and blood samples from cows within the range from 2 wk prepartum to 6 wk postpartum, collected from 20 organic and 20 conventional dairy farms with 3 visits at each farm. The farms were located in a southeastern area of Sweden and ranged in size from 45 to 120 cows. The blood parameters selected to reflect energy metabolism were nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin. At clinical examination body condition score was registered. The shape of the lactation curve in early lactation was modeled to assess potential differences that could explain the blood parameter profiles. The conventionally managed cows increased their milk yield faster than OMC within the first 2 wk of lactation. Blood nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similar between the management types, but with a tendency of lesser concentrations in OMC, primarily in early lactation. Postcalving beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were constantly lesser in OMC during the first 6 wk of lactation. An interaction between season and insulin concentration necessitated stratification on season. During spring the profiles overlapped, but there was a significant difference in the first 4 d post-calving, when organically managed cows had greater insulin concentrations and in d 30 to 34 when conventionally managed cows had greater insulin concentrations. During fall the profiles overlapped completely and there was no significant difference at any point in time. Glucose concentrations tended to decrease slightly postcalving followed by a gradual elevation to a concentration just under the precalving concentration during the study

  20. Early rehabilitation after surgery program versus conventional care during perioperative period in patients undergoing laparoscopic assisted total gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Ranjan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early rehabilitation after surgery program (ERAS in patients undergoing laparoscopic assisted total gastrectomy. Materials And Methods: This is a study where 47 patients who are undergoing lap assisted total gastrectomy are selected. Twenty-two (n = 22 patients received enhanced recovery programme (ERAS management and rest twenty-five (n = 25 conventional management during the perioperative period. The length of postoperative hospital stay, time to passage of first flatus, intraoperative and postoperative complications, readmission rate and 30 day mortality is compared. Serum levels of C-reactive protein pre-operatively and also on post-op day 1 and 3 are compared. Results: Postoperative hospital stay is shorter in ERAS group (78 ± 26 h when compared to conventional group (140 ± 28 h. ERAS group passed flatus earlier than conventional group (37 ± 9 h vs. 74 ± 16 h. There is no significant difference in complications between the two groups. Serum levels of CRP are significantly low in ERAS group in comparison to conventional group. [d1 (52.40 ± 10.43 g/L vs. (73.07 ± 19.32 g/L, d3 (126.10 ± 18.62 g/L vs. (160.72 ± 26.18 g/L]. Conclusion: ERAS in lap-assisted total gastrectomy is safe, feasible and efficient and it can ameliorate post-operative stress and accelerate postoperative rehabilitation in patients with gastric cancer. Short term follow up results are encouraging but we need long term studies to know its long term benefits.

  1. [Early evaluation of anaemia in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding: venous blood gas analysis compared to conventional laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Cantero, José Manuel; Jurado García, Juan; Ruiz Cuesta, Patricia; González Galilea, Angel; Muñoz García-Borruel, María; García Sánchez, Valle; Gálvez Calderón, Carmen

    2013-10-19

    Evaluation of patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGB) requires early clinical evaluation and analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate early concordance of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HTC) levels determined by conventional venous blood gas analysis (VBG) and by conventional Laboratory in Emergencies (LAB). Observational and prospective study of patients admitted in the Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage Unit with both high and low AGB. Demographic and clinical variables and simultaneous venous blood samples were obtained to determine Hb and HTC by VBG and LAB. Concordance in both methods was analysed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. One hundred and thirty-two patients were included: 87 (65.9%) males, average age 66.8 years. VBG overestimated Hb in 0.49 g/dl (95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.76) with respect to LAB. Concordance was very high in Hb (ICC 0.931) and high in HTC (0.899), with the Bland-Altman graphs showing both concordance and overestimation of Hb levels determined by VBG. In 19 patients (14.39%), Hb by VBG exceeded in more than 1g/dL the final determination obtained by LAB. Early determination of Hb and HTC in patients with AGB by VBG provides reliable results in the initial evaluation of anaemia. VBG systematically overestimates Hb values by less than 0.5 g/dl, and therefore clinical and hemodynamic evaluation of the bleeding patient should prevail over analytical results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the margins of differentiated early gastriccancer by using conventional endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the determination of the marginof differentiated-type early gastric cancers by usingconventional endoscopy.METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 364 differentiatedearly gastric cancers that were endoscopicallyresected as en-bloc specimens and diagnosed pathologicallyin detail between November 2007 and October2008. All procedures were done with conventionalendoscopes and all endoscopic samples, before and afterindigo carmine dye, were re-evaluated using a digital filingsystem by one endoscopist. We analyzed the incidence oflesions with unclear margins and the relationship betweenunclear margins and relevant clinicopathological findings.RESULTS: The rate of lesions with unclear marginswas 20.6% (75/364). Multivariate regression analysissuggested that the factors that make the determinationof the margin difficult were normal color, presence ofcomponents of flat area (0-IIb), a diameter ≥ 21 mm,ulceration, and components of poorly differentiatedadenocarcinoma in the mucosal surface.CONCLUSION: As many as 20% of differentiated earlygastric cancers show unclear margins. Consideration ofthe factors associated with unclear margins may helpendoscopists to accurately determine the margins of thelesion.

  3. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the early assessment of response to concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Lijing; Ru, Tong; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-01

    Background Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D-PDU) imaging has been widely applied to the differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lesions; however, its potential value for predicting response to chemo-radiotherapy has not been fully explored. Purpose To investigate the feasibility of 3D-PDU imaging in predicting treatment response in patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced cervical cancer. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients with advanced cervical cancer who received CCRT underwent 3D-PDU examinations at four timepoints: pre-therapy (baseline), 1 week and 2 weeks during, as well as immediately post CCRT. Final tumor response was determined by change in tumor size using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cervical tumor volumes and vascular indices were calculated and compared with the clinical outcome. Results Of the 52 patients, 32 patients who completed all four examinations were included in the analyses: 21 were classified as complete response (CR) and 11 as partial response (PR). During the treatment, the CR group showed that 3D vascular indices (VI and VFI) significantly increased at 1 week ( P = 0.028, P = 0.017, respectively) then decreased at 2 weeks and obviously decreased at therapy completion (both P  0.05). Conclusion Prospective longitudinal 3D-PDU imaging may have potentials in monitoring early therapeutic response to CCRT in patients with cervical cancer.

  4. Conventional 3T brain MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnostic workup of early stage parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, Frederick J.A. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rumund, Anouke van; Tuladhar, Anil M.; Aerts, Marjolein B.; Titulaer, Imke; Esselink, Rianne A.J.; Bloem, Bastiaan R. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verbeek, Marcel M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Goraj, Bozena [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Medical Center of Postgraduate Education, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the diagnostic accuracy of 3 T brain MRI is improved by region of interest (ROI) measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to differentiate between neurodegenerative atypical parkinsonism (AP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage parkinsonism. We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 patients presenting with early stage parkinsonism and initial uncertain diagnosis. At baseline, patients underwent a 3 T brain MRI including DTI. After clinical follow-up (mean 28.3 months), diagnoses could be made in 49 patients (30 PD and 19 AP). Conventional brain MRI was evaluated for regions of atrophy and signal intensity changes. Tract-based spatial statistics and ROI analyses of DTI were performed to analyze group differences in mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), and diagnostic thresholds were determined. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional brain MRI and DTI was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Significantly higher MD of the centrum semiovale, body corpus callosum, putamen, external capsule, midbrain, superior cerebellum, and superior cerebellar peduncles was found in AP. Significantly increased MD of the putamen was found in multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form (MSA-P) and increased MD in the midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncles in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by ROI measures of MD, though the diagnostic accuracy to identify MSA-P was slightly increased (AUC 0.82 to 0.85). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by the current analysis approach to DTI, though DTI measures could be of added value to identify AP subgroups. (orig.)

  5. Radiographic outcome in Hispanic early rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Yanez, Irazu, E-mail: uzari02@hotmail.com.mx [Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Seccion XVI, C.P. 14000, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rull-Gabayet, Marina, E-mail: rull.marina@gmail.com [Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Seccion XVI, C.P. 14000, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vazquez-LaMadrid, Jorge, E-mail: docjvlradiologo@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Seccion XVI, C.P. 14000, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Pascual-Ramos, Virginia, E-mail: virtichu@gmail.com.mx [Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Seccion XVI, C.P. 14000, Tlalpan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Objectives: To determine rates of incident erosive disease in early rheumatoid arthritis patients, to identify baseline predictors and to evaluate erosion's impact on patient-reported outcomes. Methods: 82 patients with {<=}12 months of disease duration, {>=}3 years of follow-up and conventional treatment were included. Consecutive evaluations assessed swollen and tender joint counts, treatment and comorbidity, acute reactant-phase determinations and patient-reported outcomes. Digitized radiographs of the hands and feet were obtained at baseline and yearly thereafter. RA was defined as erosive when at least one unequivocal cortical bone defect was detected. Descriptive statistics and Cox regression analysis were performed. Results: At baseline, 71 of the patients were Female Sign , population median (range) age was of 38.7 (16-78.2) years, 58 patients had antibodies and all the patients had active disease and substantial disability. Follow-up cohort was of 299.3 person-years. At last follow-up (49 {+-} 13.8 months), 28 patients developed erosions. Erosion's location was the feet, in 12 patients. Incident rates of erosive disease at one, two, three and four years were of 8.1, 12.8, 13.8 and 5.6 per 100 person-years, respectively. Higher C-reactive protein (HR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.04-1.4, p = 0.01) and positive antibodies (HR: 5.09, 95%CI: 1.08-23.86, p = 0.04) were baseline predictors of incident erosive disease. Erosions had minor impact on patient-reported outcomes. Conclusion: Rheumatoid arthritis patients with antibodies and higher C reactive protein at baseline are at risk for incident erosions which appear most frequently at the feet. Up to 1/3 patients conventionally treated develop incident erosions, which minimally impact function.

  6. 3. Early outcomes of minimally invasive versus conventional mitral valve surgery in mitral valve diseases. A single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nourelden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive techniques in cardiac surgery gained popularity due to many advantages like less postoperative pain, minimal blood loss, less hospital stay, less cost. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery through right anterolateral mini thoracotomy became safe technique. In our study we compared mini-MV surgery with conventional technique regarding cross clamp time, bypass time, total blood loss, reopening for bleeding, and hospital and ICU length of stay. In our institution between 2010 and 2015, 147patients underwent minimally invasive mitral surgery through right lateral minithoracotomy 8 cm incision and 118 patient underwent conventional mitral valve surgery through median sternotomy in minimally invasive technique: mean age was 38 ± 20 vs 59 ± 21, 70.7% were female (n = 104 vs 39.8% (n = 47, 23.8% were associated with tricuspid valve regurgitation (n = 33 vs 55% in conventional technique (n = 65, 0.08% were able to use endovascular clamp (n = 12, mean Euroscore predected risk of mortality 14.7 ± 13.6% vs 8.7 ± 10.9%. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair surgery was accomplished in 77.5% (n = 114 vs 46.15% (n = 55 and replacement of mitral valve in 22.4% (n = 30 vs 53.8% (n = 64 , concomitant procedures consists of tricuspid valve surgery in 23.8% (n = 35 vs 55% (n = 65, primary mitral valve repair included implantation of rigid annuloplasty ring in 79.6% vs 38.9% (n = 46, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in minimally invasive surgery was 123 ± 64 min vs 116 ± 62 min, cross clamp time was 64 ± 27 min vs 59 ± 23 min, postoperative mechanical ventilation time 4 ± 1.5 h vs 6.5 ± 2 h, ICU lenght of stay (LOS was 48 ± 12 h vs 3 ± 1 days. Minimally invasive mitral surgery can be performed very safely with excellent early results. mini-MV surgery can be performed with a reasonable operative time, good perioperative course with decrease in postoperative ICU and hospital

  7. Event-related potential evidence for the early activation of literal meaning during comprehension of conventional lexical metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Zhang, John X

    2012-07-01

    Among different types of metaphors, lexical metaphors are special in that they have been highly lexicalized and often suggested to be processed like non-metaphorical words. The present study examined two types of Chinese metaphorical words which are conceptualized through body parts. One has both a metaphorical meaning and a literal meaning actively in use, with the former dominant over the latter, referred to as the Met+Lit words. The other has only metaphorical meaning, referred to as Met-only words. In two experiments, lexical metaphor words were presented following a body-related picture and participants judged whether the picture and word were semantically related (Experiment 1) or made lexical decision on the word ignoring the picture (Experiment 2). The N400 ERP responses showed a clear semantic priming effect for the Met+Lit words compared with the non-ambiguous neutral words, with latencies comparable to that in Met-only words in both experiments. The results were interpreted to indicate that the literal meaning as a subordinate meaning was activated during the early comprehension of conventional lexical metaphors, supporting the notion of dual access to metaphorical meaning and literal meaning in metaphor processing.

  8. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  9. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  10. Early inflammatory response following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: A comparison between endovascular procedure and conventional, open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA represents a pathological enlargment of infrarenal portion of aorta for over 50% of its lumen. The only treatment of AAA is a surgical reconstruction of the affected segment. Until the late XX century, surgical reconstruction implied explicit, open repair (OR of AAA, which was accompanied by a significant morbidity and mortality of the treated patients. Development of endovascular repair of (EVAR AAA, especially in the last decade, offered another possibility of surgical reconstruction of AAA. The preliminary results of world studies show that complications of such a procedure, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients, are significantly lower than with OR of AAA. The aim of this paper was to present results of comparative clinical prospective study of early inflammatory response after reconstruction of AAA between endovascular and open, conventional surgical technique. Methods. A comparative clinical prospective study included 39 patients, electively operated on for AAA within the period of December 2008 - February 2010, divided into two groups. The group I counted 21 (54% of the patients, 58-87 years old (mean 74.3 years, who had been submited to EVAR by the use of excluder stent graft. The group II consisted of 18 (46% of the patients, 49-82 (mean 66.8 years, operated on using OR technique. All of the treated patients in both groups had AAA larager than 50 mm. The study did not include patients who have been treated as urgent cases, due to the rupture or with simptomatic AAA. Clinical, biochemical and inflamatory parameters in early postoperative period were analyzed, in direct postoperative course (number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, serum circulating levels of cytokine - interleukine (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. Parameters were monitored on the zero, first, second, third and seventh postoperative days. The study was approved by the Ethics Commitee of the Military Medical Academy. Results

  11. Measuring and modelling concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Sawers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships: measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis – the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case.

  12. Constraints meet concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the benefits that emerge when the fields of constraint programming and concurrency meet. On the one hand, constraints can be used in concurrency theory to increase the conciseness and the expressive power of concurrent languages from a pragmatic point of view. On the other hand, problems modeled by using constraints can be solved faster and more efficiently using a concurrent system. Both directions are explored providing two separate lines of development. Firstly the expressive power of a concurrent language is studied, namely Constraint Handling Rules, that supports constraints as a primitive construct. The features of this language which make it Turing powerful are shown. Then a framework is proposed to solve constraint problems that is intended to be deployed on a concurrent system. For the development of this framework the concurrent language Jolie following the Service Oriented paradigm is used. Based on this experience, an extension to Service Oriented Languages is also proposed in ...

  13. Predictive Value of Conventional Ultrasound and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Surgical Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibin; Liao, Jintang; Qi, Wenjun; Xie, Lulu; Li, Yueyi

    2016-05-01

    The goals of the work described here were to study the pre-operative risk factors associated with early recurrence (ER) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgical resection and discuss the value of conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in predicting ER of HCC, so as to provide more information for optimizing clinical treatment and improving prognosis. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 59 patients who underwent both US and CEUS examinations pre-operatively and surgical resection for HCC between December 2010 and January 2014 in our hospital. The patients' clinical data, laboratory examination data and ultrasonic imaging diagnostic data were collected. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the independent risk factors for ER of HCC after surgical resection. Diagnostic values of independent risk factors in predicting ER were further evaluated. The 59 patients were divided into the ER group (27 cases) and ER-free group (32 cases). There were no significant differences in age and sex between the two groups (p > 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed that differences in pre-operative serum α-fetoprotein level ≥400 ng/mL (p = 0.008), tumor diameter ≥5 cm (p = 0.012), macroscopic vascular invasion (p = 0.040), "fast wash-out" enhancement pattern (p = 0.006) and inhomogeneous distribution of contrast agent (p = 0.031) statistically significantly differed between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that pre-operative serum AFP level ≥400 ng/mL (p = 0.024), tumor diameter ≥5 cm (p = 0.042) and "fast wash-out" enhancement pattern (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors for ER of HCC; macrovascular invasion (p = 0.095) and inhomogeneous distribution of contrast agent (p = 0.628) did not statistically significantly differ between two groups (p = 0.628). Predictive values of the independent risk factors were further evaluated. The sensitivity of a "fast wash

  14. Towards Composable Concurrency Abstractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janwillem Swalens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many different programming models for managing concurrency in applications have been proposed, such as the actor model, Communicating Sequential Processes, and Software Transactional Memory. The ubiquity of multi-core processors has made harnessing concurrency even more important. We observe that modern languages, such as Scala, Clojure, or F#, provide not one, but multiple concurrency models that help developers manage concurrency. Large end-user applications are rarely built using just a single concurrency model. Programmers need to manage a responsive UI, deal with file or network I/O, asynchronous workflows, and shared resources. Different concurrency models facilitate different requirements. This raises the issue of how these concurrency models interact, and whether they are composable. After all, combining different concurrency models may lead to subtle bugs or inconsistencies. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of the concurrency abstractions provided by the Clojure language. We study all pairwise combinations of the abstractions, noting which ones compose without issues, and which do not. We make an attempt to abstract from the specifics of Clojure, identifying the general properties of concurrency models that facilitate or hinder composition.

  15. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  16. Separation Logic and Concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornat, Richard

    Concurrent separation logic is a development of Hoare logic adapted to deal with pointers and concurrency. Since its inception, it has been enhanced with a treatment of permissions to enable sharing of data between threads, and a treatment of variables as resource alongside heap cells as resource. An introduction to the logic is given with several examples of proofs, culminating in a treatment of Simpson's 4-slot algorithm, an instance of racy non-blocking concurrency.

  17. Hypofractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic boost with concurrent and adjuvant temozolamide for glioblastoma in good performance status elderly patients – early results of a phase II trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eFloyd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM is an aggressive primary brain neoplasm with dismal prognosis. Based on successful phase III trials, 60 Gy involved-field radiotherapy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks (Standard RT with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide is currently the standard of care. In this disease, age and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS are the most important prognostic factors. For elderly patients, clinical trials comparing standard RT with radiotherapy abbreviated to 40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks demonstrated similar outcomes, indicating shortened radiotherapy may be an appropriate option for elderly patients. However, these trials did not include temozolomide chemotherapy, and included patients with poor KPS, possibly obscuring benefits of more aggressive treatment for some elderly patients. We conducted a prospective Phase II trial to examine the efficacy of a hypofractionated radiation course followed by a stereotactic boost with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy in elderly patients with good performance status. In this study, patients 65 years and older with a KPS >70 and histologically confirmed GBM received 40 Gy in 15 fractions with 3D conformal technique followed by a 1-3 fraction stereotactic boost to the enhancing tumor. All patients also received concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Patients were evaluated 1 month post-treatment and every 2 months thereafter. Between 2007 and 2010, 20 patients (9 males and 11 females were enrolled in this study. The median age was 75.4 years (range 65-87 years. At a median follow-up of 11 months (range 7-32 months, 12 patients progressed and 5 are alive. The median progression free survival was 11 months and the median overall survival was 13 months. There was no additional toxicity. These results indicate that elderly patients with good KPS can achieve outcomes comparable to the current standard of care using an abbreviated radiotherapy course, radiosurgery boost and

  18. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P multi-modal early oral nutrition group (P multi-modal early oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395 . Registered 15 March 2014.

  19. Heterogeneous concurrent computing with exportable services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Vaidy

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous concurrent computing, based on the traditional process-oriented model, is approaching its functionality and performance limits. An alternative paradigm, based on the concept of services, supporting data driven computation, and built on a lightweight process infrastructure, is proposed to enhance the functional capabilities and the operational efficiency of heterogeneous network-based concurrent computing. TPVM is an experimental prototype system supporting exportable services, thread-based computation, and remote memory operations that is built as an extension of and an enhancement to the PVM concurrent computing system. TPVM offers a significantly different computing paradigm for network-based computing, while maintaining a close resemblance to the conventional PVM model in the interest of compatibility and ease of transition Preliminary experiences have demonstrated that the TPVM framework presents a natural yet powerful concurrent programming interface, while being capable of delivering performance improvements of upto thirty percent.

  20. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  1. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  2. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  3. Probabilistic Concurrent Kleene Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle McIver

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide an extension of concurrent Kleene algebras to account for probabilistic properties. The algebra yields a unified framework containing nondeterminism, concurrency and probability and is sound with respect to the set of probabilistic automata modulo probabilistic simulation. We use the resulting algebra to generalise the algebraic formulation of a variant of Jones' rely/guarantee calculus.

  4. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  5. The early predictive value of a decrease of metabolic tumor volume in repeated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with concurrent radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei, E-mail: weihuang@mcw.com [Department of Radiation Oncology (Chest Section), Shandong' s Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan 250117 (China); Liu, Bo; Fan, Min [Department of Internal Medicine Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Zhou, Tao [Department of Radiation Oncology (Chest Section), Shandong' s Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan 250117 (China); Fu, Zheng [PET/CT center, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Zhang, Zicheng; Li, Hongsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology (Chest Section), Shandong' s Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan 250117 (China); Li, Baosheng, E-mail: alvinbird@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology (Chest Section), Shandong' s Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan 250117 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •The patients underwent the second FDG PET during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). •To our knowledge, this could be the first study showing that the repeated FDG PET during the early stage of CCRT has added value by being a prognostic factor for recurrence of the locally advanced NSCLC patients. •This is a result of continuous research. •The decrease of MTV was the only significant risk factor for recurrence. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the value of [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F FDG PET/CT) to predict recurrence of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: A total of 53 stage III NSCLC patients without diabetics or undergoing surgery were enrolled in the prospective study. Those patients were evaluated by FDG PET before and following 40 Gy radiotherapy (RT) with a concurrent cisplatin-based heterogeneous chemotherapy regimen. Semiquantitative assessment was used to determine maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax/SUVmean) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of the primary tumor. The prognostic significance of PET/CT parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The cutoffs of PET/CT parameters which have been determined by the previous study were used to separate the groups with Kaplan–Meier curves. Results: Recurrence rates at 1- and 2-years were 18.9% (10/53) and 50.9% (27/53) for all patients, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor for recurrence was a decrease of MTV. Using the cutoff of 29.7%, a decrease of MTV can separate the patients into 2 groups with Kaplan–Meier curve successfully. Conclusion: The prospective study has reinforced the early predictive value of MTV in repeated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence in a subgroup of locally advanced NSCLC who

  6. Comparison of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in the Early Management of Smoke Inhalation Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    acute respiratory distress syndrome developed ( PaO2 /FIO2 ratio ), plateau pressures were limited to ន cm H2O. Six uninjured pigs received...conventional mechanical ventilation for 48 hrs and served as time controls. Changes in PaO2 /FIO2 ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, mean airway pressure...plateau pressure, and hemody- namic variables were recorded. Survival was assessed using Kaplan- Meier analysis. PaO2 /FIO2 ratio was lower in airway

  7. Characterizing Distributed Concurrent Engineering Teams: A Descriptive Framework for Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Hihn, Jairus; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades in a cost-efficient manner. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is also essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. This paper is an extension of a recent white paper written by the Concurrent Engineering Working Group, which details the unique challenges of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering. This paper includes a short history of aerospace concurrent engineering, and defines the terms 'concurrent', 'collaborative' and 'distributed' in the context of aerospace concurrent engineering. In addition, a model for the levels of complexity of concurrent engineering teams is presented to provide a way to conceptualize information and data flow within these types of teams.

  8. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  9. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer with Conventional and Contrast-Enhanced Transvaginal Sonography: Recent Advances and Potential Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur C. Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been several major technical advances in the sonographic diagnosis of ovarian cancer in its early stages. These include improved assessment of tumor morphology with transvaginal sonography (TVS, and detection and characterization of tumor neovascularity with transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TV-CDS and contrast-enhanced transvaginal sonography (CE-TVS. This paper will discuss and illustrate these improvements and describe how they enhance detection of early-stage ovarian cancer. Our initial experience with parametric mapping of CE-TVS will also be mentioned.

  10. Patella Eversion Reduces Early Knee Range of Motion and Muscle Torque Recovery after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparison between Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty and Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokifumi Majima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that patella eversion during total knee arthroplasty (TKA reduces early return of active knee extension and flexion, quadriceps muscle strength, and postoperative pain. In 100 conventional TKA knees and 100 minimally invasive TKA (MIS TKA knees, we compared knee range of motion (ROM, postoperative pain, and quadriceps muscle strength at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. The differences of surgical approach between MIS TKA and conventional TKA of this study are length of skin incision with subcutaneal flap and patella eversion. In MIS TKA, skin incision is shorter than conventional TKA. Furthermore, patella is not everted in MIS TKA procedure. There were no significant differences in preoperative factors. Postoperative improvement of ROM, postoperative muscle strength recovery, and postoperative improvement of visual analog scale were faster in patients with MIS TKA when compared to that in patients with conventional TKA. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in complication, 5-year clinical results of subjective knee function score, and the postoperative component angle and lower leg alignment. These results indicate that patella eversion may affect muscle strength recovery and postoperative pain.

  11. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...... into the notions of concurrent and alternating objects. Alternating objects may be used to start a cooperative thread for each possible blocking communication and is thus an alternative to asynchronous messages and guarded commands. Beta like SIMULA, the first OO language, was designed as a language for modeling...... as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  12. Concurrent bisimulation algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kułakowski, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    The coarsest bisimulation-finding problem plays an important role in the formal analysis of concurrent systems. For example, solving this problem allows the behavior of different processes to be compared or specifications to be verified. Hence, in this paper an efficient concurrent bisimulation algorithm is presented. It is based on the sequential Paige and Tarjan algorithm and the concept of the state signatures. The original solution follows Hopcroft's principle "process the smaller half". ...

  13. The early predictive value of a decrease of metabolic tumor volume in repeated (18)F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with concurrent radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Bo; Fan, Min; Zhou, Tao; Fu, Zheng; Zhang, Zicheng; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Baosheng

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the value of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F FDG PET/CT) to predict recurrence of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). A total of 53 stage III NSCLC patients without diabetics or undergoing surgery were enrolled in the prospective study. Those patients were evaluated by FDG PET before and following 40Gy radiotherapy (RT) with a concurrent cisplatin-based heterogeneous chemotherapy regimen. Semiquantitative assessment was used to determine maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax/SUVmean) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of the primary tumor. The prognostic significance of PET/CT parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The cutoffs of PET/CT parameters which have been determined by the previous study were used to separate the groups with Kaplan-Meier curves. Recurrence rates at 1- and 2-years were 18.9% (10/53) and 50.9% (27/53) for all patients, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor for recurrence was a decrease of MTV. Using the cutoff of 29.7%, a decrease of MTV can separate the patients into 2 groups with Kaplan-Meier curve successfully. The prospective study has reinforced the early predictive value of MTV in repeated (18)F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence in a subgroup of locally advanced NSCLC who underwent CCRT. A decrease of MTV in (18)F-FDG uptake by the primary tumor correlates with higher LRFS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-attentive processing in children with early and continuously-treated PKU. Effects of concurrent Phe level and lifetime dietary control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Licht, Robert; Sergeant, Joseph A.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-four children, aged 7 to 14 years, with early-treated PKU, were compared with control children on visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitudes and latencies and auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes. It was further investigated whether indices of dietary control would be associated with th

  15. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  16. Early functional results after Hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a randomized comparison between a minimal invasive and a conventional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renken Felix

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minimal invasive approach for elective hip surgery has been implemented in our institution in the past. It is widely hypothesized that implanting artificial hips in a minimal invasive fashion decreases surgical trauma and is helpful in the rehabilitation process in elective hip surgery. Thereby geriatric patients requiring emergency hip surgery also could theoretically benefit from a procedure that involves less tissue trauma. Methods Sixty patients who sustained a fractured neck of femur were randomly assigned into two groups. In the minimal invasive arm, the so called “direct anterior approach” (DAA was chosen, in the conventional arm the Watson-Jones-Approach was used for implantation of a bipolar hemi-arthroplasty. Primary outcome parameter was the mobility as measured by the four-item-Barthel index. Secondary outcome parameters included pain, haemoglobin-levels, complications, duration of surgery, administration of blood transfusion and external length of incision. Radiographs were evaluated. Results A statistically significant difference (p = 0,009 regarding the mobility as measured with the four-item Barthel index was found at the 5th postoperative day, favouring the DAA. Evaluation of the intensity of pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0,035 at day 16. No difference was evident in the comparison of radiographic results. Conclusions Comparing two different approaches to the hip joint for the implantation of a bipolar hemi-arthroplasty after fractured neck of femur, it can be stated that mobilization status is improved for the DAA compared to the WJA when measured by the four-item Barthel index, there is less pain as measured using the VAS. There is no radiographic evidence that a minimal invasive technique leads to inferior implant position. Level of Evidence: Level II therapeutic study.

  17. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    into the notions of concurrent and alternating objects. Alternating objects may be used to start a cooperative thread for each possible blocking communication and is thus an alternative to asynchronous messages and guarded commands. Beta like SIMULA, the first OO language, was designed as a language for modeling...... as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  18. Theta oscillations accompanying concurrent auditory stream segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Urbán, Gábor; Winkler, István

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate a single sound source among concurrent sources is crucial for veridical auditory perception. The present study investigated the event-related oscillations evoked by complex tones, which could be perceived as a single sound and tonal complexes with cues promoting the perception of two concurrent sounds by inharmonicity, onset asynchrony, and/or perceived source location difference of the components tones. In separate task conditions, participants performed a visual change detection task (visual control), watched a silent movie (passive listening) or reported for each tone whether they perceived one or two concurrent sounds (active listening). In two time windows, the amplitude of theta oscillation was modulated by the presence vs. absence of the cues: 60-350ms/6-8Hz (early) and 350-450ms/4-8Hz (late). The early response appeared both in the passive and the active listening conditions; it did not closely match the task performance; and it had a fronto-central scalp distribution. The late response was only elicited in the active listening condition; it closely matched the task performance; and it had a centro-parietal scalp distribution. The neural processes reflected by these responses are probably involved in the processing of concurrent sound segregation cues, in sound categorization, and response preparation and monitoring. The current results are compatible with the notion that theta oscillations mediate some of the processes involved in concurrent sound segregation.

  19. Simple and robust diagnosis of early, small and AFP-negative primary hepatic carcinomas: an integrative approach of serum fluorescence and conventional blood tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun-He; Hu, Piao-Ping; Huang, Zeng-Yong; Zhang, Pan; Wan, Qin-Si; Huang, De-Qiang; Lv, Nong-Hua

    2016-09-27

    The diagnosis of early, small and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative primary hepatic carcinomas (PHCs) remains a significant challenge. We developed a simple and robust approach to noninvasively detect these PHCs. A rapid, high-throughput and single-tube method was firstly developed to measure serum autofluorescence and cell-free DNA (cfDNA)-related fluorescence using a real-time PCR system, and both types of serum fluorescence were measured and routine laboratory data were collected in 1229 subjects, including 353 PHC patients, 331 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 213 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients and 332 normal controls (NC). The results showed that fluorescence indicators of PHC differed from those of NC, CH and LC to various extents, and all of them were not associated with age, gender, or AFP level. The logistic regression models established with the fluorescence indicators alone and combined with AFP, hepatic function tests and blood cell analyses were valuable for distinguishing early, small, AFP-negative and all PHC from LC, CH, NC and all non-PHC, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves 0.857-0.993 and diagnostic accuracies 80.2-97.7%. Conclusively, serum autofluorescence and cfDNA-related fluorescence are able to be rapidly and simultaneously measured by our simple method and valuable for diagnosing early, small and AFP-negative PHCs, especially integrating with AFP and conventional blood tests.

  20. Coalgebra, concurrency and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCoalgebra is used to generalize notions and techniques from concurrency theory, in order to apply them to problems concerning the supervisory control of discrete event systems. The main ingredients of this approach are the characterization of controllability in terms of (a variant of)

  1. Morse Theory and Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The work is intended to provide some insight about concurrency theory using ideas from geometry and algebraic topology. We define a topological space containing all traces of execution of the computer program and the information about how time flows. This is the main difference with standard...

  2. Composing Concurrent Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk

    1994-01-01

    Adopting the object-oriented paradigm for the development of large and complex software systems offers several advantages, of which increased extensibility and reusability are the most prominent ones. The object-oriented model is also quite suitable for modelling concurrent systems. However, it

  3. Concurrent validity of the differential ability scales, second edition with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning in young children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Golden, Christine; Thurm, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of intelligence in young children with neurodevelopmental disorders are critical for making diagnoses, in characterizing symptoms of disorders, and in predicting future outcomes. The limitations of standardized testing for children with developmental delay or cognitive impairment are well known: Tests do not exist that provide developmentally appropriate material along with norms that extend to the lower reaches of ability. Two commonly used and interchanged instruments are the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a test of developmental level, and the Differential Ability Scales, second edition (DAS-II), a more traditional cognitive test. We evaluated the correspondence of contemporaneous MSEL and the DAS-II scores in a mixed sample of children aged 2-10 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), non-ASD developmental delays, and typically developing children across the full spectrum of cognitive ability. Consistent with published data on the original DAS and the MSEL, scores on the DAS-II and MSEL were highly correlated. However, curve estimation revealed large mean differences that varied as a function of the child's cognitive ability level. We conclude that interchanging MSEL and DAS-II scores without regard to the discrepancy in scores may produce misleading results in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of children with and without ASD, and, thus, this practice should be implemented with caution.

  4. Determination of value of bovine respiratory disease control using a remote early disease identification system compared with conventional methods of metaphylaxis and visual observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B J; Amrine, D E; Goehl, D R

    2015-08-01

    Mitigation of the deleterious effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important issue in the cattle industry. Conventional management of calves at high risk for BRD often includes mass treatment with antimicrobials at arrival followed by visual observation for individual clinical cases. These methods have proven effective; however, control program efficacy is influenced by the accuracy of visual observation. A remote early disease identification (REDI) system has been described that monitors cattle behavior to identify potential BRD cases. The objective of this research was to compare health and performance outcomes using either traditional BRD control (visual observation and metaphylaxis) or REDI during a 60-d postarrival phase in high-risk beef calves. The randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 8 replicates at 3 different facilities over a 19-mo period. In each replicate, a single load of calves was randomly allocated to receive either conventional management (CONV; total = 8) or REDI (total = 8) as the method for BRD control. Cattle were monitored with each diagnostic method for the first 30 d on feed and performance variables were collected until approximately 60 d after arrival. Statistical differences ( 0.10) in risk of BRD treatment and REDI calves were not administered antimicrobials at arrival; therefore, REDI calves had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of doses of antimicrobials/calf (0.75 ± 0.1 doses) compared with CONV calves (1.67 ± 0.1 doses). In this trial, the REDI system was comparable to conventional management with the potential advantages of earlier BRD diagnosis and decreased use of antimicrobials. Further research should be performed to evaluate the longer-term impacts of the 2 systems.

  5. Difference in the Set-up Margin between 2D Conventional and 3D CT Based Planning in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sun Mi; Chun, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Hwa; Oh, Young Taek; Noh, O Kyu [Ajou University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seung Hee [Inje University, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Simulation using computed tomography (CT) is now widely available for radiation treatment planning for breast cancer. It is an important tool to help define the tumor target and normal tissue based on anatomical features of an individual patient. In Korea, most patients have small sized breasts and the purpose of this study was to review the margin of treatment field between conventional two-dimensional (2D) planning and CT based three-dimensional (3D) planning in patients with small breasts. Twenty-five consecutive patients with early breast cancer undergoing breast conservation therapy were selected. All patients underwent 3D CT based planning with a conventional breast tangential field design. In 2D planning, the treatment field margins were determined by palpation of the breast parenchyma (In general, the superior: base of the clavicle, medial: midline, lateral: mid - axillary line, and inferior margin: 2 m below the inflamammary fold). In 3D planning, the clinical target volume (CTV) ought to comprise all glandular breast tissue, and the PTV was obtained by adding a 3D margin of 1 cm around the CTV except in the skin direction. The difference in the treatment field margin and equivalent field size between 2D and 3D planning were evaluated. The association between radiation field margins and factors such as body mass index, menopause status, and bra size was determined. Lung volume and heart volume were examined on the basis of the prescribed breast radiation dose and 3D dose distribution. The margins of the treatment field were smaller in the 3D planning except for two patients. The superior margin was especially variable (average, 2.5 cm; range, -2.5 to 4.5 cm; SD, 1.85). The margin of these targets did not vary equally across BMI class, menopause status, or bra size. The average irradiated lung volume was significantly lower for 3D planning. The average irradiated heart volume did not decrease significantly. The use of 3D CT based planning reduced the

  6. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...... of interesting program transformations that rely on effect annotations. In particular, we prove a Parallelization Theorem, which expresses when it is sound to run two expressions in parallel instead of sequentially. The conditions are expressed solely in terms of the types and effects of the expressions....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....

  7. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy......, giving information about important properties of the program, such as deadlocks, unreachables, serializability, essential schedules, etc. In fact, it is not quite ordinary homotopy that has to be used, but rather a “directed homotopy” that does not reverse the flow of time. We show some of the essential...... differences between ordinary and directed homotopy through examples. We also relate the topological view to a combinatorial view of concurrent programs closer to transition systems, through the notion of a cubical set. Finally we apply some of these concepts to the proof of the safeness of a two...

  8. Early Clinical Outcomes and Toxicity of Intensity Modulated Versus Conventional Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervix Carcinoma: A Prospective Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar, E-mail: ajeetgandhi23@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Daya Nand; Rath, Goura Kisor; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Sharma, Seema; Manigandan, Durai; Laviraj, M.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Sunesh [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Thulkar, Sanjay [Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with whole pelvic conventional radiation therapy (WP-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (WP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2010 and January 2012, 44 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO 2009) stage IIB-IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions delivered via either WP-CRT or WP-IMRT with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. The primary and secondary endpoints were acute gastrointestinal toxicity and disease-free survival, respectively. Results: Of 44 patients, 22 patients received WP-CRT and 22 received WP-IMRT. In the WP-CRT arm, 13 patients had stage IIB disease and 9 had stage IIIB disease; in the IMRT arm, 12 patients had stage IIB disease and 10 had stage IIIB disease. The median follow-up time in the WP-CRT arm was 21.7 months (range, 10.7-37.4 months), and in the WP-IMRT arm it was 21.6 months (range, 7.7-34.4 months). At 27 months, disease-free survival was 79.4% in the WP-CRT group versus 60% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.651), and overall survival was 76% in the WP-CRT group versus 85.7% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.645). Patients in the WP-IMRT arm experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 acute gastrointestinal toxicities (31.8% vs 63.6%, P=.034) and grade ≥3 gastrointestinal toxicities (4.5% vs 27.3%, P=.047) than did patients receiving WP-CRT and had less chronic gastrointestinal toxicity (13.6% vs 50%, P=.011). Conclusion: WP-IMRT is associated with significantly less toxicity compared with WP-CRT and has a comparable clinical outcome. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times are warranted to justify

  9. Morse Theory and Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The work is intended to provide some insight about concurrency theory using ideas from geometry and algebraic topology. We define a topological space containing all traces of execution of the computer program and the information about how time flows. This is the main difference with standard...... with piecewise-smooth boundary. Our aim is to identify the equivalence classes with the critical points of a certain Morse function....

  10. Morse Theory and Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The work is intended to provide some insight about concurrency theory using ideas from geometry and algebraic topology. We define a topological space containing all traces of execution of the computer program and the information about how time flows. This is the main difference with standard...... with piecewise-smooth boundary. Our aim is to identify the equivalence classes with the critical points of a certain Morse function....

  11. Feature conversion for concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Feature conversion for concurrent engineering integrates two modern product development paradigms. Concurrent engineering is a product development paradigm in which multiple engineering disciplines participate. It optimizes a product with respect to available resources and product quality, for which

  12. Early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa – comparison of conventional versus molecular (PCR detection directly from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore John E

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most important bacterial pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Currently, routine bacteriological culture on selective/non- selective culture media is the cornerstone of microbiological detection. The aim of this study was to compare isolation rates of PA by conventional culture and molecular (PCR detection directly from sputum. Methods Adult patients (n = 57 attending the regional adult CF centre in Northern Ireland, provided fresh sputum following airways clearance exercise. Following processing of the specimen with sputasol (1:1 vol, the specimen was examined for the presence of PA by plating onto a combination of culture media (Pseudomonas isolation agar, Blood agar & McConkey agar. In addition, from the same specimen, genomic bacterial DNA was extracted (1 ml and was amplified employing two sequence-specific targets, namely (i the outer membrane protein (oprL gene locus and (ii the exotoxin A (ETA gene locus. Results By sputum culture, there were 30 patients positive for PA, whereas by molecular techniques, there were 35 positive patients. In 39 patients (22 PA +ve & 17 PA -ve, there was complete agreement between molecular and conventional detection and with both PCR gene loci. The oprL locus was more sensitive than the ETA locus, as the former was positive in 10 more patients and there were no patients where the ETA was positive and the oprL target negative. Where a PCR +ve/culture -ve result was recorded (10 patients, we followed these patients and recorded that 5 of these patients converted to being culture-positive at times ranging from 4–17 months later, with a mean lag time of 4.5 months. Conclusions This study indicates that molecular detection of PA in sputum employing the oprL gene target, is a useful technique in the early detection of PA, gaining on average 4.5 months over conventional culture. It now remains to be established whether aggressive antibiotic

  13. Morse Theory and Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The work is intended to provide some insight about concurrency theory using ideas from geometry and algebraic topology. We define a topological space containing all traces of execution of the computer program and the information about how time flows. This is the main difference with standard...... topological reasoning in which there is no information about relation "in time" among points. The main task is to define equivalence of paths reflecting execution of a program. We use the notion of homotopy history equivalence relation. The model space considered in this work is a differentiable manifold...

  14. Mastering concurrency in Go

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyra, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach covering everything you need to know to get up and running with Go, starting with the basics and imparting increasingly more detail as the examples and topics become more complicated. The book utilizes a casual, conversational style, rife with actual code and historical anecdotes for perspective, as well as usable and extensible example applications. This book is intended for systems developers and programmers with some experience in either Go and/or concurrent programming who wish to become fluent in building high-performance applications that scale by leveraging single-c

  15. Recursive Concurrent Stochastic Games

    CERN Document Server

    Etessami, Kousha

    2008-01-01

    We study Recursive Concurrent Stochastic Games (RCSGs), extending our recent analysis of recursive simple stochastic games [16,17] to a concurrent setting where the two players choose moves simultaneously and independently at each state. For multi-exit games, our earlier work already showed undecidability for basic questions like termination, thus we focus on the important case of single-exit RCSGs (1-RCSGs). We first characterize the value of a 1-RCSG termination game as the least fixed point solution of a system of nonlinear minimax functional equations, and use it to show PSPACE decidability for the quantitative termination problem. We then give a strategy improvement technique, which we use to show that player 1 (maximizer) has \\epsilon-optimal randomized Stackless & Memoryless (r-SM) strategies for all \\epsilon > 0, while player 2 (minimizer) has optimal r-SM strategies. Thus, such games are r-SM-determined. These results mirror and generalize in a strong sense the randomized memoryless determinacy r...

  16. Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy for Early Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Is It Better Than the Conventional Static Beam Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Wing Cheung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the performance of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT techniques: single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (SA-VMAT and double arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (DA-VMAT with the static beam conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (C-IMRT for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Twelve stage I and II NSCLC patients were recruited and their planning CT with contoured planning target volume (PTV and organs at risk (OARs was used for planning. Using the same dose constraints and planning objectives, the C-IMRT, SA-VMAT, and DA-VMAT plans were optimized. C-IMRT consisted of 7 static beams, while SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT plans consisted of one and two full gantry rotations, respectively. No significant difference was found among the three techniques in target homogeneity and conformity. Mean lung dose in C-IMRT plan was significantly lower than that in DA-VMAT plan P=0.04. The ability of OAR sparing was similar among the three techniques, with no significant difference in V20, V10, or V5 of normal lungs, spinal cord, and heart. Less MUs were required in SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT. Besides, SA-VMAT required the shortest beam on time among the three techniques. In treatment of early stage NSCLC, no significant dosimetric superiority was shown by the VMAT techniques over C-IMRT and DA-VMAT over SA-VMAT.

  17. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  18. Integrated concurrent utilization quality review, Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterinicchio, R P

    1987-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series which argues for the concurrent management of the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of patient care. Intensifying scrutiny by the credentialing groups, the PROs and all third-party payors underscores the vital need to implement cost-effective information systems which integrate the departmentalized functions of patient-physician profiling, DRG case-mix analyses, length of stay monitoring, pre-admission/admission and continued stay review, discharge planning, risk management, incident reporting and quality review. In the domain of physician performance regarding admitting and practice patterns, the ability to exercise concurrent utilization-quality review means early detection and prevention of events which would otherwise result in denials of payment and/or compromised patient care. Concurrent utilization-quality review must, by definition, be managerially invasive and focused; hence, it is integral to maintaining the integrity of the services and product lines offered by the provider. In fact, if PPO status is a marketing agenda, then the institutional objectives of cost-effectiveness, productivity, value, and competitiveness can only be achieved through concurrent utilization-quality review.

  19. Domain Theory for Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel

    a process is capable. HOPLA can directly encode calculi like CCS, CCS with process passing, and mobile ambients with public names, and it can be given a straightforward operational semantics supporting a standard bisimulation congruence. The denotational and operational semantics are related with simple...... and associated comonads, it highlights the role of linearity in concurrent computation. Two choices of comonad yield two expressive metalanguages for higher-order processes, both arising from canonical constructions in the model. Their denotational semantics are fully abstract with respect to contextual...... input necessary for it. Such a semantics is provided, based on event structures; it agrees with the presheaf semantics at first order and exposes the tensor operation as a simple parallel composition of event structures. The categorical model obtained from presheaves is very rich in structure and points...

  20. Concurrent Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, F; Yamamoto, Y

    2000-01-01

    A quantum computer is a multi-particle interferometer that comprises beam splitters at both ends and arms, where the n two-level particles undergo the interactions among them. The arms are designed so that relevant functions required to produce a computational result is stored in the phase shifts of the 2^n arms. They can be detected by interferometry that allows us to utilize quantum parallelism. Quantum algorithms are accountable for what interferometers to be constructed to compute particular problems. A standard formalism for constructing the arms has been developed by the extension of classical reversible gate arrays. By its nature of sequential applications of logic operations, the required number of gates increases exponentially as the problem size grows. This may cause a crucial obstacle to perform a quantum computation within a limited decoherence time. We propose a direct and concurrent construction of the interferometer arms by one-time evolution of a physical system with arbitrary multi-particle i...

  1. Concurrent engineering research center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects undertaken by The Concurrent Engineering Research Center (CERC) at West Virginia University are reported and summarized. CERC's participation in the Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Project relating to technology needed to improve the product development process is described, particularly in the area of advanced weapon systems. The efforts committed to improving collaboration among the diverse and distributed health care providers are reported, along with the research activities for NASA in Independent Software Verification and Validation. CERC also takes part in the electronic respirator certification initiated by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, as well as in the efforts to find a solution to the problem of producing environment-friendly end-products for product developers worldwide. The 3M Fiber Metal Matrix Composite Model Factory Program is discussed. CERC technologies, facilities,and personnel-related issues are described, along with its library and technical services and recent publications.

  2. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well...... as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...

  3. Economic explanations for concurrent sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent sourcing is a phenomenon where firms simultaneously make and buy the same good, i.e. they simultaneously use the governance modes of market and hierarchy. Though concurrent sourcing seems to be widespread, few studies of sourcing have focused on this phenomenon. This paper reviews diff...... different economic explanations for why firms use concurrent sourcing. The distinctive features of the explanations are compared, and it is discussed how they may serve as a springboard for research on concurrent sourcing. Managerial implications are also offered....

  4. Adjuvant Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Whole Breast Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Long-Term Hospital-Related Morbidity From Cardiac Causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Elisa K. [Department of Oncology, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John (Canada); Woods, Ryan; McBride, Mary L. [Cancer Control Research Department, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Virani, Sean [Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Wai, Elaine S. [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (CF-WBI) in women with left-sided breast cancer remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increase in hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women ≤80 years of age with early-stage breast cancer were treated with postoperative radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Hospital administrative records identified baseline cardiac risk factors and other comorbidities. Factors between radiation therapy groups were balanced using a propensity-score model. The first event of a hospital admission for cardiac causes after radiation therapy was determined from hospitalization records. Ten- and 15-year cumulative hospital-related cardiac morbidity after radiation therapy was estimated for left- and right-sided cases using a competing risk approach. Results: The median follow-up was 13.2 years. For left-sided cases, 485 women were treated with CF-WBI, and 2221 women were treated with HF-WBI. Mastectomy was more common in the HF-WBI group, whereas boost was more common in the CF-WBI group. The CF-WBI group had a higher prevalence of diabetes. The 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes (95% confidence interval) was not different between the 2 radiation therapy regimens after propensity-score adjustment: 21% (19-22) with HF-WBI and 21% (17-25) with CF-WBI (P=.93). For right-sided cases, the 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes was also similar between the radiation therapy groups (P=.76). Conclusions: There is no difference in morbidity leading to hospitalization from cardiac causes among women with left-sided early-stage breast

  5. An investigation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy versus conventional two-dimensional and 3D-conformal radiation therapy for early stage larynx cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT has been incorporated at several institutions for early stage laryngeal cancer (T1/T2N0M0, but its utility is controversial. Methods In three representative patients, multiple plans were generated: 1 Conventional 2D planning, with the posterior border placed at either the anterior aspect ("tight" plan or the mid-vertebral body ("loose" plan, 2 3D planning, utilizing both 1.0 and 0.5 cm margins for the planning target volume (PTV, and 3 IMRT planning, utilizing the same margins as the 3D plans. A dosimetric comparison was performed for the target volume, spinal cord, arytenoids, and carotid arteries. The prescription dose was 6300 cGy (225 cGy fractions, and the 3D and IMRT plans were normalized to this dose. Results For PTV margins of 1.0 cm and 0.5 cm, the D95 of the 2D tight/loose plans were 3781/5437 cGy and 5372/5869 cGy, respectively (IMRT/3D plans both 6300 cGy. With a PTV margin of 1.0 cm, the mean carotid artery dose was 2483/5671/5777/4049 cGy in the 2D tight, 2D loose, 3D, and IMRT plans, respectively. When the PTV was reduced to 0.5 cm, the the mean carotid artery dose was 2483/5671/6466/2577 cGy to the above four plans, respectively. The arytenoid doses were similar between the four plans, and spinal cord doses were well below tolerance. Conclusions IMRT provides a more ideal dose distribution compared to 2D treatment and 3D planning in regards to mean carotid dose. We therefore recommend IMRT in select cases when the treating physician is confident with the GTV.

  6. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation vs conventional whole-breast radiotherapy in early breast cancer: A case-control study of disease control, cosmesis, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadasadawala Tabassum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI using various approaches is being increasingly employed for selected women with early breast cancer (EBC. Aims: To conduct a case-control study comparing disease control, cosmesis, and complications in patients with EBC undergoing APBI using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy vs those receiving conventional whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT. Settings and Design: Women with EBC fulfilling the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS criteria were selected as ′cases′ if treated with APBI or as ′controls′ if offered WBRT during the period from May 2000 to December 2004. Materials and Methods: APBI patients were treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR to a dose of 34 Gy/10#/6-8 days. WBRT was delivered to the whole breast to a dose of 45 Gy/25# followed by tumor bed boost, either with electrons (15 Gy/6# or interstitial brachytherapy (HDR 10 Gy/1#. Results: At the median follow-up of 43.05 months in APBI and 51.08 months in WBRT there was no difference in overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, late arm edema, and symptomatic fat necrosis between the two groups. However, APBI resulted in increase in mild breast fibrosis at the tumor bed. Telangiectasias were observed in three patients of the APBI group. The cosmetic outcome was significantly better in the APBI group as compared to the WBRT group (P = 0.003. Conclusions: This study revealed equivalent locoregional and distant disease control in the two groups. APBI offered better overall cosmetic outcome, though at the cost of a slight increase in mild breast fibrosis and telangiectasias.

  7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plus concurrent DICE chemotherapy for early-stage nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer’s ring:A single-institution study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhou; Daiyuan Ma; Yeqin Zhou; Xianfu Li; Bangxian Tan; Mi Liu; Tao Ren

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nasal-type natural kil er/T-cel lymphoma of Waldeyer’s ring (WR-NK/TL) has dif erent clinico-pathological characteristics from those of other subtypes of NK/T lymphoma; thus, the optimal treatment remains unclear. To find a more ef ective treatment model for WR-NK/TL, we conducted a single-center study of concurrent radiochemotherapy. Methods Forty-five patients with newly diagnosed stage IE to IIE WR-NKTL were randomly divided into two groups. The 23 cases in the concurrent radiochemotherapy group were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (48–52 Gy) and 2 courses of DICE (dexamethasone, ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide) synchronous chemotherapy. The 22 cases in the radiotherapy group only received three-dimen-sional conformal radiotherapy (50–54 Gy). The primary end points were overal survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Results The 1-, 3-, and 4-year OS and PFS rates were 95.5%, 65.6%, and 45.9%, and 86.4%, 56.0%, and 46.7% in the radiotherapy group, and 100%, 88.5%, and 88.5%, and 100%, 82.0%, and 73.8% in the concurrent radiochemotherapy group, respectively. The OS (P = 0.0477) and PFS rates (P = 0.0488) were higher in the concurrent radiochemotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group. The overal re-sponse rate was 100% in both the radiotherapy group [complete response (CR), 18 cases] and concurrent radiochemotherapy group (CR, 22 cases). The concurrent radiochemotherapy group had more severe side ef ects, especial y grade 3 + 4 events, such as leukopenia, anorexia, and stomatitis. However, side ef ects benefiting from excel ent oral care were endurable. Conclusion Radiotherapy plus concurrent DICE chemotherapy may be an ef ective and safe compre-hensive treatment for patients with WR-NKTL.

  8. Treatment outcome of immediate, early and conventional single-tooth implants in the aesthetic zone : a systematic review to survival, bone level, soft-tissue, aesthetics and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2008-01-01

    den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJR, Vissink A, Meijer HJA, Raghoebar GM. Treatment outcome of immediate, early and conventional single-tooth implants in the aesthetic zone: a systematic review to survival, bone level, soft-tissue, aesthetics and patient satisfaction. J Clin Periodontol 2008; 35: 10

  9. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  10. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  11. Concurrent emphysematous cholecystitis and emphysematous pancreatitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Yoon, Yup [Dongguk University International Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Bin [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Emphysematous infections of the abdomen and pelvis are potentially life-threatening conditions which require aggressive medical and surgical management. Therefore, early radiographic detection is important in the management of these conditions. Concurrent emphysematous infections involving different organs have been rarely reported, and primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a rare case of concurrent emphysematous cholecystitis and emphysematous pancreatitis in a 97 year old male patient.

  12. CRDTs: Consistency without concurrency control

    CERN Document Server

    Letia, Mihai; Shapiro, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A CRDT is a data type whose operations commute when they are concurrent. Replicas of a CRDT eventually converge without any complex concurrency control. As an existence proof, we exhibit a non-trivial CRDT: a shared edit buffer called Treedoc. We outline the design, implementation and performance of Treedoc. We discuss how the CRDT concept can be generalised, and its limitations.

  13. A Lower Bound on Concurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-Guo; TIAN Cheng-Lin; CHEN Ping-Xing; YUAN Nai-Chang

    2009-01-01

    We derive an analytical lower bound on the concurrence for bipartite quantum systems with an improved computable cross norm or realignment criterion and an improved positive partial transpose criterion respectively.Furthermore we demonstrate that our bound is better than that obtained from the local uncertainty relations criterion with optimal local orthogonal observables which is known as one of the best estimations of concurrence.

  14. Concurrent Validity and Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Robert L.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to explore two areas: (1) the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed men using four different operational definitions of vocational orientation, and (2) the relationships among all possible combinations of same named scales across the four inventories. Findings tend to support the concurrent validity of…

  15. Concurrent Validity and Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Robert L.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to explore two areas: (1) the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed men using four different operational definitions of vocational orientation, and (2) the relationships among all possible combinations of same named scales across the four inventories. Findings tend to support the concurrent validity of…

  16. Partnership concurrency and coital frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydosh, Lauren; Reniers, Georges; Helleringer, Stéphane

    2013-09-01

    National HIV prevalence estimates across sub-Saharan Africa range from less than 1 percent to over 25 percent. Recent research proposes several explanations for the observed variation, including prevalence of male circumcision, levels of condom use, presence of other sexually transmitted infections, and practice of multiple concurrent partnerships. However, the importance of partnership concurrency for HIV transmission may depend on how it affects coital frequency with each partner. The coital dilution hypothesis suggests that coital frequency within a partnership declines with the addition of concurrent partners. Using sexual behavior data from rural Malawi and urban Kenya, we investigate the relationship between partnership concurrency and coital frequency, and find partial support for the coital dilution hypothesis. We conclude the paper with a discussion of our findings in light of the current literature on concurrency.

  17. Social Development from Infancy to Adolescence: Longitudinal and Concurrent Factors in an Adoption Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari-Bimmel, Nicole; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mooijaart, Ab

    2006-01-01

    In the present longitudinal study, early adopted children (N = 160) were followed from infancy to adolescence to assess the influence of previous and concurrent factors on the children's social development. This study allowed for more conclusive evidence of the influence of early and concurrent rearing experiences and temperament on…

  18. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer - An updated retrospective study on local failure and survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stefan S. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], e-mail: Stefan.Jeppesen@rsyd.dk; Schytte, Tine; Hansen, Olfred [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Jensen, Henrik R. [Lab. of Radiation Physics, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Brink, Carsten [Lab. of Radiation Physics, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single-institutional report is to describe survival outcome for medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC treated with SBRT compared with high dose conventional RT. Material and methods: From August 2005 to June 2012, 100 medically inoperable patients were treated with SBRT at Odense Univ. Hospital. The thoracic RT consisted of 3 fractions (F) of 15-22 Gy delivered in nine days. For comparison a group of 32 medically inoperable patients treated with conventional RT with 80 Gy/35-40 F (5 F/week) in the period of July 1998 to August 2011 were analyzed. All tumors had histological or cytological proven NSCLC T1-2N0M0. Results: The median overall survival was 36.1 months versus 24.4 months for SBRT and conventional RT, respectively (p = 0.015). Local failure-free survival rates at one year were in SBRT group 93 % versus 89 % in the conventional RT group and at five years 69 % versus 66 %, SBRT and conventional RT respectively (p = 0.99). On multivariate analysis, female gender and performance status of 0-1 and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. Conclusion: In a cohort of patients with NSCLC there was a significant difference in overall survival favoring SBRT. Performance status of 0-1, female gender and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients.

  19. New methods of concurrent checking

    CERN Document Server

    Goessel, Michael; Sogomonyan, Egor; Marienfeld, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Written by a team of two leading experts and two very successful young former PhD students, New Methods of Concurrent Checking describes new methods of concurrent checking, such as partial duplication, use of output dependencies, complementary circuits, self-dual parity, self-dual duplication and others. A special chapter demonstrates how the new general methods of concurrent checking can be more specifically applied to regular structures to obtain optimum results. This is exemplified for all types of adders up to 64 bits with a level of detail never before presented in the literature. The cle

  20. A CAD MODEL FOR FUZZY CONCURRENT TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Research situation of concurrent tolerance design has been analyzed. As fuzzy factors are objective and unavoidable in concurrent tolerance design, fuzzy optimization theory is applied in the design. A new mathematical model of concurrent tolerance design is constructed.

  1. Reference Capabilities for Concurrency Control

    OpenAIRE

    Castegren, Elias; Wrigstad, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of shared mutable state in object-oriented programming complicates software development as two seemingly unrelated operations may interact via an alias and produce unexpected results. In concurrent programming this manifests itself as data-races. Concurrent object-oriented programming further suffers from the fact that code that warrants synchronisation cannot easily be distinguished from code that does not. The burden is placed solely on the programmer to reason ab...

  2. Aggressive combination therapy with intra-articular glucocorticoid injections and conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in early rheumatoid arthritis: second-year clinical and radiographic results from the CIMESTRA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M.L.; Stengaard-Pedersen, K.; Junker, P.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the second year of aggressive treatment with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and intra-articular c......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the second year of aggressive treatment with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and intra......% in monotherapy), but hypertension was not more prevalent. CONCLUSION: Continuous methotrexate and intra-articular corticosteroid treatment resulted in excellent clinical response and disease control at 2 years, and the radiographic erosive progression was minimal. Addition of ciclosporine during the first 76...

  3. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  4. Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

  5. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  6. Conventional laparotomy for management of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh C. Mhaske

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the rates of caesarean deliveries has led to a concurrent rise in the number of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancies (CSEP. With recent advances, diagnosis can be made at an early gestational age, hence facilitating a prompt intervention. With the varied treatment options available, choosing the right one may possess a clinical dilemma. However, in a low resource setting, conventional laparotomy may be the only option feasible. A case of CSEP managed with laparotomy is presented. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1581-1584

  7. Managing Complexity of Control Software through Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we are concerned with the development of concurrent software for embedded systems. The emphasis is on the development of control software. Embedded systems are concurrent systems whereby hardware and software communicate with the concurrent world. Concurrency is essential, which

  8. Concurrent Engineering Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Research and application of Concurrent Engineering have produced good results. A Chinese style concurrent engineering architecture and reference mode has been produced. A series of break thoughts in BPR (Business Process Reengineering) have been made with organization of the IPT (Integrated Product Development Team) and engineering support technologies. Several prototype tools were developed, including product development process modeling and management, QFD-based schema design and decision making, PDM-based concurrent design, STEP-based CAD/CAPP/CAM integration, design for assembly, design for manufacturing, computer aided fixture design, and machining process simulation. Finally, the research results were used in the development of two complex components in an aerospace application, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  9. STU attractors from vanishing concurrence

    CERN Document Server

    Lévay, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrence is an entanglement measure characterizing the {\\it mixed} state bipartite correlations inside of a pure state of an $n$-qubit system. We show that after organizing the charges and the moduli in the STU model of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity to a three-qubit state, for static extremal spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions the vanishing condition for all of the bipartite concurrences on the horizon is equivalent to the attractor equations. As a result of this the macroscopic black hole entropy given by the three-tangle can be reinterpreted as a linear entropy characterizing the {\\it pure} state entanglement for an arbitrary bipartite split. Both for the BPS and non-BPS cases explicit expressions for the concurrences are obtained, with their vanishing on the horizon is demonstrated.

  10. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  11. Fuzzy simulation in concurrent engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraslawski, A.; Nystrom, L.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is becoming a very important practice in manufacturing. A problem in concurrent engineering is the uncertainty associated with the values of the input variables and operating conditions. The problem discussed in this paper concerns the simulation of processes where the raw materials and the operational parameters possess fuzzy characteristics. The processing of fuzzy input information is performed by the vertex method and the commercial simulation packages POLYMATH and GEMS. The examples are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the method in the simulation of chemical engineering processes.

  12. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent...... of concurrency in DCR Graphs admits asynchronous execution of declarative workflows both conceptually and by reporting on a prototype implementation of a distributed declarative workflow engine. Both the theoretical development and the implementation is supported by an extended example; moreover, the theoretical...

  13. Fuzzy simulation in concurrent engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraslawski, A.; Nystrom, L.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is becoming a very important practice in manufacturing. A problem in concurrent engineering is the uncertainty associated with the values of the input variables and operating conditions. The problem discussed in this paper concerns the simulation of processes where the raw materials and the operational parameters possess fuzzy characteristics. The processing of fuzzy input information is performed by the vertex method and the commercial simulation packages POLYMATH and GEMS. The examples are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the method in the simulation of chemical engineering processes.

  14. Session-based concurrency, reactively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Cano (Mauricio); J. Arias (Jaime); J.A. Pérez Parra (Jorge)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper concerns formal models for the analysis of communication-centric software systems that feature declarative and reactive behaviors. We focus on session-based concurrency, the interaction model induced by session types, which uses (variants of) the Π-calculus as specification

  15. Teaching Concurrency: Theory in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    in mathematics. We report here on our experiences in teaching concurrency theory over the last twenty years or so to students ranging from mathsphobic bachelor students to sophisticated doctoral students. The contents of the courses, the material on which they are based and the pedagogical philosophy underlying...

  16. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent se...... development has been verified correct in the Isabelle-HOL interactive theorem prover....

  17. Relationships between models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro; Winskel, Glynn

    1994-01-01

    Models for concurrency can be classified with respect to the three relevant parameters: behaviour/system, interleaving/noninterleaving, linear/branching time. When modelling a process, a choice concerning such parameters corresponds to choosing the level of abstraction of the resulting semantics....... The classifications are formalized through the medium of category theory....

  18. Bisimulation for models in concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian

    1994-01-01

    Recently, Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel suggested a categorical definition of bisimulation, applicable to a wide range of models in concurrency with an accompanying notion af observations. The definition is in terms of span of open maps, and it coincides with Park and Milner's strong bisimulation...

  19. The system of concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent engineering (CE) has been a major theme in the 80s and 90s of the previous century in research and practice. Its main aim is to reduce time-tomarket, improve quality and reduce costs by taking into account downstream requirements and constraints already in the design phase. While start

  20. Visualization of Concurrent Program Executions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Honiden, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    Various program analysis techniques are efficient at discovering failures and properties. However, it is often difficult to evaluate results, such as program traces. This calls for abstraction and visualization tools. We propose an approach based on UML sequence diagrams, addressing shortcomings of such diagrams for concurrency. The resulting visualization is expressive and provides all the necessary information at a glance.

  1. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent se...... development has been verified correct in the Isabelle-HOL interactive theorem prover....

  2. True Concurrency can be Traced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on closures of sets of labelled partial orders, a simple algebraic language with ref...

  3. The composition of concurrent programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, K. Mani; Taylor, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    A notation is presented for concurrent programs called program composition notation (PCN). The notation is being implemented at Caltech on multicomputers (a network of computers that communicate by sending and receiving messages). A fragment of this notation has been implemented on a data-parallel computer, the Connection Machine. The central ideas underlying PCN are discussed.

  4. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as re...

  5. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation and hid...

  6. True Concurrency can be Traced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on closures of sets of labelled partial orders, a simple algebraic language with ref...

  7. A Comparative Study Between the Early Stages Hydration of a High Strength and Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement and the Type II F Portland Cement Through Non Conventional Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Neves Junior,Alex; Viana,Marcelo Mendes; Dweck,Jo; Toledo Filho,Romildo Dias

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a study, which compares the early stages of hydration of a High Initial Strength and Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement (HIS SR PC) with those of Type II F Portland Cement (PC II), by Non-Conventional Differential Thermal Analysis (NCDTA) within the first 24 hours of hydration. Water/cement (w/c) ratios equal to 0.5, 0.6 and 0.66 were used to prepare the pastes. The hydration of these two types of cement was monitored on real time by NCDTA curves, through the thermal effect...

  8. Expression of miRNA-106b in conventional renal cell carcinoma is a potential marker for prediction of early metastasis after nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaby Ondrej

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed regulatory noncoding RNAs. Previous studies have shown altered expression levels of several microRNAs in renal cell carcinoma. Methods We examined the expression levels of selected microRNAs in 38 samples of conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC and 10 samples of non-tumoral renal parenchyma using TaqMan real-time PCR method. Results The expression levels of miRNA-155 (p Conclusions We have confirmed previous observations obtained by miRNA microarray analysis using standardized real-time PCR method. For the first time, we have identified a prognostic significance of miRNA-106b, which, after validation on a larger group of patients, maybe useful as a promising biomarker in patients with RCC.

  9. Concurrent Initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  10. Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  11. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  12. PyCSP - controlled concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Brian; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus

    2010-01-01

    Producing readable and correct programs while at the same time taking advantage of multi-core architectures is a challenge. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes algebra (CSP) for the Python programming language, that take advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach...... to controlling concurrency and the readability of Python source code. We describe PyCSP, demonstrate it through examples and demonstrate how PyCSP compares to Pthreads in a master-worker benchmark....

  13. PyCSP - controlled concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Vinter, Brian; Bjørndalen, John Markus

    Producing readable and correct programs while at the same time taking advantage of multi-core architectures is a challenge. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes algebra (CSP) for the Python programming language, taking advantage of CSP’s formal and verifiable approach...... to controlling concurrency and the readability of Python source code. We describe PyCSP, demonstrate it through examples and demonstrate how PyCSP compares to Pthreads using a benchmark....

  14. Debugging Concurrent Software:Advances and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Huang; Charles Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Concurrency debugging is an extremely important yet challenging problem that has been hampering developer productivity and software reliability in the multicore era. We have worked on this problem in the past eight years and have developed several effective methods and automated tools for helping developers debugging shared memory concurrent programs. This article discusses challenges in concurrency debugging and summarizes our research contributions in four important directions: concurrency bug reproduction, detection, understanding, and fixing. It also discusses other recent advances in tackling these challenges.

  15. Concurrent chemoradiation for vaginal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Miyamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18-92 years and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS = 56% vs. 79%, log-rank p = 0.037; 3-yr DFS = 43% vs. 73%, log-rank p = 0.011. Twenty-three patients (45% in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15% in the CRT group (p = 0.027. With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14% had local only, 4 (6% had local and regional, 9 (13% had regional only, 1 (1% had regional and distant, and 2 (3% had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.97; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients.

  16. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage collec

  17. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  18. How to improve the early diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: relationship between validated conventional diagnosis and quantitative DNA amplification in congenitally infected children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Bua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to the Chagas congenital transmission guides, the diagnosis of infants, born to Trypanosoma cruzi infected mothers, relies on the detection of parasites by INP micromethod, and/or the persistence of T. cruzi specific antibody titers at 10-12 months of age. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasitemia levels were quantified by PCR in T. cruzi-infected children, grouped according to the results of one-year follow-up diagnosis: A Neonates that were diagnosed in the first month after delivery by microscopic blood examination (INP micromethod (n = 19 had a median parasitemia of 1,700 Pe/mL (equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL; B Infants that required a second parasitological diagnosis at six months of age (n = 10 showed a median parasitemia of around 20 Pe/mL and 500 Pe/mL at 1 and 6 months old, respectively, and C babies with undetectable parasitemia by three blood microscopic observations but diagnosed by specific anti - T. cruzi serology at around 1 year old, (n = 22, exhibited a parasitemia of around 5 Pe/mL, 800 Pe/mL and 20 Pe/mL 1, 6 and 12 month after delivery, respectively. T. cruzi parasites were isolated by hemoculture from 19 congenitally infected children, 18 of which were genotypified as DTU TcV, (former lineage TcIId and only one as TcI. SIGNIFICANCE: This report is the first to quantify parasitemia levels in more than 50 children congenitally infected with T. cruzi, at three different diagnostic controls during one-year follow-up after delivery. Our results show that the parasite burden in some children (22 out of 51 is below the detection limit of the INP micromethod. As the current trypanocidal treatment proved to be very effective to cure T. cruzi - infected children, more sensitive parasitological methods should be developed to assure an early T. cruzi congenital diagnosis.

  19. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally unresectable head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, Naoyuki; Kitahara, Satoshi; Tamura, Etuyo; Tanabe, Tetuya; Nakanoboh, Manabu; Itoh, Yasuo; Murata, Yasuhiro; Furukawa, Taichi [National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    In patients with locally unresectable head and neck cancer with large nodal involvement, the expected five-year survival is as low as 1-2%. To improve the prognosis of these patients, we studied the usefulness of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a phase 11 trial. Between September 1996 and May 1999, thirty-five patients with locally unresectable head and neck cancer were administered concurrent chemoradiotherapy consisting of low-dose and long-term treatment with cisplatin (CDDP) plus 5-fluorouracil (5FU), or (L-CF); the L-CF regimen consisted of CDDP, 3 mg/m{sup 2} on 5 days of the week and 5FU, 150 mg/m{sup 2} as a 24-hour infunsion on 5 days of the week. Concurrently, conventional radiotherapy was given up to total dose of around 60 Gy. In the 33 patients evaluable for response, 17 complete and 9 partial responses were noted, with an overall response rate of 79%. Oral mucositis and myelosuppression were the major side effects and mucositis was a dose limiting toxicity. This study demonstrates increase in survival among the responders (complete+partial) in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy setting. However 8 local relapses were eventually noted in the 17 complete responders. We concluded that this treatment strategy was beneficial in patients with locally unresectable head and neck cancer. (author)

  20. Concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lian-Kun

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes the concept of concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation (CFEC) in a multi-phase magmatic system in light of experimental results on diffusivities of elements and other species in minerals and melts. A group of equations are presented to describe how the concentrations of an element or isotope change in fractionated solid, equilibrated solid, melt, liquid, and gas phases, as well as in magma, as a function of distribution coefficients and mass fractions during the CFEC process. CFEC model is a generalised and unified formulation that is valid, not only for pure fractional crystallisation (FC) and perfect equilibrium crystallisation (EC) singly, as two of its limiting end-member cases, but also for the geologically more important process of concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation. The concept that both fractional and equilibrium crystallisation can operate concurrently in a magmatic system, for a given element, among different minerals, and even within different-sized crystal grains of the very same mineral phase, is of fundamental importance in deepening our current understanding of magmatic differentiation processes. CFEC probably occurs more frequently in the natural world than either pure fractional or perfect equilibrium crystallisation alone, as a result of the interplay of varying diffusivities of elements under diverse physicochemical conditions, different residence time and growth rates of mineral phases in magmas, and varying grain sizes within each phase and among different phases. The marked systematic variations in trace element concentrations in the melts of the Bishop Tuff have long been perplexing and difficult to reconcile with existing models of differentiation. CFEC, which is able to better explain the scatter trends in a systematic way than fractional crystallisation, is considered to be the cause.

  1. Concurrent engineering teams. Volume 2: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Karen J.; Dierolf, David A.

    1990-11-01

    Specific concurrent engineering practices vary among organizations. There are, however, various management practices that appear to work well for most organizations. This paper presents the reader with specific, useful examples from several defense contractors illustrating how multifunctional concurrent engineering teams are being organized and managed and how concurrent engineering team meetings are conducted and supported. The types of computer support that could be used to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of concurrent engineering team meetings are identified. The general findings are that there exists a direct relationship between total quality management (TQM) and concurrent engineering, and that many applications of computer-aided group problem solving are possible and practical today for the concurrent engineering team meetings. Areas identified for additional research are the documentation of the decision process and rationale during the product and process definition, the capturing of lessons learned during the implementation of concurrent engineering, and the performance evaluation and training of team members.

  2. Effect of early postextubation high-flow nasal cannula vs conventional oxygen therapy on hypoxaemia in patients after major abdominal surgery: a French multicentre randomised controlled trial (OPERA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Paugam-Burtz, Catherine; Godet, Thomas; Khoy-Ear, Linda; Rozencwajg, Sacha; Delay, Jean-Marc; Verzilli, Daniel; Dupuis, Jeremie; Chanques, Gerald; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Pereira, Bruno; Jaber, Samir

    2016-12-01

    , there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the proportion of patients who remained free of any pulmonary complication (ARR 7, 95 % CI -6 to 20 %; p = 0.40). Other secondary outcomes also did not differ significantly between the two groups. Among patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, early preventive application of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation did not result in improved pulmonary outcomes compared with standard oxygen therapy.

  3. How to Improve the Early Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Relationship between Validated Conventional Diagnosis and Quantitative DNA Amplification in Congenitally Infected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bua, Jacqueline; Volta, Bibiana J.; Perrone, Alina E.; Scollo, Karenina; Velázquez, Elsa B.; Ruiz, Andres M.; De Rissio, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Chagas congenital transmission guides, the diagnosis of infants, born to Trypanosoma cruzi infected mothers, relies on the detection of parasites by INP micromethod, and/or the persistence of T. cruzi specific antibody titers at 10–12 months of age. Methodology and Principal Findings Parasitemia levels were quantified by PCR in T. cruzi-infected children, grouped according to the results of one-year follow-up diagnosis: A) Neonates that were diagnosed in the first month after delivery by microscopic blood examination (INP micromethod) (n = 19) had a median parasitemia of 1,700 Pe/mL (equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL); B) Infants that required a second parasitological diagnosis at six months of age (n = 10) showed a median parasitemia of around 20 Pe/mL and 500 Pe/mL at 1 and 6 months old, respectively, and C) babies with undetectable parasitemia by three blood microscopic observations but diagnosed by specific anti - T. cruzi serology at around 1 year old, (n = 22), exhibited a parasitemia of around 5 Pe/mL, 800 Pe/mL and 20 Pe/mL 1, 6 and 12 month after delivery, respectively. T. cruzi parasites were isolated by hemoculture from 19 congenitally infected children, 18 of which were genotypified as DTU TcV, (former lineage TcIId) and only one as TcI. Significance This report is the first to quantify parasitemia levels in more than 50 children congenitally infected with T. cruzi, at three different diagnostic controls during one-year follow-up after delivery. Our results show that the parasite burden in some children (22 out of 51) is below the detection limit of the INP micromethod. As the current trypanocidal treatment proved to be very effective to cure T. cruzi - infected children, more sensitive parasitological methods should be developed to assure an early T. cruzi congenital diagnosis. PMID:24147166

  4. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...

  5. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...

  6. Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian

    We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.

  7. Feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of short induction chemotherapy of docetaxel plus cisplatin or carboplatin (TP) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced cancer of the hypopharynx, larynx, and base of tongue. Early results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semrau, Sabine; Klautke, Gunther; Fietkau, Rainer [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Waldfahrer, Frank; Iro, Heinrich [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik, Kopf- und Halschirurgie; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Linke, Rainer; Kuwert, Torsten [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-01-15

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is standard treatment for advanced head and neck cancer. Whether short induction chemotherapy (ICT) provides additional benefit or, in particular, predictive benefit for the response to chemoradiotherapy is an open question. The present study aimed to assess the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of induction with docetaxel and platinum salt (TP) and subsequent CRT. A total of 25 patients with functionally inoperable cancer of the base of the tongue, hypopharynx, or larynx received 1 cycle of docetaxel (75 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1) combined with either cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2}, days 1-3; n = 23) or carboplatin (AUC 1.5 days 1-3; n = 2). Responders (n = 22, > 30% tumor reduction, graded by endoscopy) and 1 non-responder received CRT (target dose: 69-72 Gy) with cisplatin/paclitaxel, carboplatin/paclitaxel, or cisplatin/docetaxel. All patients completed ICT with acceptable toxicity (leukocytopenia grade 4: 8%). The remission rate of the primary tumor was 88% (22/25 patients). There was no need to delay CRT due to toxicity in any case. Each patient received the full radiation dose. Of the patients, 56% received > 80% of the chemotherapy. The acute toxicity of CRT was moderate, no grade 4 toxicities occurred, while grade 3 toxicities included the following: infection (39%), dermatitis (13%), leukocytopenia (30%), and thrombocytopenia (4%). The local control rate was 84.6% {+-} 8.5% and the survival rate was 89.6% {+-} 7.2% at 12 months. Organ preservation was possible in 22/23 (95%) cases. Short induction with a TP regimen and subsequent CRT with a taxan is feasible and associated with an encouraging local control rate. (orig.)

  8. Randomized Trial Comparing Conventional-Dose With High-Dose Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Long-Term Results From Proton Radiation Oncology Group/American College of Radiology 95-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietman, Anthony L.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Slater, Jerry D.; Shipley, William U.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Coen, John J.; Bush, David A.; Lunt, Margie; Spiegel, Daphna Y.; Skowronski, Rafi; Jabola, B. Rodney; Rossi, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that increasing radiation dose delivered to men with early-stage prostate cancer improves clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods Men with T1b-T2b prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen ≤ 15 ng/mL were randomly assigned to a total dose of either 70.2 Gray equivalents (GyE; conventional) or 79.2 GyE (high). No patient received androgen suppression therapy with radiation. Local failure (LF), biochemical failure (BF), and overall survival (OS) were outcomes. Results A total of 393 men were randomly assigned, and median follow-up was 8.9 years. Men receiving high-dose radiation therapy were significantly less likely to have LF, with a hazard ratio of 0.57. The 10-year American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology BF rates were 32.4% for conventional-dose and 16.7% for high-dose radiation therapy (P < .0001). This difference held when only those with low-risk disease (n = 227; 58% of total) were examined: 28.2% for conventional and 7.1% for high dose (P < .0001). There was a strong trend in the same direction for the intermediate-risk patients (n = 144; 37% of total; 42.1% v 30.4%, P = .06). Eleven percent of patients subsequently required androgen deprivation for recurrence after conventional dose compared with 6% after high dose (P = .047). There remains no difference in OS rates between the treatment arms (78.4% v 83.4%; P = .41). Two percent of patients in both arms experienced late grade ≥ 3 genitourinary toxicity, and 1% of patients in the high-dose arm experienced late grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity. Conclusion This randomized controlled trial shows superior long-term cancer control for men with localized prostate cancer receiving high-dose versus conventional-dose radiation. This was achieved without an increase in grade ≥ 3 late urinary or rectal morbidity. PMID:20124169

  9. Preparing HEP software for concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Hegner, B.; Mato, P.; Piparo, D.

    2014-06-01

    The necessity for thread-safe experiment software has recently become very evident, largely driven by the evolution of CPU architectures towards exploiting increasing levels of parallelism. For high-energy physics this represents a real paradigm shift, as concurrent programming was previously only limited to special, well-defined domains like control software or software framework internals. This paradigm shift, however, falls into the middle of the successful LHC programme and many million lines of code have already been written without the need for parallel execution in mind. In this paper we have a closer look at the offline processing applications of the LHC experiments and their readiness for the many-core era. We review how previous design choices impact the move to concurrent programming. We present our findings on transforming parts of the LHC experiment reconstruction software to thread-safe code, and the main design patterns that have emerged during the process. A plethora of parallel-programming patterns are well known outside the HEP community, but only a few have turned out to be straightforward enough to be suited for non-expert physics programmers. Finally, we propose a potential strategy for the migration of existing HEP experiment software to the many-core era.

  10. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis in a patient with secondary syphilis.

  11. Dual-energy computed tomography for the assessment of early treatment effects of regorafenib in a preclinical tumor model: comparison with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and conventional contrast-enhanced single-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, Gesine; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Healthcare, MR and CT Contrast Media Research, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Imaging Science Institute Charite - Siemens, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The potential diagnostic value of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) compared to dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and conventional contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) in the assessment of early regorafenib treatment effects was evaluated in a preclinical setting. A rat GS9L glioma model was examined with contrast-enhanced dynamic DE-CT measurements (80 kV/140 kV) for 4 min before and on days 1 and 4 after the start of daily regorafenib or placebo treatment. Tumour time-density curves (0-240 s, 80 kV), DE-CT (60 s) derived iodine maps and the DCE-CT (0-30 s, 80 kV) based parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability (PMB) were calculated and compared to conventional CE-CT (60 s, 80 kV). The regorafenib group showed a marked decrease in the tumour time-density curve, a significantly lower iodine concentration and a significantly lower PMB on day 1 and 4 compared to baseline, which was not observed for the placebo group. CE-CT showed a significant decrease in tumour density on day 4 but not on day 1. The DE-CT-derived iodine concentrations correlated with PMB and BV but not with BF. DE-CT allows early treatment monitoring, which correlates with DCE-CT. Superior performance was observed compared to single-energy CE-CT. circle Regorafenib treatment response was evaluated by CT in a rat tumour model. (orig.)

  12. A Concurrency Control Algorithm in Multi-Version Multilevel DBMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMin; FENGDengguo

    2005-01-01

    The conventional transaction concurrency control theory and mechanisms are challenged in the context of a multilevel DBMS (Data base management system). Not only the correctness of transaction processing, namely the serializability of the transaction histories, but also the security properties should be followed. These requirements include diminishing the timing covert channels and preventing the starving problem in high-level transactions' unlimited waiting. In this paper we present a timestamp order based concurrency control algorithm that produce serializable histories by correctly combining all the 1SR histories generated by different level schedulers. We also provide an implementation scheduler algorithm based on snapshots. This approach is free from timing covert channels and transactions of different security levels have the same privilege to execute. In addition, this approach does not require the existence of a global trusted scheduler. Instead, it can be built on enhanced untrusted traditional multi-version schedulers, with the supplement of appropriate process towards read-down operations.

  13. 47 CFR 61.136 - Revocation of concurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revocation of concurrences. 61.136 Section 61...) TARIFFS Concurrences § 61.136 Revocation of concurrences. A concurrence may be revoked by a revocation notice or cancelled by a new concurrence. A revocation notice or a new concurrence, if less broad...

  14. A risk analysis model in concurrent engineering product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Desheng Dash; Kefan, Xie; Gang, Chen; Ping, Gui

    2010-09-01

    Concurrent engineering has been widely accepted as a viable strategy for companies to reduce time to market and achieve overall cost savings. This article analyzes various risks and challenges in product development under the concurrent engineering environment. A three-dimensional early warning approach for product development risk management is proposed by integrating graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA). Simulation models are created to solve our proposed concurrent engineering product development risk management model. Solutions lead to identification of key risk controlling points. This article demonstrates the value of our approach to risk analysis as a means to monitor various risks typical in the manufacturing sector. This article has three main contributions. First, we establish a conceptual framework to classify various risks in concurrent engineering (CE) product development (PD). Second, we propose use of existing quantitative approaches for PD risk analysis purposes: GERT, FMEA, and product database management (PDM). Based on quantitative tools, we create our approach for risk management of CE PD and discuss solutions of the models. Third, we demonstrate the value of applying our approach using data from a typical Chinese motor company.

  15. Concurrent Process Planning for Machined Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 王先逵; 李志忠

    2002-01-01

    Detailed manufacturing information about the parts can help designers produce better designs. Detailed manufacturing information is conveyed to the designer through micro-circles within the concurrent design process for machined parts, focusing on instantaneous product design and process planning. The process has three key elements: a hierarchical architecture design of the concurrent process planning system, modeling and reengineering of the concurrent process planning, and modeling of information. The approach is successfully implemented and applied for concurrent design and process planning of some complicated parts.

  16. Automated Concurrent Blackboard System Generation in C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J. A.; McManus, J. W.; Bynum, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    In his 1992 Ph.D. thesis, "Design and Analysis Techniques for Concurrent Blackboard Systems", John McManus defined several performance metrics for concurrent blackboard systems and developed a suite of tools for creating and analyzing such systems. These tools allow a user to analyze a concurrent blackboard system design and predict the performance of the system before any code is written. The design can be modified until simulated performance is satisfactory. Then, the code generator can be invoked to generate automatically all of the code required for the concurrent blackboard system except for the code implementing the functionality of each knowledge source. We have completed the port of the source code generator and a simulator for a concurrent blackboard system. The source code generator generates the necessary C++ source code to implement the concurrent blackboard system using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) running on a heterogeneous network of UNIX(trademark) workstations. The concurrent blackboard simulator uses the blackboard specification file to predict the performance of the concurrent blackboard design. The only part of the source code for the concurrent blackboard system that the user must supply is the code implementing the functionality of the knowledge sources.

  17. A Reference Framework for Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the diversity of methods and tools offered to concurrent engineering, the aspects playing important roles in the concurrent engineering c ontext have been pinpointed as being four core elements which are Activity, Meth od, Object and Information. Based on these four elements, a reference framework called AMOI is proposed to be the guideline for the systematic concurrent produc t design. Using the AMOI reference framework, concurrent product development sys tem can be structured into four function models (including the activity model, m ethod model, object model and information model) which are interconnected with e ach other.

  18. Concurrent coronary and carotid artery surgery: factors influencing perioperative outcome and long-term results

    OpenAIRE

    Kolh, Philippe; Comté, Laetitia; Tchana-Sato, Vincent; Honoré, Charles; Kerzmann, Arnaud; Mauer, M.; Limet, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess risk factors for early and late outcome after concurrent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results Records of all 311 consecutive patients having concurrent CEA and CABG from 1989 to 2002 were reviewed, and follow-up obtained (100% complete). In the group (mean age 67 years; 74% males), 62% had triple-vessel disease, 57% unstable angina, 31% left main coronary stenosis, 19% congestive heart failure, and 35% either a history of ...

  19. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Helen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency. Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change.

  20. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  1. Safety and Liveness in Concurrent Pointer Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distefano, Dino; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Rensink, Arend; Boer, de Frank S.; Bonsangue, Marcello M.; Graf, Susanne; Roever, de Willem-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The incorrect use of pointers is one of the most common source of software errors. Concurrency has a similar characteristic. Proving the correctness of concurrent pointer manipulating programs, let alone algorithmically, is a highly non-trivial task. This paper proposes an automated verification tec

  2. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent module...

  3. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  4. Interval-based Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a logic for specifying the behaviour of concurrent objects, ie. concurrent entities that invoke operation of each other. The logic is an interval logic whith operation invocatins as primitive formulas. The strengths and deficiencies of the logic are illustrated by specifying a variety...

  5. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  6. Lower Bounds of Concurrence for Multipartite States

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    We study the entanglement of multipartite quantum states. Some lower bounds of the multipartite concurrence are reviewed. We further present more effective lower bounds for detecting and qualifying entanglement, by establishing functional relations between the concurrence and the generalized partial transpositions of the multipartite systems.

  7. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  8. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  9. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  10. Gaudi components for concurrency: Concurrency for existing and future experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Funke, D.; Hegner, B.; Mato, P.; Piparo, D.; Shapoval, I.

    2015-05-01

    HEP experiments produce enormous data sets at an ever-growing rate. To cope with the challenge posed by these data sets, experiments’ software needs to embrace all capabilities modern CPUs offer. With decreasing memory/core ratio, the one-process-per-core approach of recent years becomes less feasible. Instead, multi-threading with fine-grained parallelism needs to be exploited to benefit from memory sharing among threads. Gaudi is an experiment-independent data processing framework, used for instance by the ATLAS and LHCbexperiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. It has originally been designed with only sequential processing in mind. In a recent effort, the frame work has been extended to allow for multi-threaded processing. This includes components for concurrent scheduling of several algorithms - either processingthe same or multiple events, thread-safe data store access and resource management. In the sequential case, the relationships between algorithms are encoded implicitly in their pre-determined execution order. For parallel processing, these relationships need to be expressed explicitly, in order for the scheduler to be able to exploit maximum parallelism while respecting dependencies between algorithms. Therefore, means to express and automatically track these dependencies need to be provided by the framework. In this paper, we present components introduced to express and track dependencies of algorithms to deduce a precedence-constrained directed acyclic graph, which serves as basis for our algorithmically sophisticated scheduling approach for tasks with dynamic priorities. We introduce an incremental migration path for existing experiments towards parallel processing and highlight the benefits of explicit dependencies even in the sequential case, such as sanity checks and sequence optimization by graph analysis.

  11. How does concurrent sourcing affect performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – “Concurrent sourcing” is a term used by Parmigiani to describe the phenomenon where a firm simultaneously buys and makes the same good or service. The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions that suggest how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Design....../methodology/approach – Based on transaction cost, agency, neoclassical economic, knowledge-based, and resource-based theory, it is proposed to show how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Findings – The paper argues that concurrent sourcing improves performance when firms face a combination of volume uncertainty......, technological uncertainty, performance uncertainty, non-decomposability, transaction-specific investments, and strong internal and external capabilities. Research limitations/implications – The paper maps the relationships between concurrent sourcing and performance and discusses how these relationships can...

  12. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  13. 外侧小切口全髋置换早期疗效对比研究%Early comparison of lateral approach minimally incision total hip arthroplasty with a conventional incision operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耿填; 许少榆; 庄怀铭; 郭跃跃; 林勇彬

    2013-01-01

      目的评价外侧小切口全髋关节置换术(THA)的早期疗效。方法选择2005年1月—2010年1月行外侧小切口全髋关节置换术120例(132髋)患者作为试验组,选择同期接受常规外侧切口手术76例(82髋)作为对照组,比较2组患者术后3个月、术后6个月、术后1年假体位置及 Harris 评分等。结果术后2组患者假体位置比较无显著性差异,试验组在术后3,6个月 Harris 评分较对照组高;术后1年,2组 Harris 评分比较差异无统计学意义。结论外侧小切口全髋置换术术后早期在功能及软组织损伤上比常规切口全髋置换有明显优势,随着时间的推移,差异减小。外侧小切口全髋关节置换的中远期疗效需要进一步评估。%  Objective To report the early follow-up results of lateral opproach minimal incision and conventional incision for total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods From February 2002 to June 2007, 132 cases (126 patients) of THA were performed through lateral mini-incision ,for comparison,another 82 cases (76 patients) of THA were performed through conventional lateral approach incision. All the patients were followed up for more than one year.The items compared included prosthesis position,Harris Hip Score (HHS)and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA).Results The prosthesis positions were similar in both two groups. HHS was significantly higher in MI-THA group after patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months, but there was no statistical difference in one year. Conclusion Compared with conventional total hip arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty with a lateral minimal incision was advanced in both early functional outcome and soft tissue injury . The difference of two groups was decreased with the lapse of time . Further evaluation of the long-term outcome was still needed for lateral approach MI-THA.

  14. Automatic and Hierarchical Verification for Concurrent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭东; 冯玉琳

    1990-01-01

    Proving correctness of concurrent systems is quite difficult because of the high level of nondeterminism,especially in large and complex ones.AMC is a model checking system for verifying asynchronous concurrent systems by using branching time temporal logic.This paper introduces the techniques of the modelling approach,especially how to construct models for large concurrent systems with the concept of hierarchy,which has been proved to be effective and practical in verifying large systems without a large growth of cost.

  15. Concurrent Manipulation of Expanded AVL Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章寅; 许卓群

    1998-01-01

    The concurrent manipulation of an expanded AVL tree(EAVL tree)s considered in this paper.The presented system can support any number of concurrent processes which perform searching,insertion and deletion on the tree.Simulation results indicate the high performance of the system.Elaborate techniques are used to achieve such a system unavailable based on any known algorithms.Methods developed in this paper may provide new insights into other problems in the area of concurrent search structure manipulation.

  16. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  17. Concurrent dengue and malaria in an area in Kolkata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amiya Kumar Hati; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Hiranmoy Mukherjee; Bhaswati Bandyopadhayay; Deban Bandyopadhyay; Rajyasree De; Goutam Chandra

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To establish the nature and extent of dual dengue and malaria infections in an endemic area through a longitudinal study.Methods: A prospective study was conducted from August2005to December2010to document the nature and extent of concurrent dengue and malaria infections in an area in central Kolkata, endemic both for dengue and malaria.Results:Of2 971 suspected cases of dengue fever, in605 (20.36%)persons dengue infection was detected, of whom46 (7.60%, 46/605)patients (40 and6suffered from secondary and primary dengue fever respectively) were simultaneously suffering from malaria (28 and18 were infected with Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) andPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) respectively, such dual infections of dengue and malaria were detected in all the years of the study period, except 2007, indicating intense transmission of both dengue and malaria in the study area, and the phenomenon was not an isolated one, the rate of concomitant infections ranged from25% in2009 to4.9% in 2005. Out of total population surveyed,1.54% (46/2 971)had concurrent dengue and malaria infection.Conclusions: These findings added a new dimension in diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology and control of dengue and malaria. The possible risk of concurrent dengue and malaria infections should always be kept in mind in endemic areas for early diagnosis employing modern technology and prompt and effective treatment to avoid serious complications.

  18. Similarity based mixed transaction concurrency control protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yi; LU Yan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Due to the various performance requirements and data access restrictions of different types of real-time transactions, concurrency control protocols which had been designed for the systems with single type of transactions are not sufficient for mixed real-time database systems (MRTDBS), where different types of real-time transactions coexist in the systems concurrently. In this paper, a new concurrency control protocol MRTT_CC for mixed real-time transactions is proposed. The new strategy integrates with different concurrency control protocols to meet the deadline requirements of different types of real-time transactions. The data similarity concept is also explored in the new protocol to reduce the blocking time of soft real-time transactions, which increases their chances to meet the deadlines. Simulation experiments show that the new protocol has gained good performance.

  19. 33 CFR 385.7 - Concurrency statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General Provisions § 385.7 Concurrency statements. The administrative record of the programmatic regulations in this part..., Jacksonville District, 701 San Marco Blvd., Jacksonville, Florida 32207, or by accessing the...

  20. Strategy Improvement for Concurrent Safety Games

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Henzinger, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    We consider concurrent games played on graphs. At every round of the game, each player simultaneously and independently selects a move; the moves jointly determine the transition to a successor state. Two basic objectives are the safety objective: ``stay forever in a set F of states'', and its dual, the reachability objective, ``reach a set R of states''. We present in this paper a strategy improvement algorithm for computing the value of a concurrent safety game, that is, the maximal probability with which player 1 can enforce the safety objective. The algorithm yields a sequence of player-1 strategies which ensure probabilities of winning that converge monotonically to the value of the safety game. The significance of the result is twofold. First, while strategy improvement algorithms were known for Markov decision processes and turn-based games, as well as for concurrent reachability games, this is the first strategy improvement algorithm for concurrent safety games. Second, and most importantly, the impro...

  1. Tools and Patterns for Dependable Concurrent Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2005-01-01

    First, we give reasons for choosing a process-oriented approach for building complex concurrent systems. Upon a brief review of dependability attributes of software-supported systems, means for increasing dependability in process-oriented architectures are illustrated

  2. CilkSpec: Optimistic Concurrency for Cilk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aga, Shaizeen D.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Narayanasamy, Satish

    2015-11-15

    Recursive parallel programming models such as Cilk strive to simplify the task of parallel programming by enabling a simple divide-and-conquer model of programming. This model is effective in re- cursively partitioning work into smaller parts and combining their results. However, recursive work partitioning can impose additional constraints on concurrency than is implied by the true dependences in a program. In this paper, we present a speculation-based approach to alleviate the concurrency constraints imposed by such recursive parallel programs. We design a runtime infrastructure that supports speculative execution and a predictor to accurately learn and identify opportunities to relax extraneous concurrency constraints. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that speculative relaxation of concurrency constraints can deliver gains of up to 1.6× on 30 cores over baseline Cilk.

  3. Abstract Diagnosis for Timed Concurrent Constraint programs

    CERN Document Server

    Comini, Marco; Villanueva, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The Timed Concurrent Constraint Language (tccp in short) is a concurrent logic language based on the simple but powerful concurrent constraint paradigm of Saraswat. In this paradigm, the notion of store-as-value is replaced by the notion of store-as-constraint, which introduces some differences w.r.t. other approaches to concurrency. In this paper, we provide a general framework for the debugging of tccp programs. To this end, we first present a new compact, bottom-up semantics for the language that is well suited for debugging and verification purposes in the context of reactive systems. We also provide an abstract semantics that allows us to effectively implement debugging algorithms based on abstract interpretation. Given a tccp program and a behavior specification, our debugging approach automatically detects whether the program satisfies the specification. This differs from other semiautomatic approaches to debugging and avoids the need to provide symptoms in advance. We show the efficacy of our approach...

  4. Concurrent tubercular and staphylococcus meningitis in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Agrawal

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous,non-surgical haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare and associated with high mortality.Mixed infection causing meningitis (pyogenic and tubercular)is further rarer,poses a difficult diag-nostic and management challenge,which warrants early diagnosis and aggressive therapy.We present a case of concurrent pyogenic and tubercular meningitis in a child managed successfully.It seems that in present case initial pyogenic infection resulted in the immunocompromised state for the child that would had lead to the acti-vation of tubercular foci resulting in tubercular meningitis.

  5. Inheritance and Synchronization in Concurrent OOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Jean-Pierre; Yonezawa, Akinori

    This paper discusses knowledge sharing (inheritance) mechanisms for Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in the context of concurrent (distributed) languages. We review three different schemes: inheritance, delegation and copy. A fourth model, called recipe-query, is presented and all are compared and criticized. Techniques relying on the shared memory assumption are rejected. We point out the conflict between distributing knowledge among objects and the synchronization of concurrent objects.

  6. A Concurrent Object-Oriented Language Ondine

    OpenAIRE

    Arisawa, Makoto; Ogihara, Takeshi; Kajihara, Yoichi

    1988-01-01

    A new concurrent object-oriented language Ondine is described. The Ondine design goals are strong information hiding within objects, concurrent programming, and pointerless programming. Ondine has ordinary control statements and types so that Ada or C programmers can easily handle it. By introducing by copy and by object assignment/argument passing, an Ondine object can be accessed from only one other object thus accomplishing pointerless structure. Ondine channels are used for constructing o...

  7. Noninterference for Concurrent Programs and Thread Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boudol, Gérard; Castellani, Ilaria

    2001-01-01

    We propose a type system to ensure the property of noninterference in a system of concurrent programs, described in a standard imperative language enriched with parallelism. Our proposal is in the line of some recent work by Irvine, Volpano and Smith. Our type system seems more natural and less restrictive than that originally presented by these authors for the concurrent case. Moreover, we show how to extend the language in order to formalise scheduling policies for systems of sequential thr...

  8. CONCURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO PLANNING AND MIXED PRODUCT ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRYAN April; HU S Jack; KOREN Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Reconfigurable products and manufacturing systems have enabled manufacturers to provide "cost effective" variety to the market. In spite of these new technologies, the expense of manufacturing makes it infeasible to supply all the possible variants to the market for some industries. Therefore, the determination of the right number of product variants to offer in the product portfolios becomes an important consideration. The product portfolio planning problem had been independently well studied from marketing and engineering perspectives. However, advantages can be gained from using a concurrent marketing and engineering approach. Concurrent product development strategies specifically for reconfigurable products and manufacturing systems can allow manufacturers to select best product portfolios from marketing, product design and manufacturing perspectives. A methodology for the concurrent design of a product portfolio and assembly system is presented. The objective of the concurrent product portfolio planning and assembly system design problem is to obtain the product variants that will make up the product portfolio such that oversupply of optional modules is minimized and the assembly line efficiency is maximized. Explicit design of the assembly system is obtained during the solution of the problem. It is assumed that the demand for optional modules and the assembly times for these modules are known a priori. A genetic algorithm is used in the solution of the problem. The basic premise of this methodology is that the selected product portfolio has a significant impact on the solution of the assembly line balancing problem. An example is used to validate this hypothesis. The example is then further developed to demonstrate how the methodology can be used to obtain the optimal product portfolio. This approach is intended for use by manufacturers during the early design stages of product family design.

  9. Evidence for an Early Archean component in the Middle to Late Archean gneisses of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming: conventional and ion microprobe U-Pb data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Stuckless, J.S.; Worl, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Gneissic rocks that are basement to the Late Archean granites comprising much of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming, have been dated by the zircon U-Pb method using both conventional and ion microprobe techniques. A foliated hornblende granite gneiss member from the southern border of the Bridger batholith is 2670??13 Ma. Zircons from a granulite just north of the Bridger batholith are equant and faceted, a typical morphology for zircon grown under high grade metamorphic conditions. This granulite, which may be related to a second phase of migmatization in the area, is 2698??8 Ma. South of the Bridger batholith, zircons from a granulite (charnockite), which is related to an earlier phase of migmatization in the Range, yield a discordia with intercept ages of about 2.3 and 3.3 Ga. However, ion microprobe analyses of single zircon grains indicate that this rock contains several populations of zircon, ranging in age from 2.67 to about 3.8 Ga. Based on zircon morphology and regional geologic relationships, we interpret the data as indicating an age of ???3.2 Ga for the first granulite metamorphism and migmatization. Older, possibly xenocrystic zircons give ages of ???3.35, 3.65 and ???3.8 Ga. Younger zircons grew at 2.7 and 2.85 Ga in response to events, including the second granulite metamorphism at 2.7 Ga, that culminated in the intrusion of the Bridger batholith and migmatization at 2.67 Ga. These data support the field and petrographic evidence for two granulite events and provide some temporal constraints for the formation of continental crust in the Early and Middle Archean in the Wyoming Province. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Human CD45RA(-) FoxP3(hi) Memory-Type Regulatory T Cells Show Distinct TCR Repertoires With Conventional T Cells and Play an Important Role in Controlling Early Immune Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H; Kuchenbecker, L; Streitz, M; Sawitzki, B; Vogt, K; Landwehr-Kenzel, S; Millward, J; Juelke, K; Babel, N; Neumann, A; Reinke, P; Volk, H-D

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Treg) is a new option to promote immune tolerance following solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, Treg from elderly patients awaiting transplantation are dominated by the CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) central memory type Treg subset (TregCM), and the yield of well-characterized and stable naïve Treg (TregN) is low. It is, therefore, important to determine whether these TregCM are derived from the thymus and express high stability, suppressive capacity and a broad antigen repertoire like TregN. In this study, we showed that TregCM use a different T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire from conventional T cells (Tconv), using next-generation sequencing of all 24 Vβ families, with an average depth of 534 677 sequences. This showed almost no contamination with induced Treg. Furthermore, TregCM showed enhanced suppressive activity on Tconv at early checkpoints of immune activation controlling activation markers expression and cytokine secretion, but comparable inhibition of proliferation. Following in vitro expansion under mTOR inhibition, TregCM expanded equally as well as TregN without losing their function. Despite relatively limited TCR repertoire, TregCM also showed specific alloresponse, although slightly reduced compared to TregN. These results support the therapeutic usefulness of manufacturing Treg products from CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) Treg-enriched starting material to be applied for adoptive Treg therapy. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Systematic Review on Bailing Capsule Combined Conventional Treatment for Treating Early Disbetic Nephropathy%百令胶囊联合常规治疗早期糖尿病肾病的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐榕; 陈路佳; 黄玲; 向帆; 胡正波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect and safety of Bailing Capsule combined with the conventional treatment for treating early disbetic nephropathy.Methods The Cochrane Library (Issue 1,2012),EMbase,PubMed,CBM,CNKI and VIP(from their establishment to October 2012) were retrieved by computer for collecting the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Bailing Capsule combined with the conventional treatment for treating early disbetic nephropathy.The data were performed the meta analysis by RevMan 5.14 software.Results Twenty-nine RCTs involving 1 601 patients were ultimately identified.The Results of meta-analyses showed that,compared with the control group,the urinary albumin excretion rate(UAER) of the Bailing Capsule group was lower than that of the control group [MD =-27.41,95% CI(-32.82,-21.99),P < 0.000 01];the 24h UMA of the Bailing Capsule group was lower than that of the control group,[MD =-48.95,95% CI(-67.66,-30.25),P < 0.000 01] ;the serum SCr of the Bailing Capsule group was lower than that of the control group,[MD =-6.34,95% CI(-10.94,-1.75),P < 0.000 01] ; the BUN of the Bailing Capsule group was lower than that of the control group,[MD =-0.49,95% CI(-0.97,-0.01),P =0.04];the effective rate of the Bailing Capsule group was higher than that of the control group,[OR=4.98,95% CI(3.12,7.95),P < 0.000 01].The fasting plasma glucose(FPG) of the Bailing Capsule group was lower than that of the control group without statistically significant difference between them [MD =-0.02,95% CI(-0.28,0.23),P =0.86].No serious adverse reactions were found in the two groups.Conclusion Based on the present clinical evidences,Bailing Capsule combined with the conventional treatment for treating early disbetic nephropathy is effective with good safety.Howerver,due to the quality disunity of the included studies,this Conclusion need more large sample size,high-quality RCTs to confirm.%目的 系统评价百令胶囊联合常规治疗对早期糖尿病肾

  12. Concurrent and predictive validity of an early language screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, T; Carson, D K; Gavin, W J; Hall, L; Kent, A; Reece, S

    1998-06-01

    The efficacy of screening 2-year-old children for language delay using a parent-report questionnaire was investigated in three studies. The Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989) was mailed to 650 families at the time of their child's second birthday. Fifty-three percent of the surveys received by parents were completed and returned. Screening outcomes were then compared, in double-blind fashion, with the results of comprehensive clinical evaluations at ages 2 (N = 64) and 3 (N = 36). Parents' report of the size of their children's expressive vocabularies was highly correlated with clinical language measures at age 2. Children who screened positive performed significantly poorer than children who screened negative on standardized language tests and on measures taken from spontaneous conversation. The screening program demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying language delay at age 2 but somewhat lower levels for predicting developmental status one year later.

  13. Concurrent sexual partnerships do not explain the HIV epidemics in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawers Larry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The notion that concurrent sexual partnerships are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa and explain the region's high HIV prevalence is accepted by many as conventional wisdom. In this paper, we evaluate the quantitative and qualitative evidence offered by the principal proponents of the concurrency hypothesis and analyze the mathematical model they use to establish the plausibility of the hypothesis. We find that research seeking to establish a statistical correlation between concurrency and HIV prevalence either finds no correlation or has important limitations. Furthermore, in order to simulate rapid spread of HIV, mathematical models require unrealistic assumptions about frequency of sexual contact, gender symmetry, levels of concurrency, and per-act transmission rates. Moreover, quantitative evidence cited by proponents of the concurrency hypothesis is unconvincing since they exclude Demographic and Health Surveys and other data showing that concurrency in Africa is low, make broad statements about non-African concurrency based on very few surveys, report data incorrectly, report data from studies that have no information about concurrency as though they supported the hypothesis, report incomparable data and cite unpublished or unavailable studies. Qualitative evidence offered by proponents of the hypothesis is irrelevant since, among other reasons, there is no comparison of Africa with other regions. Promoters of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to establish that concurrency is unusually prevalent in Africa or that the kinds of concurrent partnerships found in Africa produce more rapid spread of HIV than other forms of sexual behaviour. Policy makers should turn attention to drivers of African HIV epidemics that are policy sensitive and for which there is substantial epidemiological evidence.

  14. Concurrent sexual partnerships do not explain the HIV epidemics in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2010-09-13

    The notion that concurrent sexual partnerships are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa and explain the region's high HIV prevalence is accepted by many as conventional wisdom. In this paper, we evaluate the quantitative and qualitative evidence offered by the principal proponents of the concurrency hypothesis and analyze the mathematical model they use to establish the plausibility of the hypothesis.We find that research seeking to establish a statistical correlation between concurrency and HIV prevalence either finds no correlation or has important limitations. Furthermore, in order to simulate rapid spread of HIV, mathematical models require unrealistic assumptions about frequency of sexual contact, gender symmetry, levels of concurrency, and per-act transmission rates. Moreover, quantitative evidence cited by proponents of the concurrency hypothesis is unconvincing since they exclude Demographic and Health Surveys and other data showing that concurrency in Africa is low, make broad statements about non-African concurrency based on very few surveys, report data incorrectly, report data from studies that have no information about concurrency as though they supported the hypothesis, report incomparable data and cite unpublished or unavailable studies. Qualitative evidence offered by proponents of the hypothesis is irrelevant since, among other reasons, there is no comparison of Africa with other regions.Promoters of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to establish that concurrency is unusually prevalent in Africa or that the kinds of concurrent partnerships found in Africa produce more rapid spread of HIV than other forms of sexual behaviour. Policy makers should turn attention to drivers of African HIV epidemics that are policy sensitive and for which there is substantial epidemiological evidence.

  15. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  16. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  17. WE-D-BRE-04: Modeling Optimal Concurrent Chemotherapy Schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J; Deasy, J O [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) has become a more common cancer treatment option with a better tumor control rate for several tumor sites, including head and neck and lung cancer. In this work, possible optimal chemotherapy schedules were investigated by implementing chemotherapy cell-kill into a tumor response model of RT. Methods: The chemotherapy effect has been added into a published model (Jeong et al., PMB (2013) 58:4897), in which the tumor response to RT can be simulated with the effects of hypoxia and proliferation. Based on the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, the temporal concentration of chemotherapy agent was estimated. Log cell-kill was assumed and the cell-kill constant was estimated from the observed increase in local control due to concurrent chemotherapy. For a simplified two cycle CCRT regime, several different starting times and intervals were simulated with conventional RT regime (2Gy/fx, 5fx/wk). The effectiveness of CCRT was evaluated in terms of reduction in radiation dose required for 50% of control to find the optimal chemotherapy schedule. Results: Assuming the typical slope of dose response curve (γ50=2), the observed 10% increase in local control rate was evaluated to be equivalent to an extra RT dose of about 4 Gy, from which the cell-kill rate of chemotherapy was derived to be about 0.35. Best response was obtained when chemotherapy was started at about 3 weeks after RT began. As the interval between two cycles decreases, the efficacy of chemotherapy increases with broader range of optimal starting times. Conclusion: The effect of chemotherapy has been implemented into the resource-conservation tumor response model to investigate CCRT. The results suggest that the concurrent chemotherapy might be more effective when delayed for about 3 weeks, due to lower tumor burden and a larger fraction of proliferating cells after reoxygenation.

  18. Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty: A single surgeon concurrent cohort review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Robotic assistance helps decrease the operative time for laparoscopic pyeloplasty. It seems ergonomically superior for the surgeon, allowing multiple procedures in the same list. These may be important benefits in busy centers.

  19. NONLINEAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCURRENT DUAL-BAND RF POWER AMPLIFIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ming; Liu Taijun; Ye Yan; Zhang Haili; Shen Dongya; Li Liang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the synchronous concurrent dual-band RF signal is used to drive the RF Power Amplifier (PA).The nonlinear characterization of a concurrent dual-band RF PA is discussed while two band signals in the dual-band are modulated by CDMA2000 and WCDMA signals.When the two band signals in the dual-band of the PA are modulated with the same signals,it is found that the nonlinearity of the PA can be expressed by any of the two corresponding baseband data.On the other hand,when the two band signals in the dual-band of the PA are modulated with two different signals,the PA nonlinearity cannot be characterized by any of the two corresponding baseband data.In this case,its nonlinearity has to be denoted by a composite signals consisting of the two baseband signals.Consequently,the requirements for the speed of the A/D converter can be largely reduced.The experimental results with CDMA2000 and WCDMA signals demonstrate the speed of the A/D converter required is only 30 M Sample Per Second (SaPS),but it will be at least 70 M SaPS for the conventional method.

  20. Concurrent mechatronic design approach for active control of cavity noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, L. P. R.; da Silva, M. M.; Sas, P.; Van Brussel, H.; Desmet, W.

    2008-07-01

    Active control is a potential solution to many noise and vibration problems for improving the low-frequency performance. Cavity noise reduction as encountered for instance in aircraft cabins and vehicle interiors is a typical example. However, the conventional design of these active solutions may lead to suboptimal products, since the interaction between the vibro-acoustic plant dynamics and control dynamics is usually not considered. A proper way to design such active systems would be considering control and plant parameters concurrently. To cope with this approach, a methodology to derive a fully coupled mechatronic model that deals with both the vibro-acoustic plant dynamics as well as the control parameters is proposed. The inclusion of sensor and actuator models is investigated, since it contributes to the model accuracy as it can confer frequency, phase or amplitude limitations to the control performance. The proposed methodology provides a reduced state-space model derived from a fully coupled vibro-acoustic finite element model. Experimental data on a vibro-acoustic vehicle cabin mock-up are used to validate the model reduction procedure. Regarding noise reduction, optimization results are presented considering both vibro-acoustic plant features, such as thicknesses, and control parameters, such as sensor and actuator placement and control gains. A collocated sensor/actuator pair is considered in a velocity feedback control strategy. The benefits of a concurrent mechatronic design when dealing with active structural-acoustic control solutions are addressed, illustrated and experimentally validated.

  1. An Algorithm to Construct Concurrent Reachability Graph of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金泉; 倪丽娜; 蒋昌俊

    2004-01-01

    Reachability graph is a very important tool to analyze the dynamic properties of Petri nets, but the concurrent relation of transitions in Petri nets cannot be represented by reachability graph. Petri net is a concurrent system, while reachability graph is a serial one. However, concurrency is a kind of property which is not only very significant but also difficult to be analyzed and controlled. This paper presents the concepts of concurrent reachable marking and concurrent reachable graph in order to represent and analyze the concurrent system. The algorithm constructing concurrent reachable marking set and concurrent reachability graph is also shown so that we can study the response problems among services in a network computing environment and analyze the throughput of the system. The Dining Philosophers Problem, which is a classic problem of describing the management of concurrent resources, is given as an example to illustrate the significance of concurrent reachability graph.

  2. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Junichi; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Seki, Noriko; Hongo, Atsushi; Mizutani, Yasushi; Miyagi, Yasunari; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Kudo, Takafumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-03-01

    Recently, attempts have made to use radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in various solid tumors including cervical cancer. Twenty-four patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concurrent Carboplatin (16-24 mg/m{sup 2}/day) or Nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/week) and conventional radiotherapy. Of 13 evaluable patients, there were nine complete responders and four partial responders. There was no renal damage or grade 4 hematological toxicity. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were mild. One patient had grade 3 dermatologic toxicity after delayed radiation therapy. This pilot study suggests that daily Carboplatin or weekly Nedaplatin administered with standard radiation therapy is safe, well-tolerated, and thus may be useful as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. (author)

  3. Evaluation of direct radiographic magnification (DIMA) in the early detection of inflammatory rheumatic lesions. Comparison with the high-resolution conventional technique. Wertigkeit der direktradiographischen Vergroesserung (DIMA) bei der Fruehdetektion entzuendlich-rheumatischer Laesionen. Vergleichende Evaluation mit hochaufloesender konventioneller Aufnahmetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.M. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie); Fiebich, M. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie); Gaubitz, M. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik B); Krause, F. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie); Vestring, T. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie); Schneider, M. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik B); Peters, P.E. (Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie)

    1994-07-01

    Rheumatological joint disorders were examined with mammographic film-screen combinations and high-definition microfocal magnification radiography. Our objective was to evaluate the potentials of magnification radiography in diagnosing arthritis by means of interobserver and ROC analysis. The microfocal X-ray unit had a spot size of 20-130 [mu]m; 5-fold magnification was performed. Digital luminescence radiography was employed; digital image processing included simulation of conventional technique and edge enhancement. Eighty radiographs were obtained with conventional and magnification technique. All films were analyzed by five readers. Anatomical and pathological structures were evaluated. The percentage of uncertain findings in magnification radiography was lower compared to conventional radiographs (14% to 26%); in 8% (compared to 19%) the diagnosis of erosions was uncertain. Additionally ROC analysis was carried out. Magnification radiography was significantly (p < 0.03) better than the conventional films. (orig.)

  4. Concurrent Scheduling of Event-B Models

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, Pontus; Sere, Kaisa; Waldén, Marina; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.11

    2011-01-01

    Event-B is a refinement-based formal method that has been shown to be useful in developing concurrent and distributed programs. Large models can be decomposed into sub-models that can be refined semi-independently and executed in parallel. In this paper, we show how to introduce explicit control flow for the concurrent sub-models in the form of event schedules. We explore how schedules can be designed so that their application results in a correctness-preserving refinement step. For practical application, two patterns for schedule introduction are provided, together with their associated proof obligations. We demonstrate our method by applying it on the dining philosophers problem.

  5. Models for concurrency: towards a classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1996-01-01

    Models for concurrency can be classified with respect to three relevant parameters: behaviour/ system, interleaving/noninterleaving, linear/branching time. When modelling a process, a choice concerning such parameters corresponds to choosing the level of abstraction of the resulting semantics....... In this paper, we move a step towards a classification of models for concurrency based on the parameters above. Formally, we choose a representative of any of the eight classes of models obtained by varying the three parameters, and we study the formal relationships between them using the language of category...

  6. Towards Interaction Reliability in Concurrent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing trustworthy concurrent applications is a seemingly never ending quest, which is necessary but difficult. It is necessary because mainstream systems and applications are inherently concurrent and they are pervasive to our daily life activities. It is difficult because such systems are inherently interactive and heterogeneous, so that boundaries can hardly be established for studying subsystems in isolation. Formal methods are a key instrument in resolving ambiguities and design reliable applications in a rigorous way. The authors overview major problems in the application of formal methods and outline how they are tackled by the papers collected in this volume.

  7. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  8. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  9. Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how...... as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures...

  10. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Transactional memory is a promising technique for enforcing disciplined access to shared data in a multiprocessor system. Transactional memory simplifies the implementation of a variety of concurrent data structures. In this paper, we study the benefits of a modest, real-time aware, hardware...... implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  11. Concurrent Engineering in seafood product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry can...... benefit from the CE approach which can support product developers to provide concurrent specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging, and production methods. The approach involves the use of product models from which line extensions are more easily generated than by use of customary stepwise...

  12. The concurrent common Lisp development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of the Concurrent Common Lisp Development Environment on the iNTEL Personal Super Computer (iPSC) is presented. The advent of AI based engineering design tools has lead to a need for increased performance of computational facilities which support those tools. Gold Hill has approached this problem by directing its efforts to the creation of a concurrent, distributed AI development environment. This discussion focuses on the development tools aspect of the CCLISP environment. The future direction of Gold Hill in the area of distributed AI support environments is also presented.

  13. Compositional Formal Analysis for Concurrent Object-Oriented Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thi Mai Thuong

    2013-01-01

    Concurrency is a ubiquitous phenomenon in modern software ranging from distributed systems communicating over the Internet to communicating processes running on multi-core processors and multi-processors. Therefore modern programming languages offer ways to program concurrency effectively. Still, writing correct concurrent programs is notoriously difficult because of the complexity of possible interactions between concurrent processes and because concurrency-related errors are often subtle an...

  14. Concurrent Meta-Evaluation: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Carl E.; Lawrenz, Frances; Dunet, Diane O.

    2008-01-01

    Meta-evaluations reported in the literature, although rare, often have focused on retrospective assessment of completed evaluations. Conducting a meta-evaluation concurrently with the evaluation modifies this approach. This method provides the opportunity for the meta-evaluators to advise the evaluators and provides the basis for a summative…

  15. CAPP Framework System for Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Difficulty in generalizing and lack of adaptability are important factors that hamper a computer aided process planning (CAPP) system from being popular and practical. New manufacturing philosophies such as Concurrent Engineering require special characteristic of a CAPP system. Proposed in this paper is a CAPP framework system for Concurrent Engineering (CAPPFS-CE) which can meet the requirements of Concurrent Engineering and whose information models, function models and decision logic can be customized by users to form various CAPP application systems. Its function requirements are discussed broadly. An architecture for CAPPFS-CE is presented. It is based on abstract information models (AIMs) and abstract function models (AFMs). The kernel is formed by customization interpretation, internal process control and decision engine. A new information modeling and system development method, information element method (IEM), is introduced to build up AIMs, decision engine, and AFMs and then realize a CAPPFS-CE. THCAPP-SHELL, a CAPPFS-CE developed by IEM, is demonstrated. A CAPP system produced by customizing THCAPP-SHELL for complex structural parts in a concurrent engineering environment is shown.

  16. Logics and Games for True Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Julian

    2010-01-01

    We study the underlying mathematical properties of various partial order models of concurrency based on transition systems, Petri nets, and event structures, and show that the concurrent behaviour of these systems can be captured in a uniform way by two simple and general dualities of local behaviour. Such dualities are used to define new mu-calculi and logic games for the analysis of concurrent systems with partial order semantics. Some results of this work are: the definition of a number of mu-calculi which, in some classes of systems, induce the same identifications as some of the best known bisimulation equivalences for concurrency; and the definition of (infinite) higher-order logic games for bisimulation and model-checking, where the players of the games are given (local) monadic second-order power on the sets of elements they are allowed to play. More specifically, we show that our games are sound and complete, and therefore, determined; moreover, they are decidable in the finite case and underpin nove...

  17. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés;

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions. In this pa...

  18. Concurrent Engineering Design Using Intelligent Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Describes Design Builder, interactive multimedia software that was developed to enable undergraduate engineers to experience working in a concurrent environment without direct and specialized teaching-staff support, and to provide an interactive and intelligent simulation environment from which users may develop a culture that introduces…

  19. Concurrent Engineering in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stjepandic, Josip; Wognum, P.M.; Verhagen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the gradual evolution of the concept of Concurrent Engineering (CE), and the technical, social methods and tools that have been developed, including the many theoretical and practical challenges that still exist, this book serves to summarize the achievements and current challenges of CE

  20. Concurrent Engineering Teams. Volume 2: Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    Feigenbaum. A.V., Total Quality Control, McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY, 1983. Goldratt , Eliyahu and Jeff Cox, The Goal, A Process of Ongoing Improvement...design, namely concurrent engineering design for the life cycle. We introduce the emergent notion of Meta -Design, which we believe can be understood

  1. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the

  2. Concurrent Validity of a Pragmatic Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Julie Condon; Perozzi, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    The scores of 11 non-handicapped kindergarten children on the Pragmatic Protocol (used in assessing language-handicapped children) were correlated with their ratings by five experienced judges on a 7-point equal-appearing interval scale of communicative competence. The concurrent validity of the Protocol and interobserver reliability were…

  3. On run-time exploitation of concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölzenspies, Philip Kaj Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    The `free' speed-up stemming from ever increasing processor speed is over. Performance increase in computer systems can now only be achieved through parallelism. One of the biggest challenges in computer science is how to map applications onto parallel computers. Concurrency, seen as the set of v

  4. Concurrent Engineering Teams. Volume 1: Main Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    Delphi Processes. Scott, Foresman, and Co. Glenview, IL. Dertouzos, Michael L.; Lester, Rizhard K.; and Solow , Robert M. 1989. Made in America. Regaining...Nc:%* York. Nevins, James L. and Whitney, Daniel E. 1989. Concurrent Design of F-,oducts and Processes: a Strategy for the Next Generation in

  5. Nonlinear Inequalities and Entropy-Concurrence Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear inequalities based on the quadratic Renyi entropy for mixed two-qubit states are characterized on the Entropy-Concurrence plane. This class of inequalities is stronger than Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities and, in particular, are violated "in toto" by the set of Type I Maximally-Entangled-Mixture States (MEMS I).

  6. On run-time exploitation of concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzenspies, P.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    The `free' speed-up stemming from ever increasing processor speed is over. Performance increase in computer systems can now only be achieved through parallelism. One of the biggest challenges in computer science is how to map applications onto parallel computers. Concurrency, seen as the set of vali

  7. SCOOP Structured Concurrent Object Oriented Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Jean; Lapalme, Guy; Malenfant, Jacques

    SCOOP is an experimental language implemented in Prolog that tries to combine the best of logic, object-oriented and concurrent programming in a structured, natural and efficient manner. SCOOP provides hierarchies of object classes. These objects behave as independent Prolog programs with private databases which can execute goals within other objects.

  8. Verifying Functional Behaviour of Concurrent Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaharieva, M.; Huisman, Marieke; Blom, Stefan; Pearce, D.

    Specifying the functional behaviour of a concurrent program can often be quite troublesome: it is hard to provide a stable method contract that can not be invalidated by other threads. In this paper we propose a novel modular technique for specifying and verifying behavioural properties in

  9. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  10. Concurrent, parallel, multiphysics coupling in the FACETS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, J. R.; Candy, J.; Cobb, J.; Cohen, R. H.; Epperly, T.; Estep, D. J.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Malony, A. D.; McCune, D. C.; McInnes, L.; Pankin, A.; Balay, S.; Carlsson, J. A.; Fahey, M. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Hakim, A. H.; Kruger, S. E.; Miah, M.; Pletzer, A.; Shasharina, S.; Vadlamani, S.; Wade-Stein, D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Morris, A.; Shende, S.; Hammett, G. W.; Indireshkumar, K.; Pigarov, A. Yu; Zhang, H.

    2009-07-01

    FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), is now in its third year. The FACETS team has developed a framework for concurrent coupling of parallel computational physics for use on Leadership Class Facilities (LCFs). In the course of the last year, FACETS has tackled many of the difficult problems of moving to parallel, integrated modeling by developing algorithms for coupled systems, extracting legacy applications as components, modifying them to run on LCFs, and improving the performance of all components. The development of FACETS abides by rigorous engineering standards, including cross platform build and test systems, with the latter covering regression, performance, and visualization. In addition, FACETS has demonstrated the ability to incorporate full turbulence computations for the highest fidelity transport computations. Early indications are that the framework, using such computations, scales to multiple tens of thousands of processors. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists and applied mathematicians on the team.

  11. Aerospace concurrent engineering: a modern global approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Mariano; Li, Xiaoxing

    2009-12-01

    System engineering aspects, like concurrent engineering (CE) in the aerospace sector, has been studied by many authors. The change and evolution in this regard is continually influenced by the information technology advances. But global cooperation is only discussed by developed countries and high technology corporations. A review of CE and its ramifications in the aerospace industry is presented. Based on the current literature, the general lifecycle of a spacecraft and its phases are explained as well as the tools that are implemented in today's industry. In this paper we propose a new approach for the product development process in the spacecraft production industry the Aerospace Concurrent Engineering (ACE), which is mainly focused in the technology itself, its optimal design and environment impact rather than costs and marketing impact. And the potential of globally oriented research and implementation of space programs is discussed for its consideration.

  12. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  13. Nautilus: A Concurrent Anticipatory Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, P. Blauth; Costa, Simone A.; Machado, Júlio P.; Ramos, Jaime

    2002-09-01

    Nautilus is a concurrent anticipatory programming language based on the object-oriented language GNOME which is a simplified and revised version of OBLOG. A semantics for Nautilus is given by Nonsequencial Automata, that is a categorial semantic domain based on labeled transition system with full concurrency, where a class of morphisms stands for anticipation. The semantics of an object in Nautilus is given by an anticipation morphism, which is viewed as a special automaton morphism where target automata, called base, is determined by the computations of a freely generated automata able to simulate any object specified over the involved attributes, and the source automata is a relabelled restriction of the base. In order to introduce the anticipation of Nautilus, some examples are presented depicting the features of the language.

  14. Transparent concurrent execution of mutually exclusive alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Gerald Q. Maguire Jr.

    1988-01-01

    We examine the task of concurrently computing alternative solutions to a problem. We restrict our interest to the case where only one of the solutions is needed; in this case we need some rule for selecting between the solutions. We use "fastest first," where the first successful alternative is selected. For problems where the required execution time is unpredictable, such as database queries. this method can show substantial execution time performance increases. These increases are dependent...

  15. Concurrency Control Mechanism of Complex Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆云; 王能斌

    1992-01-01

    A complex object is an abstraction and description of a complex entity of the real world.Many applications in such domains as CIMS,CAD and OA define and manipulate a complex object as a single unit.In this paper,a definition of the model of complex objects is given,and the concurrency control mechanism of complex objects in WHYMX object-oriented database system is described.

  16. Verification of concurrent programs with Chalice

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rustan M. Leino; Müller, Peter; Smans, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A program verifier is a tool that allows developers to prove that their code satisfies its specification for every possible input and every thread schedule. These lecture notes describe a verifier for concurrent programs called Chalice. Chalice's verification methodology centers around permissions and permission transfer. In particular, a memory location may be accessed by a thread only if that thread has permission to do so. Proper use of permissions allows Chalice to deduce upper bound...

  17. Echocardiographic predictors of early in-hospital heart failure during first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction: does myocardial performance index and left atrial volume improve diagnosis over conventional parameters of left ventricular function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Cristiano V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF has been considered a major determinant of early outcome in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Myocardial performance index (MPI has been associated to early evolution in AMI in a heterogeneous population, including non ST-elevation or previous AMI. Left atrial volume has been related with late evolution after AMI. We evaluated the independent role of clinical and echocardiographic variables including LVEF, MPI and left atrial volume in predicting early in-hospital congestive heart failure (CHF specifically in patients with a first isolated ST-elevation AMI. Methods Echocardiography was performed within 30 hours of chest pain in 95 patients with a first ST-elevation AMI followed during the first week of hospitalization. Several clinical and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. CHF was defined as Killip class ≥ II. Multivariate regression analysis was used to select independent predictor of in-hospital CHF. Results Early in-hospital CHF occurred in 29 (31% of patients. LVEF ≤ 0.45 was the single independent and highly significant predictor of early CHF among other clinical and echocardiographic variables (odds ratio 17.0; [95% CI 4.1 - 70.8]; p Conclusion For patients with first, isolated ST-elevation AMI, LVEF assessed by echocardiography still constitutes a strong and accurate independent predictor of early in-hospital CHF, superior to isolated MPI and left atrial volume in this particular subset of patients.

  18. Preliminary Proceedings 15th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EXPRESS workshops aim at bringing together researchers interested in the relations between various formal systems, particularly in the field of Concurrency. More specifically, they focus on the comparison between programming concepts (such as concurrent, functional, imperative, logic and object...

  19. Construction disputes in Denmark: the case of concurrent delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Through a case study of decisions on concurrent delay, the article discusses the defining features of Danish construction arbitration.......Through a case study of decisions on concurrent delay, the article discusses the defining features of Danish construction arbitration....

  20. A Framework of Concurrent Mechanism Based on Java Multithread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuxue Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increased demand for paralleling multitask in domains such as grid computing and cloud computing has significantly promoted research on concurrent mechanism and concurrent programming. The Java programming language supports multithread mechanism for developing paralleling programs, however, it is difficult to apply Java concurrent primitives to specific problems. Thus, for the development of high reliable and qualitative Java concurrent programs, this paper analyses Java multithread mechanism and it’s realization, studies the concurrent mechanism based on Java synchronization and interactive communication mechanism , compares the concurrent structure based on operating system and based on Java multithread, sums up some concurrent programming rules and strategies to prevent deadlock. A frame instance based on entire synchronization is presented, which can help to develop concurrent programs quickly.  

  1. Managing Asynchronous Data in ATLAS's Concurrent Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, Charles; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to be able to make effective use of emerging hardware, where the amount of memory available to any CPU is rapidly decreasing as the core count continues to rise, ATLAS has begun a migration to a concurrent, multi-threaded software framework, known as AthenaMT. Significant progress has been made in implementing AthenaMT - we can currently run realistic Geant4 simulations on massively concurrent machines. the migration of realistic prototypes of reconstruction workflows is more difficult, given the large amounts of legacy code and the complexity and challenges of reconstruction software. These types of workflows, however, are the types that will most benefit from the memory reduction features of a multi-threaded framework. One of the challenges that we will report on in this paper is the re-design and implementation of several key asynchronous technologies whose behaviour is radically different in a concurrent environment than in a serial one, namely the management of Conditions data and the Detector D...

  2. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  3. Managing Asynchronous Data in ATLAS's Concurrent Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, John; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to be able to make effective use of emerging hardware, where the amount of memory available to any CPU is rapidly decreasing as the core count continues to rise, ATLAS has begun a migration to a concurrent, multi-threaded software framework, known as AthenaMT. Significant progress has been made in implementing AthenaMT - we can currently run realistic Geant4 simulations on massively concurrent machines. the migration of realistic prototypes of reconstruction workflows is more difficult, given the large amounts of legacy code and the complexity and challenges of reconstruction software. These types of workflows, however, are the types that will most benefit from the memory reduction features of a multi-threaded framework. One of the challenges that we will report on in this paper is the re-design and implementation of several key asynchronous technologies whose behaviour is radically different in a concurrent environment than in a serial one, namely the management of Conditions data and the Detector D...

  4. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  5. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  6. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with daily low dose CDDP/5FU for locally unresectable head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, Naoyuki; Kitahara, Satoshi; Tamura, Etsuyo; Tanabe, Tetsuya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Murata, Yasuhiro [National Defence Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    To improve the local control rate and the prognosis of locally unresectable head and neck cancer patients, we studied the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Between September 1996 and September 2000, thirty-eight patients with locally unresectable head and neck cancer were administered concurrent chemoradiotherapy consisting of low-dose and long-term treatment with cisplatin (CDDP) plus 5-fluorouracil (5FU), or (L-CF); the L-CF regimen consisted of CDDP, 3 mg/m{sup 2} on 5 days of the week and 5FU, 150 mg/m{sup 2} as a 24-hour infusion on 5 days of the week. Concurrently, conventional radiotherapy was given up to total dose of around 60 Gy. In the 36 patients evaluable for response, 19 complete and 10 partial responses were noted, with an overall response rate of 81%. Oral mucositis and myelosuppression were the major side effects and dose limiting toxicity. This study demonstrates increase in survival among the responders (complete+partial) in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy setting. We concluded that this treatment strategy was beneficial. Further studies for patients with locally unresectable head and neck cancer are warranted. (author)

  7. Creating components object oriented, concurrent, and distributed computing in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Kann, Charles W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO CONCURRENT PROGRAMMING AND COMPONENTSChapter GoalsWhat is Concurrent Programming?ComponentsTypes of Concurrent ProgrammingTHREADS AND PROGRAM CONTEXTSWriting threads in JavaA Simple Execution ModelProgram SafetyDeadlockDESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING CONCURRENT PROGRAMS WITH STATE DIAGRAMSBackgroundSteps to Create a Concurrent ProgramThe Producer/Consumer ProblemWhy Passive Objects are ComponentsGas Station Simulation ProblemIdentifiers, Variables, Objects, and Collection ClassesIdentifiers and VariablesJava Identifiers and VariablesPrimitivesObjectsCollection Classes in JavaPROGRAM

  8. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  9. Concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks: COCONETS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kleessen

    Full Text Available The accumulation of high-throughput data from different experiments has facilitated the extraction of condition-specific networks over the same set of biological entities. Comparing and contrasting of such multiple biological networks is in the center of differential network biology, aiming at determining general and condition-specific responses captured in the network structure (i.e., included associations between the network components. We provide a novel way for comparison of multiple networks based on determining network clustering (i.e., partition into communities which is optimal across the set of networks with respect to a given cluster quality measure. To this end, we formulate the optimization-based problem of concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks, termed COCONETS, based on the modularity. The solution to this problem is a clustering which depends on all considered networks and pinpoints their preserved substructures. We present theoretical results for special classes of networks to demonstrate the implications of conditionality captured by the COCONETS formulation. As the problem can be shown to be intractable, we extend an existing efficient greedy heuristic and applied it to determine concurrent conditional clusters on coexpression networks extracted from publically available time-resolved transcriptomics data of Escherichia coli under five stresses as well as on metabolite correlation networks from metabolomics data set from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to eight environmental conditions. We demonstrate that the investigation of the differences between the clustering based on all networks with that obtained from a subset of networks can be used to quantify the specificity of biological responses. While a comparison of the Escherichia coli coexpression networks based on seminal properties does not pinpoint biologically relevant differences, the common network substructures extracted by COCONETS are supported by

  10. Aortopulmonary ectopic parathyroid gland and concurrent thymolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Abeeleh, Mahmoud; Bani Hani, Amjad; Ghaith, Ata; Alodwan, Tareq; Bani Ismail, Zuhair; Alshehabat, Musa

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas are considered the main cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, concurrent parathyroid and thymic pathologies are rarely diagnosed in the same patient. A 47-year-old man with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and myasthenia gravis presented with persistent hypercalcemia. Laboratory investigations, computed tomography, and technetium-99 m sestamibi scintigraphy revealed ectopic parathyroid glands, a mediastinal mass, and an enlarged thymus. The patient underwent thymectomy and mass excision via a median sternotomy. Histopathology was consistent with ectopic parathyroid adenoma and thymolipoma. The serum calcium and parathormone concentrations normalized within 48 hours after surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Concurrent Kimura disease and lupus nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Fang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Songlan; Mao, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Kimura disease is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder with peripheral eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE and is also frequently complicated by nephropathy. Methods: We report a rare case of Kimura disease concomitant with lupus nephritis in a 72-year old male patient with recurrent unexplained lymphadenopathy, renal lesions, and immunologic abnormalities. Results: The patient was successfully managed with gamma immunoglobulin, intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisone. Conclusion: This is the first report of a case of Kimura disease concomitant with lupus nephritis and highlights the importance of considering lupus nephritis as a possible concurrent disease in patients with Kimura disease that have immunologic abnormalities. PMID:27741124

  12. Concurrency control in distributed database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, W; Gelenbe, E

    1989-01-01

    Distributed Database Systems (DDBS) may be defined as integrated database systems composed of autonomous local databases, geographically distributed and interconnected by a computer network.The purpose of this monograph is to present DDBS concurrency control algorithms and their related performance issues. The most recent results have been taken into consideration. A detailed analysis and selection of these results has been made so as to include those which will promote applications and progress in the field. The application of the methods and algorithms presented is not limited to DDBSs but a

  13. Proceedings 8th Interaction and Concurrency Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of ICE 2015, the 8th Interaction and Concurrency Experience, which was held in Grenoble, France on the 4th and 5th of June 2015 as a satellite event of DisCoTec 2015. The ICE procedure for paper selection allows PC members to interact, anonymously, with authors......, and altogether 9 papers, including 1 short paper, were accepted for publication (the workshop also featured 4 brief announcements which are not part of this volume). We were proud to host three invited talks, by Leslie Lamport (shared with the FRIDA workshop), Joseph Sifakis and Steve Ross-Talbot. The abstracts...

  14. Reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hui; LI Wei-ji

    2008-01-01

    To avoid the high computational cost and much modification in the process of applying traditional re-liability-based design optimization method, a new reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing muhidisciplinary optimization techniques and reli-ability assessment methods. It is shown through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current de-terministic optimization process.

  15. Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.

    1995-01-01

    The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

  16. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  17. The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    193]. - 85 - 19.3 Proces to proceso mapping The question of how to map processes to processors is not unique to concurrent logic programming, and any...procinors(N,ToQ) queue(ToQ), -8 7 - procemorie(N,ToQ)Qnext. processors’(0,_). procesos (N,ToQ) - N>O I N’:=N-1, procesior(ToQ), processor’(N’ ,ToQ)Onext...of Computing, Imperial College, London, 1988. [35] Davison, A., POOL: A PARLOG object oriented language, Department of Computing, Im- penal College

  18. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  19. Artificial concurrent catalytic processes involving enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Valentin; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-11

    The concurrent operation of multiple catalysts can lead to enhanced reaction features including (i) simultaneous linear multi-step transformations in a single reaction flask (ii) the control of intermediate equilibria (iii) stereoconvergent transformations (iv) rapid processing of labile reaction products. Enzymes occupy a prominent position for the development of such processes, due to their high potential compatibility with other biocatalysts. Genes for different enzymes can be co-expressed to reconstruct natural or construct artificial pathways and applied in the form of engineered whole cell biocatalysts to carry out complex transformations or, alternatively, the enzymes can be combined in vitro after isolation. Moreover, enzyme variants provide a wider substrate scope for a given reaction and often display altered selectivities and specificities. Man-made transition metal catalysts and engineered or artificial metalloenzymes also widen the range of reactivities and catalysed reactions that are potentially employable. Cascades for simultaneous cofactor or co-substrate regeneration or co-product removal are now firmly established. Many applications of more ambitious concurrent cascade catalysis are only just beginning to appear in the literature. The current review presents some of the most recent examples, with an emphasis on the combination of transition metal with enzymatic catalysis and aims to encourage researchers to contribute to this emerging field.

  20. Concurrent work with parents of adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Over the last ten years we have seen an increasing acceptance of the general idea of working with parents of child patients. What remains, however, as an area of controversy, conflict, and resistance, is the question of whether and how much therapists should or can work with the parents of adolescent patients. Questions cluster around how to maintain confidentiality and lead to the even larger issue of conceptualizing the developmental goals of the phase of adolescence. We see the major developmental tasks for both parents and adolescents as involving transformation of the self and the relationship, in the context of separateness rather than separation. If adolescent therapists work from the assumption that the goal of adolescence is transformation, concurrent work with parents and adolescents will move them all into a new level of relationship. Without concomitant change in parents, it is doubly hard for adolescents to progress into adulthood. In this paper we offer clinical material from five older adolescents and their parents to illustrate the techniques that follow from our model of dynamic concurrent parent work throughout the phases of treatment. Using the tasks of the therapeutic alliance as a conceptual framework, we describe working toward the dual goals of restoration to the path of progressive development and restoration of the parent-child relationship. We pay particular attention to the unfolding of conflicts between closed-system omnipotent functioning and open-system reality mastery, and the role offathers in late-adolescent development.

  1. Concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy: a rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare twin gestation with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a 30 year old woman without any high risk factor for ectopic pregnancy, who had concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy. A 30 year old female presented to the Gynecology emergency department complaining of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. The presumptive diagnosis of ruptured left sided ectopic pregnancy was made on basis of clinical findings and ultrasound finings. An emergency laparotomy was done revealed a hemoperitoneum of 1.5 liters, a ruptured left tubal pregnancy with active bleeding and right tubal un-ruptured ectopic was found. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed presence of chorionic villi in both tubes. In theory, laparoscopic salpingostomy is the best surgical approach in bilateral tubal pregnancy. However, bilateral salpingectomy may be necessary when both tubes are extensively damaged or are actively bleeding. Successful pregnancies have been reported after conservative surgical treatment of bilateral ectopic, but the risk of recurrence is high. Our decision for an emergency laparotomy followed by bilateral salpingectomy was based on the fact that the patient presented with acute abdomen and was haemodynamically unstable and there was extensive bilateral tubal damage. As the incidence of ectopic pregnancies is increasing concurrently with the incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease and use of assisted fertility techniques; it may be that these and ldquo;rare ectopics and rdquo; will become less uncommon. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1197-1199

  2. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  3. Concurrent multibody and Finite Element analysis of the lower-limb during amputee running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Stacey M; Simmons, Anne; Kark, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Lower-limb amputee athletes use Carbon fiber Energy Storage and Return (ESAR) prostheses during high impact activities such as running. The advantage provided to amputee athletes due to the energy-storing properties of ESAR prostheses is as yet uncertain. Conventional energy analysis methods for prostheses rely upon multibody models with articulating joints. Alternatively, Finite Element (FE) analysis treats bodies as a deforming continuum and can therefore calculate the energy stored without using these rigid-body mechanics assumptions. This paper presents a concurrent multibody and FE model of the femur, tibia, socket and ESAR prosthesis of a transtibial amputee athlete during sprinting. Gait analysis spatial data was used to conduct an offline simulation of the affected leg's stance phase in COMSOL Multiphysics. The calculated peak elastic strain energy of the prosthesis was 80J, with an overall RMSE of simulated marker displacement of 4.19 mm. This concurrent model presents a novel method for analyzing in vivo ESAR prosthesis behavior.

  4. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  5. Concurrent radiochemotherapy in advanced hypopharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukarski Dusko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent platinum-based radiochemotherapy has been recommended as a standard of care in patients with locally advanced squamous cell head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, there is a lack of level one evidence on best treatment approach for advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. This report aims to summarize the results of our study on concurrent radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. Methods A retrospective analysis of 41 patients with stage III-IV hypopharyngeal cancer was performed. All patients were treated with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and received 70 Gy in 35 fractions (2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week. In dependence of the period when radiotherapy was realized, two different treatment techniques were used. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 30 mg/m2 given on a weekly basis. Results The median age was 52 years (range 29-70. Stage IV disease was recognized in 73.2% of the patients. Complete response rates at the primary site and at the metastatic neck lymph nodes were 68.3% and 36.6%, respectively. A complete composite response was present in 27 patients (65.9%. Median follow-up was 13 months (range 7-36. Distant metastases as initial failure occurred in 7 patients (46.7%. The 2-year local relapse-free survival and regional relapse-free survival rates were 55.2% and 75.8%, respectively. The 2-year locoregional relapse-free survival rate was 51.3%. The 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 29.3% and 32.8%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was developed in 46.3% of patients. Leucopenia grade 1 was the most frequent hematological toxicity. The median weight loss at the end of treatment was 12% (range 5-21. The worst grade of late toxicity was most commonly pronounced in the skin and in the subcutaneous tissue. Conclusions Based on unsatisfactory results in our study we suggest that the use of sequential radiochemotherapy or chemotherapy

  6. Modeling disease spread in populations with birth, death, and concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Millera, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sexual partnerships that overlap in time (concurrent relationships) is believed by some to be a significant contributing factor to the spread of HIV, although this is controversial. We derive an analytic model which allows us to investigate and compare disease spread in populations with and without concurrency. We can identify regions of parameter space in which its impact is negligible, and other regions in which it plays a major role. We also see that the impact of concurrency on the initial growth phase can be much larger than its impact on the equilibrium size. We see that the effect of concurrency saturates, which leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that interventions targeting concurrency may be most effective in populations with low to moderate levels of concurrency.

  7. Correlation between Trichomonas vaginalis and Concurrency: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Hamilton, Deven T

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship between TV prevalence in women and point prevalence of concurrency in men in (1) 11 countries with comparable data (concurrency data from WHO Survey and TV prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease estimates) and (2) three racial groups in the United States (Add Health Study). Results. The prevalence of TV and concurrency was positively correlated in the international (rho = 0.84, P = 0.001) and USA study (rho = 1.0, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Prospective longitudinal studies that include measures of partner behavior are required to definitively establish the role of concurrency in the spread of TV.

  8. Concurrent Imitation Dynamics in Congestion Games

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Heiner; Fischer, Simon; Hoefer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Imitating successful behavior is a natural and frequently applied approach to trust in when facing scenarios for which we have little or no experience upon which we can base our decision. In this paper, we consider such behavior in atomic congestion games. We propose to study concurrent imitation dynamics that emerge when each player samples another player and possibly imitates this agents' strategy if the anticipated latency gain is sufficiently large. Our main focus is on convergence properties. Using a potential function argument, we how that our dynamics converge in a monotonic fashion to stable states. In such a state none of the players can improve its latency by imitating somebody else. As our main result, we show rapid convergence to approximate equilibria. At an approximate equilibrium only a small fraction of agents sustains a latency significantly above or below average. In particular, imitation dynamics behave like fully polynomial time approximation schemes (FPTAS). Fixing all other parameters, t...

  9. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-05-01

    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.

  10. Certifying Concurrent Programs Using Transactional Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Li; Yu Zhang; Yi-Yun Chen; Yong Li

    2009-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is a new promising concurrency-control mechanism that can avoid many of the pitfalls of the traditional lock-based techniques. TM systems handle data races between threads automatically so that programmers do not have to reason about the interaction of threads manually. TM provides a programming model that may make the development of multi-threaded programs easier. Much work has been done to explore the various implementation strategies of TM systems and to achieve better performance, but little has been done on how to formally reason about programs using TM and how to make sure that such reasoning is sound. In this paper, we focus on the semantics of transactional memory and present a proof-carrying code (PCC) system for reasoning about programs using TM . We formalize our reasoning with respect to the TM semantics, prove its soundness, and use examples to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  11. Concurrent remote entanglement with continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalys-Geller, E.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Silveri, M.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mundhada, S. O.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.

    A necessary ingredient for large scale quantum information processing is the ability to entangle distant qubits on demand. In the field of superconducting quantum information, this process can be achieved by entangling stationary superconducting qubits with flying coherent states of microwave light, which are then co-amplified by a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). The JPC also serves as a which-path information eraser, causing the probabilistic continuous measurement process to concurrently entangle the qubits. We discuss the sensitivity of the experiment to the loss of quantum information during the flight of the coherent states, as well as strategies to improve which-path information erasure and reduce information loss to the degree required for entanglement generation. Work supported by ARO, AFOSR, NSF, and YINQE.

  12. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  13. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  14. Concurrent programming notations in the object-oriented language Arche

    OpenAIRE

    Benveniste, Marc; Issarny, Valérie

    1992-01-01

    Paradigms of object-oriented programming are attractive for the design of large distributed software. They notably provide a sound basis to develop applications that are easy to maintain and reuse. However, expressing concurrency in object-oriented languages raises some difficulties. For instance, integrating concurrency together with inheritance may lead to violate the encapsulation property of object-oriented programming. In this paper we present a new strongly-typed, concurrent object-orie...

  15. An Efficient Secure Real-Time Concurrency Control Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yingyuan; LIU Yunsheng; CHEN Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Secure real-time databases must simultaneously satisfy two requirements in guaranteeing data security and minimizing the missing deadlines ratio of transactions. However, these two requirements can conflict with each other and achieve one requirement is to sacrifice the other. This paper presents a secure real-time concurrency control protocol based on optimistic method. The concurrency control protocol incorporates security constraints in a real-time optimistic concurrency control protocol and makes a suitable tradeoff between security and real-time requirements by introducing secure influence factor and real-time influence factor. The experimental results show the concurrency control protocol achieves data security without degrading real-time performance significantly.

  16. Concurrence vectors for entanglement of high dimensional systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-quan LI; Guo-qiang ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The concurrence vectors are proposed by employing the fundamental representation of An Lie algebra,which provides a clear criterion to evaluate the entanglement of bipartite systems of arbitrary dimension.Accordingly,a state is separable if the norm of its concurrence vector vanishes.The state vectors related to SU(3)states and SO(3) states are discussed in detail.The sign situation of nonzero components of concurrence vectors of entangled bases presents a simple criterion to judge whether the whole Hilbert subspace spanned by those bases is entangled,or there exists an entanglement edge.This is illustrated in terms of the concurrence surfaces of several concrete examples.

  17. An international randomised controlled trial to compare TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT) with conventional postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for women with early-stage breast cancer (the TARGIT-A trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Wenz, Frederik; Bulsara, Max; Tobias, Jeffrey S; Joseph, David J; Saunders, Christobel; Brew-Graves, Chris; Potyka, Ingrid; Morris, Stephen; Vaidya, Hrisheekesh J; Williams, Norman R; Baum, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -breast-cancer mortality. RESULTS In total, 3451 patients were recruited between March 2000 and June 2012. The following values are 5-year Kaplan-Meier rates for TARGIT compared with EBRT. There was no statistically significant difference in local recurrence between TARGIT and EBRT. TARGIT was non-inferior to EBRT overall [TARGIT 3.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1% to 5.1% vs. EBRT 1.3%, 95% CI 0.7% to 2.5%; p = 0.04; Pnon-inferiority = 0.00000012] and in the prepathology stratum (n = 2298) when TARGIT was given concurrently with lumpectomy (TARGIT 2.1%, 95% CI 1.1% to 4.2% vs. EBRT 1.1%, 95% CI 0.5% to 2.5%; p = 0.31; Pnon-inferiority = 0.0000000013). With delayed TARGIT postpathology (n = 1153), the between-group difference was larger than 2.5% and non-inferiority was not established for this stratum (TARGIT 5.4%, 95% CI 3.0% to 9.7% vs. EBRT 1.7%, 95% CI 0.6% to 4.9%; p = 0.069; Pnon-inferiority = 0.06640]. The local recurrence-free survival was 93.9% (95% CI 90.9% to 95.9%) when TARGIT was given with lumpectomy compared with 92.5% (95% CI 89.7% to 94.6%) for EBRT (p = 0.35). In a planned subgroup analysis, progesterone receptor (PgR) status was found to be the only predictor of outcome: hormone-responsive patients (PgR positive) had similar 5-year local recurrence with TARGIT during lumpectomy (1.4%, 95% CI 0.5% to 3.9%) as with EBRT (1.2%, 95% CI 0.5% to 2.9%; p = 0.77). Grade 3 or 4 radiotherapy toxicity was significantly reduced with TARGIT. Overall, breast cancer mortality was much the same between groups (TARGIT 2.6%, 95% CI 1.5% to 4.3% vs. EBRT 1.9%, 95% CI 1.1% to 3.2%; p = 0.56) but there were significantly fewer non-breast-cancer deaths with TARGIT (1.4%, 95% CI 0.8% to 2.5% vs. 3.5%, 95% CI 2.3% to 5.2%; p = 0.0086), attributable to fewer deaths from cardiovascular causes and other cancers, leading to a trend in reduced overall mortality in the TARGIT arm (3.9%, 95% CI 2.7% to 5.8% vs. 5.3%, 95% CI 3.9% to 7.3%; p = 0

  18. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated Concurrent...

  19. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Kessler, T. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Lange, T. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Overbeck, J. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Fiebich, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients` follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 {mu}m. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ``inter-observer analysis`` was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  20. Verification of concurrent systems with VerCors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; Blom, Stefan; Darabi, Saeed; Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech; Zaharieva, M.; Bernardo, Marco; Damiani, Ferruccio; Hahnle, Reiner; Johnsen, Einar; Schaefer, Ina

    This paper presents the VerCors approach to verification of concurrent software. It first discusses why verification of concurrent software is important, but also challenging. Then it shows how within the VerCors project we use permission-based separation logic to reason about multithreaded Java

  1. 28 CFR 0.56 - Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction. 0.56 Section 0.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.56 Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction. The Assistant Attorney General...

  2. Graphical modelling language for spycifying concurrency based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    Introduced in this (shortened) paper is a graphical modelling language for specifying concurrency in software designs. The language notations are derived from CSP and the resulting designs form CSP diagrams. The notations reflect both data-flow and control-flow aspects of concurrent software

  3. Reasoning about Concurrent Actionsin Multi-Agent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiaocong; XU Dianxiang; HOU Jianmin; ZHENG Guoliang

    1999-01-01

    Concurrence is an important researcharea in collaborative problem solving.This paper offers a formaldefinition for cooperative sequences in multi-agentsystems, discussesthe different categories of concurrent actions, and proposes somerules forsituation revision and an algorithm used to generate resultingsituations.An example is also given to show how to solve concurrentproblems occurring inmulti-agent systems.

  4. Concurrent Lexicalized Dependency Parsing The ParseTalk Model

    CERN Document Server

    Broeker, N; Schacht, S; Broeker, Norbert; Hahn, Udo; Schacht, Susanne

    1994-01-01

    A grammar model for concurrent, object-oriented natural language parsing is introduced. Complete lexical distribution of grammatical knowledge is achieved building upon the head-oriented notions of valency and dependency, while inheritance mechanisms are used to capture lexical generalizations. The underlying concurrent computation model relies upon the actor paradigm. We consider message passing protocols for establishing dependency relations and ambiguity handling.

  5. Separate versus Concurrent Calibration Methods in Vertical Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Thakur; Lewis, Daniel M.; Hoskens, Machteld; Yao, Lihua; Haug, Carolyn

    Two methods to establish a common scale across grades within a content area using a common item design (separate and concurrent) have previously been studied under simulated conditions. Separate estimation is accomplished through separate calibration and grade-by-grade chained linking. Concurrent calibration established the vertical scale in a…

  6. Dynamic Frames Based Verification Method for Concurrent Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a verification method for concurrent Java programs based on the concept of dynamic frames. We build on our earlier work that proposes a new, symbolic permission system for concurrent reasoning and we provide the following new contributions. First, we describe our approach

  7. Concurrent schedules of positive and negative reinforcement: differential-impact and differential-outcomes hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, Michael A; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2008-07-01

    Considerable evidence from outside of operant psychology suggests that aversive events exert greater influence over behavior than equal-sized positive-reinforcement events. Operant theory is largely moot on this point, and most operant research is uninformative because of a scaling problem that prevents aversive events and those based on positive reinforcement from being directly compared. In the present investigation, humans' mouse-click responses were maintained on similarly structured, concurrent schedules of positive (money gain) and negative (avoidance of money loss) reinforcement. Because gains and losses were of equal magnitude, according to the analytical conventions of the generalized matching law, bias (log b (double dagger) 0) would indicate differential impact by one type of consequence; however, no systematic bias was observed. Further research is needed to reconcile this outcome with apparently robust findings in other literatures of superior behavior control by aversive events. In an incidental finding, the linear function relating log behavior ratio and log reinforcement ratio was steeper for concurrent negative and positive reinforcement than for control conditions involving concurrent positive reinforcement. This may represent the first empirical confirmation of a free-operant differential-outcomes effect predicted by contingency-discriminability theories of choice.

  8. Concurrent life-course trajectories of employment and marijuana-use: exploring interdependence of longitudinal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Motoaki; Huang, David Y C; Weiss, Robert E; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes data on 7661 individuals who participated in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate trajectories of employment and marijuana-use over a 17-year period. Bivariate random intercept and slope modeling is applied to examine concurrently the cross-correlation between the two concurrent longitudinal trajectories from age 23 to 39. Parameter estimates indicate baseline level (at age 23) of employment to be negatively correlated with marijuana, suggesting marijuana-use is associated with lower workforce productivity at age 23. The longitudinal employment slope is positively correlated with employment intercept for both males and females, indicating that survey participants with higher levels of employment at age 23 are more likely to have a positive impact on employment trajectory over time. For males, however, the employment slope is also significantly correlated with marijuana intercept (r=-0.07), indicating marijuana-use in early adulthood may uniquely lower workforce productivity over age.

  9. 早期联合穴位按摩预防胸、腰椎骨折患者腹胀%Prevention of abdominal distension of patients with the chest and vertebral fractures by combination of early point massage and conventional treatment and nurse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯慧霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早期联合穴位按摩对预防胸、腰椎骨折患者腹胀的效果.方法 将102例胸、腰椎骨折患者随机分为2组,对照组51例行常规护理,治疗组51例在对照组的基础上加穴位按摩,包括合谷按摩、足底按摩、足三里按摩及腹部按摩等,记录2组患者入院当日、入院第5d腹胀发生率及入院第10 d由腹胀引起不适症状的发生情况.结果 治疗组腹胀发生率及由腹胀引起的不适症状发生率均低于照组(P<0.05).结论早期联合穴位按摩可减少腹胀发生率,减少因腹胀导致的各种不适.%Objective To observe the effect of preventing abdominal distension of patients with the chest and vertebral fractures by combination of early point massage and conventional treatment and nurse. Methods 102 patients with the chest and vertebral fractures were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in control group ( n = 51) were treated by conventional treatment. Patients in treatment group were treated by combination of early point massage (Hegu, Zudi, Zusanli and abdomen) and conventional treatment. The incidence rate of abdominal distension on day of admission and the fifth day of admission and the occurrence of symptoms caused by abdominal distension on the tenth day of admission were recorded. Results The incidence rate of abdominal distension and discomfort caused by abdominal distension in treatment group were lower than those in control'group ( P <0. 05) . Conclusion Early point massage can decrease incidence rate of abdominal distension and various discomfort caused by abdominal distension a variety.

  10. Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming Based on MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏伟; 汪厚祥; 裴晓黎; 肖永玲

    2004-01-01

    Object-oriented model possesses inherent concurrency. Integration of concurrency and object-orientation is a promising new field. MPI is a message-passing standard and has been adopted by more and more systems. This paper proposes a novel approach to realize concurrent object-oriented programming based on Message-passing interface(MPI) in which future method communication is adopted between concurrent objects. A state behavior set is proposed to solve inheritance anomaly, and a bounded buffer is taken as an example to illustrate this proposal. The definition of ParaMPI class, which is the most important class in the concurrent class library,and implementation issues are briefly described.

  11. Proceedings Fourth Interaction and Concurrency Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alexandra; Bruni, Roberto; Carbone, Marco; 10.4204/EPTCS.59

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the pre-proceedings of ICE'11, the 4th Interaction and Concurrency Experience workshop, which was held in Reykjavik, Iceland on the 9th of June 2011 as a satellite event of DisCoTec'11. The topic of ICE'11 was Reliable and Contract-based Interaction. Reliable interactions are, e.g., those enjoying suitable logical, behavioural, or security properties, or adhering to certain QoS standards. Contract-based interactions are, e.g., those where the interacting entities are committed to give certain guarantees whenever certain assumptions are met by their operating environment. The ICE procedure for paper selection allows for PC members to interact, anonymously, with authors. During the review phase, each submitted paper is published on a Wiki and associated with a discussion forum whose access is restricted to the authors and to all the PC members not declaring a conflict of interests. The PC members post comments and questions that the authors reply to. Each paper was reviewed by four PC membe...

  12. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  13. Differences between conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Annalisa; Marino, Maria Adele; Morabito, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD, essentially being used only to discriminate atypical syndromes from PD, to exclude secondary causes such as vascular lesions, and to confirm the absence of specific imaging features found in atypical parkinsonisms. However, non-conventional MRI techniques, i.e. new neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI, may allow the detection of structural, functional and metabolic changes useful not only for differential diagnosis, but also for early diagnosis and outcome and treatment monitoring in PD. In addition, we illustrate the advantages of high-field MRI over lower magnetic fields, highlighting the great potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24125556

  14. Concurrent engineering solution for the design of ship and offshore bracket parts and fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lim, Sang-Sub; Seok, Ho-Hyun; Kang, Chung-Gil

    2013-09-01

    Brackets in ships and offshore structures are added structures that can endure stress concentrations. In this study, a concurrent engineering solution was proposed, and a high strength low carbon cast steel alloy applicable to offshore structures was designed and developed. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the designed steel were 480 and 600 MPa, respectively. The carbon equivalent of the steel was 0.446 with a weld crack susceptibility index of 0.219. The optimal structural design of the brackets for offshore structures was evaluated using ANSYS commercial software. The possibility of replacing an assembly of conventional built-up brackets with a single casting bulb bracket was verified. The casting process was simulated using MAGMAsoft commercial software, and a casting fabrication process was designed. For the proposed bulb bracket, it was possible to reduce the size and weight by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to the conventional type of bracket.

  15. Microsurgical management of complex fingertip injuries: comparison to conventional skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E H; Norris, M S; Kowalski, T A

    1988-01-01

    In selected cases of severe fingertip injuries, an aggressive approach using microvascular and microneural techniques can yield functional results equal or superior to conventional methods of treatment in less severe injuries. A series of 20 patients were treated microsurgically from 1983 to 1986 for severe acute distal finger injuries or their early sequelae--five distal replantations, eight neurovascular free tissue transfers, and nine distal neurorrhaphies/nerve grafts with or without vascular conduit. Concurrently, 33 simpler tip avulsions were treated with full-thickness skin grafts for comparison. In the microsurgical series, one replant and the distal 1 cm of a free toe flap necrosed. Replants averaged two-point discrimination of 9.8 mm and pulp pinch 65 percent of normal; free toe transfers, two-point of 6 mm, pulp pinch 58 percent; distal nerve reconstruction, two-point 6 mm. Operating time per digit averaged 5.0 hours for replants, 4.3 hours for toe flaps, and 1.5 hours for nerve repair/grafts. All patients returned to full pre-injury employment within six months. None required revisional surgery for dysesthetic fingertips. In the conventional skin graft series, greater than six months follow-up is available in 17 patients. Average two-point was 7 mm (range: 3 to greater than 15 mm) and pulp pinch 83 percent of normal. There were seven poor results with cold intolerance, numbness, and paresthesias, three of which required revisional surgery. The data suggest that microsurgical management of fingertip injuries achieves results comparable to skin grafts, despite the greater complexity of the initial injury. This approach has resulted in fewer secondary tip revisions. Operative times are acceptable. Parameters of sensory return are similar, although pulp pinch is slightly less. Disability times are comparable to the average in major pulp losses. Of importance, final permanent partial factors of disability are diminished in rating, due to retained digital

  16. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekowitz Justin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril, beta-blocker (bisoprolol, or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1 determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2 understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3 correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Discussion Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first

  17. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  18. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  19. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin-Ping

    2017-07-11

    Recent technological advances in conventional planar and microstructured solar cell architectures have significantly boosted the efficiencies of these devices near the corresponding theoretical values. Nanomaterials and nanostructures have promising potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However, at present the efficiency of nanostructured solar cells remains lower than that of conventional solar devices due to the accompanying losses associated with the employment of nanomaterials. The concurrent design of both optical and electrical components will presumably be an imperative route toward breaking the present-day limit of nanostructured solar cells. This review summarizes the losses in traditional solar cells, and then discusses recent advances in applications of nanotechnology to solar devices from both optical and electrical perspectives. Finally, a rule for nanostructured solar cells by concurrently engineering the optical and electrical design is devised. Following these guidelines should allow for exceeding the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency soon.

  20. Phase I Trial of Escalating-dose Cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil and Concurrent Radiotherapy in Chinese Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao,Yan-Nan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We defined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD of chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin (CDDP with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer. Twenty-one previously untreated patients with primary esophageal cancer were entered into this study. Escalating doses of CDDP with 5-FU were administered in a modified Fibonacci sequence, with concurrent conventional fractionation radiotherapy (CFR of 60 Gy or 50 Gy. The starting doses were CDDP 37.5 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, respectively. The regimen was repeated 4 times every 28 days. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT was observed, the next dose level was applied. The procedures were repeated until DLT appeared. The MTD was declared to be 1 dose level below the level at which DLT appeared. DLT was grade 3 radiation-induced esophagitis at a dose level of CDDP 60 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 60 Gy CFR. MTD was defined as CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. The MTD of CDDP with 5-FU and in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer is CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5FU 700 mg/m2 on days 1-5, repeated 4 times every 28 days, and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. Further evaluation of this regimen in a prospective phase II trial is ongoing.

  1. Phase I trial of escalating-dose cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil and concurrent radiotherapy in Chinese patients with esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Gao, Xian-Shu; Qiao, Xue-Ying; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Kun; Zhao, Yan-Nan; Asaumi, Junichi

    2008-02-01

    We defined the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin (CDDP) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy) for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer. Twenty-one previously untreated patients with primary esophageal cancer were entered into this study. Escalating doses of CDDP with 5-FU were administered in a modified Fibonacci sequence, with concurrent conventional fractionation radiotherapy (CFR) of 60 Gy or 50 Gy. The starting doses were CDDP 37.5 mg/m2 on day 1, and 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, respectively. The regimen was repeated 4 times every 28 days. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed, the next dose level was applied. The procedures were repeated until DLT appeared. The MTD was declared to be 1 dose level below the level at which DLT appeared. DLT was grade 3 radiation-induced esophagitis at a dose level of CDDP 60 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 60 Gy CFR. MTD was defined as CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 with 5-FU 700 mg/m2 and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. The MTD of CDDP with 5-FU and in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for Chinese patients with esophageal cancer is CDDP 52.5 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5FU 700 mg/m2 on days 1-5, repeated 4 times every 28 days, and concurrent 50 Gy CFR. Further evaluation of this regimen in a prospective phase II trial is ongoing.

  2. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  3. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The sixth volume of ToPNoC includes revised versions of selected papers from workshops and tutorials held at the 32nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency. It also contains a special section on Networks, Protocols, and Services, as well as a contributed...... paper submitted through the regular submission track of ToPNoC. The 14 papers cover a diverse range of topics including model checking and system verification, synthesis, foundational work on specific classes of Petri nets, and innovative applications of Petri nets and other models of concurrency. Thus...... this volume gives a good view of ongoing concurrent systems and Petri nets research....

  4. The Multidimensional Card Selection Task: A new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjarny, Gal; Kamawar, Deepthi; Andrews, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e.g., shape and size, and then shape, size, and color). More than half of the preschoolers in our sample of 107 (50 3-year-olds and 57 4-year-olds) could coordinate three dimensions simultaneously and consistently across three test trials. Furthermore, performance on the Multidimensional Card Selection Task was related, but not identical, to performance on other cognitive tasks, including a widely used measure of switching cognitive flexibility (the Dimensional Change Card Sort). The Multidimensional Card Selection Task provides a new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers, and opens another avenue for exploring the emergence of early cognitive flexibility development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  6. Evolution of the ATLAS Software Framework towards Concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. W. L.; Stewart, G. A.; Leggett, C.; Wynne, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully used its Gaudi/Athena software framework for data taking and analysis during the first LHC run, with billions of events successfully processed. However, the design of Gaudi/Athena dates from early 2000 and the software and the physics code has been written using a single threaded, serial design. This programming model has increasing difficulty in exploiting the potential of current CPUs, which offer their best performance only through taking full advantage of multiple cores and wide vector registers. Future CPU evolution will intensify this trend, with core counts increasing and memory per core falling. Maximising performance per watt will be a key metric, so all of these cores must be used as efficiently as possible. In order to address the deficiencies of the current framework, ATLAS has embarked upon two projects: first, a practical demonstration of the use of multi-threading in our reconstruction software, using the GaudiHive framework; second, an exercise to gather requirements for an updated framework, going back to the first principles of how event processing occurs. In this paper we report on both these aspects of our work. For the hive based demonstrators, we discuss what changes were necessary in order to allow the serially designed ATLAS code to run, both to the framework and to the tools and algorithms used. We report on what general lessons were learned about the code patterns that had been employed in the software and which patterns were identified as particularly problematic for multi-threading. These lessons were fed into our considerations of a new framework and we present preliminary conclusions on this work. In particular we identify areas where the framework can be simplified in order to aid the implementation of a concurrent event processing scheme. Finally, we discuss the practical difficulties involved in migrating a large established code base to a multi-threaded framework and how this can be achieved

  7. Visualizing Concurrency Control Algorithms for Real-Time Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to visualizing concurrency control (CC algorithms for real-time database systems (RTDBs. This approach is based on the principle of software visualization, which has been applied in related fields. The Model-View-controller (MVC architecture is used to alleviate the black box syndrome associated with the study of algorithm behaviour for RTDBs Concurrency Controls. We propose a Visualization "exploratory" tool that assists the RTDBS designer in understanding the actual behaviour of the concurrency control algorithms of choice and also in evaluating the performance quality of the algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using an optimistic concurrency control model as our case study. The developed tool substantiates the earlier simulation-based performance studies by exposing spikes at some points when visualized dynamically that are not observed using usual static graphs. Eventually this tool helps solve the problem of contradictory assumptions of CC in RTDBs.

  8. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  9. Human operant learning under concurrent reinforcement of response variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Goot, M.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    This study asked whether the concurrent reinforcement of behavioral variability facilitates learning to emit a difficult target response. Sixty students repeatedly pressed sequences of keys, with an originally infrequently occurring target sequence consistently being followed by positive feedback. T

  10. Prototyping of concurrent control systems implemented in FPGA devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on prototyping aspects of concurrent control systems and their further implementation and partial reconfiguration in programmable devices. Further, it lays out a full prototyping flow for concurrent control systems. Based on a given primary specification, a system is described with an interpreted Petri net, which naturally reflects the concurrent and sequential relationships of the design. The book shows that, apart from the traditional option of static configuration of the entire system, the latest programmable devices (especially FPGAs) offer far more sophistication. Partial reconfiguration allows selected parts of the system to be replaced without having to reprogram the entire structure of the device. Approaches to dynamic and static partial reconfiguration of concurrent control systems are presented and described in detail.< The theoretical work is illustrated by examples drawn from various applications, with a milling machine and a traffic-light controller highlighted as representat...

  11. Process Algebra Approach to Reasoning About Concurrent Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanFeng; Ming-ShengYing

    2004-01-01

    A reasonable transition rule is proposed for synchronized actions and some equational properties of bisimilarity and weak bisimilarity in the process algebra for reasoning about concurrent actions are presented.

  12. Partial Orders and Fully Abstract Models for Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on different closures of sets of labelled partial orders, simple algebraic languages...

  13. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and Discriminant Validity Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two studies provide methodogical refinement in the measurement of loneliness, using a revised version of the self-report UCLA Loneliness Scale. Investigates response bias, concurrent validity, and correlated measures. (Author/SS)

  14. Finite Element Analysis in Concurrent Processing: Computational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Watson, Brian; Vanderplaats, Garrett

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential application of new methods for solving large-scale static structural problems on concurrent computers. It is well known that traditional single-processor computational speed will be limited by inherent physical limits. The only path to achieve higher computational speeds lies through concurrent processing. Traditional factorization solution methods for sparse matrices are ill suited for concurrent processing because the null entries get filled, leading to high communication and memory requirements. The research reported herein investigates alternatives to factorization that promise a greater potential to achieve high concurrent computing efficiency. Two methods, and their variants, based on direct energy minimization are studied: a) minimization of the strain energy using the displacement method formulation; b) constrained minimization of the complementary strain energy using the force method formulation. Initial results indicated that in the context of the direct energy minimization the displacement formulation experienced convergence and accuracy difficulties while the force formulation showed promising potential.

  15. Service-Oriented Synthesis of Distributed and Concurrent Protocol Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad Al Dallal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed for synthesizing computer communication protocol specifications from service specifications. Some protocol synthesis methods based on the finite state machine (FSM model assume that primitives in the service specifications cannot be executed simultaneously. Others either handle only controlled primitive concurrency or have tight restrictions on the applicable FSM topologies. As a result, these synthesis methods are not applicable to an interesting variety of inherently concurrent applications, such as the Internet and mobile communication systems. This paper proposes a concurrent-based protocol synthesis method that eliminates the restrictions imposed by the earlier methods. The proposed method uses a synthesis method to obtain a sequential protocol specification (P-SPEC from a given service specification (S-SPEC. The resulting P-SPEC is then remodeled to consider the concurrency behavior specified in the S-SPEC, while guaranteeing that P-SPEC provides the specified service.

  16. Time concurrency/phase-time synchronization in digital communications networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Masami; Imaoka, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Digital communications networks have the intrinsic capability of time synchronization which makes it possible for networks to supply time signals to some applications and services. A practical estimation method for the time concurrency on terrestrial networks is presented. By using this method, time concurrency capability of the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) digital communications network is estimated to be better than 300 ns rms at an advanced level, and 20 ns rms at final level.

  17. DFM/CAPP/CAM System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the importance of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in Concurrent Engineering (CE) is discussed. Based on the analyses of the character of concurrent product design and manufacturing process design, the workflow of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in CE is given. DFM/CAPP/CAM theories, methods and functions are investigated in a delicate and all-round way, and are implemented in the developed DFM/CAPP/CAM system.

  18. Proceedings 18th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Luttik, Bas; 10.4204/EPTCS.64

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency (EXPRESS 2011), which took place on 5th September 2011 in Aachen, as a satellite workshop of CONCUR 2011. The EXPRESS workshop series aim at bringing together researchers who are interested in the expressiveness and comparison of formal models that broadly relate to concurrency. In particular, this also includes emergent fields such as logic and interaction, game-theoretic models, and service-oriented computing.

  19. On Distributed Concurrent Multi-Port Router Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Bo; XU Juan

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the distributed concurrent multi-port-testing test system (CMPT-TS) for IP routers under development at Sichuan Network Communication Key Laboratory. Having analyzed the actuality of concurrent testing for routers, this paper develops a distributed architecture of CMPT-TS and discusses its functional components in detail. Moreover, a new test definition language, CMPT definition language, is also introduced simply.

  20. Probabilistic simulation of concurrent engineering of propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Technology readiness and the available infrastructure is assessed for timely computational simulation of concurrent engineering for propulsion systems. Results for initial coupled multidisciplinary, fabrication-process, and system simulators are presented including uncertainties inherent in various facets of engineering processes. An approach is outlined for computationally formalizing the concurrent engineering process from cradle-to-grave via discipline dedicated workstations linked with a common database.

  1. Local Linearizability for Concurrent Container-Type Data Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Andreas; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Holzer, Andreas; Kirsch, Christoph M.; Lippautz, Michael; Payer, Hannes; Sezgin, Ali; Sokolova, Ana; Veith, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The semantics of concurrent data structures is usually given by a sequential specification and a consistency condition. Linearizability is the most popular consistency condition due to its simplicity and general applicability. Nevertheless, for applications that do not require all guarantees offered by linearizability, recent research has focused on improving performance and scalability of concurrent data structures by relaxing their semantics. In this paper, we present local linearizabi...

  2. A case of cerebral malaria and dengue concurrent infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anwar Alam; Md Dm

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria and dengue are the common infections which cause higher mortality and morbidities in every part of the world especially in India. Concurrent infection of cerebral malaria and dengue is rare entity due to different habitat of vectors and it was reported rarely from Southeast Asia. In this case report, the authors reported a case of concurrent cerebral malaria and dengue which was recovered after eight days of admission with increase in morbidity.

  3. Concurrent object-oriented programming: The MP-Eiffel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Miguel Augusto Mendes Oliveira e

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates several possible approaches for integrating concurrency into object-oriented programming languages, presenting afterwards, a new language named MP-Eiffel. MP-Eiffel was designed attempting to include all the essential properties of both concurrent and object-oriented programming with simplicity and safety. A special care was taken to achieve the orthogonality of all the language mechanisms, allowing their joint use without unsafe side-effects (such as inh...

  4. Global-Local View: Scalable Consistency for Concurrent Data Types

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoorath, Deepthi Devaki; Brandão, José; Bieniusa, Annette; Baquero, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent linearizable access to shared objects can be prohibitively expensive in a high contention workload. Many applications apply ad-hoc techniques to eliminate the need of synchronous atomic updates, which may result in non-linearizable implementations. We propose a new programming model which leverages such patterns for concurrent access to objects in a shared memory system. In this model, each thread maintains different views on the shared object - a thread-local view and a global vie...

  5. Enhanced motor learning following task-concurrent dual transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Karok

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 has beneficial effects on motor performance and motor learning in healthy subjects and is emerging as a promising tool for motor neurorehabilitation. Applying tDCS concurrently with a motor task has recently been found to be more effective than applying stimulation before the motor task. This study extends this finding to examine whether such task-concurrent stimulation further enhances motor learning on a dual M1 montage. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects received anodal tDCS to the right M1, dual tDCS (anodal current over right M1 and cathodal over left M1 and sham tDCS in a repeated-measures design. Stimulation was applied for 10 mins at 1.5 mA during an explicit motor learning task. Response times (RT and accuracy were measured at baseline, during, directly after and 15 mins after stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was recorded from both hemispheres before and after stimulation using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. RESULTS: Task-concurrent stimulation with a dual M1 montage significantly reduced RTs by 23% as early as with the onset of stimulation (p<0.01 with this effect increasing to 30% at the final measurement. Polarity-specific changes in cortical excitability were observed with MEPs significantly reduced by 12% in the left M1 and increased by 69% in the right M1. CONCLUSION: Performance improvement occurred earliest in the dual M1 condition with a stable and lasting effect. Unilateral anodal stimulation resulted only in trendwise improvement when compared to sham. Therefore, task-concurrent dual M1 stimulation is most suited for obtaining the desired neuromodulatory effects of tDCS in explicit motor learning.

  6. Concurrent recall of serially learned visual discrimination problems in dwarf goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J; Siebert, K; Nuernberg, G

    2008-11-01

    Studies of cognitive ability in farm animals are valuable, not only because they provide indicators of the commonality of comparative influence, but understanding farm animal cognition may also aid in management and treatment procedures. Here, eight dwarf goats (Capra hircus) learned a series of 10 visual four-choice discriminations using an automated device that allowed individual ad lib. access to the test setup while staying in a familiar environment and normal social setting. The animals were trained on each problem for 5 days, followed by concurrent testing of the current against the previous problem. Once all 10 problems had been learned, they were tested concurrently over the course of 9 days. In initial training, all goats achieved criterion learning levels on nearly all problems within 2 days and under 200 trials. Concurrently presenting the problems trained in adjacent sessions did not impair performance on either problem relative to single-problem learning. Upon concurrent presentation of all 10 previously learned problems, at least half were well-remembered immediately. Although this test revealed a recency effect (later problems were better remembered), many early-learned problems were also well-retained, and 10-item relearning was quite quick. These results show that dwarf goats can retain multiple-problem information proficiently and can do so over periods of several weeks. From an ecological point of view, the ability to form numerous associations between visual cues offered by specific plants and food quality is an important pre-grazing mechanism that helps goats exploit variation in vegetation and graze selectively.

  7. Neural Representation of Concurrent Vowels in Macaque Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I; Micheyl, Christophe; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception in real-world environments requires that the auditory system segregate competing voices that overlap in frequency and time into separate streams. Vowels are major constituents of speech and are comprised of frequencies (harmonics) that are integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency (F0). The pitch and identity of a vowel are determined by its F0 and spectral envelope (formant structure), respectively. When two spectrally overlapping vowels differing in F0 are presented concurrently, they can be readily perceived as two separate "auditory objects" with pitches at their respective F0s. A difference in pitch between two simultaneous vowels provides a powerful cue for their segregation, which in turn, facilitates their individual identification. The neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent vowels based on pitch differences are poorly understood. Here, we examine neural population responses in macaque primary auditory cortex (A1) to single and double concurrent vowels (/a/ and /i/) that differ in F0 such that they are heard as two separate auditory objects with distinct pitches. We find that neural population responses in A1 can resolve, via a rate-place code, lower harmonics of both single and double concurrent vowels. Furthermore, we show that the formant structures, and hence the identities, of single vowels can be reliably recovered from the neural representation of double concurrent vowels. We conclude that A1 contains sufficient spectral information to enable concurrent vowel segregation and identification by downstream cortical areas.

  8. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Juliette Albert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  9. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  10. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...... of such to evolutionary game theoretical frameworks inspired by the models of (Maynard Smith & Price 1973), (Taylor & Jonker 1978) and (Maynard Smith 1982). By providing an account of equilibrium selection these are thought to work as well-defined metaphors of learning processes upon which a revised theory of convention...

  11. Genetic algorithm guided population pharmacokinetic model development for simvastatin, concurrently or non-concurrently co-administered with amlodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedula, Ayyappa; Sale, Mark E; Lee, Howard

    2014-02-01

    An automated model development was performed for simvastatin, co-administered with amlodipine concurrently or non-concurrently (i.e., 4 hours later) in 17 patients with coexisting hyperlipidemia and hypertension. The single objective hybrid genetic algorithm (SOHGA) was implemented in the NONMEM software by defining the search space for structural, statistical and covariate models. Candidate models obtained from the SOHGA runs were further assessed for biological plausibility and the precision of parameter estimates, followed by traditional backward elimination process for model refinement. The final population pharmacokinetic model shows that the elimination rate constant for simvastatin acid, the active form by hydrolysis of its lactone prodrug (i.e., simvastatin), is only 44% in the concurrent amlodipine administration group compared with the non-concurrent group. The application of SOHGA for automated model selection, combined with traditional model selection strategies, appears to save time for model development, which also can generate new hypotheses that are biologically more plausible.

  12. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  13. early weight-bearing after ankle fracture fixation: a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I then determined to study and compare the functional benefit of early weight- bearing as compared ... management strategies after surgical treatment which have included ..... compensation expectations or concurrent medical comorbidity were ...

  14. Structural changes concurrent with ferromagnetic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Sen; Bao Hui-Xin; Zhou Chao; Wang Yu; Ren Xiao-Bing; Song Xiao-Ping; Yoshitaka Matsushita

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetic transition has generally been considered to involve only an ordering of magnetic moment with no change in the host crystal structure or symmetry,as evidenced by a wealth of crystal structure data from conventional X-ray diffractometry (XRD).However,the existence of magnetostriction in all known ferromagnetic systems indicates that the magnetic moment is coupled to the crystal lattice; hence there is a possibility that magnetic ordering may cause a change in crystal structure.With the development of high-resolution synchrotron XRD,more and more magnetic transitions have been found to be accompanied by simultaneous structural changes.In this article,we review our recent progress in understanding the structural change at a ferromagnetic transition,including synchrotron XRD evidence of structural changes at the ferromagnetic transition,a phenomenological theory of crystal structure changes accompanying ferromagnetic transitions,new insight into magnetic morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) and so on.Two intriguing implications of non-centric symmetry in the ferromagnetic phase and the first-order nature of ferromagnetic transition are also discussed here.In short,this review is intended to give a self-consistent and logical account of structural change occurring simultaneously with a ferromagnetic transition,which may provide new insight for developing highly magneto-responsive materials.

  15. Toxicity of concurrent radiochemotherapy for locally advanced non--small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Caro C; Wouterse, Sanne J; Daams, Joost G; Uitterhoeve, Lon L; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Belderbos, José S

    2013-09-01

    Concurrent radiochemotherapy (RCT) is the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two meta-analyses were inconclusive in an attempt to define the optimal concurrent RCT scheme. Besides efficacy, treatment toxicity will influence the appointed treatment of choice. A systematic review of the literature was performed to record the early and late toxicities, as well as overall survival, of concurrent RCT regimens in patients with NSCLC. The databases of PubMed, Ovid, Medline, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles on concurrent RCT published between January 1992 and December 2009. Publications of phase II and phase III trials with ≥ 50 patients per treatment arm were selected. Patient characteristics, chemotherapy regimen (mono- or polychemotherapy, high or low dose) and radiotherapy scheme, acute and late toxicity, and overall survival data were compared. Seventeen articles were selected: 12 studies with cisplatin-containing regimens and 5 studies using carboplatin. A total of 13 series with mono- or polychemotherapy schedules--as single dose or double or triple high-dose or daily cisplatin-containing (≤ 30 mg/m(2)/wk) chemotherapy were found. Acute esophagitis ≥ grade 3 was observed in up to 18% of the patients. High-dose cisplatin regimens resulted in more frequent and severe hematologic toxicity, nausea, and vomiting than did other schemes. The toxicity profile was more favorable in low-dose chemotherapy schedules. From phase II and III trials published between 1992 and 2010, it can be concluded that concurrent RCT with monochemotherapy consisting of daily cisplatin results in favorable acute and late toxicity compared with concurrent RCT with single high-dose chemotherapy, doublets, or triplets.

  16. La eficacia clínica de la carga convencional, precoz e inmediata en sobredentaduras mandibulares con implantes dentales: Un estudio comparativo a cinco años The clinical efficacy of conventional, early and immediate in mandibular overdentures with dental implants: A 5-year comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Linares Gancedo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El estudio muestra la evaluación de los pacientes edéntulos totales tratados con sobredentaduras mandibulares con implantes dentales mediante diferentes tipos de carga funcional. Métodos. 33 pacientes edéntulos totales fueron tratados con 127 implantes en la mandíbula para su rehabilitación prostodóncica con sobredentaduras. Todos los implantes fueron insertados en la cirugía y fueron cargados de forma convencional, precoz o inmediata. Resultados. Después de un seguimiento clínico medio de 67,5 meses (rango: 36-108 meses, los resultados indican un éxito de los implantes del 96,9% porque 4 implantes fracasaron. El 100% de los pacientes fueron tratados con una sobredentadura implantosoportada, el 60,9% con retenedores de bolas y el 31,9% mediante barras. Conclusiones. El estudio indica que la rehabilitación oral de los pacientes edéntulos con sobredentaduras mandibulares implantosoportadas mediante su carga convencional, precoz o inmediata pueden obtener la oseointegración y representar una terapéutica odontológica con éxito.Introduction. This study reports the evaluation of edentulous patients treated with overdentures in the mandible by different loading protocols of dental implants. Patients and Methods. 33 edentulous patients were treated with 127 implants for prosthodontic rehabilitation with overdentures in the mandible. All implants were inserted in one-stage and were loaded with conventional, early and immediate protocols. Results. After a mean follow-up of 67,5 months (range: 36-108 months, clinical results indicate a success rate of implants of 96,9%. Four implants were lost. 100% of patients were treated with overdentures, 60,9% with ball attachments and 39,1% with bar retained. Conclusions. This study indicate that oral rehabilitation in the mandible of edentulous patients with overdentures supported by implants can achieve osseointegration and were loaded conventionally, early and immediately as a

  17. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-09

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

  18. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  19. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  20. Conventional rhythms enhance infants' and adults' perception of musical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Hannon, Erin E

    2009-01-01

    Listeners may favour particular rhythms because of their degree of conformity to culture-specific expectations or because of perceptual constraints that are apparent early in development. In two experiments we examined adults' and 6-month-old infants' detection of subtle rhythmic and melodic changes to two sequences of tones, a conventional rhythm that musically untrained adults rated as rhythmically good and an unconventional rhythm that was rated as poor. Detection of the changes was above chance in all conditions, but adults and infants performed more accurately in the context of the conventional rhythm. Unlike adults, who benefited from rhythmic conventionality only when detecting rhythmic changes, infants benefited when detecting melodic as well as rhythmic changes. The findings point to infant and adult parallels for some aspects of rhythm processing and to integrated perception of rhythm and melody early in life.

  1. Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Bevacizumab in Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: A Prospective Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Alvin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Sampson, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Allen, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng; Craciunescu, Oana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Vredenburgh, James J.; Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: john.kirkpatrick@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Virtually all patients with malignant glioma (MG) eventually recur. This study evaluates the safety of concurrent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and bevacizumab (BVZ), an antiangiogenic agent, in treatment of recurrent MG. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with recurrent MG, treated at initial diagnosis with surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy/temozolomide and then at least 1 salvage chemotherapy regimen, were enrolled in this prospective trial. Lesions <3 cm in diameter were treated in a single fraction, whereas those 3 to 5 cm in diameter received 5 5-Gy fractions. BVZ was administered immediately before SRS and 2 weeks later. Neurocognitive testing (Mini-Mental Status Exam, Trail Making Test A/B), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) quality-of-life assessment, physical exam, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were performed immediately before SRS and 1 week and 2 months following completion of SRS. The primary endpoint was central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included survival, quality of life, microvascular properties as measured by DCE-MRI, steroid usage, and performance status. Results: One grade 3 (severe headache) and 2 grade 2 CNS toxicities were observed. No patients experienced grade 4 to 5 toxicity or intracranial hemorrhage. Neurocognition, quality of life, and Karnofsky performance status did not change significantly with treatment. DCE-MRI results suggest a significant decline in tumor perfusion and permeability 1 week after SRS and further decline by 2 months. Conclusions: Treatment of recurrent MG with concurrent SRS and BVZ was not associated with excessive toxicity in this prospective trial. A randomized trial of concurrent SRS/BVZ versus conventional salvage therapy is needed to establish the efficacy of this approach.

  2. Concurrent laparoscopic morgagni hernia repair and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Grace; Tedesco, Maureen; Eisenberg, Dan

    2012-12-01

    The Morgagni-type anterior diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect that is a very uncommon hernia presenting in an adult. Surgical repair is usually recommended upon diagnosis and often requires synthetic mesh for a durable, tension-free repair. The use of synthetic mesh concurrently with several of bariatric operations is controversial owing to the potential for mesh infection. In this report we describe a laparoscopic repair of a symptomatic Morgagni hernia with synthetic mesh, concurrently with sleeve gastrectomy, in a morbidly obese man. The patient was a 58-year-old man with a body mass index of 48 kg/m(2) and associated co-morbid conditions that included obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and osteoarthritis. He was diagnosed with Morgagni hernia with exertional dyspnia. He underwent concurrent laparoscopic Morgagni hernia repair with mesh and sleeve gastrectomy. At 2 months after surgery the patient was doing well and tolerating solid foods, and his percentage excess weight loss was 35%. He was exercising regularly and had no exertional dyspnea. Laparoscopy is an attractive approach to performing multiple intra-abdominal procedures concurrently. The Morgagni hernia repair with mesh can be performed safely and effectively using a laparoscopic approach. This can be performed concurrently with bariatric surgery in the morbidly obese.

  3. Strategy of Concurrent Optimization for an Assembly Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; LIU Lu-ning; ZE Xiang-bo

    2005-01-01

    An effective constraint release based approach to realize concurrent optimization for an assembly sequence is proposed. To quantify the measurement of assembly efficiency, a mathematical model of concurrency evaluation index was put forward at first, and then a technology to quantify assembly constraints was developed by application of some fuzzy logic algorithms. In the process of concurrent optimization of the assembly sequence, two kinds of constraints were involved. One was self-constraints of components, which was used to evaluate the assemble capability of components under the condition of full-freedom. Another was an assembly constraint between components represented by geometric constraints between points, lines and planes under physical restriction conditions. The concept of connection strength degree (CSD) was introduced as one efficient indicator and the value of it was evaluated by the intersection of the two constraints mentioned above. The equivalent constraints describing the connection weights between components were realized by a well designed constraints reduction, and then the connection weights based complete assembly liaison graph was applied to release virtual connections between components. Under a given threshold value, a decomposition and reconstituting strategy for the graph with the focus on high assembly concurrency was used to realize an optimized assembly concurrency evaluation index. Finally, the availability of the approach was illustrated in an example to optimize the assembly of a shift pump.

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concurrently employed individuals under this section by one combined paycheck, drawn on a single bank account... artisans, all of whom are concurrently employed by two or more of the corporations during the calendar year... artisans who are concurrently employed by W and X. (b) A is an executive who is concurrently employed...

  5. 亚历山大托槽与传统托槽矫治器矫治初期对牙周健康影响的比较研究%Comparison of perioldontal condition between conventional and Alexander brackets during the early alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王碧娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal indices and the proportion of Porphyromonas gingivalis(P.gingivalis)between conventional pre-adjusted brackets and Alexander brackets during the early alignment. Methods Forty patients(10 to 18 years old)were divided into 2 groups(group A:20 patients with Alexander brackets and group B:20 patients with conventional pre- adjusted brackets).Periodontal indices (GI,PLI,SBI and PD)and the proportion of P.gingivalis in the total bacteria in subgingival plagues were examined in both groups,using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results No significant difference was found in the indices recorded and the proportion of P.gingivalis between Groups A and B after 3 months of treatment. Conclusion Alexander brackets P.gingivalis did not have an advantage over conventional bracket with respect to the periodontal status during the early alignment.%目的:对比亚历山大托槽与传统托槽矫治器排齐阶段牙周指数及龈下菌斑中牙龈卟啉单胞菌(P. gingivalis)的发展变化。方法:选取10~18周岁接受正畸治疗的患者40例,按矫治器类型分两组。实验组20例,采用ORMCO公司生产的ALEXANDER托槽;对照组20例,采用杭州新亚生产的直丝托槽。由同一医生分别检测40例患者在矫治器戴入前,戴入后3个月检查牙周临床指标(包括牙龈指数、菌斑指数、龈沟出血指数、探诊深度),同时采集龈下菌斑样本,利用荧光实时定量聚合酶链反应检测样本P.gingivalis和总细菌的数量,计算P.gingivalis在总细菌的构成比。分析牙周临床指标和P.gingivalis的构成比在矫治前后的变化情况。结果:治疗3个月后两组间牙周指数(GI、PLI、SBI、PD)及P.gingivalis在总细菌的构成比差异无显著性。结论:ALEXANDER托槽不会更有利于牙周组织的健康,牙周的健康状况取决于口腔卫生状况。

  6. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  7. A Concurrent Product-Development Approach for Friction-Stir Welded Vehicle-Underbody Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Hariharan, A.; Pandurangan, B.

    2012-04-01

    High-strength aluminum and titanium alloys with superior blast/ballistic resistance against armor piercing (AP) threats and with high vehicle light-weighing potential are being increasingly used as military-vehicle armor. Due to the complex structure of these vehicles, they are commonly constructed through joining (mainly welding) of the individual components. Unfortunately, these alloys are not very amenable to conventional fusion-based welding technologies [e.g., gas metal arc welding (GMAW)] and to obtain high-quality welds, solid-state joining technologies such as friction-stir welding (FSW) have to be employed. However, since FSW is a relatively new and fairly complex joining technology, its introduction into advanced military-vehicle-underbody structures is not straight forward and entails a comprehensive multi-prong approach which addresses concurrently and interactively all the aspects associated with the components/vehicle-underbody design, fabrication, and testing. One such approach is developed and applied in this study. The approach consists of a number of well-defined steps taking place concurrently and relies on two-way interactions between various steps. The approach is critically assessed using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

  8. Design and Analysis Techniques for Concurrent Blackboard Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, John William

    1992-01-01

    Blackboard systems are a natural progression of knowledge-based systems into a more powerful problem solving technique. They provide a way for several highly specialized knowledge sources to cooperate to solve large, complex problems. Blackboard systems incorporate the concepts developed by rule-based and expert systems programmers and include the ability to add conventionally coded knowledge sources. The small and specialized knowledge sources are easier to develop and test, and can be hosted on hardware specifically suited to the task that they are solving. The Formal Model for Blackboard Systems was developed to provide a consistent method for describing a blackboard system. A set of blackboard system design tools has been developed and validated for implementing systems that are expressed using the Formal Model. The tools are used to test and refine a proposed blackboard system design before the design is implemented. My research has shown that the level of independence and specialization of the knowledge sources directly affects the performance of blackboard systems. Using the design, simulation, and analysis tools, I developed a concurrent object-oriented blackboard system that is faster, more efficient, and more powerful than existing systems. The use of the design and analysis tools provided the highly specialized and independent knowledge sources required for my concurrent blackboard system to achieve its design goals.

  9. A concurrent access MAC protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks without common control channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Sunil K.; Moh, Sangman; Chung, Ilyong; Kang, Moonsoo

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) consist of autonomous nodes that operate in ad hoc mode and aim at efficient utilization of spectrum resources. Usually, the cognitive nodes in a CRAHN exploit a number of available channels, but these channels are not necessarily common to all nodes. Such a network environment poses the problem of establishing a common control channel (CCC) as there might be no channel common to all the network members at all. In designing protocols, therefore, it is highly desirable to consider the network environment with no CCC. In this article, we propose a MAC protocol called concurrent access MAC (CA-MAC) that operates in the network environment with no CCC. The two devices in a communication pair can communicate with each other even if they have only one common channel available. Therefore, the problems with CCC (such as channel saturation and denial of service attacks) can also be resolved. In CA-MAC, channel accesses are distributed over communication pairs, resulting in increased network connectivity. In addition, CA-MAC allows different communication pairs to access multiple channels concurrently. According to our performance study, CA-MAC provides higher network connectivity with shorter channel access delay compared to SYN-MAC, which is the conventional key MAC protocol for the network environment with no CCC, resulting in better network throughput.

  10. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M.(Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India); Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first ...

  11. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia ANDRITOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference is important for the global awareness: “Human beings have the basic right for freedom, equality and conditions of a satisfying life, in an environment with a quality that allows him to live with dignity and well being. He has the solemn duty to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations (…”. This article proclaims a right for the environment. A new law seems to have arisen with the apparition of this convention: the right of a healthy human being and of a healthy environment. This law is bipolar because it associates the human beings to nature. Human beings have the right to live in a healthy environment and this is why he has to protect nature. This does not represent a right of the human beings from a strict point of view. This is a right that has a universal value. The right to a healthy environment can not be put in the same category as the right to live or the right to be healthy, because this right contains the latter.

  12. Internal Consistency and Concurrent Validity of the Questionnaire for Limitations and Restrictions Assessment in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca-Duque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common diagnoses in child psychiatry, its early diagnosis is of great importance for intervention at family, school and social environment. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, a questionnaire was designed to assess activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD. The questionnaire was called “CLARP-ADHD Parent and Teacher Version”. Objective: To determine the degree of internal consistency of the CLARP-ADHD questionnaire, and its concurrent validity with the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ parent and teacher version”. Material and Methods: A sample of 203 children aged 6 to 12 with ADHD, currently attending school in five Colombian cities. The questionnaires were applied to parents and teachers. The internal consistency analysis was performed through Cronbach coefficient and concurrent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient utilizing multiple and unique predictors through multiple linear regression as well as simple regression models. Results: A high internal consistency was found for global questionnaires for each of its domains. The CLARP-ADHD for parents gave as result an internal consistency of 0.83, and the CLARP-ADHD for teachers one of 0.93. Concurrent validity was found between the CLARP-ADHD and the SDQ Parent and Teacher version; also, concurrence between the CLARPADHD for Teachers and the SDQ Teachers was found, as well as between CLARP ADHD for Parents and CLARP ADHD Teachers, given by p values of p < 0.001.

  13. Concurrent Engineering Oriented CAx/DFx Information Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The information integration, especially in CAD/CAPP/CAM, is a basis for realizing the integrated and concurrent product development in Concurrent Engineering (CE) environment. The integration technology based on STEP application protocol gives an effective way for the CAx/DFx information integration. This paper discusses the characteristics of concurrent product development, analyzes the methodology and technology of STEP, proposes an information integration approach based on STEP AP214, and presents the strategy of product data integration and an integration system implementation architecture. The integration technology based on STEP application protocol and the ST-Developer tools is realized in a prototype system to support product data integration between CAD and its follow-up systems through STEP physical file and STEP information exchange interface.

  14. Formal Relationships Between Geometrical and Classical Models for Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Goubault, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of models for concurrent programs has been proposed during the past decades, each one focusing on various aspects of computations: trace equivalence, causality between events, conflicts and schedules due to resource accesses, etc. More recently, models with a geometrical flavor have been introduced, based on the notion of cubical set. These models are very rich and expressive since they can represent commutation between any bunch of events, thus generalizing the principle of true concurrency. While they seem to be very promising - because they make possible the use of techniques from algebraic topology in order to study concurrent computations - they have not yet been precisely related to the previous models, and the purpose of this paper is to fill this gap. In particular, we describe an adjunction between Petri nets and cubical sets which extends the previously known adjunction between Petri nets and asynchronous transition systems by Nielsen and Winskel.

  15. Mathematical techniques for analyzing concurrent and probabilistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, J J M M; Panangaden, Prakash; Panangaden, Prakash; Breugel, Franck van

    2004-01-01

    The book consists of two sets of lecture notes devoted to slightly different methods of analysis of concurrent and probabilistic computational systems. The first set of lectures develops a calculus of streams (a generalization of the set of natural numbers) based on the coinduction principle coming from the theory of coalgebras. It is now well understood that the interplay between algebra (for describing structure) and coalgebra (for describing dynamics) is crucial for understanding concurrent systems. There is a striking analogy between streams and formula calculus reminiscent to those appearing in quantum calculus. These lecture notes will appeal to anyone working in concurrency theory but also to algebraists and logicians. The other set of lecture notes focuses on methods for automatically verifying probabilistic systems using techniques of model checking. The unique aspect of these lectures is the coverage of both theory and practice. The authors have been responsible for one of the most successful experi...

  16. Concurrent Driving Method with Fast Scan Rate for Large Mutual Capacitance Touch Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gamal Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel touch screen control technique is introduced, which scans each frame in two steps of concurrent multichannel driving and differential sensing. The proposed technique substantially increases the scan rate and reduces the ambient noise effectively. It is also extended to a multichip architecture to support excessively large touch screens with great scan rate improvement. The proposed method has been implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS TowerJazz process and tested with FPGA and AFE board connecting a 23-inch touch screen. Experimental results show a scan rate improvement of up to 23.8 times and an SNR improvement of 24.6 dB over the conventional method.

  17. Concurrent negotiation and coordination for grid resource coallocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong; Shi, Benyun

    2010-06-01

    Bolstering resource coallocation is essential for realizing the Grid vision, because computationally intensive applications often require multiple computing resources from different administrative domains. Given that resource providers and consumers may have different requirements, successfully obtaining commitments through concurrent negotiations with multiple resource providers to simultaneously access several resources is a very challenging task for consumers. The impetus of this paper is that it is one of the earliest works that consider a concurrent negotiation mechanism for Grid resource coallocation. The concurrent negotiation mechanism is designed for 1) managing (de)commitment of contracts through one-to-many negotiations and 2) coordination of multiple concurrent one-to-many negotiations between a consumer and multiple resource providers. The novel contributions of this paper are devising 1) a utility-oriented coordination (UOC) strategy, 2) three classes of commitment management strategies (CMSs) for concurrent negotiation, and 3) the negotiation protocols of consumers and providers. Implementing these ideas in a testbed, three series of experiments were carried out in a variety of settings to compare the following: 1) the CMSs in this paper with the work of others in a single one-to-many negotiation environment for one resource where decommitment is allowed for both provider and consumer agents; 2) the performance of the three classes of CMSs in different resource market types; and 3) the UOC strategy with the work of others [e.g., the patient coordination strategy (PCS )] for coordinating multiple concurrent negotiations. Empirical results show the following: 1) the UOC strategy achieved higher utility, faster negotiation speed, and higher success rates than PCS for different resource market types; and 2) the CMS in this paper achieved higher final utility than the CMS in other works. Additionally, the properties of the three classes of CMSs in

  18. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Elderly Patients with Locally Advanced Esophageal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Bae Kwon; Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Young [Gyeongsang Institute of Health Sciences, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyeong Won; Kang, Jung Hoon; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Won Seob [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    The effect of concurrent chemoradiotherapy was analyzed in elderly patients when used in the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer. The retrospective analysis included 28 elderly patients aged 65 or older, with histopathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy from January 2001 to July 2007. The squamous cell carcinoma disease stages included 8 patients (28.8%) in stage IIa, 10 patients (35.7%) in stage IIb, and 10 patients (35.7%) in stage III. Fractionated radiotherapy was performed with a 6 MV or 10 MV X-ray for 45{approx}63 Gy (median: 59.4 Gy). Chemotherapy was applied concurrently with the initiation of radiotherapy. A 75 mg/m2 dose of Cisplatin was intravenously administered on day 1. Further, 5-FU 1,000 mg/m2 was continuously administered intravenously from days 1 to 4. This regimen was performed twice at 3-week intervals during radiotherapy. Two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy was performed after radiotherapy. The follow-up period was 3{approx}72 months (median: 19 months). The treatment responses after concurrent chemoradiotherapy included a complete response in 11 patients (39.3%), a partial response in 14 patients (50.0%), and no response in 3 patients (10.7%). The overall response rate was 89.3% (25 patients). The overall 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 55.9%, 34.6% and 24.2%, respectively. The median survival time was 15 months. Two-year survival rates of patients with a complete response, partial response, and no response were 46.2%, 33.0%, and 0%, respectively. The stage and tumor response after concurrent chemoradiotherapy were statistically significant prognostic factors related with survival. No treatment-related deaths occurred in this study. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is a relatively effective treatment without serious complications in elderly patients with locally-advanced esophageal cancer.

  19. Heat Treatment of Die and Mould Oriented Concurrent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiong; ZHANG Hong-bing; RUAN Xue-yu; LUO Zhong-hua; ZHANG Yan

    2006-01-01

    Many disadvantages exist in the traditional die design method which belongs to serial pattern. It is well known that heat treatment is highly important to the dies. A new idea of concurrent design for heat treatment process of die and mould was developed in order to overcome the existent shortcomings of heat treatment process. Heat treatment CAD/CAE was integrated with concurrent circumstance and the relevant model was built. These investigations can remarkably improve efficiency, reduce cost and ensure quality of R and D for products.

  20. Concurrent engineering and product models in seafood companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology (IT) support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry can...... benefit from the CE approach which can support product developers to provide concurrent specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging, and production methods. The approach involves the use of product models from which line extensions are more easily generated than by use of customary stepwise...

  1. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  2. Separative power of an optimised concurrent gas centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogovalov, Sergey; Boman, Vladimir [National Research Nuclear University (MEPHI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The problem of separation of isotopes in a concurrent gas centrifuge is solved analytically for an arbitrary binary mixture of isotopes. The separative power of the optimised concurrent gas centrifuges for the uranium isotopes equals to δU = 12.7 (V/700 m/s)2(300 K/T)(L/1 m) kg·SWU/yr, where L and V are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge and T is the temperature. This equation agrees well with the empirically determined separative power of optimised counter-current gas centrifuges.

  3. Separative Power of an Optimised Concurrent Gas Centrifuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Bogovalov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of separation of isotopes in a concurrent gas centrifuge is solved analytically for an arbitrary binary mixture of isotopes. The separative power of the optimised concurrent gas centrifuges for the uranium isotopes equals to δU = 12.7 (V/700 m/s2(300 K/T(L/1 m kg·SWU/yr, where L and V are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge and T is the temperature. This equation agrees well with the empirically determined separative power of optimised counter-current gas centrifuges.

  4. Molecular concordance of concurrent Candida albicans candidemia and candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Yen; Hung, Min-Hui; Shie, Shian-Sen; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Ke-Yuan; Ye, Jung-Jr; Chiang, Ping-Cheng; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Huang, Ching-Tai

    2013-07-01

    The significance of candiduria remains unclear. We correlated Candida albicans candidemia with candiduria by molecular genotyping. 33 pairs of concurrent blood and urine C. albicans isolates from 31 adult (≥ 18 years) were genotyped with infrequent-restriction-site PCR. The molecular concordance rates of three major genotypes were 100% for I, 82% for II, and 71% for III. The molecular concordance between concurrent C. albicans candidemia and candiduria was frequent. Our findings substantiate the importance of candiduria in appropriate clinical context as the majority of our patients were from intensive care units.

  5. Implementing Concurrency Control in Reliable Distributed Object-Oriented Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, Graham D.; Shrivastava, Santosh K.

    One of the key concepts available in many object-oriented programming languages is that of type-inheritance, which permits new types to be derived from, and inherit the capabilities of, old types. This paper describes how to exploit this property in a very simple fashion to implement object-oriented concurrency control. We show how by using type-inheritance, objects may control their own level of concurrency in a type-specific manner. Simple examples demonstrate the applicability of the approach. The implementation technique described here is being used to develop Arjuna, a fault-tolerant distributed programming system supporting atomic actions.

  6. Clinical evidence in concurrence of retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei; LIN Hao-tian; BAI Yu-jing; GE Jian; ZHUO Ye-hong

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is rarely complicated by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To provide clinical evidences for this rare situation, we report the concurrence of these two diseases in two children of a Chinese family. In the present two-child Chinese family without positive history, the older sister presented with bilateral sector RP and coexisting chronic angle-closure glaucoma,and the brother with bilateral whole RP but without coexisting glaucoma. Clinical evidences in concurrence of variants of RP and glaucoma because of possible different gene mutations from the same genetic background represent a rare situation, which may provide clues for future researches in molecular pathogenesis of these rare diseases.

  7. 双额叶重度脑挫裂伤并发中央型脑疝的早期救治观察和预后分析%Early treatment of central herniation observation and prognosis of dual frontal concurrent severe cerebral contusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 袁素萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨双额叶重度脑挫裂伤并发中央型脑疝的早期治疗效果。方法选取双额叶重度脑挫裂伤并发中央型脑疝患者54例,采用随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用早期手术治疗,对照组则不接受手术治疗。比较两组临床疗效及预后。结果经过治疗后,观察组GCS评分(12.98±3.85)分,显著高于对照组的(11.35±4.12)分(t=2.354,P<0.05),观察组ICU时间及总入院时间明显短于对照组(t=10.007,P<0.01;t=19.278,P<0.01);观察组恢复良好率(40.74%)显著高于对照组(14.81%)(χ2=4.523,P<0.05),观察组中残率、重残率、植物生存率及病死率(33.33%、14.81%、7.41%、3.70%)均低于对照组(44.44%、22.22%、11.11%、7.41%),但差异均无统计学意义(χ2=2.587、2.135、2.268、2.189,均P>0.05)。结论对双额叶重度脑挫裂伤并发中央型脑疝患者进行早期诊断,采用手术治疗方法进行开颅减压,能明显提高治愈率,有效改善预后。%Objective To investigate the bilateral frontal cerebral contusion complicated by severe central herniation early treatment .Methods 54 cases of severe bilateral frontal cerebral contusion complicated by central herniation patients were randomly divided into the observation group and control group using number table .The obser-vation group were taken the early surgical treatment and the control group were not underwent surgery .The clinical symptoms and prognosis of treatment were compared .Results After treatment ,the GCS score of the observation group was (12.98 ±3.85),which was higher than (11.35 ±4.12) of the control group(t=2.354,P0.05).Conclusion Dual frontal severe brain injury complicated by central herniation patients with early diagnosis and surgical treatment method using craniotomy decompression can

  8. Paclitaxel and carboplatin concurrent with radiotherapy for primary cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FYFL; Bos, AME; Gietema, JA; Pras, E; Van Der Zee, AGJ; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB

    2004-01-01

    Background: Concurrent radiochemotherapy is currently considered the new standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Eight women with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA were treated with standard radiation therapy in combination with standard carboplatin (AUC=2, once wee

  9. Unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm presenting with concurrent Morgagni hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masor, Jonathan J; Davis, S Scott; Chen, Edward P; Henry, Travis S; Book, Wendy M

    2015-10-01

    We describe a patient with dyspnea and intermittent cyanosis who was found to have concurrent right diaphragmatic and right atrial masses, initially thought to have advanced vascular sarcoma. She was ultimately diagnosed with an unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, a Morgagni hernia, and a patent foramen ovale. Her dyspnea and cyanosis resolved after sequential surgical correction of these defects.

  10. Partnership duration, concurrency, and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry; Isaac, Alan

    2017-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the exceptionally high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is the practice of long-term overlapping heterosexual partnering. This article shows that long-duration concurrent partnering can be protective against HIV transmission rather than promoting it. Monogamous partnering prevents sexual transmission to anyone outside the partnership and, in an initially concordant-seronegative partnership, prevents sexual acquisition of HIV by either partner. Those protections against transmission and acquisition last as long as the partnership persists without new outside partnerships. Correspondingly, these two protective effects characterise polygynous partnerships, whether or not the polygyny is formal or informal, until a partner initiates a new partnership. Stable and exclusive unions of any size protect against HIV transmission, and more durable unions provide a longer protective effect. Survey research provides little information on partnership duration in sub-Saharan Africa and sheds no light on the interaction of duration, concurrency, and HIV. This article shows how assumptions about partnership duration in individual-based sexual-network models affect the contours of simulated HIV epidemics. Longer mean partnership duration slows the pace at which simulated epidemics grow. With plausible assumptions about partnership duration and at levels of concurrency found in the region, simulated HIV epidemics grow slowly or not at all. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that long-duration partnering is protective against HIV and inconsistent with the hypothesis that long-term concurrency drives the HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Concurrent Constraint Programming: A Language and Its Execution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    To overcome inefficiency in traditional logic programming, a declarative programming language COPS is designed based on the notion of concurrent constraint programming (CCP). The improvement is achieved by the adoption of constraint-based heuristic strategy and the introduction of deterministic components in the framework of CCP. Syntax specification and an operational semantic description are presented.

  12. Hyperlactatemia and concurrent use of antiretroviral therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    hyperlactatemia and concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. Methods: A ... We consecutively recruited all eligible HIV infected patients above 18 years admitted on the emergency ward. Data were ... L predicted a 7-fold higher mortality among patients with sepsis. ... National Council of Science and Technology. We.

  13. Selective Impairment of Auditory Selective Attention under Concurrent Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…

  14. Type and Behaviour Reconstruction for Higher-Order Concurrent Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amtoft, T.; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a sound and complete type and behaviour inference algorithm for a fragment of CML (Standard ML with primitives for concurrency). Behaviours resemble terms of a process algebra and yield a concise representation of the communications taking place during execution; types...

  15. The Concurrent Development of Spelling Skills in Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    The study reported on in this paper investigated the concurrent development of spelling in children learning two languages. The study compared over time and between languages the types of spelling errors made in English as a first language and French as a second. Fortyseven grade one English-speaking children completed an English and French…

  16. Concurrent engineering and product models in seafood companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology (IT) support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry c...

  17. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......:These preliminary results suggest that concurrent sexual partners is an important predictor for C.trachomatis infections among young Danes aged 15-29. A more concise conclusion will be presented at the Ph.D day......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis......, but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web...

  18. A graphical Specification Language for Modeling Concurrency based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, Gerald H.; Pascoe, James; Welch, Peter; Loader, Roger; Sunderam, Vaidy

    2002-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is a new graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software designs. The language notations are derived from CSP and the resulting designs form CSP diagrams. The notations reflect both data-flow and control-flow aspects, as well as along with CSP algebraic ex

  19. Context Aware Concurrent Execution Framework for Web Browsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Erbad, Aiman; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2016-01-01

    Computing hungry multimedia web applications need to efficiently utilize all the resources of a device. HTML5 web workers is a non-sharing concurrency platform that enables multimedia web application to utilize the available multicore hardware. HTML5 web workers are implemented by major browser...

  20. Reliability and concurrent validity of the Infant Motor Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Middelburg, Karin J.; Bos, Arend F.; Eidhof, Lieke; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Aim The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) is a qualitative assessment of motor behaviour in infancy. It consists of five domains: movement variation, variability, fluency, symmetry, and performance. The aim of this study was to assess interobserver reliability and concurrent validity of the IMP with the Al

  1. A graphical Specification Language for Modeling Concurrency based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.; Pascoe, James; Welch, Peter; Loader, Roger; Sunderam, Vaidy

    2002-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is a new graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software designs. The language notations are derived from CSP and the resulting designs form CSP diagrams. The notations reflect both data-flow and control-flow aspects, as well as along with CSP algebraic

  2. Investigating the Alignment of Concurrent Design Strategies with Business Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidar Mirfakhredini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, managing the interface between design and other activities has received considerable attention. Effective coordination among these areas is therefore vital for effectiveness of the organization. The ideal situation would be continuous interdepartmental contact with well-developed channels of communication. In this study, the best strategy for product design department has been chosen using the strategic formulation framework with fuzzy approach. Subsequently, alignment of each functional design strategy with SAPCO business strategies has been explained. Findings indicate that developing partnerships with global automotive and engineering design companies and building strategic alliances with rival firms to achieve competitive advantages have maximum alignment with business strategies. In addition, findings provide a basis for firms in evaluating the concurrent design strategies and a reference for them to strengthen their concurrent capabilities. There are few reports on sustained use of concurrent design as an on-going strategic process in an organization. This study aims at contributing to the concurrent design solutions.

  3. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  4. The VerCors Tool for Verification of Concurrent Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Huisman, Marieke; Jones, Cliff; Pihlajasaari, Pekka; Sun, Jun

    The VerCors tool implements thread-modular static verification of concurrent programs, annotated with functional properties and heap access permissions. The tool supports both generic multithreaded and vector-based programming models. In particular, it can verify multithreaded programs written in

  5. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  6. History-Based Verification of Functional Behaviour of Concurrent Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Huisman, Marieke; Zaharieva, M.; Calinescu, Radu; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    We extend permission-based separation logic with a history-based mechanism to simplify the verification of functional properties in concurrent programs. This allows one to specify the local behaviour of a method intuitively in terms of actions added to a local history; local histories can be combine

  7. Appendicitis Presenting Concurrently with Cecal Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil P Parikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is a commonly diagnosed surgical problem in the pediatric population. Arterio-venous malformations (AVM of the colonic tract are rarely reported in the pediatric literature. A 13-year old boy who presented with acute appendicitis with concurrent cecal AVM is reported in whom appendectomy was done. Later on radiological investigations AVM was confirmed.

  8. Winning Concurrent Reachability Games Requires Doubly-Exponential Patience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2009-01-01

    We exhibit a deterministic concurrent reachability game PURGATORYn with n non-terminal positions and a binary choice for both players in every position so that any positional strategy for Player 1 achieving the value of the game within given isin < 1/2 must use non-zero behavior probabilities tha...

  9. Threaded Cognition: An Integrated Theory of Concurrent Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the idea of threaded cognition, an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking--that is, performing 2 or more tasks at once. Threaded cognition posits that streams of thought can be represented as threads of processing coordinated by a serial procedural resource and executed across other available resources (e.g., perceptual…

  10. Safe and Verifiable Design of Concurrent Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.; Welch, P.H.; Bakkers, André; Welch, P.H.; Stiles, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    The design of concurrent programs has a reputation for being difficult, and thus potentially dangerous in safetycritical real-time and embedded systems. The recent appearance of Java, whilst cleaning up many insecure aspects of OO programming endemic in C++, suffers from a deceptively simple threads

  11. The Stay/Switch Model of Concurrent Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonall, James S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment compared descriptions of concurrent choice by the stay/switch model, which says choice is a function of the reinforcers obtained for staying at and for switching from each alternative, and the generalized matching law, which says choice is a function of the total reinforcers obtained at each alternative. For the stay/switch model…

  12. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  13. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  14. 含益生元膳食纤维的早期肠内营养用于腹部外科术后的随机对照研究%Early Enteral Nutrition with Prebiotic Fiber Supply in Major Abdominal Surgery venus Conventional Enteral Nutrition: A Prospective Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊文

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨强化益生元膳食纤维的肠内营养在腹部外科术后患者中的临床应用.方法 2008年7月-2010年11月30例接受腹部外科中等以上手术的患者术前随机分为研究组和对照组,每组15例.研究组患者于术后接受肠内营养,并予以强化益生元膳食纤维;对照组只接受相同的肠内营养支持.观察指标为术后感染并发症、胃肠道并发症、住院时间、抗生素治疗时间、C反应蛋白水平和病死率等.结果 研究组术后住院时间为(10±5)d,对照组为(15±7)d,两组差异有统计学意义(t=2.251,P=0.033);研究组C反应蛋白水平为(6.6±3.2) mg/L,对照组为(9.8±2.1) mg/L,两组差异有统计学意义(t=3.238,P=0.003);研究组抗生素治疗时间为(5.0±3.5)d,对照组为(6.0±4.8)d,两组差异无统计学意义(t=0.652,P=0.520).两组均无死亡病例;术后研究组2例发生感染并发症,对照组3例,两组感染并发症发生率差异无统计学意义(P=1.000).两组患者均能耐受经肠内补充营养素.结论 与常规肠内营养比较,给予强化益生元膳食纤维的肠内营养能减少腹部外科术后患者的住院时间,降低急性期炎症反应.%Objective To investigate the effect of early enteral supply of prebiotic fiber in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods Between July 2008 and November 2010, 30 patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery were randomized into the study group and the control group before operation with 15 patients in each group. Prebiotic fiber was administered combined with enteral nutrition support for patients in the study group. Patients in the control group only received conventional enteral nutrition without fiber. The main endpoints included the development of bacterial infection, the duration of hospital stay, antibiotic therapy, the serum level of C-reaction protein (CRP), side effects of the enteral nutrition and morbidity. Results Compared with the control group

  15. Combined versus monotherapy or concurrent therapy for treatment of thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ta-Shu; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Peng, Ching-Tien; Chen, Tai-Lin; Lee, Hong-Zin; Chung, Jing-Gung; Hour, Mann-Jen

    2014-01-01

    A combined deferasirox (DFX) and deferiprone (DFP) treatment protocol for relieving thalassemia patients' iron-overload was designed and the pharmacokinetic study was performed by LC-MS/MS. For this open-label, randomized trial, eight patients were recruited and randomly allocated to different treatment regimens: (A) monotherapy with single oral dose of DFX 30 mg/kg, (B) monotherapy with DFP 80 mg/kg/day, twice daily, (C) combined therapy with DFX and DFP (DFX 30 mg/kg for first dose, DFP 40 mg/kg 7 hours later, and DFP 40 mg/kg after another 7 h) and (D) concurrent therapy with DFX 30 mg/kg and DFP 80 mg/kg. Descriptive statistics evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and MRT. A positive pharmacokinetic drug interaction was observed in combined therapy. In case of DFX, combined therapy tallied about 2-fold larger than monotherapy in AUC, 1.5-fold larger in Cmax, 1 h longer in Tmax, but 1 h shorter in T1/2. Regarding DFP, most such parameters of combined therapy concurred with monotherapy. Conversely, negative drug interaction was observed in concurrent therapy. With DFX, concurrent therapy attained 1.2- to 2.2-fold lower than monotherapy in AUC0-t and Cmax, 0.6-h shorter in Tmax, and 3-fold longer in T1/2. With DFP, concurrent therapy proved approximately 2-fold larger than monotherapy in AUC and Cmax, 2.5-fold longer in T1/2, and 1.4-fold longer in MRT. Follow-up of subjects' clinical examinations and subjective symptoms showed no adverse events. Our findings showed the combined therapy had advantages, safe, convenient and painless for patients, over the existing concurrent therapy with deferoxamine (DFO) and DFX. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent multidisciplinary mechanical design based on design task analysis and knowledge sharing; Sekkei task bunseki to joho kyoyu ni yoru mechatronics kyocho sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Ozawa, M.; Mori, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    We have developed a systematic design task planning method based on a design structure matrix(DSM) and a lumped model- based framework for knowledge sharing in a concurrent design environment as key techniques for developing higher quality products in a shorter design time. The DSM facilitates systematic analysis of dependencies among design tasks and optimization of the design process. The framework based on a lumped model description of mechanical systems enables concurrent and cooperative work among multidisciplinary designers at an early stage of the design process. In this paper, we also discuss the relationships between these techniques and the product development flow from product definition to detailed design. (author)

  17. Perfusion CT allows prediction of therapy response in non-small cell lung cancer treated with conventional and anti-angiogenic chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacelli, Nunzia; Santangelo, Teresa; Remy, Jacques [University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); Scherpereel, Arnaud; Cortot, Alexis; Wallyn, Frederic [University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Pulmonary and Thoracic Oncology, Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valerie [University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Medical Statistics, Lille (France); Klotz, Ernst [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Lafitte, Jean-Jacques [University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Pulmonary and Thoracic Oncology, Lille (France); Pasteur Institute of Lille, INSERM unit 1019, CIIL, Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine [University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); Hospital Calmette, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Lille cedex (France)

    2013-08-15

    To determine whether CT can depict early perfusion changes in lung cancer treated by anti-angiogenic drugs, allowing prediction of response. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer, treated by conventional chemotherapy with (Group 1; n = 17) or without (Group 2; n = 23) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drug (bevacizumab) underwent CT perfusion before (TIME 0) and after 1 (TIME 1), 3 (TIME 2) and 6 (TIME 3) cycles of chemotherapy. The CT parameters evaluated included: (1) total tumour vascular volume (TVV) and total tumour extravascular flow (TEF); (2) RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours) measurements. Tumour response was also assessed on the basis of the clinicians' overall evaluation. In Group 1, significant reduction in perfusion was identified between baseline and: (1) TIME 1 (TVV, P = 0.0395; TEF, P = 0.015); (2) TIME 2 (TVV, P = 0.0043; TEF, P < 0.0001); (3) TIME 3 (TVV, P = 0.0034; TEF, P = 0.0005) without any significant change in Group 2. In Group 1: (1) the reduction in TVV at TIME 1 was significantly higher in responders versus non-responders at TIME 2 according to RECIST (P = 0.0128) and overall clinicians' evaluation (P = 0.0079); (2) all responders at TIME 2 had a concurrent decrease in TVV and TEF at TIME 1. Perfusion CT demonstrates early changes in lung cancer vascularity under anti-angiogenic chemotherapy that may help predict therapeutic response. (orig.)

  18. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  19. SPRINT: A Tool to Generate Concurrent Transaction-Level Models from Sequential Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockx Johan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-level concurrent model such as a SystemC transaction-level model can provide early feedback during the exploration of implementation alternatives for state-of-the-art signal processing applications like video codecs on a multiprocessor platform. However, the creation of such a model starting from sequential code is a time-consuming and error-prone task. It is typically done only once, if at all, for a given design. This lack of exploration of the design space often leads to a suboptimal implementation. To support our systematic C-based design flow, we have developed a tool to generate a concurrent SystemC transaction-level model for user-selected task boundaries. Using this tool, different parallelization alternatives have been evaluated during the design of an MPEG-4 simple profile encoder and an embedded zero-tree coder. Generation plus evaluation of an alternative was possible in less than six minutes. This is fast enough to allow extensive exploration of the design space.

  20. SPRINT: A Tool to Generate Concurrent Transaction-Level Models from Sequential Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stahl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-level concurrent model such as a SystemC transaction-level model can provide early feedback during the exploration of implementation alternatives for state-of-the-art signal processing applications like video codecs on a multiprocessor platform. However, the creation of such a model starting from sequential code is a time-consuming and error-prone task. It is typically done only once, if at all, for a given design. This lack of exploration of the design space often leads to a suboptimal implementation. To support our systematic C-based design flow, we have developed a tool to generate a concurrent SystemC transaction-level model for user-selected task boundaries. Using this tool, different parallelization alternatives have been evaluated during the design of an MPEG-4 simple profile encoder and an embedded zero-tree coder. Generation plus evaluation of an alternative was possible in less than six minutes. This is fast enough to allow extensive exploration of the design space.

  1. Oncologists’ Perspectives on Concurrent Palliative Care in an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Ahles, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To understand oncology clinicians’ perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. Methods Qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Results Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: 1) treating the whole patient, 2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, 3) “some patients just want to fight”, and 4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists’ views on the complementary role of palliative care: 1) “refer early and often”, 2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals hospice; “Heme patients are different”, 3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, 4) palliative care “shares the load”, and 5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Conclusions Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care. PMID:23040412

  2. Oncologists' perspectives on concurrent palliative care in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Ahles, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand oncology clinicians' perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. This was a qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: (1) treating the whole patient, (2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, (3) “some patients just want to fight,” and (4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists' views on the complementary role of palliative care: (1) “refer early and often,” (2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals “hospice”; “Heme patients are different,” (3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, (4) palliative care “shares the load,” and (5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care.

  3. Concurrent Mission and Systems Design at NASA Glenn Research Center: The Origins of the COMPASS Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Established at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in 2006 to meet the need for rapid mission analysis and multi-disciplinary systems design for in-space and human missions, the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team is a multidisciplinary, concurrent engineering group whose primary purpose is to perform integrated systems analysis, but it is also capable of designing any system that involves one or more of the disciplines present in the team. The authors were involved in the development of the COMPASS team and its design process, and are continuously making refinements and enhancements. The team was unofficially started in the early 2000s as part of the distributed team known as Team JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) in support of the multi-center collaborative JIMO spacecraft design during Project Prometheus. This paper documents the origins of a concurrent mission and systems design team at GRC and how it evolved into the COMPASS team, including defining the process, gathering the team and tools, building the facility, and performing studies.

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  5. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with

  6. The Design of a Primary Flight Trainer using Concurrent Engineering Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladesic, James G.; Eastlake, Charles N.; Kietzmann, Nicholas H.

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) concepts seek to coordinate the expertise of various disciplines from initial design configuration selection through product disposal so that cost efficient design solutions may be achieve. Integrating this methodology into an undergraduate design course sequence may provide a needed enhancement to engineering education. The Advanced Design Program (ADP) project at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (EMU) is focused on developing recommendations for the general aviation Primary Flight Trainer (PFT) of the twenty first century using methods of CE. This project, over the next two years, will continue synthesizing the collective knowledge of teams composed of engineering students along with students from other degree programs, their faculty, and key industry representatives. During the past year (Phase I). conventional trainer configurations that comply with current regulations and existing technologies have been evaluated. Phase I efforts have resulted in two baseline concepts, a high-wing, conventional design named Triton and a low-wing, mid-engine configuration called Viper. In the second and third years (Phases II and III). applications of advanced propulsion, advanced materials, and unconventional airplane configurations along with military and commercial technologies which are anticipated to be within the economic range of general aviation by the year 2000, will be considered.

  7. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  8. Designing asynchronous circuits using NULL convention logic (NCL)

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Designing Asynchronous Circuits using NULL Convention Logic (NCL) begins with an introduction to asynchronous (clockless) logic in general, and then focuses on delay-insensitive asynchronous logic design using the NCL paradigm. The book details design of input-complete and observable dual-rail and quad-rail combinational circuits, and then discusses implementation of sequential circuits, which require datapath feedback. Next, throughput optimization techniques are presented, including pipelining, embedding registration, early completion, and NULL cycle reduction. Subsequently, low-power design

  9. International law problems for realisation of the IAEA conventions on notification and assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident underscored the need for an early warning system and international assistance plan in case of a nuclear accident. Shortly after Chernobyl, two conventions were adopted under the auspices of the IAEA. The convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in force since 1986, establishes an early warning system for all nuclear accidents whose effects might cross national boundaries. Under the convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear accident or radiological Emergency,in force since 1987, countries must facilitate prompt assistance in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, to minimize it`s consequences. Issues with the conventions are described.

  10. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  11. A familial concurrence of schizophrenia and Gaucher's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomos Konstantinos E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher's disease (GD is the most frequently encountered lysosomal storage disease. Here, we describe and discuss the observed concurrence of schizophrenia and Gaucher's disease in two siblings. Methods Presentation of a family with two siblings with Gaucher's disease. Results In a six-member family, the first son suffers from schizophrenia, while the third and fourth sons suffer from the Gaucher's disease (type 1 non-neuronopathic. The parents and the second son do not suffer from either illness. Conclusion The concurrence of schizophrenia and Gaucher's disease in the same family is an unusual phenomenon. The literature regarding this coincidence is limited, despite the fact that patients with Gaucher's disease have one or two mutated alleles, considered to be a risk factor leading to conditions such as Dementia, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.

  12. Concurrent conditions and human listeriosis, England, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, Piers; O'Brien, Sarah J; Gillespie, Iain A

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of listeriosis in England and Wales changed during 2001-2008; more patients ≥60 years of age had bacteremia than in previous years. To investigate these changes, we calculated risk for listeriosis by concurrent condition for non-pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases reported to the national surveillance system in England during 1999-2009. Conditions occurring with L. monocytogenes infection were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, and compared with appropriate hospital episode statistics inpatient denominator data to calculate incidence rates/million consultations. Malignancies (especially of the blood), kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes, alcoholism, and age ≥60 years were associated with an increased risk for listeriosis. Physicians should consider a diagnosis of listeriosis when treating patients who have concurrent conditions. Providing cancer patients, who accounted for one third of cases, with food safety information might help limit additional cases.

  13. Risk Identification and Visualization in a Concurrent Engineering Team Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Shishko, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating risk assessment into the dynamic environment of a concurrent engineering team requires rapid response and adaptation. Generating consistent risk lists with inputs from all the relevant subsystems and presenting the results clearly to the stakeholders in a concurrent engineering environment is difficult because of the speed with which decisions are made. In this paper we describe the various approaches and techniques that have been explored for the point designs of JPL's Team X and the Trade Space Studies of the Rapid Mission Architecture Team. The paper will also focus on the issues of the misuse of categorical and ordinal data that keep arising within current engineering risk approaches and also in the applied risk literature.

  14. Error resilient concurrent video streaming over wireless mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-jue; ZHANG Qian; CHUAH Chen-nee; YOO Ben S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-source multi-path video streaming system for supporting high quality concurrent video-on-demand (VoD) services over wireless mesh networks (WMNs), and leverage forward error correction to enhance the error resilience of the system. By taking wireless interference into consideration, we present a more realistic networking model to capture the characteristics of WMNs and then design a route selection scheme using a joint rate/interference-distortion optimization framework to help the system optimally select concurrent streaming paths. We mathematically formulate such a route selection problem, and solve it heuristically using genetic algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  15. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  16. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    CERN Document Server

    Takeichi, Yuki; Suzuki, Reji; Arita, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a good indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately show reactions to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. These findings were also confirmed in an analysis of the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. We further showed active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-fre...

  17. The evolution of the PVM concurrent computing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giest, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sunderam, V.S. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science

    1993-07-01

    Concurrent and distributed computing, using portable software systems or environments on general purpose networked computing platforms, has recently gained widespread attention. Many such systems have been developed, and several are in production use. This paper describes the evolution of the PVM system, a software infrastructure for concurrent computing in networked environments. PVM has evolved over the past years; it is currently in use at several hundred institutions worldwide for applications ranging from scientific supercomputing to high performance computations in medicine, discrete mathematics, and databases, and for learning parallel programming. We describe the historical evolution of the PVM system, outline the programming model and supported features, present results gained from its use, list representative applications from a variety of disciplines that PVM has been used for, and comment on future trends and ongoing research projects.

  18. Proceedings 8th International Workshop on Security Issues in Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; 10.4204/EPTCS.51

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Security Issues in Concurrency (SecCo 2010). The workshop was held in Paris, France on August 30th, 2010, as a satellite workshop of CONCUR'10. The aim of the SecCo workshop series is to cover the gap between the security and the concurrency communities. More precisely, the workshop promotes the exchange of ideas, trying to focus on common interests and stimulating discussions on central research questions. In particular, we called for papers dealing with security issues (such as authentication, integrity, privacy, confidentiality, access control, denial of service, service availability, safety aspects, fault tolerance, trust, language-based security, probabilistic and information theoretic models) in emerging fields like web services, mobile ad-hoc networks, agent-based infrastructures, peer-to-peer systems, context-aware computing, global/ubiquitous/pervasive computing.

  19. Proceedings 7th International Workshop on Security Issues in Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Boreale, Michele; 10.4204/EPTCS.7

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Security Issues in Concurrency (SecCo'09). The workshop was held in Bologna, Italy on September 5th 2009, as a satellite workshop of CONCUR'09. The aim of the SecCo workshop series is to cover the gap between the security and the concurrency communities. More precisely, the workshop promotes the exchange of ideas, trying to focus on common interests and stimulating discussions on central research questions. In particular, we called for papers dealing with security issues (such as authentication, integrity, privacy, confidentiality, access control, denial of service, service availability, safety aspects, fault tolerance, trust, language-based security, probabilistic and information theoretic models) in emerging fields like web services, mobile ad-hoc networks, agent-based infrastructures, peer-to-peer systems, context-aware computing, global/ubiquitous/pervasive computing.

  20. Separative power of an optimised concurrent gas centrifuge

    CERN Document Server

    Bogovalov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The problem of separation of uranium isotopes in a concurrent gas centrifuge is solved analytically. Separative power of the optimized concurrent gas centrifuges equals to $\\delta U=12.7(V/700~{\\rm m/s})^2 (300 ~{\\rm K}/T)L, ~{\\rm kg ~SWU/yr}$, where $L$ and $V$ are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge, $T$ is the temperature. This formula well agrees with an empirical separative power of counter current gas centrifuges. The optimal value of the separative power is not unique on the plane $(p_w,v_z)$, where $p_w$ is pressure at the wall of the rotor and $v_z$ is axial velocity of the gas. This value is constant on a line defined by the equation $p_wv_z=constant$. Equations defining the mass flux and the electric power necessary to support the rotation of the gas centrifuge are obtained.

  1. Engineering Bereitschaft as an enabler for Concurrent Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Kåre; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    will describe experience from a shipyard where an object oriented product model of a double hull supertanker and a product configurator prototype have been developed as part of an industrial Ph.D.-project. Configuration of the steel structures in a ship and the succeeding producability evaluation can......Industrial companies observe a general trend towards more customised products and shorter product life cycles. Furthermore, the market demands shorter lead-time and high-quality products at a competitive price. Concurrent Engineering address these challenges. Product modelling is a key aspect...... of the Concurrent Engineering literature. One problem with the product modelling literature is that it tends to assume that product development is revolutionary. Very often product development is evolutionary and it means that product modelling should have a major emphasis on reuse. In this paper it is suggested...

  2. Automating Fine Concurrency Control in Object-Oriented Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Malta, Carmelo; 10.1109/ICDE.1993.344057

    2010-01-01

    Several propositions were done to provide adapted concurrency control to object-oriented databases. However, most of these proposals miss the fact that considering solely read and write access modes on instances may lead to less parallelism than in relational databases! This paper cope with that issue, and advantages are numerous: (1) commutativity of methods is determined a priori and automatically by the compiler, without measurable overhead, (2) run-time checking of commutativity is as efficient as for compatibility, (3) inverse operations need not be specified for recovery, (4) this scheme does not preclude more sophisticated approaches, and, last but not least, (5) relational and object-oriented concurrency control schemes with read and write access modes are subsumed under this proposition.

  3. Construct and concurrent validity of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jinkook

    2006-04-01

    Construct and concurrent validity of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory were examined. Data were collected from 238 South Korean college students. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the original five-factor model. As hypothesized, scores were significantly correlated with various variables such as scores on the Korean versions of the Career Decision Scale (r =.49), the Vocational Identity Scale in My Vocational Situation (r=-.63), the Career Decision-making Self-efficacy Scale (r=-.47), and Negative Affectivity (r=.37). These results support construct validity inventory. Students who indicated they were undecided about their careers had significantly higher scores than those who indicated they had decided on a career, supporting concurrent validity. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  4. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  5. Product design for energy reduction in concurrent engineering: An Inverted Pyramid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadi, Nasr M.

    Energy factors in product design in concurrent engineering (CE) are becoming an emerging dimension for several reasons; (a) the rising interest in "green design and manufacturing", (b) the national energy security concerns and the dramatic increase in energy prices, (c) the global competition in the marketplace and global climate change commitments including carbon tax and emission trading systems, and (d) the widespread recognition of the need for sustainable development. This research presents a methodology for the intervention of energy factors in concurrent engineering product development process to significantly reduce the manufacturing energy requirement. The work presented here is the first attempt at integrating the design for energy in concurrent engineering framework. It adds an important tool to the DFX toolbox for evaluation of the impact of design decisions on the product manufacturing energy requirement early during the design phase. The research hypothesis states that "Product Manufacturing Energy Requirement is a Function of Design Parameters". The hypothesis was tested by conducting experimental work in machining and heat treating that took place at the manufacturing lab of the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Department (IMSE) at West Virginia University (WVU) and at a major U.S steel manufacturing plant, respectively. The objective of the machining experiment was to study the effect of changing specific product design parameters (Material type and diameter) and process design parameters (metal removal rate) on a gear head lathe input power requirement through performing defined sets of machining experiments. The objective of the heat treating experiment was to study the effect of varying product charging temperature on the fuel consumption of a walking beams reheat furnace. The experimental work in both directions have revealed important insights into energy utilization in machining and heat-treating processes and its variance based

  6. Performance of humans in concurrent avoidance/positive-reinforcement schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddle, H. V.; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; Foster, T M

    1982-01-01

    Performance maintained under concurrent schedules consisting of a variable-interval avoidance component and a variable-interval positive-reinforcement component was studied in three human subjects using points exchangeable for money as the reinforcer. The rate of responding in the avoidance component increased, and the rate of responding in the positive-reinforcement component declined, as a function of the frequency of point-losses avoided in the avoidance component. The performance of all t...

  7. TUBERCULAR MENINGITIS WITH CONCURRENT INTRACRANIAL AND INTRA-SPINAL TUBERCULOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    K.S.Hegde Medical Academy, Departments of Medicine, Neurosurgery, Pathology and Radiology, Mangalore, Karnataka, India Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis commonly manifests as tubercular meningitis CNS tuberculomas are more common intracranially and less frequently involve the spinal cord. We report an unusual case of CNS tuberculosis presented with predominant features of tubercular meningitis with concurrent intra-cranial and intra-medullary tuberculomas in any evidence of pulm...

  8. Scleromyxedema concurrent with dermatomyositis and paraproteinemia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    M N Starovoitova; O V Desinova; Guseva, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the case of a female patient who had at least three diseases: scleromyxedema, dermatomyositis/polymyositis (DM/PM), and paraproteinemia (monoclonal gammopathy). The concurrence of these diseases determines the atypism of their clinical and morphological patterns, as well as refractoriness to performed therapy. Scleromyxedema preceded DM followed by paraproteinemia, which does not rule out its presence in an earlier period when the patent was not carefully examined. The spe...

  9. Petri net model for analysis of concurrently processed complex algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a Petri-net model suitable for analyzing the concurrent processing of computationally complex algorithms. The decomposed operations are to be processed in a multiple processor, data driven architecture. Of particular interest is the application of the model to both the description of the data/control flow of a particular algorithm, and to the general specification of the data driven architecture. A candidate architecture is also presented.

  10. Computational model predictions of cues for concurrent vowel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintanpalli, Ananthakrishna; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R

    2014-10-01

    Although differences in fundamental frequencies (F0s) between vowels are beneficial for their segregation and identification, listeners can still segregate and identify simultaneous vowels that have identical F0s, suggesting that additional cues are contributing, including formant frequency differences. The current perception and computational modeling study was designed to assess the contribution of F0 and formant difference cues for concurrent vowel identification. Younger adults with normal hearing listened to concurrent vowels over a wide range of levels (25-85 dB SPL) for conditions in which F0 was the same or different between vowel pairs. Vowel identification scores were poorer at the lowest and highest levels for each F0 condition, and F0 benefit was reduced at the lowest level as compared to higher levels. To understand the neural correlates underlying level-dependent changes in vowel identification, a computational auditory-nerve model was used to estimate formant and F0 difference cues under the same listening conditions. Template contrast and average localized synchronized rate predicted level-dependent changes in the strength of phase locking to F0s and formants of concurrent vowels, respectively. At lower levels, poorer F0 benefit may be attributed to poorer phase locking to both F0s, which resulted from lower firing rates of auditory-nerve fibers. At higher levels, poorer identification scores may relate to poorer phase locking to the second formant, due to synchrony capture by lower formants. These findings suggest that concurrent vowel identification may be partly influenced by level-dependent changes in phase locking of auditory-nerve fibers to F0s and formants of both vowels.

  11. Cooperative Planning, Uncertainty, and Managerial Control in Concurrent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria L. Mitchell; Barrie R. Nault

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether cooperative planning and uncertainty affect the magnitude of rework in concurrent engineering projects with upstream and downstream operations, and explore the impact of such rework on project delays. Using survey data from a sample of 120 business process (BP) redesign and related information technology (IT) development projects in healthcare and telecommunications, our results indicate that upstream (BP) rework and downstream (IT) rework is mediated and mitigated by coope...

  12. Concurrent adversities among adolescents with conduct problems: the NAAHS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have confirmed that maltreatment and abuse in childhood are related to conduct problems. Less is known about such relationships with concurrent adversities in adolescence and, also, when compared with other severe adversities and possible multiple additive effects. The study encompassed a community population of 4881 adolescents 15-16 years of age 50.1 % boys and 49.9 % girls. Youth with and without conduct problem scores within the deviant range on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was compared on 12 concurrent adversities. Based on self-reports, 4.4 % of the adolescents had conduct problem scores within the deviant range and more girls (5.1 %) than boys (3.7 %). In the deviant conduct problem group, 65.1 % had experienced two or more concurrent adversities compared with 26.3 % of youths in the non-deviant group (OR 5.23, 95 % CI 3.91-7.01). Likewise, the deviant conduct problem group was from 1.71 to 8.43 times more at the risk of experiencing the different adversities. Parental mental health problems and experiences of violence were multivariately strongest associated with conduct problem scores within the deviant range on the SDQ. A strong multiple additive relationship with adversities was found. Two-thirds of youth with SDQ conduct problem scores within the deviant range reported two or more concurrent adversities. Clinicians should seek information about kinds and amount of possible traumatic adversities in youth with conduct problems and offer evidence based treatment.

  13. Concurrence of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Abdelghani Kaouther

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 21-year-old female patient known to have Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA who later developed multiple sclerosis (MS. The disease was documented on the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and the visual evoked potential. Our case emphasizes the need to evaluate the symptoms and brain MRI carefully. The concurrence of MS and JIA is uncommon. The possible relationship between the 2 diseases was discussed.

  14. Cauldrons: An Abstraction for Concurrent Problems Solving. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory ARtA G WORK UNIT NUMVERS S 545 Technology Square etJ Cambridge, MA 02139 TIM II...D-11194 12611 CAU1,LDRONS: AN ROSTRACTION FOR CONCURRENT PROBLEMS1/ RSOLVING REYISION(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECHCANIRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...is described, accompanied by cxanmple of their application to various domains. ’lhis report describes research done at both the MIT Artificial

  15. Concurrent Programming Using Actors: Exploiting Large-Scale Parallelism,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-07

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK* Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA Is WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square...D-R162 422 CONCURRENT PROGRMMIZNG USING f"OS XL?ITP TEH l’ LARGE-SCALE PARALLELISH(U) NASI AC E Al CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE L. G AGHA ET AL...RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDA.RDS - -96 A -E. __ _ __ __’ .,*- - -- •. - MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL

  16. Sparsest cuts and concurrent flows in product graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A cut [S.S] is a sparsest cut of a graph G if its cut value [S][S]/[S.S] is maximum (this is the reciprocal of the well-known edge-density of the cut). In the (undirected) uniform concurrent flow problem on G, between every vertex pair of G flow paths with a total flow of 1 have to be established. T

  17. Quasi serializable concurrency control in mobile broadcast environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dang Depeng; Liu Yunsheng

    2007-01-01

    The problem of maintaining data consistency in mobile broadcast environments is researched.Quasi serializability is formally defined and analyzed at first.It was shown that quasi serializability is less stringent than serializability when database consistency is maintained for transactions.Then,corresponding concurrency control protocol that supports both update transactions and read-only transactions is outlined for mobile broadcast environments.Finally,the simulation results confirmed that the proposed protocol could improve the response time significantly.

  18. CONCURRENT SPEECHES SEPARATION USING WRAPPED DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xichun; Li Yunjie; Zhang Jun; Wei Gang

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a new method for concurrent voiced speech separation. Firstly the Wrapped Discrete Fourier Transform (WDFT) is used to decompose the harmonic spectra of the mixed speeches. Then the individual speech is reconstructed by using the sinusoidal speech model. By taking advantage of the non-uniform frequency resolution of WDFT, harmonic spectra parameters can be estimated and separated accurately. Experimental results on mixed vowels separation show that the proposed method can recover the original speeches effectively.

  19. Conventional therapy for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten Büning; Herbert Lochs

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder of unknown cause. Outstanding progress regarding the pathophysiology of CD has led to the development of innovative therapeutic concepts. Numerous controlled trials have been performed in CD over the last years. However, many drugs have not been approved by regulatory authorities due to lack of efficacy or severe side effects. Therefore, well-known drugs, including 5-ASA, systemic or topical corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, are still the mainstay of CD therapy. Importantly, biologicals such as infliximab have shown to be efficacious in problematic settings such as fistulizing or steroid-dependent CD. This review is intended to give practical guidelines to clinicians for the conventional treatment of CD. We concentrated on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses, when available, that provide the highest degree of evidence. We provide evidence-based treatment algorithms whenever possible. However, many clinical situations have not been answered by controlled clinical trials and it is important to fill these gaps through expert opinions. We hope that this review offers a useful tool for clinicians in the challenging treatment of CD.

  20. Conventional and advanced imaging in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Y; Sutton, I J; Ghadiri, M; Masters, L; Zivadinov, R; Barnett, M H

    2014-08-01

    Myelitis and optic neuritis are prototypic clinical presentations of both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Once considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, is now known to have a discrete pathogenesis in which antibodies to the water channel, aquaporin 4, play a critical role. Timely differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from MS is imperative, determining both prognosis and treatment strategy. Early, aggressive immunosuppression is required to prevent the accrual of severe disability in neuromyelitis optica; conversely, MS-specific therapies may exacerbate the disease. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica requires the integration of clinical, MR imaging, and laboratory data, but current criteria are insensitive and exclude patients with limited clinical syndromes. Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. We present the state of the art in conventional and nonconventional MR imaging in neuromyelitis optica and review the place of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, management, and research of the condition.

  1. Cutaneous xanthomas with concurrent demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelnest, L J

    2001-07-01

    Multiple cutaneous xanthomas, associated with fasting hyperlipidaemia, are described in a 9-month-old domestic long-haired cat. A severely pruritic, papular, and crusting dermatitis affecting the head and neck, initially diagnosed as lesions of the eosinophilic granuloma complex, progressively developed on the head and pinnae. Pruritus was controlled with administration of prednisolone and chlorambucil. Repeat histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous xanthoma and concurrent mild demodicosis. Marked fasting hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and transient hyperglycaemia were subsequently confirmed. Treatment for hyperlipidaemia and xanthomas with a low-fat diet (Hill's Feline r/d) and the previously unreported treatment for feline demodicosis of daily oral milbemycin were commenced. Multiple pink, alopecic plaques and papules gradually regressed, however pruritus recurred if immunosuppressive treatment was reduced, and well-demarcated areas of alopecia developed on the head, limbs and trunk, despite negative skin scrapings for demodex mites. Fungal culture of hair samples yielded Microsporum canis. All cutaneous lesions resolved with the addition of griseofulvin to the treatment regimen. Concurrent corneal ulceration and keratoconjunctivitis sicca ultimately resolved with treatment, including topical cyclosporin. Diabetes mellitus developed 6 months after resolution of skin lesions. No cutaneous or ocular abnormalities were present 6 months later with continued low-fat diet and insulin administration, although transient recurrence of papules and pruritus occurred after inadvertent access to a fatty meal. An underlying primary hyperlipidaemia was suspected, causing pruritic xanthomas. This may represent the first report of concurrent cutaneous xanthomas, demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

  2. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  3. Interactive state-space analysis of concurrent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, E.T.; Razouk, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The introduction of concurrency into programs has added to the complexity of the software design process. This is most evident in the design of communications protocols where concurrency is inherent to the behavior of the system. The complexity exhibited by such software systems makes more evident the need for computer-aided tools for automatically analyzing behavior. The Distributed Systems project at UCI has been developing techniques and tools, based on Petri nets, which support the design and evaluation of concurrent software systems. Techniques based on constructing reachability graphs that represent projections and selections of complete state-spaces have been developed. This paper focuses attention on the computer-aided analysis of these graphs for the purpose of proving correctness of the modeled system. The application of the analysis technique to evaluating simulation results for correctness is discussed. The tool which supports this analysis (the reachability graph analyzer, RGA) is also described. This tool provides mechanisms for proving general system properties (e.g., deadlock-freeness) as well as system-specific properties. The tool is sufficiently general to allow a user to apply complex user-defined analysis algorithms to reachability graphs. The alternating-bit protocol, with a bounded channel, is used to demonstrate the power of the tool and to point to future extensions.

  4. Teaching Formal Models of Concurrency Specification and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread and rapidly growing interest to the parallel programming nowadays. This interest is based on availability of supercomputers, computer clusters and powerful graphic processors for computational mathematics and simulation. MPI, OpenMP, CUDA and other technologies provide opportunity to write C and FORTRAN code for parallel speed-up of execution without races for resources. Nevertheless concurrency issues (like races are still very important for parallel systems in general and distributed systems in particular. Due to this reason, there is a need of research, study and teaching of formal models of concurrency and methods of distributed system verification.The paper presents an individual experience with teaching Formal Models of Concurrency as a graduate elective course for students specializing in high-performance computing. First it sketches course background, objectives, lecture plan and topics. Then the paper presents how to formalize (i.e. specify a reachability puzzle in semantic, syntactic and logic formal models, namely: in Petri nets, in a dialect of Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS and in Computation Tree Logic (CTL. This puzzle is a good educational example to present specifics of different formal notations.The article is published in the author’s wording.

  5. Retroactive Streaming Fails to Improve Concurrent Vowel Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandewie, Eugene J; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The sequential organization of sound over time can interact with the concurrent organization of sounds across frequency. Previous studies using simple acoustic stimuli have suggested that sequential streaming cues can retroactively affect the perceptual organization of sounds that have already occurred. It is unknown whether such effects generalize to the perception of speech sounds. Listeners' ability to identify two simultaneously presented vowels was measured in the following conditions: no context, a preceding context stream (precursors), and a following context stream (postcursors). The context stream was comprised of brief repetitions of one of the two vowels, and the primary measure of performance was listeners' ability to identify the other vowel. Results in the precursor condition showed a significant advantage for the identification of the second vowel compared to the no-context condition, suggesting that sequential grouping mechanisms aided the segregation of the concurrent vowels, in agreement with previous work. However, performance in the postcursor condition was significantly worse compared to the no-context condition, providing no evidence for an effect of stream segregation, and suggesting a possible interference effect. Two additional experiments involving inharmonic (jittered) vowels were performed to provide additional cues to aid retroactive stream segregation; however, neither manipulation enabled listeners to improve their identification of the target vowel. Taken together with earlier studies, the results suggest that retroactive streaming may require large spectral differences between concurrent sources and thus may not provide a robust segregation cue for natural broadband sounds such as speech.

  6. Retroactive Streaming Fails to Improve Concurrent Vowel Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Brandewie

    Full Text Available The sequential organization of sound over time can interact with the concurrent organization of sounds across frequency. Previous studies using simple acoustic stimuli have suggested that sequential streaming cues can retroactively affect the perceptual organization of sounds that have already occurred. It is unknown whether such effects generalize to the perception of speech sounds. Listeners' ability to identify two simultaneously presented vowels was measured in the following conditions: no context, a preceding context stream (precursors, and a following context stream (postcursors. The context stream was comprised of brief repetitions of one of the two vowels, and the primary measure of performance was listeners' ability to identify the other vowel. Results in the precursor condition showed a significant advantage for the identification of the second vowel compared to the no-context condition, suggesting that sequential grouping mechanisms aided the segregation of the concurrent vowels, in agreement with previous work. However, performance in the postcursor condition was significantly worse compared to the no-context condition, providing no evidence for an effect of stream segregation, and suggesting a possible interference effect. Two additional experiments involving inharmonic (jittered vowels were performed to provide additional cues to aid retroactive stream segregation; however, neither manipulation enabled listeners to improve their identification of the target vowel. Taken together with earlier studies, the results suggest that retroactive streaming may require large spectral differences between concurrent sources and thus may not provide a robust segregation cue for natural broadband sounds such as speech.

  7. Retroactive Streaming Fails to Improve Concurrent Vowel Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The sequential organization of sound over time can interact with the concurrent organization of sounds across frequency. Previous studies using simple acoustic stimuli have suggested that sequential streaming cues can retroactively affect the perceptual organization of sounds that have already occurred. It is unknown whether such effects generalize to the perception of speech sounds. Listeners’ ability to identify two simultaneously presented vowels was measured in the following conditions: no context, a preceding context stream (precursors), and a following context stream (postcursors). The context stream was comprised of brief repetitions of one of the two vowels, and the primary measure of performance was listeners’ ability to identify the other vowel. Results in the precursor condition showed a significant advantage for the identification of the second vowel compared to the no-context condition, suggesting that sequential grouping mechanisms aided the segregation of the concurrent vowels, in agreement with previous work. However, performance in the postcursor condition was significantly worse compared to the no-context condition, providing no evidence for an effect of stream segregation, and suggesting a possible interference effect. Two additional experiments involving inharmonic (jittered) vowels were performed to provide additional cues to aid retroactive stream segregation; however, neither manipulation enabled listeners to improve their identification of the target vowel. Taken together with earlier studies, the results suggest that retroactive streaming may require large spectral differences between concurrent sources and thus may not provide a robust segregation cue for natural broadband sounds such as speech. PMID:26451598

  8. Programming Models for Concurrency and Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Jan

    Modern real-time applications are increasingly large, complex and concurrent systems which must meet stringent performance and predictability requirements. Programming those systems require fundamental advances in programming languages and runtime systems. This talk presents our work on Flexotasks, a programming model for concurrent, real-time systems inspired by stream-processing and concurrent active objects. Some of the key innovations in Flexotasks are that it support both real-time garbage collection and region-based memory with an ownership type system for static safety. Communication between tasks is performed by channels with a linear type discipline to avoid copying messages, and by a non-blocking transactional memory facility. We have evaluated our model empirically within two distinct implementations, one based on Purdue’s Ovm research virtual machine framework and the other on Websphere, IBM’s production real-time virtual machine. We have written a number of small programs, as well as a 30 KLOC avionics collision detector application. We show that Flexotasks are capable of executing periodic threads at 10 KHz with a standard deviation of 1.2us and have performance competitive with hand coded C programs.

  9. Concurrent Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco in Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G. Boyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smokers are being encouraged to use smokeless tobacco (SLT in locations where smoking is banned. We examined state-wide data from Minnesota to measure changes over time in the use of SLT and concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. The Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was conducted four times between 1999 and 2010 and has provided state-wide estimates of cigarette smoking, SLT use and concurrent use of SLT by smokers. The prevalence of SLT was essentially unchanged through 2007, then increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (3.1% versus 4.3%, P<0.05. Similarly, the prevalence of cigarette smokers who reported using SLT was stable then increased between 2007 and 2010 (4.4% versus 9.6%, P<0.05. The finding of higher SLT use by smokers could indicate that smokers in Minnesota are in an experimental phase of testing alternative products as they adjust to recent public policies restricting smoking in public places. The findings are suggestive that some Minnesota smokers are switching to concurrent use of cigarettes and SLT. Future surveillance reports will be necessary to confirm the results.

  10. Location pairs: a test coverage metric for shared-memory concurrent programs

    OpenAIRE

    Keremoğlu, M. Erkan; Taşıran, Serdar; Muslu, Kıvanç

    2012-01-01

    We present a coverage metric targeted at shared-memory concurrent programs: the Location Pairs (LP) coverage metric. The goals of this metric are (i) to measure how thoroughly a program has been tested from a concurrency standpoint, i.e., whether enough qualitatively different thread interleavings have been explored, and (ii) to guide testing towards unexplored concurrency scenarios. This metric was inspired by an access pattern known to lead to high-level concurrency errors in industrial sof...

  11. Java并发系统的ACP模型%ACP Model of Java Concurrency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘园; 徐宝文

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and efficiency of analyzing concurrent programs mostly rely on the programs′ representations.This paper proposes a model of Java concurrent system by using ACP,so that Java concurrent system can be trans-formed to process algebra expressions which facilitate model checking or some further analysis.

  12. 7 CFR 1610.6 - Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. 1610.6..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.6 Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. (a) The Bank makes loans, under section 408 of the Act, concurrently with RUS cost-of-money loans made under section...

  13. VerCors: A Layered Approach to Practical Verification of Concurrent Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; Blom, Stefan; Huisman, Marieke

    This paper discusses how several concurrent program verification techniques can be combined in a layered approach, where each layer is especially suited to verify one aspect of concurrent programs, thus making verification of concurrent programs practical. At the bottom layer, we use a combination

  14. Impact of multidisciplinary, early renal education on vascular access placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Jill S; Husserl, Fred E; Ross, Jamie L; Jackson, Dina; Scarlata, Debra; Nussbaum, Joyce; Cohen, Andrew; Elzein, Hafez

    2005-02-01

    The Ochsner Clinic Foundation initiated the Healthy Start Clinic to identify, educate, and refer chronic kidney disease patients to nephrologists earlier in the course of their disease. This study investigated the impact of a structured educational session on the type and timing of permanent vascular access placement in patients receiving hemodialysis. Before initiating dialysis, the HSC patient group received a general overview of the kidney and kidney disease, plus one-on-one instruction from a registered nurse, a dietitian, and a social worker. The HSC group was compared with a concurrent, conventionally prepared group of CKD patients who initiated dialysis during the same study period. Of the 147 patients initiating hemodialysis at OCF between April 1997 and December 2000, 61 had received structured HSC education, and 86 had received conventional care. In HSC-educated patients, the incidence of PVAs placed before hemodialysis initiation was twofold greater than in patients who received conventional care (77% HSC; 36% non-HSC, p < 0.001), and more HSC-educated patients initiated hemodialysis using their PVA (49% HSC; 23% non-HSC, p < 0.01). In addition, five times more patients who received HSC education received arteriovenous fistulas (52% HSC; 10% non-HSC, p < 0.001). Finally, significantly fewer HSC-educated patients initiated dialysis on a temporary catheter (51% HSC; 77% non-HSC, p < 0.001). Education programs for CKD patients help increase the number of patients receiving early PVA placement, as well as the proportion of patients receiving AVFs as opposed to grafts or temporary catheters.

  15. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Lian Wang; Zhongxing Liao; Helen Liu; Jaffer Ajani; Stephen Swisher; James D Cox; Ritsuko Komaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the dosimetry, efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 7 patients who were definitively treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Patients who did not receive IMRT radiation and concurrent chemotherapy were not included in this analysis. IMRT plans were evaluated to assess the tumor coverage and normal tissue avoidance. Treatment response was evaluated and toxicities were assessed.RESULTS: Five- to nine-beam IMRT were used to deliver a total dose of 59.4-66 Gy (median: 64.8 Gy) to the primary tumor with 6-MV photons. The minimum dose received by the planning tumor volume (PTV) of the gross tumor volume boost was 91.2%-98.2% of the prescription dose (standard deviation [SD]: 3.7%-5.7%).tumor volume was 93.8%-104.8% (SD: 4.3%-11.1%)of the prescribed dose. With a median follow-up of 15 mo (range: 3-21 mo), all 6 evaluable patients achieved complete response. Of them, 2 developed local recurrences and 2 had distant metastases, 3 survived with no evidence of disease. After treatment, 2 patients developed esophageal stricture requiring frequent dilation and 1 patient developed tracheal-esophageal fistula.CONCLUSION: Concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy resulted in an excellent early response in patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer. However, local and distant recurrence and toxicity remain to be a problem. Innovative approaches are needed to improve the outcome.

  16. Concurrence Measurement for the Two-Qubit Optical and Atomic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concurrence provides us an effective approach to quantify entanglement, which is quite important in quantum information processing applications. In the paper, we mainly review some direct concurrence measurement protocols of the two-qubit optical or atomic system. We first introduce the concept of concurrence for a two-qubit system. Second, we explain the approaches of the concurrence measurement in both a linear and a nonlinear optical system. Third, we introduce some protocols for measuring the concurrence of the atomic entanglement system.

  17. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  18. Knowledge Management tools integration within DLR's concurrent engineering facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. P.; Soragavi, G.; Deshmukh, M.; Ludtke, D.

    The complexity of space endeavors has increased the need for Knowledge Management (KM) tools. The concept of KM involves not only the electronic storage of knowledge, but also the process of making this knowledge available, reusable and traceable. Establishing a KM concept within the Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) has been a research topic of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). This paper presents the current KM tools of the CEF: the Software Platform for Organizing and Capturing Knowledge (S.P.O.C.K.), the data model Virtual Satellite (VirSat), and the Simulation Model Library (SimMoLib), and how their usage improved the Concurrent Engineering (CE) process. This paper also exposes the lessons learned from the introduction of KM practices into the CEF and elaborates a roadmap for the further development of KM in CE activities at DLR. The results of the application of the Knowledge Management tools have shown the potential of merging the three software platforms with their functionalities, as the next step towards the fully integration of KM practices into the CE process. VirSat will stay as the main software platform used within a CE study, and S.P.O.C.K. and SimMoLib will be integrated into VirSat. These tools will support the data model as a reference and documentation source, and as an access to simulation and calculation models. The use of KM tools in the CEF aims to become a basic practice during the CE process. The settlement of this practice will result in a much more extended knowledge and experience exchange within the Concurrent Engineering environment and, consequently, the outcome of the studies will comprise higher quality in the design of space systems.

  19. Concurrent chemoradiation in patients with cancer of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Park, Kyung Ran; Lee, Jong Young; Shin, Hyun Soo; Lee, Chong In; Chang, Woo Ick; Shim, Young Hak [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate survival rate and prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Eligibility included biopsy proven invasive carcinoma of the cerivical or thoracic esophagus, confined to esophagus and mediastinum with or without regional lymph node and supraclavicular lymph node, and ECOG performance status H{sub 0}-H{sub 2}. Patients received radiation therapy with 5940cGy over 7 weeks and chemotherapy, consisted of 5-FU(1000mg/m{sup 2}/day in continuous infusion for 5 days, days 1 to 5 and days 29 to 33) and mitomycin C(8mg/m{sup 2} intravenous bolus at day 1). After concurrent chemoradiation, maintenance chemotherapy was followed with 5-FU(1000mg/m{sup 2}/day in continuous infusion for 5 days at 9th, 13th, and 17th weeks)and cisplatin(80mg/m{sup 2} intravenous bolus at the first day of each cycle). From November 1989 to November 1995, 44 patients were entered in this study. After treatment, complete response rate and partial response rate were 59% and 41%. Overall 1, 2, and 5-year survivals were 59%, 38%, and 9.6%(median 17 months). Prognostic factors affecting survival were response to treatment and T-stage. Among 26 complete responders, there were 6 local recurrences, 3 distant recurrences, 1 local and distant recurrence, and 2 unknown site recurrences. Acute and chronic complication rates with grade 3 or more were 20% and 13.6% and there was no treatment-related mortality. Concurrent chemoradiation, compared with historical control groups that treated with radiation alone, improved median survival and did not significantly increase treatment-related complications. Complete responders had longer survival duration than partial responders. Predominant failure pattern was local failure. So, efforts to improve local control should be proposed.

  20. [Knee dislocation: concurrent arthroscopic ACL and PCL reconstruction - operating technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Tomasz; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Szulc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Injuries involving knee luxation or subluxation generally result in damage to two or three out of the four major ligaments which stabilize this joint. Past treatment of this type of multiligament injuries, consisting in 6- to 12-week immobilization in a plaster cast, does not allow for restoration of the normal, anatomical course of these ligaments. A consequence of this type of healing, which involves the formation of random scars in place of ligaments, is mechanical and functional instability of the knee joint. The goal of this article is to present a classification of multiligament knee injuries and surgical treatment options. We also present our own technique of arthroscopic, concurrent reconstruction of knee joint ligaments. The study material consisted of 20 patients who underwent surgical treatment for multiligament knee injuries in the Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology in Poznań. We performed concurrent arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL and PCL in all 20 patients. In addition, reconstruction of the medial complex was performed in 7 patients, and lateral complex was reconstructed in another 7 patients. In three cases we stitched the medial meniscus using a Smith & Nephew FasT-Fix system, and partial menisectomy was performed in 2 patients. The details of the proposed concurrent arthroscopic ACL and PCL reconstruction are extensively discussed. One of the advantages of this operating technique is the exclusive use of autogenous ST and GR tendon grafts for reconstruction of all damaged knee joint structures. The presented operating technique makes possible the reconstruction of all damaged knee joint ligaments in less than two hours, which in turn allows the surgery to be performed in an ischemic setting using an Esmarch band around the limb.