Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.
Ronzio Cynthia R
Full Text Available Abstract Despite remarkable reduction in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States, dental caries is still a highly prevalent disease among children who are socially disadvantaged (racial/ethnic minority, poor, rural, immigrants. Consequently, caries sequelae such as dental pain, need for dental treatment under general anesthesia, and future orthodontic treatment, are also concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged children. To make the situation more appalling, those children who need treatment the most are the ones least likely to visit the dentist. Low income children are less likely to visit the dentist in part because of family's competing needs for limited resources, shortage of pediatric dentists, and dentists not taking uninsured or publicly insured patients. In the same vein, if these children do not have access to dental care, they are deprived from effective caries preventive measures that are dentist-dependent such as sealants and professionally applied fluoride. Dentistry has done well at devising caries preventive and treatment strategies; but these strategies have missed the most needed segment of society: disadvantaged children. The challenge now is to develop innovative strategies to reach these children.
Full Text Available Background: Bifidobacteria levels in saliva were found to be significantly correlated in adults with dental caries but less information available in the literature regarding its role in children. Aim: The aim is to compare the salivary levels of Bifidobacteria in children who are caries free with that of early childhood caries (ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected using the tongue-loop method from a total of 60 children between the age group of 3–5 years and they were further divided into 3 groups. In addition, the age and gender of the children, sugar amount in diet, sugar frequency in diet, were recorded. Results: Bifidobacteria was isolated from all the three groups, but more were from S-ECC, followed by ECC and very few cases of caries-free children and was found to statistically significant (P < 0.001. Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly correlated with amount of sugar in the diet and frequency of sugar consumption. Conclusions: Salivary levels of Bifidobacteria were significantly associated with S-ECC and ECC, followed by caries free group. In future, it can be used as a salivary marker for caries risk assesment.
Saudamini Girish More
Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC is increasing worldwide. Impaired oral health could have a negative impact on the overall health of infants. ECC can continue to deteriorate the growth and development of the child in preschool stage. Feeding practices largely influence the occurrence of ECC. Infant formula is commonly used as supplements or substitutes for breast milk up to the first 2 years of age. The dietary sugars such as lactose and sucrose, present in the infant formula, could act as a favorable substrate and change the oral microflora. Infant formula constitutes of various minerals which are known to affect tooth mineralization including iron, fluoride, and calcium. A number of in vitro, animal, and human studies have been conducted to understand their effect on oral environment and microbiota. Exploring the scientific literature for different types of infant formula and their role in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries could give us an insight into the cariogenic potential of infant formula. Furthermore, this could be source of information for health practitioners as they are the ones who are first sought by parents for advice related to infant feeding.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) among attendees of a Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Mnazi Mmoja dispensary in Dar es Salaam. The parents or guardians were aged 16-55 years old, while the children were aged 6-36 months. Caries was ...
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...
Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar
Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.
Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,
Gomez, Grace Felix
The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…
Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.
As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…
Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.
To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied. Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other. Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children's vitamins D status may be an
Palmer, C A; Kent, R; Loo, C Y; Hughes, C V; Stutius, E; Pradhan, N; Dahlan, M; Kanasi, E; Arevalo Vasquez, S S; Tanner, A C R
Frequent consumption of cariogenic foods and bacterial infection are risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). This study hypothesized that a short diet survey focused on frequency of foods, categorized by putative cariogenicity, would differentiate severe ECC (S-ECC) from caries-free children. Children's diets were obtained by survey and plaque bacteria detected by PCR from 72 S-ECC and 38 caries-free children. S-ECC children had higher scores for between-meal juice (p cariogenicity (p cariogenicity scores. Food frequency, putative cariogenicity, and S. mutans were associated with S-ECC individually and in combination.
Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria
To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Nicolae, Alexandra; Levin, Leo; Wong, Peter D; Dave, Malini G; Taras, Jillian; Mistry, Chetna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth L; Wong, Michele; Schroth, Robert J
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease affecting young children in Canada. ECC may lead to pain and infection, compromised general health, decreased quality of life and increased risk for dental caries in primary and permanent teeth. A multidisciplinary approach to prevent and identify dental disease is recommended by dental and medical national organizations. Young children visit primary care providers at regular intervals from an early age. These encounters provide an ideal opportunity for primary care providers to educate clients about their children's oral health and its importance for general health. We designed an office-based oral health screening guide to help primary care providers identify ECC, a dental referral form to facilitate dental care access and an oral health education resource to raise parental awareness. These resources were reviewed and trialled with a small number of primary care providers.
Kitty Jieyi Chen
Full Text Available The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment.
Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter
Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.
Man Wai Ng
Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.
Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C
Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.
Tusek, Ivan; Carević, Momir; Tusek, Jasmina
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Backa area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and chi2 (p family (46.9%) and in part-time employed mothers (47.2%) who had only elementary education (59.3%) and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1%) of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%). The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.
Full Text Available Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (. However, there were no significant differences in children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.
Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J N C
Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (P early childhood caries in their child.
Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh; Nahid Asgarizadeh; Vajihe Kamel
Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC). In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF) is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Mate...
Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E.; Mancl, Lloyd; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David
Objective High levels of Streptococcus mutans on teeth of young children are predictive of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Transmission from mother-to-child is common and studies have demonstrated treatment of the mother results in less ECC. The objective of this study was to determine how dentists have adopted the practice of counseling about ECC. Methods In 2006 as part of a larger study on dental care for pregnant women, we surveyed 829 general dentists in Oregon. The questionnaire contained questions to capture the extent to which general dentists have adopted counseling pregnant women about ECC transmission, to describe personal and practice characteristics, and examine how dentists' views on the ease of adopting of new procedures related to ECC counseling. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify separate and additive effects of demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs. Results The adjusted odds of a dentist who strongly believed in the link between mothers and babies and provided ECC counseling were 1.60 (95% CI 1.3-2.0, P<0.01). The odds of a dentist who reported discussing ECC with staff members and provided counseling were 2.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.3, P<0.01). Male dentists were less likely to counsel patients than female dentists (Adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.05). Conclusions The strongest predictors of counseling patients about ECC were dentists' belief in the evidence of caries transmission and dentists' discussion of ECC during staff meetings. PMID:22970775
Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Mancl, Lloyd; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David
High levels of Streptococcus mutans on teeth of young children are predictive of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Transmission from mother-to-child is common and studies have demonstrated treatment of the mother results in less ECC. The objective of this study was to determine how dentists have adopted the practice of counseling about ECC. In 2006 as part of a larger study on dental care for pregnant women, we surveyed 829 general dentists in Oregon. The questionnaire contained questions to capture the extent to which general dentists have adopted counseling pregnant women about ECC transmission, to describe personal and practice characteristics, and examine how dentists' views on the ease of adopting of new procedures related to ECC counseling. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify separate and additive effects of demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs. The adjusted odds of a dentist who strongly believed in the link between mothers and babies and provided ECC counseling were 1.60 (95% CI 1.3-2.0, P<0.01). The odds of a dentist who reported discussing ECC with staff members and provided counseling were 2.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.3, P<0.01). Male dentists were less likely to counsel patients than female dentists (Adjusted OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.05). The strongest predictors of counseling patients about ECC were dentists' belief in the evidence of caries transmission and dentists' discussion of ECC during staff meetings. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and χ2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.
The occurrence increased with age. Privileged children were more affected by caries than the underprivileged. The mandibular posterior teeth were the most affected and mandibular anterior teeth the least affected. Keywords: Early childhood caries, privileged, underprivileged, children. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 (2) ...
Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J. N. C.
Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6%...
Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui
Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.
Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante
PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...
So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen
Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.
Zemaitiene, Migle; Grigalauskiene, Ruta; Andruskeviciene, Vilija; Matulaitiene, Zivile Kristina; Zubiene, Jurate; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle
Based on the hypothesis that biological and social risks accumulate during life, it is important to identify possible dental caries risk indicators from the life course of early childhood and assess their association with caries polarization in adolescence. A cross-sectional design was applied to the study, and a multistage cluster sampling method used to draw a representative sample of 1063 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents. The dental examinations were performed according to the methodology for oral status evaluation recommended by the World Health Organization. Parents of the participating adolescents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their children's life course during early childhood. The interdependence of characteristics was evaluated by chi-square (χ (2)) and Student's (t) criteria. A multivariate logistic regression model with the Significant Caries (SiC) index as an outcome was performed. The mean scores for the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed teeth (DT) in the SiC positive group were higher than the corresponding values in the SiC negative group (6.14 [SD, 2.30] and 1.67 [SD, 2.02] vs 1.28 [SD, 1.11] and 0.34 [SD, 0.69], p caries risk indicators were identified that were independently associated with a SiC positive outcome: gender(OR = 1.32 [95 % CI: 1.01-1.73]), earlier eruption of the first primary tooth(OR = 1.43 [95 % CI: 1.03-1.97]), and past caries experience in the primary dentition (OR = 1.62 [95 % CI:1.22-2.14]). These study findings provide reliable evidence that gender, earlier eruption of the first primary tooth, and past caries experience in the primary dentition should be considered to be dental caries risk indicators and may have an adverse effect on caries polarization in adolescence.
Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Romano, Ana Regina; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio
This study's purpose was to assess mothers' knowledge and beliefs about early childhood caries (ECC) etiology and prevention. This cross-sectional study targeted mothers (N=277) of zero- to 12-month-olds visiting 12 public health care centers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information on causes of and recommendations to prevent ECC, as well as socioeconomic and demographic variables, was collected. Chi-square, univariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (Pinfluence caries in their children. None reported the role of micro-organisms and lack of fluoride in the caries etiology. These findings highlight the importance of providing preventive orientation to the mothers regarding early childhood caries. Information on age of first dental visit should be emphasized, especially among mothers with more than one child and low-income families.
Ng, Man Wai; Fida, Zameera
Management of the complex chronic disease of early childhood caries requires a system of coordinated health care interventions which can be led by a dental hygienist and where patient self-care efforts are paramount. Even after receiving costly surgical treatment under general anesthesia in the operating room, many children develop new and recurrent caries after only 6-12 months, a sequela that can be prevented. This article describes the chronic disease management (CDM) of dental caries, a science-based approach that can prevent and control caries. In this article, we (1) introduce the concept of CDM of dental caries, (2) provide evidence that CDM improves oral health outcomes, and (3) propose a dental hygienist-led team-based oral health care approach to CDM. Although we will be describing the CDM approach for early childhood caries, CDM of caries is applicable in children, adolescents, and adults. Early childhood caries disease control requires meaningful engagement of patients and parents by the oral health care team to assist them with making behavioral changes in the unique context of their families and communities. The traditional dentist/hygienist/assistant model needs to evolve to a collaborative partnership between care providers and patients/families. This partnership will be focused on systematic risk assessment and behaviorally based management of the disease itself, with sensitivity toward the familial environment. Early pilot study results demonstrate reductions in the rates of new caries, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared with baseline rates. Dental hygienists are the appropriate team members to lead this approach because of their expertise in behavior change and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hirsch, Gary B.; Edelstein, Burton L.; Frosh, Marcy; Anselmo, Theresa
Introduction Early childhood caries (ECC) — tooth decay among children younger than 6 years — is prevalent and consequential, affecting nearly half of US 5-year-olds, despite being highly preventable. Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. We developed a system dynamics model to determine which interventions, singly and in combination, could have the greatest effec...
Full Text Available Background. Early childhood caries is a widely prevalent disease throughout the world. It is necessary to treat this condition in early childhood; however, child behavior management may be particularly challenging during treatment. To overcome this challenge, we used Carigel to remove caries and RelyX Unicem resin cement for strip crown restoration. It not only has the desired aesthetic effect but is also more effective for primary teeth, which are used for a shorter period than permanent teeth are. Case Presentation. We report a case of three pediatric patients with early childhood caries, in whom caries was removed by using Carigel to avoid the risk of pulpal exposure associated with high-speed handpieces. Subsequently, aesthetic restoration was performed using strip crown with RelyX Unicem self-adhesive resin cement. Conclusion. RelyX Unicem has the following advantages: (1 not requiring have any special skills for the dentist for performing the procedure, (2 decreased occurrence of bubbles during injection of the cement, and (3 overall short duration of the procedure. Thus, it is appropriate for the treatment of pediatric patients whose behavior is difficult to manage. However, further studies are required in order to establish the use of RelyX Unicem as a stable restorative material in early childhood caries.
Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC. In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD, American Association of Pediatrics (AAP and American Dental Association (ADA were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.
Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence related to self-applied and professionally applied fluorides, antimicrobial agents, fissure sealants, temporary restorations, and restorative care for the prevention and management of early childhood caries (E...
Garcia, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Dhar, Vineet
The 2014 Early Childhood Caries Conference encompassed evidence-based reviews on the state of the science regarding early childhood carries (ECC) epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and disease management. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the work presented at the conference and identify...... means to prevent and manage ECC. Analyses of studies indicate that some approaches, such as chlorhexidine, iodine, and remineralizing agents, have not shown consistent findings in preventing ECC. However, evidence exists to yield recommendations in some areas. There are useful risk assessment indicators...... opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management that may improve early childhood caries outcomes and lower costs of care. While great progress has been made since the 1997 ECC Conference, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials on what are the most effective...
A pretested self-administered questionnaire on the causes of dental caries was sent to the caregivers, and 67% of them were returned. Results: Slightly over half (59.5%) of the children had dental caries. The majority of the caregivers (96.1%) reported that consumption of sugary foods causes tooth decay. Approximately ...
Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala
Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.
Danila Lorena NUNES-DOS-SANTOS
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe early childhood caries is defined as the presence of any sign of decay in children younger than three years. Objective This retrospective longitudinal observational study investigated caries and fluorosis in children with S-ECC from a city with fluoridated water. Material and method We included children under the age of three years who followed a maternal and child dental care program between the years of 1997 and 2003. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (S-ECC and group 2 (no caries. Guardians were contacted by telephone or mail. Caregivers completed questionnaire on socio-demographic and behavioral variables. The clinical dental examinations were performed in a dental clinic to assess caries experience and dental fluorosis. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors associated with DMFT, and multivariate analysis by multiple logistic regression was used to determine the possible independent factors associated with the occurrence of fluorosis. Result The sample consisted of 126 patients aged 8-12 years, of whom 52.4% were male. The presence of S-ECC increased the DMFT by an average of 0.84 (p = 0.02. Both the frequency of tooth brushing and the use of standard toothpaste were protective factors from the development of caries in the permanent dentition (p <0.05. Parents who reported that their children refused to brush their teeth had 70% less chance of developing fluorosis (p = 0.02. Conclusion The presence of S-ECC was a risk factor for the development of caries in the permanent dentition, but not for the development of fluorosis.
Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan
Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...
Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.
Childers, Noel K; Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R; Wiener, Howard W; Ghazal, Tariq S; Ruby, John D; Moser, Stephen A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-nine infants (each approximately one year old) had periodic oral examinations (dmfs) and microbial samples collected from dental plaque, saliva, and other oral surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. S mutans isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of S mutans in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Twenty-seven S mutans genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT match (n equals 40) or no-match (n equals 29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36 months (approximately four years old), the estimated dmfs in the match group was 2.61 times that of the no-match group (P=.014). Colonization of children with Streptococcus mutans genotypes that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with early childhood caries. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of S mutans in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the S mutans. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health.
Risqa Rina Darwita
Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.
Hedayati-Hajikand, Trifa; Lundberg, Ulrika; Eldh, Catarina
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries development in preschool children living in a low socioeconomic multicultural area. METHODS: The investigation employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design. The study group consisted of 138...... healthy 2-3-year-old children that were consecutively recruited after informed parental consent. After enrollment, they were randomized to a test or a placebo group. The parents of the test group were instructed to give their child one chewing tablet per day containing three strains of live probiotic...... childhood caries development could be reduced through administration of these probiotic chewing tablets as adjunct to daily use of fluoride toothpaste in preschool children. Further studies on a possible dose-response relationship seem justified TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01720771...
Dec 1, 2014 ... of Lagos, 3Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Manubhai Patel Dental College and Hospital Baroda, ... owned tertiary hospitals in Nigeria, patients with diverse ...... antibiotics to manage childhood illness, thereby reducing.
Levin, Ana; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Hargrave, Anita; Funsch, Elizabeth; Hoeft, Kristin S
In lower middle-income economies (LMIE), the nutrition transition from traditional diets to sugary foods and beverages has contributed to widespread early childhood dental caries. This qualitative study explores perceived risk and protective factors, and overall experiences of early childhood nutrition and oral health in indigenous Ecuadorian families participating in a community-based oral health and nutrition intervention. Dental exams of 698 children age 6 months through 6 years determined each child's caries burden. A convenience sample of 18 "outlier" families was identified: low-caries children with ≤2 carious teeth vs. high-caries children with ≥10 carious teeth. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with parents/caregivers explored the child's diet, dental habits, and family factors related to nutrition and oral health. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed using grounded theory. In the high-caries families, proximity to highway and stores, consumption of processed-food, and low parental monitoring of child behavior were identified as risk factors for ECC (early childhood caries). In the low-caries families, protective factors included harvesting and consuming food from the family farm, remote geography, and greater parental monitoring of child behavior. The study results suggest that maintaining traditional family farms and authoritative parenting to avoid processed foods/drinks and ensure tooth brushing could improve early childhood nutrition and oral health.
Full Text Available Karies gigi pada anak usia dini merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat serius karena merupakan penyakit infeksi kronis yang menular. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir pandangan tentang neutrofil telah berubah secara dramatis. Neutrofil tidak hanya berperan sebagai pembunuh mikroba melalui proses fagositosis, pelepasan reactive oxigen species (ROS dan peptida antimikrobialnya tetapi neutrofil turut mengatur aktifasi respon imun. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 berfungsi sebagai aktivator kuat dan kemoatraktan neutrofil oleh karena itu IL-8 merupakan mediator kunci dalam migrasi neutrofil ke lokasi peradangan dan infeksi. Untuk menganalisis hubungan dari jumlah S. mutans dan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva pada anak usia dini bebas karies dan severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. Perlakuan dilakukan pada dua kelompok yaitu isolasi dan menghitung jumlah S. mutans pada sampel saliva dan sampel hasil kumur dengan NaCl 1,5% yang diisolasi neutrofilnya kemudian dianalisis ekspresi IL-8 menggunakan flow cytometry dari 20 anak bebas karies dan 20 anak severe early childhood caries. Hasil nilai rata-rata diketahui bahwa jumlah S. mutans anak usia dini bebas karies lebih rendah (513.500,00±185.565,28 CFU/ml dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (977.000,00±222.500,15 CFU/ml, sedangkan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva anak usia dini bebas karies lebih tinggi (3,31±0,50 dibandingkan dengan S-ECC (2,95+0,56. Penurunan ekspresi IL-8 neutrofil saliva kemungkinan sebagai penyebab meningkatnya jumlah S. mutans pada S-ECC. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans Level and Interleukin 8 (IL-8 Expressions of Salivary Neutrophils in Severe Early Childhood Caries. Early childhood caries is a very serious health problem because it is a chronic infectious disease that is contagious. Dental caries begins after the primary teeth grow and develop on the tooth surface very quickly and progressively. In recent years the views of neutrophils have changed dramatically. Neutrophils
Muchandi, Sneha; Walimbe, Hrishikesh; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Nankar, Meenakshi; Chaturvedi, Srishti; Karekar, Priyanka
Dental caries is a major problem in preschool children. The contribution of saliva in providing defense during caries process is of primary importance. pH buffer capacity through bicarbonate, phosphate and protein buffer systems have universal acceptance as a caries defense mechanism. Antioxidant capacity of saliva can constitute a first line of defense against chronic degenerative diseases including dental caries. Till date, no study is presented with salivary antioxidant capacity of younger children affected with severe early childhood caries with its salivary pH correlation. Hence, this study was carried out to compare, evaluate and correlate the salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and salivary pH of children with caries-free and severe early childhood caries. Fifty children from ages 3 to 5 years divided into two study groups had undergone screening. Group I (n = 25) with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and group II (n = 25) who were caries free. Unstimulated whole saliva of subjects were in the collection during the study by draining method. Salivary pH determination of saliva samples was done using pH indicator paper strips. The TAC was done using an antioxidant assay with the help of a spectrophotometer at wavelength 532 nm. The means of salivary pH and TAC were subjected to analysis using unpaired student 't' test and correlation was determined using Pearsons correlation coefficient analysis. Mean salivary pH was higher in group II (7.46 ± 0.37). Mean TAC was greater in group I (1.82 ± 0.19). A statistically significant negative correlation as seen between TAC and salivary pH in S-ECC patients. The study concludes that salivary TAC increases in patients with S-ECC are by that showing a high indirect relationship with salivary pH.
Congiu, Giovanna; Campus, Guglielmo; Sale, Silvana; Spano, Giovanni; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca
This study evaluates the influence of several determinants on the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children living in northern Sardinia, Italy. These determinants include the educational level and occupational status of the parents as a proxy for the socioeconomical level (SES) and behavioral factors (dietary and oral hygiene). An observational cross-sectional study was designed with a dental examination and a standardized questionnaire. Five hundred forty-four subjects (260 girls and 284 boys) were enrolled and categorized into two age groups: 359 children were aged 18-47 months and 185 children were aged 48-60 months. The total caries prevalence was 15.99%. Caries risk increased with lower parents' educational level (P = 0.01), increased number of siblings (P family was associated with caries (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.20-2.40). ECC prevalence evaluated was similar to other western countries, and SES and behavioral habits influence the development of ECC. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi
of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health...... solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC......-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be conducted to evaluate interventions aimed at preventing ECC in different population groups....
Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Parsaei, Yassmin; Klein, Marlise I.; Koo, Hyun
Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. ECC is an aggressive form of dental caries, which left untreated, can result in rapid and extensive cavitation in teeth (rampant caries) that is painful and costly to treat. Furthermore, it affects mostly children from impoverished background, and thus constitutes a major challenge in public health. The disease is a prime example of the consequences arising from complex, dynamic interactions between microorganisms, host and diet, leading to the establishment of highly pathogenic (cariogenic) biofilms. To date, there are no effective methods to identify those at risk of developing ECC or control the disease in affected children. Recent advances in deep-sequencing technologies, novel imaging methods and (meta)proteomics-metabolomics approaches provide an unparalleled potential to reveal new insights to illuminate our current understanding about the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. In this concise review, we provide a broader perspective about the etiology and pathogenesis of ECC based on previous and current knowledge on biofilm matrix, microbial diversity and host-microbe interactions which could have direct implications for developing new approaches for improved risk assessment and prevention of this devastating and costly childhood health condition. PMID:26714612
Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai
An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.
Jennifer D. Zwicker; Carolyn Dudley; J.C. Herbert Emery
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a serious disease that is about much more than cavities on baby teeth. In Canada, it is a growing public health problem with adverse long-term effects on children's physical, emotional and intellectual well-being. The failure to invest in preventive care has resulted in reactive, rather than proactive, measures against this disease. These measures are expensive and a needless drain on costs in the public health-care system. Children with severe ECC end up in ho...
Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro
Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694
Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik; Evans, Wendell; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Lo, Edward; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad H; Baez, Ramon; Varenne, Benoit; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Songpaisan, Yupin; Woodward, Margaret; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Ungchusak, Chantana
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is prevalent around the world, but in particular the disease is growing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries in parallel with changing diet and lifestyles. In many countries, ECC is often left untreated, a condition which leads to pain and adversely affects general health, growth and development, and quality of life of children, their families and their communities. Importantly, ECC is also a global public health burden, medically, socially and economically. In many countries, a substantial number of children require general anaesthesia for the treatment of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC. These should align with existing international initiatives such as the Sixtieth World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 60.17 Oral health: action plan for promotion and integrated disease prevention, WHO Guideline on Sugars and WHO breastfeeding recommendation. ECC prevention and control interventions should be integrated into existing primary healthcare systems. WHO public health principles must be considered when tackling the effect of social determinants in ECC. Initiatives aimed at modifying behaviour should focus on families and communities. The involvement of communities in health promotion, and population-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be
Full Text Available The habit of nocturnal bottle or breast-feeding has been reported to be a potential cause for early childhood caries (ECC in very young children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ECC in children 2-5 years of age attending out patient clinic HUSM, in relation to the nursing habits. In this cross-sectional study, 90 children were randomly selected to examine their caries status using torch and disposable mirror. Data on mothers’ educational level, nursing habits and oral hygiene practices, were gather by using structured questionnaire. It has been found that 16.7% of subjects were caries free while 83.3% of them had caries with mean dmf score 6 (SD 5.3. With regard to nursing habits, 29% of subjects had breast-feeding alone, 16% had bottle-feeding alone and 55% had both breast and bottle-feeding. Ninety-three percent of children had been nursed beyond 14 months and 47% had been fed with liquids other than breast milk, infant formula or water. Twenty-seven percent of children were allowed to sleep with nursing bottle in mouth and 52% were allowed to sleep with breast nipple in the mouth which shows significantly associated with ECC (p = 0.03. Tooth brushing habit was reported for 91% of children using toothpaste. Mean age of the children (in months when the mothers started brushing the teeth was 19.1 (SD 10.8 and has significant association with ECC (p < 0.05. This study demonstrates that the habit of allowing infants to sleep with breast nipple in their mouth and the late start of tooth brushing are associated with prevalence of ECC. Educational programs for pregnant women and mothers of young children should be emphasized to enhance the knowledge and awareness of mothers in preventing ECC.
Maria Goretti Queiroz
Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.
Ivančević, Vladimir; Tušek, Ivan; Tušek, Jasmina; Knežević, Marko; Elheshk, Salaheddin; Luković, Ivan
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a potentially severe disease affecting children all over the world. The available findings are mostly based on a logistic regression model, but data mining, in particular association rule mining, could be used to extract more information from the same data set. ECC data was collected in a cross-sectional analytical study of the 10% sample of preschool children in the South Bačka area (Vojvodina, Serbia). Association rules were extracted from the data by association rule mining. Risk factors were extracted from the highly ranked association rules. Discovered dominant risk factors include male gender, frequent breastfeeding (with other risk factors), high birth order, language, and low body weight at birth. Low health awareness of parents was significantly associated to ECC only in male children. The discovered risk factors are mostly confirmed by the literature, which corroborates the value of the methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K
This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a public health problem with biological, social and behavioural determinants and the notion that the principal etiology is inappropriate feeding modalities is no longer tenable. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between ECC and socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parental characteristics. Materials and methods. The study involved a dental examination of 1400 children aged 0‒71 months, recording caries using Gruebbel’s deft index and a structured questionnaire to interview parents or caretakers. The tabulated data was statis-tically analyzed using t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Results. The variables significantly associated with ECC were age (P0.05. Conclusion. ECC is preventable and manageable with proper information and skills. It is important for healthcare profes-sionals, family physicians and parents to be cognizant of the involved risk factors as their preventive efforts represent the first line of defense.
Nunes, Ana Margarida Melo; Alves, Claudia Maria Coelho; Borba de Araújo, Fernando; Ortiz, Tânia Mara Lopes; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Ribeiro, Cecília Claudia Costa
This study was conducted to investigate the association between prolonged breastfeeding and early childhood caries(ECC) with adjustment for important confounders, using hieraschical approach. This retrospective cohort study involved 260 low-income children (18-42 months). The number of decayed teeth was used as a measure of caries. Following a theoretical framework, the hierarchical model was built in a forward fashion, by adding the following levels in succession: level 1: age; level 2: social variables; level 3: health variables; level 4: behavioral variables; level 5: oral hygiene-related variables; level 6: oral hygiene quality measured by visible plaque; and level 7: contamination by mutans streptococci. Sequential forward multiple Poisson regression analysis was employed. Breast-feeding was not a risk factor for ECC after adjustment for some confounders (incidence density ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.59, P = 0.363). Prolonged breast-feeding was not a risk factor for ECC while age, high sucrose comption between main meals and the quality of oral higiene were associated with disease in children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been widely studied, early childhood caries (ECC remains a serious public health problem, especially in countries where there is no national program of oral health assessment and no genuine primary oral health care, such as in Kosovo. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC and analyze caries risk factors. Methods The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Prishtina, capital of Kosovo. Data were collected through clinical examination and interviews. Dmft data were recorded according to WHO criteria. Bacterial examination (CRT bacteria test and plaque test of Greene-Vermillion were used. Results The mean dmft of preschool children was found to be 5.8. The prevalence of ECC was 17.36%, with a mean dmft of 11 ± 3.6. Streptococcus mutans prevalence in ECC children was 98%. A significant correlation between dmft and S mutans counts (≥105 CFU/mL saliva was demonstrated. A correlation was also found between daily sweets consumption and dmft in children with ECC (P P Conclusion The prevalence of ECC was high among preschool children in the municipality of Kosovo. We recommend increasing parents' knowledge of proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and increasing preschool children's accessibility to dental services.
Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew
The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.
Hirsch, Gary B; Edelstein, Burton L; Frosh, Marcy; Anselmo, Theresa
Early childhood caries (ECC)--tooth decay among children younger than 6 years--is prevalent and consequential, affecting nearly half of US 5-year-olds, despite being highly preventable. Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. We developed a system dynamics model to determine which interventions, singly and in combination, could have the greatest effect in reducing caries experience and cost in a population of children aged birth to 5 years. System dynamics is a computer simulation technique useful to policy makers in choosing the most appropriate interventions for their populations. This study of Colorado preschool children models 6 categories of ECC intervention--applying fluorides, limiting cariogenic bacterial transmission from mothers to children, using xylitol directly with children, clinical treatment, motivational interviewing, and combinations of these--to compare their relative effect and cost. The model projects 10-year intervention costs ranging from $6 million to $245 million and relative reductions in cavity prevalence ranging from none to 79.1% from the baseline. Interventions targeting the youngest children take 2 to 4 years longer to affect the entire population of preschool-age children but ultimately exert a greater benefit in reducing ECC; interventions targeting the highest-risk children provide the greatest return on investment, and combined interventions that target ECC at several stages of its natural history have the greatest potential for cavity reduction. Some interventions save more in dental repair than their cost; all produce substantial reductions in repair cost. By using data relevant to any geographic area, this system model can provide policy makers with information to maximize the return on public health and clinical care investments.
Chi, Donald L; Tut, Ohnmar; Milgrom, Peter
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of supervised tooth-brushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and reduce mutans streptococci. In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 196 four- to five-year-old children in four Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400 ppm/31 percent fluoride xylitol or 1,450 ppm fluoride sorbitol toothpaste. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was the surface-level primary molar caries increment (d(2-3)mfs) after six months. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children), and two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d(2-3)mfs. The mean d(2-3)mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d(2-3)mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 2.37; P=.07). No adverse effects were reported. After six months, brushing with a low-strength xylitol/fluoride tooth-paste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride-only toothpaste in a high caries-risk child population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early childhood caries (ECC is a specific form of rampant dental caries affecting infants and young children. ECC is still a problem that threatens the health of the community and its management is important. It is believed that the majorities of children with ECC also suffer from malnutrition, anemia, low weight and altered physical growth patterns. This study was undertaken to compare blood indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin] in a population of children in Kerman, Iran, and the association between growth factors, blood parameters, and ECC. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 240 children were selected from Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman. The subjects consisted of 2 to 6-year children, who needed blood sampling for different diagnostic reasons. Data were collected through clinical oral examinations, anthropometric measures, blood indices measurement (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin and structured questionnaire in order to assess demographic characteristics, nutritional habits and the presence or absence of systemic conditions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 50.79 months. Of 240 children included in this study, 124 (52.1% were girls and the rest (47.9% were boys. Statistical test revealed that there were statically significant differences in weight as well as the height of children in experimental and control groups (P 0.050. CONCLUSION: No significant association was observed between ECC and blood indices (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin, but the mean height and weight in the caries-free group were significantly higher.
Nayanjot Kaur Rai
Full Text Available BackgroundEarly childhood caries (ECC is one of the most prevalent and chronic conditions of childhood. Various factors including biological and dietary factors along with an overlay of parental social factors have been found to be associated with the progression of ECC. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize available literature and to identify parent-level proximal and distal risk factors associated with the development of ECC in developing nations.MethodsStudies conducted in developing nations, published between 2005 and 2017 in English, that included children younger than 6 years and examined ECC were included. The outcome of interest were parental risk factors, which included parental knowledge, behavior, attitudes, sense of coherence (SOC, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, education, and breastfeeding duration. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, and PubMed.ResultsThe search yielded 325 studies, of which 18 were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Ten studies found maternal education, and seven studies found parental education to be significantly associated with ECC. SES was significantly associated with ECC in 13 studies in the form of annual household income and occupation level. Four studies observed the significant association between oral health knowledge and attitudes with ECC, whereas only two studies found maternal attitude to be associated with ECC. Breastfeeding duration was a significant risk factor in four studies. One study each found significant associations of SOC, parental distress, and secondary smoke with ECC.ConclusionTo date, most of the researches done in developing countries have reported distal parental factors such as income and education being significant risk factors in caries development compared to proximal risk factors in low-income groups. Only a few studies analyzed the psychosocial and behavioral factors. Interventions could be designed to improve
Custodio-Lumsden, Christie L; Wolf, Randi L; Contento, Isobel R; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia A; Koch, Pamela A; Edelstein, Burton L
There is a recognized need for valid risk assessment tools for use by both dental and nondental personnel to identify young children at risk for, or with, precavitated stages of early childhood caries (i.e., early stage decalcifications or white spot lesions).The aim of this study is to establish concurrent criterion validity of "MySmileBuddy" (MSB), a novel technology-assisted ECC risk assessment and behavioral intervention tool against four measures of ECC activity: semi-quantitative assays of salivary mutans streptococci levels, visible quantity of dental plaque, visual evidence of enamel decalcifications, and cavitation status (none, ECC, severe ECC). One hundred eight children 2-6 years of age presenting to a pediatric dental clinic were recruited from a predominantly Spanish-speaking, low-income, urban population. All children received a comprehensive oral examination and saliva culture for assessment of ECC indicators. Their caregivers completed the iPad-based MSB assessment in its entirety (15-20 minutes). MSB calculated both diet and comprehensive ECC risk scores. Associations between all variables were determined using ordinal logistic regression. MSB diet risk scores were significantly positively associated with salivary mutans (P valid risk assessment tool for identifying children with early precursors of cavitations but does not add value in identifying children with extant lesions. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Chi, Donald L.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Milgrom, Peter
Purpose We assessed the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and to reduce mutans streptococci (MS). Methods In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 4 Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400ppm/31% fluoride-xylitol (Epic Dental, Provo, UT) or 1,450ppm fluoride-sorbitol toothpaste (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) (N=196 children, ages 4–5 yrs). We hypothesized no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was primary molar d2-3mfs increment after 6 mos. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children) and 2 classrooms to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. Results There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d2-3mfs. The mean d2-3mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d2-3mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% CI:−0.17, 2.37;P=0.07). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion After 6 mos, brushing with a low strength xylitol/fluoride toothpaste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride only toothpaste in a high caries risk child population. PMID:24709430
Al-Jewair, Thikriat S; Leake, James L
To determine the prevalence and risks of early childhood caries (ECC) among children less than 71 months of age in Toronto, Canada, and to evaluate the association between parental/caregiver depression and ECC. A secondary analysis of data previously collected by the Toronto Public Health as part of the 2003 Toronto Perinatal and Child Health Survey was performed. The 90-item survey was conducted over the telephone to 1,000 families with children from zero years (birth) to six years of age. Parents/caregivers were asked about factors related to the development and health of their children. For this study, only children younger than six years of age (less than 71 months) were included (n=833). The primary outcome of interest was self-reported and measured by the response to the question of whether a physician/dentist had ever told the parent/caregiver his/her child had ECC. The prevalence of ECC was 4.7 percent (37 of 791 children). The child's age, his/her history of dental visits, teeth brushing, the use of fluoridated toothpaste, the parent's/caregiver's depressive tendencies, the language spoken at home, and the household annual income were all significant in the bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression identified four factors associated with ECC: the child's age (being three years of age or older), having at least one parent/caregiver with depression, not speaking English at home, and having an annual household income less than $40,000 in Canadian dollars (CAD). While a child's age, home language, and household income are known risks for ECC, the finding that parental/caregiver depression may be related to ECC is new. Multiple risk factors are involved in the development of early childhood caries. Of particular importance are demographic (e.g., child's age), social (e.g., annual household income), and psychosocial factors (e.g., parental/caregiver depression) that are indirectly linked to ECC. More attention needs to be placed on understanding the role
Macías, Carmenza; Díaz, Diana; Caycedo, Marta; Lamus, Francisco; Rincón, Carlos
ABSTRACT Introduction: the goal of this study was to establish the association of social and biological risk factors with early childhood caries (ECC) in children from community homes of Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) in Zipaquirá, Colombia. Methods: descriptive cross-sectional study conducted by universities in 546 children aged 24 to 60 months. The following conditions were identified: socio-demographic variables, hygiene habits, O’Leary index and DMFT index, anthropom...
Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus; Oshomoji, Olusegun V; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is defined as the presence of caries lesion in an primary tooth in children below the age of 71 months. It is a significant public health problem with consequences for the growth and development of affected children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ECC risk indicators in a suburban population in Nigeria. The data of 497 children aged 6 months to 71 months who were recruited through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria was analysed for prevalence of ECC and risk indicators. Information on children's ages, sex, socioeconomic status, tooth brushing habits, sugary snacks consumption, use of fluoridated toothpaste, birth rank, infant-feeding practices, breastfeeding practices, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal knowledge of oral health was obtained. Children's oral hygiene and caries status was also determined. Risk factors associated with ECC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-three (6.6%) children had ECC. Four (0.8%) had severe ECC. The four risk indicators for ECC were the child's gender, mothers' knowledge of oral health, consumption of sugary snacks in between meals more than three times a day, and the child's oral hygiene status. Females (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.01- -0.01; p = 0.02), and children with mothers who had good knowledge of oral health (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11--0.008; p = 0.02) were less likely to have ECC. Children who consumed sugary snacks in between meals three times a day or more (PR: 0.05; CI: 0.003 - 0.01; P = 0.04) and children with fair oral hygiene (PR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.005-0.10; p = 0.03) were more likely to have ECC. The prevalence of ECC in the study population was low. Promoting good oral hygiene practices and enhancing mothers' knowledge of oral health may help reduce further, the risk for ECC in the study population.
Fekrazad, Reza; Seraj, Bahman; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rokouei, Mehrak; Mousavi, Niloofar; Ghadimi, Sara
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a novel technique for reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aPDT on Streptococcus mutans reduction in children with severe early childhood caries. Twenty-two children with severe early childhood caries aged 3-6 years were treated with toluoidine blue O (TBO) for 1min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED; FotoSan, CMS Dental, Denmark) with the exposure time of 150s. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, 1h and 7 days after treatment. S. mutans counts were determined using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans. The counts of S. mutans in saliva decreased significantly after 1h (Pmutans counts in saliva was not significant between the baseline and 7 days after treatment (P>0.05). aPDT seems to be efficient to reduce salivary S. mutans immediately after treatment in children with severe early childhood caries. However, further research is needed to evaluate different doses and frequency of irradiation in combination with restoring carious teeth to find more durable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parisotto; T. M.; Stipp; R.; Rodrigues; L. K. A.; Mattos-Graner; R. O.; Costa; L. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos; M.
Background: Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. Aims: To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Design: Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 ...
Jayaraj, D; Ganesan, S
The diagnostic utility of saliva is currently being explored in various branches of dentistry, remarkably in the field of caries research. This study was aimed to determine if assessment of salivary pH and buffering capacity would serve as reliable tools in risk prediction of early childhood caries (ECC). Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from 50 children with ECC (group I) and 50 caries free children (group II). Salivary pH and buffering capacity (by titration with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid) were assessed using a handheld digital pH meter in both groups. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between both the groups for all salivary parameters assessed, except for the buffering capacity level at 150 μl titration of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (p = 0.73; significant at 1% level). Salivary pH and buffering capacity may not serve as reliable markers for risk prediction of ECC. How to cite this article: Jayaraj D, Ganesan S. Salivary pH and Buffering Capacity as Risk Markers for Early Childhood Caries: A Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):167-171.
Adams, Sally H; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A
The objective of this study was to determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries in young Hispanic children. We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of, and preferences for, five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, and xylitol in food for children, and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment, photograph/video clip, and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0-4). All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however, there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman chi-square = 23.4, P treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman chi-square = 128.2, P treatments were highly acceptable, however, when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments.
Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket
There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pantuckova, Pavla; Bartosova, Michaela; Broukal, Zdenek; Kukletova, Martina; Holla, Lydie Izakovicova
The aim of this study was to compare the detection frequency of periodontal bacteria in dental plaque in children with early childhood caries (ECC) with and without gingival inflammation. A convenience sample of 25 preschool children (mean age 3.61 years, SD 1.42) was recruited. Dental plaque was taken from periodontal areas with and without visible signs of inflammation and processed using the StomaGene® (Protean s.r.o. Czech Republic) and ParoCheck® 20 (Greiner Bio-one GmbH, Germany) detection kits. The two sample t tests between percents for differences between inflammatory and healthy sites and kappa statistics for the agreement of both systems were used. At the inflammatory sites, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were significantly more frequently detected by StomaGene® while Fusobacterium nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Tanarella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia were significantly more frequently identified by ParoCheck® test. The agreement between the two detection systems was substantial for A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum in the samples collected from inflamed sites and only for F. nucleatum from clinically healthy sites. Therefore, we recommend that the same system should be used when the same patient is examined repeatedly.
Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G
The paradigm of etiology of early childhood caries (ECC) is shifting toward genetics. Of various inherited factors, blood group of an individual is genetically determined. The aim of the study is to determine if blood group of an individual will serve as a potential risk factor in the development of ECC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chennai. Blood samples were collected from a total of 500 children age for determination of the blood group. Of which 96 children (24 per blood group) were randomly selected and were included in the study. Oral screening of the selected children was done by a pediatric dentist who was blinded to the blood group of the children. Decayed, extracted, and filling index was noted. Details on other associated factors for the development of ECC such as the socioeconomic status, oral hygiene measures, diet, and feeding practices were collected by directly interviewing the parents through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey test with significance level set at 0.05. Intergroup analysis of the associated factors showed no significant differences between the children of different blood groups. A statistically significant relation was noted between the blood groups and development of ECC (P = 0.025). Blood group is a potential risk indicator for the development of ECC.
Ng, Man Wai; Torresyap, Gay; White, Alex; Melvin, Patrice; Graham, Dionne; Kane, Daniel; Scoville, Richard; Ohiomoba, Henry
The purpose is to report findings of a quality improvement (QI) project implemented at two hospital-based dental clinics that care for children with early childhood caries (ECC). We tested a disease management (DM) approach in children younger than age 60 months with ECC. After 30 months, for the 403 and 234 DM patients at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) and Saint Joseph Hospital (SJH) who returned for at least two visits, rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR were 26.1, 13.4 and 10.9% for CHB and 41.0, 7.3 and 14.9% for SJH. Rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR for historical controls were 75.2, 21.7, and 20.9% for CHB and 71.3, 31.3, and 25.0% for SJH. A risk-based DM approach utilizing QI strategies to address ECC can be implemented into practice and has the potential to improve care and health outcomes.
El Tantawi, Maha; Folayan, Morenike O; Mehaina, Mohamed; Vukovic, Ana; Castillo, Jorge L; Gaffar, Balgis O; Arheiam, Arheiam; Al-Batayneh, Ola B; Kemoli, Arthur M; Schroth, Robert J; Lee, Gillian H M
To assess the relationship between health care system and economic factors and early childhood caries (ECC) data availability and prevalence. We estimated ECC data for 193 United Nations countries from studies published between 2007 and 2017. We obtained other variables from the World Health Organization and the World Bank databases. We assessed association with ECC data availability by using logistic regression and with ECC prevalence by using linear regression. We included 190 publications from 88 (45.6%) countries. The mean ECC prevalence was 23.8% and 57.3% in children younger than 36 months and children aged 36 to 71 months, respectively. The odds of ECC data availability were significantly higher for countries with more physicians and more dentists. In children younger than 36 months, ECC prevalence was associated with universal health coverage (B = -6.56). In children aged 36 to 71 months, it was associated with growth of gross national income (B = 0.27). Countries with more physicians and more dentists were more likely to have ECC data. Among those with data, countries with higher economic growth had higher ECC prevalence. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 21, 2018: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304466).
Mohamed, Nadia; Barnes, Jo
This retrospective survey highlighted the characteristics of children less than six years of age presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) who had two or more teeth extracted under intravenous sedation at the Tygerberg Oral Health Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. This survey was carried out in order to plan a community-appropriate intervention strategy. Records of 140 patients kept by the pediatric Dentistry Division met the inclusion criteria and were included in this survey. Most of the patients originate from economically disadvantaged areas. Diet, feeding and oral hygiene habits were shown to be the most significant factors that contributed to the development of ECC in these patients. All the children were either breast- or bottle-fed past one year of age. 93.6% of the children went to sleep with the bottle or while on the breast and 90% of them were fed on demand during the night. On average, breastfeeding was stopped at 9 months of age compared to bottle-feeding that, on average, was stopped at a much later mean age of 23 months. Where oral hygiene practices were concerned, 52.6% of children brushed their own teeth without supervision. Frequency of brushing varied between subjects. The results of this study have demonstrated that there is a need for culturally appropriate education campaigns to inform parents (especially those in disadvantaged communities) about the importance of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.
Arrow, P; Klobas, E
To compare changes in child dental anxiety after treatment for early childhood caries (ECC) using two treatment approaches. Children with ECC were randomized to test (atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)-based approach) or control (standard care approach) groups. Children aged 3 years or older completed a dental anxiety scale at baseline and follow up. Changes in child dental anxiety from baseline to follow up were tested using the chi-squared statistic, Wilcoxon rank sum test, McNemar's test and multinomial logistic regression. Two hundred and fifty-four children were randomized (N = 127 test, N = 127 control). At baseline, 193 children completed the dental anxiety scale, 211 at follow up and 170 completed the scale on both occasions. Children who were anxious at baseline (11%) were no longer anxious at follow up, and 11% non-anxious children became anxious. Multinomial logistic regression found each increment in the number of visits increased the odds of worsening dental anxiety (odds ratio (OR), 2.2; P < 0.05), whereas each increment in the number of treatments lowered the odds of worsening anxiety (OR, 0.50; P = 0.05). The ART-based approach to managing ECC resulted in similar levels of dental anxiety to the standard treatment approach and provides a valuable alternative approach to the management of ECC in a primary dental care setting. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC in children and investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables, quality of oral hygiene and child-related aspects. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 593 children aged three to five years. Data were collected through clinical examinations and interviews with parents. Interviews with parents of the children were conducted to acquire information on sociodemographic aspects, breastfeeding, bottle feeding and harmful oral habits. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and the Poisson regression. The prevalence of ECC was 53.6%. The occurrence of ECC was greater among children with unsatisfactory oral hygiene (PR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.42-3.60 and those from a family with a lower monthly household income (PR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24-2.10. In conclusion, unsatisfactory oral hygiene and monthly income exerted an influence on the occurrence of ECC among preschoolers.
Sham S Bhat
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the maternal risk factors and its relationship with early childhood caries (ECC among preschoolchildren in Mangaluru city. Methods: Children aged 3–5 years attending preschool (Anganwadi and their mothers were included in the study. A total of 120 child–mother pairs participated in the study. The maternal risk factors were assessed by a pretested questionnaire. After obtaining the consent, the mother and their children were clinically examined for dental caries using the WHO criteria (1997. Results were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Results: Significant difference was found in mother's caries activity, high level of Streptococcus mutans, brushing frequency, diet of the mother, and their child's caries experience. Conclusion: A relationship between maternal risk factors and ECC is a result of a multifactorial and a comprehensive model that includes psychological and behavioral aspects. Caries prevention strategy should be that every child should receive oral care before age of one so that needful children can be instituted with preventive measures and their parents can be targeted for educational programs.
Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is a significant dental public health problem that affects infants and preschool children all over the world, and there is scarcity of epidemiological data regarding ECC in Rohtak city. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of ECC among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Rohtak city, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 489 preschool children aged 3–5 years in Rohtak city, Haryana. Children were randomly selected from preschools of Rohtak. Caries experience was recorded using “deft” index, and questionnaire comprising sociodemographic details and oral hygiene practices was also used. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Chi-square tests were used for the comparison of proportions. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of ECC was found to be 32% with mean deft 1.08 ± 2.27. No significant association of dental caries was found with sociodemographic factors such as gender, parental education, parental occupation, socioeconomic status, number of children, birth order, type of family, and oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: As burden of dental caries is high, treatment of dental caries would impose a great financial burden; hence, effective preventive strategies should be developed and implemented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and
Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and decay exfoliation filling teeth (def-t >6 is a destructive disease that afflicts teeth, including maxillary anterior teeth. In Indonesia, the prevalence of this disease is still high, for instance in Semarang 2007, the rate reached 90.5% in urban areas and 95.9% in rural areas for early childhood caries which is caused by Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity which become the main component of the very first line of defense against microbes. Purpose: This study analyzed the effect caused by the change of CD63 expression on the surface of salivary neutrophils and the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC. Method: This study employs observational analytic and cross sectional approach by using T test analysis technique for forty cases of early childhood that had been divided into two groups, first group of twenty children positively diagnosed as S-ECC and second group of twenty children negatively diagnosed as the control group. The sample’s result of gargling with 1.5% NaCl was used for neutrophils isolation and analysis function of salivary neutrophils phagocytosis by using flow cytometry test, while the sample of saliva was used to isolate S. mutans and calculate the level of S. mutans. Result: The expression of CD63+ salivary neutrophils in S-ECC was lower (2.32% ± 0.57 than in caries-free (2.67% ± 0.46, while the level of S. mutans showed that the level was not higher than in S-ECC (9.78 ± 2.22x105 CFU/ml compared to in caries-free (5.13 ± 1.86x105 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The low expression of CD63 in salivary neutrophils can lead to the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC.
Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A
Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a continuous growth of interest has been observed in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs in the light of an alarming increase in resistance of bacteria and fungi against antibiotics. AMPs are used as biomarkers in diagnosis and monitoring of oral cavity pathologies. Therefore, the determination of specific protein profiles in children diagnosed with early childhood caries (ECC might be a basis for effective screening tests and specialized examinations which may enable progression of disease METHODS: The objective of the studies was to determine the role of histatin-5 and β-defensing-2 as a diagnostic marker of early childhood caries progression. In this work, results of concentration determination of two salivary proteins (histatin-5 and β-defensin-2 were presented. In addition, bacterial profiles from dental plaque in various stages of ECC and control were marked. The assessment of alteration in the concentration of these two proteins in a study group of children with various stages of ECC and a control group consisting of children with no symptoms was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the concentration of histatin-5 and β-defensin-2 in the study group compared to the control group and correlated with the progression of the disease CONCLUSIONS: The confirmation of concentration changes in these proteins during the progression of dental caries may discover valuable disease progression biomarkers
Full Text Available Abstract An early childhood carie (ECC is an extremely destructive form of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of ozone (O3, and the association of sodium fluoride (NaF with chlorhexidine (CHX on bacteria related to ECC. Overnight culture of the bacteria was performed. On exponential phase the suspension was adjusted (101-108 CFU/mL. A drop (10μL of each concentration of bacteria was applied on sheep blood agar plates and treated with O3 (2, 20, 200, and 2,000 ppm; after 18 hours, recovery analysis of CFU verified the reduction of bacterial activity. For NaF-CHX, sterile 96-well plates were prepared and divided into groups: G1 (150 µL TSB; G2 (20 µL of bacteria + 25 µL CHX + 25 µL NaF; and G3 (150 µL TSB + 20 µL of bacteria + 50 µL water. The plates were verified by analysis of the optical density (0, 12, 14, 16, and 18 hours. The data from O3 test were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p 3log10 (99.9% for all bacteria (ozone ≥ 20ppm, while the combination of NaF-CHX was more effective (p < 0.001 compared to each substance tested alone and the control group. The antimicrobial agents tested were able to inhibit all bacteria tested; O3 seemed to be a good alternative for controlling progression of carious lesions, while the association of NaF-CHX showed to be a good antimicrobial with easy and inexpensive application.
Reyes-Perez, Elisandra; Borrell, Luisa N; Katz, Ralph V; Gebrian, Bette J; Prophete, Samuel; Psoter, Walter J
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (ECPEM) on decayed, missing, filled tooth (DMFT) scores in the permanent dentition of rural Haitian adolescents aged 11-19 years (n = 1,006). We used data from a retrospective cohort that was developed from the Haitian Health Foundation database and merged records on weight-for-age covering the birth through 5-year-old period for all enrolled participants. Dental examinations and interviewer-administered structured questionnaires on demographic and socioeconomic status, and relative sugar consumption were completed in 1,058 participants aged 11-19 years. The ECPEM was defined based on weight-for-age of the subjects during their first 5 years of life that were converted to Z-scores based on the National Center for Health Statistics referent database. Descriptive statistics were calculated. DMFT was regressed on ECPEM adjusting for age, sex, current body mass index Z-score, socioeconomic status, relative sugar consumption, and number of permanent teeth present assuming a Poisson distribution. Questionable malnutrition [rate ratio (RR) = 0.72; 95 percent confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.86] and malnutrition (RR = 0.58; 95 percent CI, 0.49-0.69) were associated with a statistically significant lower DMFT in Haitian adolescents. ECPEM status is inversely associated with DMFT in Haitian participants. Further follow-up of these same participants will be recommended to evaluate the potential caries catch-up effect. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Arrow, Peter; Klobas, Elizabeth
A pragmatic randomized control trial was undertaken to compare the minimum intervention dentistry (MID) approach, based on the atraumatic restorative treatment procedures (MID-ART: Test), against the standard care approach (Control) to treat early childhood caries in a primary care setting. Consenting parent/child dyads were allocated to the Test or Control group using stratified block randomization. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Participants were examined at baseline and at follow-up by two calibrated examiners blind to group allocation status (κ = 0.77), and parents completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Dental therapists trained in MID-ART provided treatment to the Test group and dentists treated the Control group using standard approaches. The primary outcome of interest was the number of children who were referred for specialist pediatric care. Secondary outcomes were the number of teeth treated, changes in child oral health-related quality of life and dental anxiety and parental perceptions of care received. Data were analyzed on an intention to treat basis; risk ratio for referral for specialist care, test of proportions, Wilcoxon rank test and logistic regression were used. Three hundred and seventy parents/carers were initially screened; 273 children were examined at baseline and 254 were randomized (Test = 127; Control = 127): mean age = 3.8 years, SD 0.90; 59% male, mean dmft = 4.9, SD 4.0. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, baseline caries experience or child oral health-related quality of life between the Test and Control group. At follow-up (mean interval 11.4 months, SD 3.1 months), 220 children were examined: Test = 115, Control = 105. Case-notes review of 231 children showed Test = 6 (5%) and Control = 53 (49%) were referred for specialist care, P < 0.0001. More teeth were filled in the Test group (mean = 2.93, SD 2.48) than in the Control group (mean = 1.54, SD
Chaffee, Benjamin W; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; Vítolo, Márcia Regina
Early-life feeding behaviors foretell later dietary habits and health outcomes. Few studies have examined infant dietary patterns and caries occurrence prospectively. Assess whether patterns in food and drink consumption before age 12 months are associated with caries incidence by preschool age. We collected early-life feeding data within a birth cohort from low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Three dietary indexes were defined, based on refined sugar content and/or previously reported caries associations: a count of sweet foods or drinks introduced cariogenic items in infancy was positively associated with future caries. S-ECC incidence was highest in the uppermost tertile of the '6-month sweet index' (adjusted cumulative incidence ratio, RR, versus lowest tertile: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.04) and the uppermost tertile of the '12-month sweet index' (RR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.23). The association was specific for sweet items: caries incidence did not differ by tertile of the '6-month nonsweet index' (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.40). Additionally, each one-unit increase on the 6-month and the 12-month sweet indexes, but not the 6-month nonsweet index, was statistically significantly associated with greater S-ECC incidence and associated with more decayed, missing, or restored teeth. Results were robust to minor changes in the items constituting each index and persisted if liquid items were excluded. Dietary factors observed before age 12-months were associated with S-ECC at preschool age, highlighting a need for timely, multilevel intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.
The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...
Validity and reliability of the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS) to assess health beliefs related to early childhood caries prevention among primary caregivers of children under 5 years of age.
Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Shaw, Bret R; Tanasukarn, Chanuantong; Vatanasomboon, Paranee
Primary caregivers' child oral health care beliefs and practices are major factors in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). This study assessed the validity and reliability of a newly-developed scale--the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS)--used to measure beliefs regarding ECC preventive practices among primary caregivers of young children. The ECCPS was developed based on the Health Belief Model. The construct validity and reliability of the ECCPS were examined among 254 low-socioeconomic status primary caregivers with children under five years old, recruifed from 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Health Centers and a kindergarten school. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a four-factor structure. The four factors were labeled as Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers. Internal consistency measured by the Cronbach's coefficient alpha for those four factors were 0.897, 0.971, 0.975 and 0.789, respectively. The ECCPS demonstrated satisfactory levels of reliability and validity for assessing the health beliefs related to ECC prevention among low-socioeconomic primary caregivers.
Tove I. Wigen
Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle diseases including dental caries are partly preventable, and associated with health behavior. Establishing favorable health behavior is one main challenge both in general and dental health services. The purpose of this paper was to focus on cross-disciplinary research that has the potential to prevent development of both dental caries and other lifestyle diseases. More specifically the aim was to study how family characteristics and health behavior in pregnancy and early childhood influence caries development in preschool children.Material and methods: Data from dental examination of 5 year old children in the public dental services was linked to data from MoBa. In total, 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to 5 years of age. The data has provided opportunity to follow longitudinally the development of oral health behavior in early childhood in a large sample, and to study associations between caries development during preschool age and information in the MoBa database.Results: Results from the studies showed that tooth brushing frequency established at 1.5 year of age was stable through preschool age. Caries development in preschool age was related to child and maternal risk behavior in early childhood and to characteristics of risk families.Conclusion: Cross-disciplinary research using MoBa data has given new knowledge on dental caries development in early childhood in Norway. This knowledge can be used in clinical practice both in general and dental health services to improve preventive efforts towards early childhood caries and other lifestyle diseases.
Majorana, Alessandra; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo
Several maternal health determinants during the first period of life of the child, as feeding practice, smoking habit and socio-economic level, are involved in early childhood health problems, as caries development. The potential associations among early childhood caries, feeding practices, maternal and environmental smoking exposure, Socio-Economic Status (SES) and several behavioral determinants were investigated. Italian toddlers (n = 2395) aged 24-30 months were recruited and information on feeding practices, sweet dietary habit, maternal smoking habit, SES, and fluoride supplementation in the first year of life was obtained throughout a questionnaire administered to mothers. Caries lesions in toddlers were identified in visual/tactile examinations and classified using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Associations between toddlers' caries data and mothers' questionnaire data were assessed using chi-squared test. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations among caries severity level (ICDAS score), behavioral factors and SES (using mean housing price per square meter as a proxy). Caries prevalence and severity levels were significantly lower in toddlers who were exclusively breastfed and those who received mixed feeding with a moderate-high breast milk component, compared with toddlers who received low mixed feeding and those exclusively fed with formula (p smoked five or more cigarettes/day during pregnancy showed a higher caries severity level (p smoke. Environmental exposure to smoke during the first year of life was also significantly associated with caries severity (odds ratio =7.14, 95% confidence interval = 6.07-7.28). No association was observed between caries severity level and fluoride supplementation. More than 50% of toddlers belonging to families with a low SES, showed moderate or high severity caries levels (p smoke during pregnancy living in area with a low mean housing price per square meter.
Jennifer D. Zwicker
Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a serious disease that is about much more than cavities on baby teeth. In Canada, it is a growing public health problem with adverse long-term effects on children's physical, emotional and intellectual well-being. The failure to invest in preventive care has resulted in reactive, rather than proactive, measures against this disease. These measures are expensive and a needless drain on costs in the public health-care system. Children with severe ECC end up in hospital; in fact, in Canada, this disease is the most common reason children undergo day surgery. From 2010 to 2012, one in 100 children under age five required day surgery for ECC, with approximately 19,000 of these surgeries performed each year on children under age six. Canadian hospital costs for ECC day surgery in children aged one to five ranged from $1,271 to $1,963 per child, totalling $21.2 million between 2010 and 2012. Children from low-income families, along with aboriginal, immigrant and refugee children are disproportionately affected by dental disease, with between 50 per cent and 90 per cent of suffering from some form of ECC. This compares to an average of 57 per cent of children affected in the general population. A recent Alberta study indicates that when municipalities cease fluoridating their water supplies, children suffer increased levels of tooth decay. This has reignited the discussion around whether municipalities should add fluoride to the drinking water, or reinstate it in places where the water used to be fluoridated. While fluoridation can be an effective prevention strategy, this study also shows that fluoride alone is not enough. To reduce the costs and developmental consequences associated with severe ECC and improve well-being, oral health policies focused on disease prevention and health promotion are still necessary. This briefing paper provides background on the etiology, risk factors and prevalence of ECC in Canada to
Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo
To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.
Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D
The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.
Early childhood caries presents unique treatment challenges that often require advanced behavior management techniques, such as general anesthesia or procedural sedation. In some cases, use of these pharmacologic adjuncts is undesirable or not possible. The interim therapeutic restoration is a treatment method that, while sometimes employed in such cases, can often produce unsatisfactory results in primary anterior teeth. This is often due to insufficient bulk of material and lack of retention. The purpose of this report was to describe a simple alternative technique (resin modified glass ionomer strip crowns) that may be employed to deliver esthetic anterior restorations to marginally cooperative children in the dental clinic setting and to report on two cases in which it was successfully used. \\\\\\Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA. email@example.com
Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; de Souza-E-Silva, Cintia Maria; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte
The purpose of this case report was to describe the oral rehabilitation of a 4-year-old girl presenting early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is highly prevalent in developing countries and its severity increases with age. This disease implies serious consequences for the development of the stomatognathic system and for the child's quality of life. As young children are usually anxious about dental treatment, their level of co-operation is limited, leading to a challenging situation. A 4-year-old girl was brought by her mother for dental treatment with the complaint of pain. The clinical examination revealed extensive carious coronary destructions. After preventive and curative measures, the oral rehabilitation was performed; it included the use of stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns with previous cementation of glass post pins when necessary, an amalgam restoration, orthodontic treatment, and a partial removable prosthesis. The child has been monitored in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at 4-monthly intervals. The oral rehabilitation was able to reestablish the oral health in the primary arches mutilated by early childhood caries. This is important for the establishment of an adequate mixed and permanent dentition, for proper facial and maxillary growth, and to the child's psychological and social development. The full management, including preventive, psychological, and curative measures of a young child with severe ECC was found successful after 8 months of follow up. This result can encourage the clinicians to seek a cost-effective technique such as stainless steel crowns, resin filled celluloid crowns, and partial removable prosthesis to reestablish the oral functions and improve the child's psycho-social development.
M S Beena
Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is characterized by the presence of one or more decayed, missing (due to caries, or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth, in a child below 6 years of age. Although ECC is primarily associated with high levels of maternal Streptococcus mutans, there has been an increased interest in finding the relationship between oral fungal flora and dental caries. Objective: The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the Candida species and to compare the candidal isolates in children with ECC and without ECC. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on children below 6 years of age, who were categorized into ECC and non-ECC groups of fifty children each. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs and were inoculated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Candidal colonies were isolated, species identified and virulence factors tested for both ECC and non-ECC groups. Results: The candidal carriage among the ECC children was found to be 84%, which was significantly higher than the non-ECC group of 24%. Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC were isolated in both ECC and non-ECC groups. Phospholipase production was significantly high in ECC group whereas hemolysin production and germ tube formation showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: A significant correlation was found between the presence of Candida and ECC. NAC also plays an important role in the development of ECC. The virulence factors such as phospholipase may be responsible for the pathogenicity of Candida in the development of ECC.
Chen, Jing; Li, Tiancheng; Zhou, Xuedong; Cheng, Lei; Huo, Yuanyuan; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing
The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) sites in 45 clinical Streptococcus mutans strains and their relationship to the clinical manifestations of early childhood caries (ECC). Forty-five S. mutans strains were isolated from the plaque samples taken from sixty-three children. CRISPR sites were sequenced and BLAST was used to compare these sites to those in the CRISPRTarget database. The association between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the manifestation of caries was analyzed by Chi-Square test. Further, biofilm formation (by crystal violet staining) and the synthesis of polysaccharide (by anthrone-sulfuric method) of all clinical isolated S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites and no CRISPR site were comapared. Finally, acidogenicity and acidurity of two typical strains were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays. Biofilm formation and EPS synthesis by two typical strains were compared by 3D CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope) assays and the expression of gtf genes were evaluated using qPCR. We found that most of the spacers in the clinical S. mutans strains were derived from Streptococcus phages APCM01 and M102. The number of CRISPR sites in these strains was associated with the clinical manifestations of ECC. Moreover, we found that the biofilm formation and EPS synthesis ability of the S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites was significant improved. An association was found between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the clinical manifestations of caries. The CRISPR sites might contribute to the cariogenic potential of S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arrow, P; Klobas, E
The aim of this study was to compare changes in child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) after treatment for early childhood caries (ECC) using two alternative treatment approaches. A randomized control trial with random allocation of parent/child dyads with ECC to test (minimum intervention) or control (standard care). Participating parents completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in ECOHIS scores and extent of COHRQoL impacts between and within groups were tested using the chi-squared statistic for groups, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test, and matched-pairs signed-rank test. Two hundred and fifty-four children were randomized (test = 127; control = 127). At baseline, mean ECOHIS score 11.1, sd 8.2; mean age = 3.8 years, sd 0.90; mean dmft = 4.9, sd 4.0; and 59% male. After a mean interval of 11.4 months, 210 children were followed-up and returned a completed questionnaire (test = 111; control = 99). There was no significant difference in COHRQoL changes between test and control. For all the children combined, there were significantly fewer impacts at follow-up in the child and family domains and the total ECOHIS, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p test and control in the extent of the improvement. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.
Basir, Leila; Rasteh, Bita; Montazeri, Ali; Araban, Marzieh
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children's primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10) consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received "standard well baby care". The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children's teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p 0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001), health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01), oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01), and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001). This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion for evidence-based decision-making processes regarding ECCs
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children’s primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. Method The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10 consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received “standard well baby care”. The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children’s teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p 0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001, health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01, oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01, and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001. Conclusion This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion
Koreksi dimensi vertikal oklusal dengan modifikasi restorasi mahkota logam pada kasus severe early childhood caries (Correcting occlusal vertical dimension using modified stainless steel crown restoration in severe early childhood caries case
Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (SECC describes progressively dental caries in primary dentition among children aged less than 3 to 5-year-old. Loss of Occlusal Vertical Dimension (OVD with deep bite in clinical feature found 2.5 times more often in s-ecc children than others. It leads discrepancies of vertical development of permanent dentition, hence creates malocclusion. Purpose: The aim of this paper was to report consideration and correction of OVD in SECC child. Case: A 5-year-old girl was accompanied by her mother came to pediatric dental clinic Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia. Patient’s chief complaint was decay on all her teeth. Clinical examination revealed caries on all primary dentition, tooth #16, #46 have not yet been occluded, 26 erupted partially and it occluded with 36, anterior deep bite. Diagnose was anterior deep bite caused by SECC. Case management: Operative-rehabilitative treatment restores OVD to prevent malocclusion by modifying height of ssc in primary molars. Correcting deep bite using stainless steel crown (SSC modified in posterior was done. First, restoration with glass-ionomer cement for raising the bite followed by a week evaluation to observe masticatory function and functional analysis of temporomandibular joint. Second, ssc were placed in primary molars. Conclusion: Modifying height of ssc in primary molars could corrected OVD in SECC child. Permanent first molars eruption could be guided to completely occlusion and prevent early malocclusion.Latar belakang: Severe early childhood caries (SECC menunjukan pola karies gigi sulung yang progresif dan menyeluruh pada anak usia di bawah 3 hingga 5 tahun. Kehilangan dimensi vertikal oklusal (DVO, dengan gambaran gigitan dalam pada periode gigi sulung dilaporkan terjadi 2,5 kali lebih banyak pada anak SECC. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan gangguan perkembangan vertikal gigi permanen yang nantinya menyebabkan maloklusi. Tujuan: Laporan kasus ini
Estela M. Losso
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Fornecer informações para auxiliar o médico pediatra a reconhecer os fatores de risco para o início da cárie precoce na infância e da cárie severa na infância (CSI, possibilitando a intervenção precoce de tais fatores, e, assim, evitar a instalação dessa doença prevenível e as suas consequências. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos científicos publicados nas bases de dados SciELO, MEDLINE e PUBMED nos últimos 25 anos, livros técnicos e publicações de consenso de organismos internacionais. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: early childhood caries, severe early childhood caries, dental caries e children. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A CSI é uma forma de cárie dentária que afeta bebês e crianças. É infecciosa, de etiologia multifatorial e de desenvolvimento rápido, iniciando logo após a erupção dos dentes. Por apresentar fatores de risco local e sociocultural, deve ser considerada como sintoma de uma alteração na criança e de falta de cuidados adequados. Suas manifestações incluem dor, abscessos e dificuldades mastigatórias, afetando a alimentação e o sono da criança. Além disso, afeta também sua saúde geral, fala e autoestima. CONCLUSÕES: A CSI é uma doença com métodos preventivos estabelecidos, que devem ser introduzidos o mais precocemente possível, por meio de programas preventivos na comunidade e no núcleo familiar. Os profissionais que atendem bebês e crianças devem estar atentos aos casos com risco para o desenvolvimento da doença cárie e interceder a fim de se obter saúde.OBJECTIVE: To provide information with the purpose of helping pediatricians to recognize the risk factors for the onset of severe early childhood caries, allowing for early intervention and thus avoiding this preventable disease and its consequences. SOURCES: Information was collected from scientific articles published on the databases SciELO, MEDLINE and PUBMED in last 25 years, as
Hussein, Alaa S; Schroth, Robert J; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed I
This survey evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Selangor regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention and the recommended timing of a child's first dental visit. A questionnaire was mailed to 521 licensed GDPs. Descriptive statistics were used, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 52.6%. Although 89.8% mentioned counseling parents and caregivers, only 44.2% were familiar with anticipatory guidance. Whereas 98.2% agreed that early examinations are important to prevent ECC, only 51.8% were aware of the recommendation for a first visit by 12 months of age. GDPs who recommended early dental visits were significantly more likely to be recent graduates, more familiar with professional guidelines, and less likely to be deterred by a child's crying or behavior. In conclusion, GDPs in Selangor are aware about the importance of early dental visits in ECC prevention. However, a considerable number of them are still not aware of the recommendation that children must first visit the dentist by 12 months of age. Furthermore, some of their current practices in ECC management and prevention do not match professional recommendations. © 2013 APJPH.
Bussma Ahmed Bugis
Full Text Available Pediatric dental caries is the most common chronic disease among children. Above 40% of the U.S. children aged 2–11 years have dental caries; more than 50% of them come from low-income families. Under dental services of the Medicaid program, children enrolled in Medicaid must receive preventive dental services. However, only 1/5 of them utilize preventive dental services. The purpose of this overview is to measure the impact of Medicaid dental benefits on reducing oral health disparities among Medicaid-eligible children. This paper explains the importance of preventive dental care, children at high risk of dental caries, Medicaid dental benefits, utilization of dental preventive services by Medicaid-eligible children, dental utilization influencing factors, and outcome evaluation of Medicaid in preventing dental caries among children. In conclusion, despite the recent increase of children enrolled in Medicaid, utilizing preventive dental care is still a real challenge that faces Medicaid.
Maria Beatriz Barreto de Sousa Cabral
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate time in days from the beginning of follow-up up to the development of dental caries in children under 30 months and to assess risk factors potentially affecting the development of the disease. METHODS The study population of the cohort study were children attending public, private, and charitable day care centers in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, followed up for fourteen months. We used the multivariate Cox regression to estimate risk and Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the caries-free time. RESULTS Of the 495 children studied, 112 developed caries (22.6%. Mean caries-free time was 248.6 (SD = 96.2 days. The comparasion of curves by age group (> 24 months and children attending public day care showed more caries in a shorter period (p < 0.00. The following variables were important risk factors for increased rate of caries: district of origin (HR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.27–2.77, category of day care (HR = 3.88, 95%CI 2.04–7.38, age (HR = 1.77, 95%CI 1.15–2.74, bottle-feeding before sleep time after the age of 12 months (HR = 1.62, 95%CI 1.04–2.51, presence of active white spots (HR = 2.70, 95%CI 1.07–6.80, and living in non-masonry house (HR = 1.68, 95%CI 1.02–2.76. The highest hazard ratio (HR = 4.60, 95%CI 2.80–7.42 was found for previous caries experience. CONCLUSIONS Social variables were considered as of high risk for the development of dental caries.
Shikha Dogra; Rangeela Ram Rao; Gaurav Pratap Singh; Swetha Mohan; Amit Patel
Aim and Objectives: A study on prevalence and associated etiological factors of ECC. This study aimed to find the prevalence of ECC and the associated factors among preschool children in Anoo village, Hamirpur district (H.P). Materials and Methods: A sample of 65 children of age between 1 to 5 years was selected from anganwadi units of Anoo village. Dental caries was recorded and information regarding risk factors for caries was obtained through a questionnaire given to mothers or caretakers....
Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M
Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (pdental plaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liang, Chen-Yi; Liu, Yen-Chun; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Lin, Jia-Rong; Tseng, Yi-Chun; Teng, Andy Yen-Tung
To examine the as yet unknown relationship between dental caries and the child's psychomotor development. A cross-sectional study was designed by screening the kindergartens from urban areas of two cities in southern Taiwan. Besides the personal, demographic and dietary information, the common measures for caries (dmft) and the amended comprehensive scales (CCDI) for psychomotor development were used to assess their relationship(s). A power analysis showed that 334 subjects would be required. One-way ANOVA vs multiple linear regression analysis were used to compare the differences of variables between gender, age and dmft scales, vs the relationship among all variables tested, respectively. A total of 433 children completed the study. The results demonstrated that there was a positive relationship between higher (i.e. dmft≥4 and 5) but not lower or extremely high caries experience and aspects of psychomotor development (i.e. personal-social and expressive language) in children aged 4 to 6 years. The present results are important for paediatric dentists, as they suggest a positive correlation between caries experience (dmft 3 to 6) and psychomotor development in pre-school children and that such a correlation may occur more significantly as an attribute of the most affected teeth (incisors and molars) during the critical stage of personal-social and expressive language development (speech-communication).
Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is one of the most common problems in children worldwide which is seen in 3-45% preschool children population. Bacterial factor is one of the main four components (time, microorganism, diet, host to create caries. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most important cariogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study is evaluating Streptococcus mutans count in children with ECC and caries free children considering other factors. The aim of this study was to find the CFU of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of children with ECC versus caries free ones. In addition environmental factors affecting CFU of this micro organism. Methods: Salivary Streptococcus mutans count in 76 3-5 year old children was done in two groups (ECC and caries free. Non stimulated saliva was collected and cultured on Streptococcus mutans specific growth medium. Data was analyzed with Chi-Square, spearman, Kruskal–Wallis,Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Differences in colony count in study groups were statistically significant and was less in caries free children (p value<0.001. Colony count had no relationship with age, sex, weight, Body Mass Index(BMI and parents educational level but sugar consumption frequency, feeding method (breast or bottle and night time breast feeding had significant effect on colony count (p value=0.019. Conclusion: In the current study, a statistically significant difference was seen in colony count in two groups. Sugar consumption frequency and feeding method had a significant impact on colony count. Micro organisms are still the most important factors in creating caries but feeding pattern and sugar consumption frequency also have an important role. The results also showed that parents educational level does not influence reducing caries which should be noted.
Full Text Available Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status.A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500-3999 g. Sensitivity analyses included 'large for gestational age' (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, which was relative to 'appropriate for gestational age' (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles. Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI, 11%-28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%-16%, P < 0.001 for LGA neonates.Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates.
Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: A study on prevalence and associated etiological factors of ECC. This study aimed to find the prevalence of ECC and the associated factors among preschool children in Anoo village, Hamirpur district (H.P. Materials and Methods: A sample of 65 children of age between 1 to 5 years was selected from anganwadi units of Anoo village. Dental caries was recorded and information regarding risk factors for caries was obtained through a questionnaire given to mothers or caretakers. Result: The prevalence of ECC was 55.38% and there was a strong association of ECC with some of the risk factors studied. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the need of dental health programs in preschool children. Increasing the awareness regarding maintaining good oral hygiene and encouraging the intake of healthy snacks in children can reduce ECC in concerned population.
Sharat Chandra Pani
Full Text Available Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student’s t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol ( than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (. A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (. Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect.
Stephen, Arokiaraj; Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya; Kumar, Vasaviah Suresh
Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common dental diseases among the preschoolers, leading to suboptimal health. A study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of ECC in preschool children in the age group between 18 and 72 months and its relationship with parent's education and socioeconomic status of the family. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2771 children selected randomly, in the age group 18-72 months and attending playschools and primary schools in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas of Salem, Tamil Nadu. A modified Winter et al. questionnaire and a proforma were used for collecting information on each child. The completed questionnaire and proformas were statistically analyzed and evaluated. The statistical analysis was done using Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to obtain mean values. The prevalence of ECC in Salem was 16% with a mean dfs of 5.23 ± 1. Prevalence was high among the children of low socioeconomic status group and the children of working mothers, with a mean dfs of 10.47. The prevalence of ECC was 16% in Salem, Tamil Nadu. ECC was seen more in children of working mothers, lower parental education, and lower socioeconomic groups.
Medhini Madhavan Menon
Full Text Available Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6 in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P< 0.000. The gingival index scores had also reduced significantly 3-months post treatment (P< 0.002. Conclusions: Children with ECC when completely rehabilitated and kept under frequent follow up, which includes reinforcement of oral hygiene measures and maintaining a low caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6 can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children.
Stephen, Arokiaraj; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul
Various aetiological factors for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) have been suggested in literature, but the role of each factor has been disputed in various studies. To evaluate the association between ECC and its related factors in children between three to six years of age, from rural, semi-urban and urban schools in the district of Salem (India). The study consisted of children between three to six years of age, selected randomly from schools in semi-urban, urban and rural schools at Salem. Questionnaire (comprising of the factors associated with ECC) and parental consent forms were sent to each of the parents of the school children. Filled questionnaires and parental consent forms were obtained from a total of 2771 children, out of which 1771 were boys and 1000 were girls. Clinical examination for ECC was carried out according to the WHO criteria, by a single examiner and an assistant to eliminate inter-examiner variability. Statistical analysis was carried out using the student's independent t-test and ANOVA (one way analysis of variance). Out of a total of 2771 children examined, only 443 (315 boys and 128 girls) children were found to have ECC (16 %). Significant correlations were found between the occurrence of ECC and various factors like age of parents, number of siblings, on-demand breast feeding and bottle feeding habits and sweetened pacifier use. However, factors such as age and gender of the child, type of birth and duration of pregnancy, had no significant correlation with the occurrence of ECC. The need for educating parents on the ill effects of improper breast feeding and bottle feeding habits is important.
Estela Gispert Abreu
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en 159 niños de 6 meses a 1 año de edad con el objetivo de analizar la influencia de la prevención indirecta en la incidencia bienal de caries en la primera infancia y la relación entre la afectación por caries y el grado de infección por Estreptococos mutans. Se formaron 2 grupos por el método aleatorio: T donde sus madres y familias convivientes con alta infección por E. mutans (Em recibieron barniz laca flúor al 2 % + clorhexidina al 1 % cada 3 meses, así como actividades educativas y curativas; y el grupo C que solo recibió estas 2 últimas actividades. Cuando los niños arribaron a los 3 años fueron examinados y se observó que la incidencia de caries dependió de forma significativa (X²=pA study was conducted among 159 children aged 6 months old -1 year old to analyse the influence of indirect prevention on the biennial incidence of dental caries in early childhood, and the relation between the affectation due to caries and the degree of infection caused by Streptococcus mutans. They were divided into groups at random: group T where their mothers and relatives living together with high E. mutans infection received fluorine shellac-varnish 2 % plus chlorhexidine 1 % every 3 months, in addition to educative and curative activities, and group C that participated only in the last two activities. The children were examined at the age of 3 and it was observed that the incidence of dental caries depended significantly (X²=p<0,001 y (t=p<0,001 on the E. mutans infection degree in the relatives, mainly in mothers, as well as on the treatment applied to them.
Dima, Shinechimeg; Chang, Wei-Jen; Chen, Jung-Wei; Teng, Nai-Chia
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention and implementation of medical setting-based caries prevention among pediatricians and dentists in Taiwan. Data were collected from currently practicing pediatricians and general and pediatric dentists using self-administered questionnaires. A total of 301 questionnaires were completed by the pediatricians ( n = 105), general dentists ( n = 117), and pediatric dentists ( n = 79). The pediatric dentists obtained significantly higher knowledge and practice scores than the general dentists and pediatricians ( p < 0.0001). The pediatricians' attitude score related to engaging physicians in medical office-based caries prevention was significantly higher than the attitude scores of the general and pediatric dentists ( p < 0.05). A Spearman rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between knowledge and practice among the general dentists (r s = 0.271, p < 0.01) and pediatricians (r s = 0.262, p < 0.01). The correlation between knowledge and attitude among the pediatricians was significantly positive (r s = 0.242, p < 0.05). Attitude and practice among the pediatricians were significantly positively correlated (r s = 0.271, p < 0.01). Pediatricians lacked ECC-related knowledge; however, they had a more positive attitude toward medical office-based prevention when they had a higher level of knowledge. Oral health-related education for pediatricians is necessary if such medical office-based caries prevention programs are to be implemented in Taiwan.
Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to
Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.
Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to
Schroth, Robert J; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona
The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008-10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities.
Schroth, Robert J.; Halchuk, Shelley; Star, Leona
Objectives The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD), or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC), among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS). Study Design Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10). Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices, access to care, and disruption to family and culture. This local evidence can be used to help inform future caries prevention activities in these Manitoba communities. PMID:23984289
Vollú, Ana Lúcia; da Costa, Maria da Encarnação Perez Requejo; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa
The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was used to assess the outcome of dental treatment. Children (3.56±1.31years) affected by ECC were selected. Anamnesis, clinical and radiographic exams were performed. Data about sociodemographic aspects, OHRQoL and dmf-t index were collected. The Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) was applied in two time intervals: before and after 30 days of treatment. B-ECOHIS scores and effect size (ES) were used to evaluate the OHRQoL of preschool children. The Student's-t test was used for comparison between the B-ECOHIS averages, considering the following aspects: gender, age, socioeconomic status, severity of caries and type of treatment. The mean dmf-t was 6.25±4.20 and no differences between boys (6.00±4.32) and girls (6.83±4.35) (p=0,942) were found. Pain and psychological problems among children and parents feeling upset and guilty were the most frequently reported impacts at baseline. There was a greater impact on girls (17.67±8.68) than on boys (13.30±10.53) (pchildren younger than 4 years (16.71±9.96) (pchildren showed a large effect size for these subjects (ES=1.19) and their families (ES=1.00). Dental treatment resulted in significant improvement of the preschool children's OHRQoL.
Collado, V; Pichot, H; Delfosse, C; Eschevins, C; Nicolas, E; Hennequin, M
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) has become a major public health concern worldwide, mostly affecting children from disadvantaged families in increasingly severe forms. This condition has been frequently reported to alter children's nutrition, growth and general development. It negatively impacts their quality of life, through painful episodes and severe eating difficulties. While this period is crucial for oral praxes development, the impact of dental state on oro-facial functions is poorly documented. This study evaluated the impact of ECC and its treatment under general anesthesia on oro-facial functions and quality of life in pre-school children. The dysfunction and quality of life scores from 25 children with ECC were evaluated before treatment (T0), one month (T1) and three months after treatment (T2), using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), respectively, in comparison with 16 caries-free children. The number and extent of inter-arch dental contacts were also observed. The pre-operative higher NOT-S score observed in children with ECC decreased to reach the control level at T2. The mastication item was the most affected in the ECC group throughout the study. Their mean ECOHIS score also significantly decreased post-operatively and differences remaining between both groups were no longer clinically relevant. In addition, in children with ECC, values of functional inter-arch surfaces tended to increase over the follow-up period. Oro-facial functions and quality of life, altered by ECC, could be restored through a conservative treatment approach. Relations between dental state, orofacial functions and particularly chewing, and nutrition should be investigated further.
Choi, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae
Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC). Recently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used for rapid and accurate quantification of these bacterial species. This study aims to detect quantitatively the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in plaque samples by qRT-PCR, and to assess their association with the prevalence of ECC in Korean preschool children. One hundred and five children (71 months old or younger) were examined and classified into three groups (caries-free, ECC, severe ECC). Dental plaque samples were collected and qRT-PCR was conducted using oligonucleotide primers specific for glucosyltransferase gene (S. mutans-gtfB, S. sobrinus-gtfU) and universal primer. Pearson's correlation test was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the dmfs (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces primary teeth) scores and the microbiological findings. There was a significant difference between the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the plaque samples of the three groups (P plaque samples. The children with higher ratio of S. sobrinus to S. mutans in their dental plaque showed higher incidence of ECC.
Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M
The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.
Robert J. Schroth
Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices
Schroth, Robert J; Edwards, Jeanette M; Brothwell, Douglas J; Yakiwchuk, Carol A; Bertone, Mary F; Mellon, Bernadette; Ward, Jennifer; Ellis, Marion; Hai-Santiago, Khalida; Lawrence, Herenia P; Moffatt, Michael E
To determine the effectiveness of the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) project, a community-developed initiative promoting early childhood oral health in Manitoba, Canada. Specific aims were to assess improvements in caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours relating to early childhood oral health, and the burden of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). A serial cross-sectional study design was selected to contrast findings following the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) campaign in four communities with the previous baseline data. One community was a remote First Nation in northern Manitoba and another was a rural First Nation in southern Manitoba. The other two communities were urban centres, one of which was located in northern Manitoba. A community-development approach was adopted for the project to foster community solutions to address ECC. Goals of the HSHC program were to promote the project in each community, use existing community-based programs and services to deliver the oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities, and recruit and train natural leaders to assist in program development and to deliver the ECC prevention program. The HSHC coordinator worked with communities to develop a comprehensive list of potential strategies to address ECC. Numerous activities occurred in each community to engage members and increase their knowledge of early childhood oral health and ultimately lead them to adopt preventive oral health practices for their young children. Children under 71 months of age and their primary caregivers participated in this follow-up study. A -value ≤0.05 was statistically significant. 319 children (mean age 38.2±18.6 months) and their primary caregivers participated. Significant improvements in caregiver knowledge and attitudes were observed following the HSHC campaign, including that baby teeth are important (98.8%), that decay involving primary teeth can impact on health (94.3%), and the importance of a dental
Broughton, John R; Maipi, Joyce Te H; Person, Marie; Thomson, W Murray; Morgaine, Kate C; Tiakiwai, Sarah-Jane; Kilgour, Jonathan; Berryman, Kay; Lawrence, Herenia P; Jamieson, Lisa M
Maaori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand and do not enjoy the same oral health status as the non-Indigenous majority. To overcome oral health disparities, the life course approach affords a valid foundation on which to develop a process that will contribute to the protection of the oral health of young infants. The key to this process is the support that could be provided to the parents or care givers of Maaori infants during the pregnancy of the mother and the early years of the child. This study seeks to determine whether implementing a kaupapa Maaori (Maaori philosophical viewpoint) in an early childhood caries (ECC) intervention reduces dental disease burden among Maaori children. The intervention consists of four approaches to prevent early childhood caries: dental care provided during pregnancy, fluoride varnish application to the teeth of children, motivational interviewing, and anticipatory guidance. The participants are Maaori women who are expecting a child and who reside within the Maaori tribal area of Waikato-Tainui.This randomised-control trial will be undertaken utilising the principles of kaupapa Maaori research, which encompasses Maaori leadership, Maaori relationships, Maaori customary practices, etiquette and protocol. Participants will be monitored through clinical and self-reported information collected throughout the ECC intervention. Self-report information will be collected in a baseline questionnaire during pregnancy and when children are aged 24 and 36 months. Clinical oral health data will be collected during standardised examinations at ages 24 and 36 months by calibrated dental professionals. All participants receive the ECC intervention benefits, with the intervention delayed by 24 months for participants who are randomised to the control-delayed arm. The development and evaluation of oral health interventions may produce evidence that supports the application of the principles of kaupapa Maaori research in the research
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808
Full Text Available Background. Early childhood caries (ECC is associated with early colonisation and high levels of cariogenic microorganisms. With C. albicans being one of those, there is a need to determine the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic agents against it. The study is aimed at isolating Candida species in children with ECC and at studying the antifungal effect of coconut oil, probiotics, Lactobacillus, and 0.2% chlorhexidine on C. albicans in comparison with ketoconazole. Materials and Methods. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs, swabbed on the tooth surfaces from children with ECC of 3 to 6 yrs and streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar (HI Media plates and incubated in a 5% CO2 enriched atmosphere at 37°C for 24 hours. Candida was isolated and its susceptibility to probiotics, chlorhexidine, ketoconazole, and coconut oil was determined using Disc Diffusion method. Results. The mean zone of inhibition for chlorhexidine was 21.8 mm, whereas for coconut oil it was 16.8 mm, for probiotics it was 13.5 mm, and for ketoconazole it was 22.3 mm. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (Chi-square value 7.42, P value 0.06. Conclusion. Chlorhexidine and coconut oil have shown significant antifungal activity which is comparable with ketoconazole.
Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R
Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Tove I. Wigen; Nina J. Wang
Background: Lifestyle diseases including dental caries are partly preventable, and associated with health behavior. Establishing favorable health behavior is one main challenge both in general and dental health services. The purpose of this paper was to focus on cross-disciplinary research that has the potential to prevent development of both dental caries and other lifestyle diseases. More specifically the aim was to study how family characteristics and health behavior in pregnancy and early...
Moimaz, S A S; Garbin, A J Í; Lima, A M C; Lolli, L F; Saliba, O; Garbin, C A S
This study focused on the risk factors in mother-child relationship that predispose babies to the development of dental caries. A prospective cohort study with 80 mother-child pairs was conducted. The mothers responded at 12, 18 and 30 months after their children's birth, to questions about variables related to diet, sucking habits, and oral care. Children were clinically examined to verify caries lesions (white spot lesions or cavitation). Data were analysed using Chi squared or Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was set at 5%. Of the total, 3.75% showed cavitated lesions after 18 months; 6.25 and 45% had spot white lesions, respectively, at 18 and 30 months. The cariogenic diet was high at 12 (63.75%) and 30 (88.75%) months. Good oral hygiene was present in a minority of children at 12 months (46.25%), but increased at 30 months (65%), helping to prevent cavities and white spot lesions over this period (p = 0.0005). The variables of the blocks sucking habits and diet were not associated with caries. The lack of oral care in children was a risk factor for dental caries development.
Deane, Shannon; Schroth, Robert J; Sharma, Atul; Rodd, Celia
Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is common and has adverse affects on children's health. Children with S-ECC have been shown to have anemia or vitamin D deficiency. No studies have assessed the presence of combined deficiencies with S-ECC. The purpose of our study was to examine whether those with S-ECC had a higher prevalence of combined anemia and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) compared to controls. Covariates associated with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), previously noted in S-ECC, were examined. This is a re-analyses of a previously described cross-sectional case-control study; data were collected between 2009 and 2011. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of dental surgery and controls from the community. Blood was drawn for complete blood count, ferritin, 25(OH)D and PTH. Families completed a questionnaire. A total of 266 children participated (S-ECC n=144); the mean age was 40.8 ± 14.1 months. Children with S-ECC were more likely to have low 25(OH)D, hemoglobin, elevated PTH or iron-deficiency anemia compared to controls. Significant differences between groups were seen for a combined deficiency of low hemoglobin (<110 g/L) and 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L; controls 0/114 versus S-ECC 15/140 (P<0.001). In an adjusted regression model, PTH was negatively associated with 25(OH)D (P<0.001) and higher income (P<0.02); it was positively associated with less regular milk consumption (P=0.001). Combined deficiencies of vitamin D and anemia are more prevalent in children with S-ECC; the etiology remains unclear. A detailed diet history is key in those with S-ECC to assess risks for deficiencies.
Masumo, Ray; Bardsen, Asgeir; Mashoto, Kijakazi; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug
To assess the reproducibility of caregivers' responses to dietary recall from birth and 24-h dietary recall with respect to infants' intake of sugared snacks and to assess whether those assessment methods provide comparable results for groups of infants. Re-test reliability and clinical covariates of time to first exposure of sugared snacks and time to termination of breastfeeding were also examined. It was hypothesized that time to first exposure/termination would vary according to socio-demographic profile and ECC. Interviews and clinical oral examinations were carried out in Kampala and Manyara, including 1221 and 816 child-caregiver pairs. Reproducibility was assessed using Cohen's kappa and Intra Class Correlation Coefficient, ICC. Adjusted Cox regression was used to model time to first exposure of sugared snacks and time to termination of breastfeeding. Cohen's kappa for intake of sugar items ranged from 0.40-1.0, with no differences observed between average intakes at test-re-test. Mean sugar score based on 24-h recall increased significantly by increasing quartiles of the sugar score based on recall from birth. Cox regression revealed that the odds ratio, OR, for early exposure to various sugared snacks and the ORs for early termination of breastfeeding were significantly smaller in infants with than without ECC. Fair-to-good reproducibility was established. Infant's sugar consumption emerge as early as 6 months of age. Survival of any breastfeeding and non-exposure to sugared snacks was most prolonged among infants with ECC. This has implications for interventions needed to improve feeding habits of infants and toddlers.
Colombo, Natália H; Kreling, Paula F; Ribas, Laís F F; Pereira, Jesse A; Kressirer, Christine A; Klein, Marlise I; Tanner, Anne C R; Duque, Cristiane
This study aimed to assess differences in selected oral bacteria in children according to the severity of dental caries. One hundred and thirty-six children, 36-60 months old were divided into three groups according to caries status: caries-free (CF) (n=47), early childhood caries (ECC) (n=40) and severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) (n=49). Saliva was collected for detection and quantification of selected oral streptococci, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Scardovia wiggsiae by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the detection and quantitative levels of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Bifidobacterium spp. and S. wiggsiae were significantly higher in S-ECC children compared to CF and ECC children, while for S. salivarius were significantly higher in CF compared to ECC and S-ECC children. There was no statistical difference among the clinical groups for S. mitis, S. oralis, A. naeslundii and Lactobacillus spp. levels and detection. S-ECC children had a lower monthly family income, started tooth brushing later and were breastfeed for a longer duration compared to CF children. S. mutans levels were positively correlated with S. wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium spp. levels, lower mother's education and child bottle-feeding before sleeping and negatively correlated with S. salivarius. It was concluded that in addition to S. mutans, other bacterial species, including bifidobacteria, Scardovia wiggsiae and S. sobrinus, are associated with severity of early childhood caries, although their role in the progress of dental caries remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.
Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins
The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.
Dijane Pereira Costa
Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo investigar a relação existente entre a desnutrição energético-protéica e a cárie dentária precoce na primeira infância. Trata-se de uma comunicação, para a qual foi realizada uma revisão da literatura, a partir de análise documental de produção bibliográfica, baseada em levantamentos de periódicos e consultas a livros. Verificou-se que a cárie precoce na infância é altamente prevalente nas comunidades de baixa renda, nas quais a desnutrição é um fator comum e de grande relevância. Estudos mostram que crianças desnutridas tendem a apresentar defeitos estruturais no esmalte do dente, como também estão predispostas a um maior risco à cárie dentária. Portanto, uma deficiência energético-protéica durante a fase de desenvolvimento dentário (odontogênese tem demonstrado uma maior suscetibilidade à cárie dentária, atraso na cronologia de erupção e defeitos estruturais do esmalte (hipoplasia de esmalte, hipofunção das glândulas salivares e mudança na composição da saliva. Estes fatores podem ser os mecanismos pelos quais a desnutrição associa-se à cárie. Em conclusão, os estudos sugerem que a deficiência energético-protéica durante a odontogênese gera atraso na cronologia de erupção e defeitos estruturais no esmalte (hipoplasia, além de poder afetar as glândulas salivares, aumentando o risco de ocorrência da doença cárie. Estudos investigando associações entre desnutrição e cárie na primeira infância são de grande relevância para ampliar o conhecimento desta doença e o desenvolvimento de ações de promoção e de prevenção desse problema de saúde pública com aplicações nas áreas de nutrição e odontologia.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between protein-energy malnutrition and early childhood caries. For this communication, a review of the literature was performed, based on documental analysis of bibliographic searches, surveys of
Duijster, D.; Loveren, C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.
This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft)
The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha Ky; Wong, May Cm; Lo, Edward Cm
The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at half-yearly intervals over a 30-month period. This study is a randomised, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial. The hypothesis tested is that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 followed by 5 % NaF is at least not appreciably worse than a 38 % SDF in arresting ECC. Approximately 3100 kindergarten children aged 3-4 years will be screened and at least 1070 children with caries will be recruited. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis (power at 90 % (β = 0.10) with a 2-sided type-I error of α = 0.05), allowing for an overall 20 % drop-out rate. The children will be randomly allocated into 2 groups to treat their caries over a 30-month period: Group A - biannual adjunctive application of a 25 % AgNO3 solution and a 5 % NaF varnish, and Group B - biannual adjunctive application of a 38 % SDF solution followed by a placebo varnish. Clinical examinations will be conducted at 6-month intervals. Primary outcome measured is the number of active caries surfaces which are arrested. Information on confounding factors such as oral hygiene habits will be collected through a parental questionnaire. We expect that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 solution and 5 % NaF varnish and of 38 % SDF solution can both effectively arrest ECC. Lower concentrations of silver and fluoride are contained in 25 % AgNO3 and 5 % NaF, respectively, than in 38 % SDF; therefore, AgNO3/NaF are more favourable for use in young children. Because its use for caries management is
Duijster, Denise; Verrips, G H W; van Loveren, Cor
This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to explore whether family functioning could mediate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and childhood dental caries. A random sample of 630 5- to 6-year-old children was recruited from six large paediatric dental centres in the Netherlands. Children's dmft scores were extracted from personal dental records. A parental questionnaire and the Gezinsvragenlijst (translation: Family Questionnaire) were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and family functioning. Family functioning was assessed on five dimensions: responsiveness, communication, organization, partner-relation and social network. Associations with dmft were analysed using multilevel modelling. Bivariate analysis showed that children from normal functioning families on the dimensions responsiveness, communication, organization and social network had significantly lower dmft scores compared with children from dysfunctional families. Poorer family functioning on all dimensions was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in less favourable oral hygiene behaviours. Children with lower educated mothers, immigrant children and children of higher birth order were more likely to come from poorer functioning families. In multivariate analysis, organization remained a significant predictor of dmft after adjusting for the other family functioning dimensions and the mother's education level, but it lost statistical significance after adjustment for oral hygiene behaviours. A relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries was found, which may have operated via oral hygiene behaviours. Family functioning modestly explained socioeconomic inequalities in
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik
OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study...... in developing and delivering this multi-centre study. Experience gained will support the development of substantive trials and longitudinal studies to address the considerable international health disparity of childhood dental caries....... protocol and development of two standardised measures. First, to investigate how parental attitudes may impact on their children's oral health-related behaviours and second, to assess how dentists' attitudes may impact on the provision of dental care. SUBJECTS: Core research team, lead methodologists, 44...
Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.
Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R
meals (p=0.436), frequency of starch intake limited to the main meals (p=0.867), home oral hygiene (p=0.905), dental hygiene performed at school (p=0.389), habit of eating after brushing teeth (p=0.196), participation in extracurricular sport activities (p=0.442) and educational level of parents: father (p=0.454), mother (p=0.978). In contrast, there was a statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of intake of sugar-sweetened drinks (p=0.005), frequency of sugar intake limited to the main meals (pfood intake between meals (p=0.038) and sedentary lifestyle (p=0.012). Successive analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between Group A and D in terms of intake of sugar-sweetened drinks (p=0.001), frequency of sugar intake limited to the main meals (p=0.008), and frequency of food intake between meals (p=0.018), and between Group C and D in terms of frequency of sugar intake limited to the main meals (pfood intake between meals (p=0.040). This study shows a direct association between dental caries and obesity evident from a correlation between prevalence of dental caries and FM%. The analysis of food intake, dmft/DMFT, FM%, measured by DXA, demonstrates that specific dietary habits (intake of sugar-sweetened drinks, frequency of sugar intake limited to main meals, frequency of food intake between meals) may be considered risk factors that are common to both dental caries and childhood obesity.
Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji
To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.
Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B
In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010
Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…
Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia
(pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.
Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R
and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...... to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...
Full Text Available Early caries detection is essential for minimal intervention dentistry, since it could give the opportunity to reverse the process and eliminate or at least postpone the surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis for both occlusal and proximal lesions. Thirty-eight adult patients were included in the study. The results from the visual, radiological and near-infrared transillumination examination for proximal caries lesions were compared. The diagnostic abilities of these methods for occlusal lesions were assayed on 60 teeth. The three methods showed a very high level of correlation when there were caries lesions involving the enamel and dentin. Concerning proximal caries involving only the enamel, the visual--tactile diagnosis proved to be insufficiently sensitive even with the use of magnification. Radiographic examination and near-infrared transillumination correlated significantly, but the latter was more sensitive. Radiographic examination proved to be insufficiently sensitive for occlusal lesions. The results obtained with the near-infrared fluorescence correlated most with the visual–tactile examination. These results suggest that near-infrared transillumination is an effective method for diagnosis of lesions both involving only the enamel and involving the enamel and dentin. It could be used for both occlusal and proximal caries lesions and it could eventually substitute radiographic bitewings, especially in children and pregnant women, due to its efficiency as a diagnostic tool and the absence of radiation.
Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.
The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…
Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo
This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D
important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....
Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S
The objective of this study was to examine the association among psychological and social variables reported by American Indian parents/caregivers of preschool children and changes in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behaviors related to care of their children's teeth. We also investigated the relationship of these factors with progression of caries, as reflected by changes in their children's dmfs. The data used for this study were collected at baseline in a clinical trial of an oral health promotion intervention comprising behavioural and clinical interventions for caries prevention delivered by tribal members on a large Southwestern American Indian reservation. Linear regression analyses were performed for changes (baseline to Year 1) in dmfs, Oral Health Knowledge and Oral Health Behavior scores, with baseline psychosocial measures, taken individually, as the independent variables. Parents' attitudes and beliefs were associated with increases in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior and also with the progression of caries for their children. When all participants were considered together, increases in children's dmfs were smaller when the caregiver had higher Internal Oral Health Locus of Control (e = -1.33, P = .004), higher Health Literacy (e = -1.55, P Health Belief Model. For parents in the Intervention group, higher scores on Locus of Control, reflecting beliefs that chance, or other people determine their children's oral health, were associated with larger increases in Oral Health Knowledge (e = 1.73, P = .04) and Behaviors (e = 4.00, P = .005). Prevention of early childhood caries in American Indian children has proved to be especially challenging. Some of the measures identified in this report may suggest promising directions to prevention through approaches that build on competencies and skills to be learned and used within a context more broadly focused on parenting and management of health and family challenges. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A
Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.
In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive
Barclay, Lisa K.
Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)
Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema
This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…
Hall-Scullin, Emma Patricia; Whitehead, Hilary; Rushton, Helen; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin
To determine whether caries experience in late childhood (aged 7-9 years) was predictive of adolescent obesity (ages 12-16 years) to inform the use of a common risk factor approach (CRFA) for prevention. A cohort study was conducted in an area of North West England. Clinical assessment of caries took place using the same methodology at ages 7-9 years and 12-16 years. Body mass index (BMI) category was calculated from height and weight measurements using age and gender specific cut-offs at 12-16 years only. The association between dependent variable (BMI category dichotomized as underweight/normal and overweight/obese) and explanatory variables (baseline and follow-up dental caries and sociodemographic status) adjusted for age, was assessed. At baseline, 5,470 (96.8 percent) participants took part and information was available for 2,958 (54.1 percent) participants at follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated that BMI category in adolescence was not shown to be significantly associated with: the presence or absence of caries in late childhood (P = 0.61); in adolescence (P = 0.06); gender (P = 0.91); or deprivation (P = 0.35). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that BMI category in adolescence was not predicted by caries in late childhood or adolescence, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Caries and obesity were highly prevalent in this population. Caries in childhood was not shown to be associated with obesity in adolescence and there was no cross-sectional association between the two diseases in adolescence. A CRFA is not precluded, however, the results suggest that additional interventions, specific for each disease, are required to prevent obesity and caries. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Carson, Susan J; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Richards, Derek; Hector, Mark P; Freeman, Ruth
Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016047304.
Susan J. Carson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? Methods This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. Discussion The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016047304
Dos Santos Pinto, Gabriela; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; Britto Correa, Marcos; Sousa Azevedo, Marina; Leão Goettems, Marília; Tavares Pinheiro, Ricardo; Demarco, Flávio Fernando
To investigate the relationship between maternal depression and childhood caries in a cohort of adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study nested in a cohort evaluated a sample of 538 mother/child dyads. When the children were 24-36 months of age, data regarding oral health from children and mothers were collected by clinical dental examination. A mother's major depressive disorder was assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI [Plus]), at the current moment. Independent variables were obtained by using questionnaires. The outcome on dental caries experience was dichotomized by using 2 cut points: dmfs ≥1 and dmfs ≥3. Poisson regression analysis, using a hierarchical approach, was applied to assess the association between major depressive disorder in mothers with and those without caries experience and the outcome. The prevalence of dental caries in children was 15.1% (n = 82). The mean dmfs index was 1.12 (SD = 3.72). The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 32.6% (n = 168). An interaction between caries status and depressive disorder was found, and after adjusted analysis, children from mothers with major depressive disorder with negative caries experience presented a higher caries prevalence (prevalence ratio 4.00, 95% confidence interval 1.29-12.41). Our findings suggest that maternal psychiatric disorders could have a negative impact on children's oral health. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.
The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and
Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de
The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and
Duijster, D.; O'Malley, L.O.; Elison, S.; Loveren, C. van; Marcenes, W.; Adair, P.M.; Pine, C.M.
It is widely acknowledged that parental beliefs (self-efficacy) about oral health and parental oral health-related behaviours play a fundamental role in the establishment of preventative behaviours that will mitigate against the development of childhood dental caries. However, little attention has
Bernabé, Eduardo; Hobdell, Martin H
The aim of this study was to assess the correlates of income and income inequality with dental caries in a sample of all countries, as well as in rich countries alone. In this ecological study, the authors analyzed national data on income, income inequality and dental caries from 48 countries. Of them, 22 were rich countries (according to World Bank criteria). The authors determined income by gross national income (GNI) per capita (formerly known as gross national product) and income inequality by the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality on a scale between 0 and 1). They assessed dental caries according to the decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) index in 5- to 6-year-old children. The authors used Pearson and partial correlation coefficients to examine the linear associations of income and income inequality with dental caries. GNI per capita, but not the Gini coefficient, was inversely correlated with the dmft index in the 48 countries. However, the results showed an opposite pattern when analyses were restricted to rich countries (that is, the dmft index was significantly correlated with the Gini coefficient but not with GNI per capita). These findings support the income inequality hypothesis that beyond a certain level of national income, the relationship between income and the population's health is weak. Income inequality was correlated more strongly with dental caries than was income in rich countries. Among rich countries, income inequality is a stronger determinant of childhood dental caries than is absolute income.
Peres, Marco Aurelio; Liu, Pingzhou; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Menezes, Ana Maria; Peres, Karen Glazer
We aimed to analyze the effects of family income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from childhood to young adulthood. Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, in which dental caries was measured at ages 6, 12, and 18 years, were analyzed. Family income of 302 participants was assessed at birth, and at 4, 11, 15, and 18 years of age. Mother's education, toothbrushing frequency, dental visiting, dental caries in primary dentition, and birth weight were covariates. A latent class growth analysis was conducted to characterize trajectories of time-varying variables. The influence of income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from age 6 to age 18 was evaluated by a generalized linear mixed model. After adjustment, the increases in numbers of decayed and missing teeth (DMT) from age 6 to age 18 were associated with family income trajectory. The incident rate ratios (IRR) of DMT compared with the group of stable high incomes were 2.36 for stable low incomes, 1.71 for downward, and 1.64 for upward. The IRR of teeth being filled in stable low-income groups compared with stable high-income groups was 0.55. Family income mobility affected treatment patterns of dental caries. Differences across income trajectory groups were found in the components of dental caries indices rather than in the experience of disease.
Colombo, Natália Helena; Pereira, Jesse Augusto; da Silva, Márjully Eduardo Rodrigues; Ribas, Laís Fernanda Fonseca; Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; Mattos-Graner, Renata de Oliveira; Smith, Daniel J; Duque, Cristiane
Explore the associations between the severity of dental caries in childhood, mutans streptococci (MS) levels and IgA antibody response against Streptococcus mutans GbpB. Moreover, other caries-related etiological factors were also investigated. 36-60 month-old children were grouped into Caries-Free (CF, n=19), Early Childhood Caries (ECC, n=17) and Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, n=21). Data from socio-economic-cultural status, oral hygiene habits and dietary patterns were obtained from a questionnaire and a food-frequency diary filled out by parents. Saliva was collected from children for microbiological analysis and detection of salivary IgA antibody reactive with S. mutans GbpB in western blot. S-ECC children had reduced family income compared to those with ECC and CF. There was difference between CF and caries groups (ECC and S-ECC) in MS counts. Positive correlations between salivary IgA antibody response against GbpB and MS counts were found when the entire population was evaluated. When children with high MS counts were compared, S-ECC group showed significantly lower IgA antibody levels to GbpB compared to CF group. This finding was not observed for the ECC group. This study suggests that children with S-ECC have reduced salivary IgA immune responses to S. mutans GbpB, potentially compromising their ability to modify MS infection and its cariogenic potential. Furthermore, a reduced family income and high levels of MS were also associated with S-ECC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…
This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…
Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja
This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…
Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura
This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…
Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…
Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.
This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…
Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka
This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…
This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…
A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…
M Ajayi Deborah; M F Abiodun-Solanke Iyabode; O Gbadebo Shakeerah
Background: Rampant caries in adults has not been a focus of many researches unlike the childhood form of the disease. The disease is an interesting finding in an adult patient. When the condition occurs in children, it has been described as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, and the most recently adopted term, "early childhood caries". Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence of rampant caries among adult patients. Materials and Methods: Cases of rampant caries were id...
Colin Reusch; Meg Booth; Leslie Foster
Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Childrenâ€™s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt.
Thompson, Van P; Schenkel, Andrew B; Penugonda, Bapanaiah; Wolff, Mark S; Zeller, Gregory G; Wu, Hongyu; Vena, Don; Grill, Ashley C; Curro, Frederick A
The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and the Caries Classification System (CCS) are caries stage description systems proposed for adoption into clinical practice. This pilot study investigated clinicians' training in and use of these systems for detection of early caries and recommendations for individual tooth treatment. Patient participants (N = 8) with a range of noncavitated lesions (CCS ranks 2 and 4 and ICDAS II ranks 2-4) identified by a team of calibrated examiners were recruited from the New York University College of Dentistry clinic. Eighteen dentists-8 from the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network and 10 recruited from the Academy of General Dentistry-were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 5 dentists used only visual-tactile (VT) examination, 7 were trained in the ICDAS II, and 6 were trained in the CCS. Lesion stage for each tooth was determined by the ICDAS II and CCS groups, and recommended treatment was decided by all groups. Teeth were assessed both with and without radiographs. Caries was detected in 92.7% (95% CI, 88%-96%) of the teeth by dentists with CCS training, 88.8% (95% CI, 84%-92%) of the teeth by those with ICDAS II training, and 62.3% (95% CI, 55%-69%) of teeth by the VT group. Web-based training was acceptable to all dentists in the CCS group (6 of 6) but fewer of the dentists in the ICDAS II group (5 of 7). The modified CCS translated clinically to more accurate caries detection, particularly compared to detection by untrained dentists (VT group). Moreover, the CCS was more accepted than was the ICDAS II, but dentists in both groups were open to the application of these systems. Agreement on caries staging requires additional training prior to a larger validation study.
Cárie precoce na infância: prevalência e fatores de risco em pré-escolares, aos 48 meses, na cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Early childhood caries: prevalence and risk factors in 4-year-old preschoolers in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil
Andréa Gadelha Ribeiro
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de cárie precoce na infância em crianças de nível sócio-econômico baixo da grande João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, aos 48 meses de idade, pertencentes a uma coorte. Foram analisados os hábitos alimentares, higiene, exposição ao flúor e presença de defeitos de esmalte. Examinaram-se 224 crianças em domicílio, sob luz natural, utilizando-se a técnica joelho-a-joelho. Cada dente foi limpo com gaze estéril, sendo registrados cárie (OMS e defeitos de esmalte (DDE Index. Durante o exame foi aplicado um questionário para obtenção de dados sobre dieta, higiene, uso de flúor e presença de amamentação natural e/ou artificial. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se o programa SAS com teste não paramétrico Mantel-Haenszel. Observou-se que 10,7% e 33,0% da amostra apresentaram cárie precoce e cárie severa, respectivamente. Dentre as crianças examinadas, 79,9% tinham ao menos um dente com defeito de esmalte, sendo este o único fator estatisticamente significante (p The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC, in a cohort of children of low socioeconomic status at 48 months of age in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, in relation to feeding practices, oral health behaviors, fluoride exposure, and enamel defects. 224 children were clinically examined in the Knee-Knee position at the children's home under natural light. Teeth were dried and cleaned with gauze, and caries (WHO index and defect (DDE Index were determined. Questionnaires on children's oral hygiene and dietary history were completed by parents or guardians. The SAS statistical program was used with the Mantel-Haenszel tests. The results showed a prevalence of 10.7% and 33.0% for ECC and SECC, respectively. Of all the children examined, 79.9% had at least one tooth with enamel defects, which was the only statistically significant factor (p < 0.001 for ECC. The association
A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…
Arrow, P; Klobas, E
Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p child and the family domains, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.92, 0.89 and 0.78 for the total, child and family domains, respectively. The scale demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability for assessing the impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…
This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…
This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...
In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…
Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse
Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay.
Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.
Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I
BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment......-invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. CONCLUSION: The detection and management of non-cavitated caries...... is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health....
Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…
... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...
Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…
Isabel Samacá Bohórquez
Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.
America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011
America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.
Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)
World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...
Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.
This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…
Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.
Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…
Stone, Janet I.
Maintains that early childhood teachers should provide young children with creative, stimulating, and manipulative (hands-on) experiences rather than workbook pages in early mathematics programs. Presents reasons and corresponding counterpositions for using workbooks and suggests sample activities which teachers can use to make mathematics more…
Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.
Genesina, T.I.; Dmitriev, I.M.; Fedorov, Yu.A.; Chopovskaya, T.I.
Metabolism disturbances in animal organs have been investigated at early stages of experimental dental caries by means of radioactive 35 S injected in the form of sodium sulfate. Changes in sulfate metabolism were detected directly not only in solid dental tissues but in the whole organism of animals
Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji
A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.
Nigerian Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
ECC) and its association with infant feeding and oral health‑related behavior among preschool children aged 6–71 months in Lagos. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross‑sectional study in which 302 children aged 6–71 months ...
Pradeep Kumar Mishra
Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology serves to reinforce the educational bedrock of any country. Technology has revolutionized the teaching learning process by integrating different source of knowledge - clearly visible from primary to post-tertiary level. This paper examines the introduction of ICT in early childhood years centred on the relationship of ICT with the cognitive, emotional and social development of children. The paper discusses various aspects of the ongoing debate around ICT usage in the early years and tries to answer some of the relevant issues namely, the rationale for early introduction of ICT, the perceived risks and benefits involved in its usage, the role of the parents, and fostering appropriate application of ICT in the early childhood classrooms.
Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann
Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…
Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani
This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…
Robinson, Kerry H.
This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…
Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa
Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…
Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann
Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…
Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)
This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…
Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra
This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social…
Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen
This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
Ziv, Haggith Gor
This article discusses the theory and practice of applying critical feminist pedagogy in a teacher's training college. It is based on an analysis of the education of students in an early childhood teaching program (BEd) that seeks to promote social justice through education. This article discusses the areas of the student's education that…
Browne, Charlyn Harper
The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…
Levinowitz, Lili M.
Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)
Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development.
Beil, Heather; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Lee, Jessica Y
We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005-2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n=11,394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81, 0.95; IRR=0.75; 95% CI=0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years.
This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…
Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...
Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W
This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Kemp, Coral R.
From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…
Chi, Donald L; Luu, Monique; Chu, Frances
What are the non-modifiable (socioeconomic, genetic) and modifiable factors (physical activity, dietary behaviors) related to childhood (under age 12) obesity? How can this knowledge be applied to oral health professionals' efforts to prevent or manage dental caries in children? Studies have identified risk factors for childhood obesity. The purpose of this scoping review was to develop a conceptual model to identify non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity and to illustrate how these findings are relevant in developing interventions aimed at preventing obesity and dental caries in children. The authors searched PubMed and Embase and limited the study to English-language publications. A total of 2,572 studies were identified. After de-duplication, 2,479 studies remained and were downloaded into a citation-management tool. Two authors screened the titles and abstracts for relevance. Two hundred and sixty studies remained and were retrieved for a full-text review, and 80 studies were excluded, resulting in 180 studies included in the scoping review. An inductive content analytic methods was used to organize all statistically significant obesity risk factors into seven domains, which were classified as non-modifiable or modifiable; then a conceptual model of common risk factors associated with childhood obesity and dental caries was developed. Non-modifiable obesity risk factors include biological and developmental (e.g., genes, developmental conditions, puberty), sociodemographic and household (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parent education, unemployment), cultural (e.g., degree of acculturation), and community (e.g., neighborhood composition). Modifiable risk factors included behavioral (e.g., diet, physical activity, weight), psychosocial (e.g., maternal stress, family functioning, parenting practices, child temperament), and medical (e.g., parent smoking, maternal health, child health). Identifying common risk factors has
Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki
Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cypern....... Undersøgelsen fokuserede på indsamling af Good practice inden for 5 specifikke kategorier af daglig praksis i børnehaver og børnehaveklasser. Plads og Inventar Personlige omsorgsrutiner Sprog - Tænkning Aktiviteter Interaktioner Struktur Projektet er støttet af Lifelong learning programme of the European Union...
Klára Horváth,1 Kim Plunkett2 12nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we eva...
John Cawley; C. Katharina Spiess
This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate...
Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida
This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...
Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983
Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.
AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.
Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan
A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...
Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.
Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.
This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...... worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....
Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais
Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.
Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jin-Bom; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak
The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors of dental caries at the level of an individual person with survival analysis of the prospective data for 5 years. A total of 249 first-grade students participated in a follow-up study for 5 years. All participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors. They also received an oral examination and were tested for Dentocult SM and LB. Over 5 years, the participants received yearly oral follow-up examinations to determine the incidence of dental caries. The incidence of one or more dental caries (DC1) and four or more dental caries (DC4) were defined as one or more and four or more decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth increments, respectively. Socio-demographic variables, oral health behaviors, and status and caries activity tests were assessed as risk factors for DC1 and DC4. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of risk factors for DC1 and DC4 were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. During the 5-year follow-up period, DC1 and DC4 occurred in 87 and 25 participants, respectively. In multivariate hazard models, five or more decayed, missing, and filled primary molar teeth [HR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.13], and Dentocult LB of two or three (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.37-3.56) were independent risk factors of DC1. For DC4, only Dentocult LB of two or three was an independent risk factor (HR 2.95, 95% CI 1.11-7.79). Our results suggest that dental caries incidence at an individual level can be associated with the experience of dental caries in primary teeth and Dentocult LB based on the survival models for the 5-year prospective data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Axton, J. H. M.
Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…
Full Text Available Klára Horváth,1 Kim Plunkett2 12nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development. Keywords: napping, children, infants, cognitive development, daytime sleep, memory, language development, sleep spindles
Full Text Available While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aims were to assess the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure.The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of Tinea Capitis and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters and health behavior variables were obtained through a face to face interview.An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT.Mean caries experience levels (DMFT were 18.6+7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4+7.2 for the non-irradiated (p=0.002. Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI 1.19-2.50. A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1Gy (95% CI 1.40-3.50 and 1.05 per 1cGy (95% CI 1.01-1.09, respectively.Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2-0.4Gy might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs.
Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha
The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.
Karimian, Nima; Salehi, Hassan S.; Mahdian, Mina; Alnajjar, Hisham; Tadinada, Aditya
Dental caries is a microbial disease that results in localized dissolution of the mineral content of dental tissue. Despite considerable decline in the incidence of dental caries, it remains a major health problem in many societies. Early detection of incipient lesions at initial stages of demineralization can result in the implementation of non-surgical preventive approaches to reverse the demineralization process. In this paper, we present a novel approach combining deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality for classification of human oral tissues to detect early dental caries. OCT images of oral tissues with various densities were input to a CNN classifier to determine variations in tissue densities resembling the demineralization process. The CNN automatically learns a hierarchy of increasingly complex features and a related classifier directly from training data sets. The initial CNN layer parameters were randomly selected. The training set is split into minibatches, with 10 OCT images per batch. Given a batch of training patches, the CNN employs two convolutional and pooling layers to extract features and then classify each patch based on the probabilities from the SoftMax classification layer (output-layer). Afterward, the CNN calculates the error between the classification result and the reference label, and then utilizes the backpropagation process to fine-tune all the layer parameters to minimize this error using batch gradient descent algorithm. We validated our proposed technique on ex-vivo OCT images of human oral tissues (enamel, cortical-bone, trabecular-bone, muscular-tissue, and fatty-tissue), which attested to effectiveness of our proposed method.
Tackett, Jennifer L; Slobodskaya, Helena R; Mar, Raymond A; Deal, James; Halverson, Charles F; Baker, Spencer R; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Besevegis, Elias
Childhood personality is a rapidly growing area of investigation within individual differences research. One understudied topic is the universality of the hierarchical structure of childhood personality. In the present investigation, parents rated the personality characteristics of 3,751 children from 5 countries and 4 age groups. The hierarchical structure of childhood personality was examined for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-factor models across country (Canada, China, Greece, Russia, and the United States) and age group (3-5, 6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 years of age). Many similarities were noted across both country and age. The Five-Factor Model was salient beginning in early childhood (ages 3-5). Deviations across groups and from adult findings are noted, including the prominent role of antagonism in childhood personality and the high covariation between Conscientiousness and intellect. Future directions, including the need for more explicit attempts to merge temperament and personality models, are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Park, Sungok R.
Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…
Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia
This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…
Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet
Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…
This causal comparitive study examined the effect of early childhood education on social and emotional development in children ages 3-6 years old in Kwara State of Nigeria. Sixty children who were exposed to early childhood education were selected through cluster sampling from six different schools, that is, 30 boys and ...
Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.
Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…
Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie
While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
El-Beblawi, Viola F.
Early childhood education is rooted in the Arab culture. Of particular importance for the implementation of early childhood education is the academic psycho-educational movement in the Arab world (initiated by Tsmail El Kabani and Dr. Abel Aziz El Koussy), which began in the 1920s. This movement, combined with rapid social change (including the…
Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue
This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…
Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…
Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…
Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula
There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…
Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.
Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…
The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…
Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…
The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…
Swick, Kevin J.
Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
Adamson, Peter C.
Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)
Elkind, David, Ed.
The introductory chapter in this book provides a historical overview of the family and schools in the premodern, modern, and postmodern eras in the United States. The introduction also reviews the contributions of several important figures in early childhood education and suggests that the battle in early childhood education in the postmodern…
Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine
Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Goloshchapov, D.; Seredin, P.; Minakov, D.; Domashevskaya, E.
This paper deals with the luminescence characteristics of an analogue of the mineral component of dental enamel of the nanocrystalline B-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) with 3D defects (i.e. nanopores of ∼2-5 nm) on the nanocrystalline surface. The laser-induced luminescence of the synthesized CHAP samples was in the range of ∼515 nm (∼2.4 eV) and is due to CO3 groups replacing the PO4 group. It was found that the intensity of the luminescence of the CHAP is caused by structurally incorporated CO3 groups in the HAP structure. Furthermore, the intensity of the luminescence also decreases as the number of the above intracentre defects (CO3) in the apatite structure declines. These results are potentially promising for developing the foundations for precise methods for the early detection of caries in human solid dental tissue.
Lamouche, Guy; Padioleau, Christian; Hewko, Mark; Smith, Michael S. D.; Schattka, Bernie J.; Fulton, Crystal; Gauthier, Bruno; Beauchesne, André; Ko, Alex C.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Sowa, Michael G.
Early detection of incipient caries would allow dentists to provide more effective measures to delay or to reverse caries' progression at earlier stage. Such earlier intervention could lead to improved oral health for the patients and reduced burden to the health system. Previously, we have demonstrated that the combination of morphological and biochemical information furnished by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS), respectively, provided a unique tool for dental caries management. In this study we will report the first pre-clinical caries detection system that includes a hand-held probe with a size slightly larger than a tooth brush. This probe presents a novel platform combining both OCT and PRS optics in a very tight space ideal for clinical practice. OCT cross-sectional images of near-surface enamel morphology are obtained with miniaturized MEMS scanning device and are processed in real-time to identify culprit regions. These regions are sequentially analyzed with polarized Raman spectroscopy for further confirmation. PRS is performed using 830nm laser line and four detection channels in order to obtain polarized Raman spectroscopic data, i.e. depolarization ratio of the hydroxyapatite Raman band at 960 cm-1. A detailed description of this hand-held caries detector and ex-vivo/in-vivo test results will be presented.
Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent disease (about 50%) in children across the globe. If not treated in time, it can affect not only the mastication function but also the speech, smile and psychosocial environment and the quality of life of the child and the family. The treatment of dental diseases is very expensive in all countries and prevention is very simple and effective. The caries in children below 6 y is called early childhood caries (ECC). It is most commonly caused by milk bottle or mother's feed during night. The ECC spreads very fast and can cause severe pain, abscess, swelling, fever and psychological disturbances in children. The treatment of ECC requires multiple appointments and still the prognosis is not very promising in mutilated dentitions. A physician or pediatrician can easily identify early caries and habits of parents leading to caries and can counsel them for prevention and refer them to the specialist. Good oral hygiene, dietary modification with respect to use of sugar and sticky food and healthy diet can help in preventing this disease in children. The need of the time is to appraise all on the methods of dental caries prevention.
Turney, Kristin; McLanahan, Sara
Social/emotional skills in early childhood are associated with education, labor market, and family formation outcomes throughout the life course. One explanation for these associations is that poor social/emotional skills in early childhood interfere with the development of cognitive skills. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2302) to examine how the timing of social/emotional skills-measured as internalizing, externalizing, and attention problem behaviors in early childhood-is associated with cognitive test scores in middle childhood. Results show that externalizing problems at age 3 and attention problems at age 5, as well as externalizing and attention problems at both ages 3 and 5, are associated with poor cognitive development in middle childhood, net of a wide array of control variables and prior test scores. Surprisingly, maternal engagement at age five does not mediate these associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…
Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra
This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.
Ljubica Marjanovič Umek
Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.
The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.
Full Text Available Meetings and Enchantment in Early Childhood Education, a work that brings us to the fantasy world of magic, without forgetting the commitment to the education of children aged 0 to 6 years.
Objective: To determine the relationship between early life malnutrition and the development of lumbar ... incriminate such predictors as poverty, aridity and human development which can be reduced ..... relationship with early childhood caries.
Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device DIAGNOcam and the laser fluorescence device DIAGNOdent for early diagnosis of occlusal caries and to compare it with three traditional methods – visual and tactile, dye and radiographic examination. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 60 extracted human teeth. Three clinicians diagnosed independently the presence or absence of early occlusal surface caries with the visible tactile method,DIAGNOcam andDIAGNOdent. Then X-rays were taken and the dentists viewed them separately, without magnification.Fuchsine was applied for 30 sec. and then washed under running water for 20 min. Places where dye was present were registered. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS package of Windows. Results: The results showed high level of correspondence between the authors for all the diagnostic methods. Concerning different methods applied for caries diagnosis there was a correlation between the methods, but it was diverging for the different methods. No correlation between radiographic exam and data obtained with DIAGNOdent and dye staining was observed. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results we may conclude that the least sensitive method for fissure caries diagnosis was the dye staining, followed by the radiographic exam. The results, obtained by DIAGNOdent and DIAGNOcam were very close, but DIAGNOcams’ data was better correlating with the clinical results.DIAGNOcam procedure can be judged as equivalent in the detection of occlusal dentine lesions when compared to clinical results.
Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua
Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional
Despite the plethora of studies regarding bullying worldwide, there are limited studies at the early childhood level. This article presents the results of a pilot study aiming at exploring preservice and in-service early childhood teachers' views on bullying in Greek early childhood settings. A total of 192 early childhood teachers completed a…
Newberry, Jan; Marpinjun, Sri
Based on research and activism on early childhood education and care in the area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we argue that the Indonesian government's focus on early childhood has come at a cost to local women. Community-based early childhood programs are delivered by women whose work is unpaid or underpaid. Although early childhood education in the…
Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary
Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri,. E-mail: ... Key words: childhood education, Differentiated instruction, teachers/ caregivers' practice ... differences in their readiness level, interests and learning profiles/styles (p. 940). Today's ...
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva
Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.
The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....
Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.
A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…
Sälzer, S.; Alkilzy, M.; Slot, D.E.; Dörfer, C.E.; Schmoeckel, J.; Splieth, C.H.
AIM: Aim was to systematically review behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level. MATERIAL & METHODS: With regard to caries, MEDLINE/PubMed was searched on three subheadings focusing on early childhood, proximal and
Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong
Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Psoter, W; Gebrian, B; Prophete, S; Reid, B; Katz, R
The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the effects of early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (EC-PEM) and current nutritional status as defined by anthropomorphic measures on the exfoliation and eruption patterns of teeth among adolescents. Oral clinical examinations were conducted in 2005 using World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria on 498 11- to 13-year-old Haitians for whom early childhood malnutrition data were available. Anthropomorphic records (weight-for-age) from the Haitian Health Foundation computerized database on children from birth through 5-years old were utilized. Current heights and weights were ascertained. Both sets of data were converted to z-scores based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) referent database. Based upon these z-scores, EC-PEM and current malnutrition categories were developed for this study. The analyses separately regressed the number of primary and permanent teeth on age, gender, EC-PEM status and current nutritional status. Both a delayed exfoliation of primary teeth and a delayed eruption of permanent teeth were associated with EC-PEM and current stunting in adolescence. The observed associations were either direct and statistically significant or indirectly demonstrated by presenting evidence of confounding. The overall interpretation of the models is that malnutrition beginning in the earliest years and extending throughout childhood influences the exfoliation and eruption of teeth. These findings present evidence of an association between tooth exfoliation/eruption patterns and both EC-PEM and nutritional insufficiency (stunting) throughout childhood. This observed delay in the exfoliation of the primary dentition and in the eruption of the permanent dentition has practical significance in interpreting age-specific dental caries data from populations with different malnutrition experiences.
Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia
Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…
Gialamas, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra
This paper regards a comparative study which investigates in-service and pre-service Greek early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. Views and intentions were investigated via a questionnaire administered to 240 in-service and 428 pre-service early childhood teachers.…
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This paper discusses the compilation of an instrument in order to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was compiled and administered to 258 pre-service early childhood teachers (PECTs), in Greece. A…
Full Text Available Objectives. Several groups in Manitoba, Canada, experience early childhood caries (ECC, including Aboriginal, immigrant, and refugee children and those from select rural regions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers from four cultural groups on early childhood oral health and ECC. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus groups recruited parents and caregivers from four cultural groups. Discussions were documented, audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed for content based on themes. Results. Parents and caregivers identified several potential barriers to good oral health practice, including child’s temperament, finances, and inability to control sugar intake. Both religion and genetics were found to influence perceptions of oral health. Misconceptions regarding breastfeeding and bottle use were present. One-on-one discussions, parental networks, and using laypeople from similar backgrounds were suggested methods to promote oral health. The immigrant and refugee participants placed emphasis on the use of visuals for those with language barriers while Hutterite participants suggested a health-education approach. Conclusions. These pilot study findings provide initial insight into the oral health-related knowledge and beliefs of these groups. This will help to inform planning of ECC prevention and research strategies, which can be tailored to specific populations.
McNelly, Tracy A.
The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.
Iowa State Department of Education, 2004
The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among decision makers at the Iowa Department of Education (DE), Area Education Agencies (AEAs) and local communities (including school districts) to establish early childhood priorities, and define the AEA role in the statewide efforts to build a strong early care, health, and education…
Dinehart, Laura H.
Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…
Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca
The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…
Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…
Young, Jemimah L.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Dolzhenko, Inna N.; Ardrey, Tameka N.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the extant scholarship on quality in early childhood education and to emphasize the importance of extending the literature to explore the potential influence that a teachers' educational background may have on kindergarten readiness for African American children in urban early learning settings.…
Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.
Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…
Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.
The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…
Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten
From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…
Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and it most commonly affects young adults. Childhood sarcoidosis is relatively rare; older children usually present a picture similar to that of adults, with frequent hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary infiltration. Early-onset (<4 years of age childhood sarcoidosis is a unique disease and has a different presentation. It is characterized by arthritis, uveitis, and cutaneous involvement. The prognosis of early-onset childhood sarcoidosis varies in different studies due to the rarity of the disease. The treatment of choice in systemic involvement of childhood sarcoidosis is corticosteroids. Methotrexate can also be considered in the long-term treatment due to its safety, effectiveness, and steroid-sparing effect in children.
All children in Sweden are entitled to regular, free dental care up to 20 years of age. While dental caries generally continues to decline, still there is a pronounced skewness in caries prevalence. Furthermore, the reported increase in dental erosion in young adults is cause for concern. The aim was to study the prevalence of dental caries and dental erosion in a cohort of Swedish 20 year-olds, with special reference to the influence of previous caries experience and lifestyle as well as parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. The study was prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional in design and based on registration of caries lesions, dental erosion, body adiposity status, saliva sampling, interviews, and questionnaires at 20 years of age. Data were available for the same cohort at 1, 3, 6 and 15 years of age. 499 subjects (74 percent of the original cohort) were included. Five individuals were subsequently excluded, leaving a final sample of 494. 74 percent of the subjects had initial and/or manifest caries lesions and/or restorations. The mean number of DimFS was 5.8 and the mean number of DmFS on occlusal surfaces of molars was 1.1. There was a strong relationship between caries activity at 3 and 6 years of age and approximal caries prevalence in premolars and molars at 20 years of age. Overweight/obese individuals had significantly higher caries prevalence than normal weight individuals. Parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors during infancy were related to approximal caries at age 20. Dental erosion was found in 75 percent of the individuals: 18 percent of these had extensive erosion. There was a significant association between caries and dental erosion. A relationship was found between dental erosion and lifestyle factors and overweight/obesity. There is a strong relationship between caries prevalence at age 20 and caries experience in early childhood. Young adults show a high prevalence of dental erosion, but the severity is
Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…
Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205
Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.
Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...
Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M
Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally
Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614
Tove I. Wigen
Full Text Available The proportion of Norwegian preschool children with dental caries experience has decreased during the last decades and the caries distribution has become skewed. Some children develop caries in early life, and caries may affect body weight, growth and quality of life in children. The social environment influences child development, including the risk for developing dental caries. The purpose of this paper was to summarize knowledge from the literature regarding parental influence on caries development in preschool children with focus on recent Norwegian research based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. The results from the literature review showed that characteristics of the family and parental oral health behaviours and lifestyle may be associated with caries development in preschool children. These associations were recently confirmed in the Norwegian setting with low caries prevalence in children, high educational level in the population, and comprehensive dental service free of charge for children. In conclusion, the literature establishes associations between parental factors that are known during pregnancy and early parenthood and caries development in early childhood. These risk indicators may be used by health care personnel to identify risk children and target preventive care at children before dental caries has developed.
Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin
Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time...
Broström, Stig; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid
and Women’s Liberation’ and ‘ECEC for All in an Internordic Perspective’, we describe the fact that almost all children in the Nordic countries attend preschool, which on the one hand can be described in the light of the participation of both mothers and fathers in the labour market and on the other hand......This chapter discusses a number of central dimensions and dilemmas of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In the two first sections, ‘Early Childhood Education and Care: An Integrated Part of the Welfare System, Democracy...
Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.
Alfonso Romero Díaz
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.
Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…
Bagherian A; Nematollahi H; Afshari J; Moheghi N
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The etiology of ECC is multifactorial and both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic variations in the hosts may contribute to changes in the risk for dental caries. Genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have recently been suggested as a predisposing factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to look for an association between HLA-D...
Ajayi, Deborah M; Abiodun-Solanke, Iyabode M F; Gbadebo, Shakeerah O
Rampant caries in adults has not been a focus of many researches unlike the childhood form of the disease. The disease is an interesting finding in an adult patient. When the condition occurs in children, it has been described as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, and the most recently adopted term, "early childhood caries". The aim was to determine the prevalence of rampant caries among adult patients. Cases of rampant caries were identified from the records of all the patients treated during a 5-year period. Variables considered included the socio-demographic data, frequency of consumption of cariogenic diet, social habits, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), socioeconomic status (SES), and oral hygiene (OH), etc. Data were analyzed using student's t-test and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables, while Fishers exact test was adopted for categorical variables. Level of significance was set at P diet.
Chou, Roger; Cantor, Amy; Zakher, Bernadette; Mitchell, Jennifer Priest; Pappas, Miranda
Screening and preventive interventions by primary care providers could improve outcomes related to early childhood caries. The objective of this study was to update the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force systematic review on prevention of caries in children younger than 5 years of age. Searching Medline and the Cochrane Library (through March 2013) and reference lists, we included trials and controlled observational studies on the effectiveness and harms of screening and treatments. One author extracted study characteristics and results, which were checked for accuracy by a second author. Two authors independently assessed study quality. No study evaluated effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. One good-quality cohort study found pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 for identifying a child with cavities. No new trials evaluated oral fluoride supplementation. Three new randomized trials were consistent with previous studies in finding fluoride varnish more effective than no varnish (reduction in caries increment 18% to 59%). Three trials of xylitol were inconclusive regarding effects on caries. New observational studies were consistent with previous evidence showing an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. Evidence on the accuracy of risk prediction instruments in primary care settings is not available. There is no direct evidence that screening by primary care clinicians reduces early childhood caries. Evidence previously reviewed by the US Preventive Services Task Force found oral fluoride supplementation effective at reducing caries incidence, and new evidence supports the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.
Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W
This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.
Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.
Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin
The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…
Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M
Objective: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...
Hill, Martha S.; And Others
Identified a number of risk factors contributing to early household formation. Found that for girls, factors included mother's educational level and birth order; for boys, parental divorce at any stage of childhood. Risk factors common to boys and girls were age of mother at time of child's birth and race. (HTH)
Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…
Flynn, Erin Elizabeth
This article highlights research exploring the benefits of small-group storytelling as a way to promote rich language in early childhood classrooms. Using the storytelling of children from a preschool classroom serving lower SES children, the author explores the collaborative affordances of story circles. Results show that small-group storytelling…
Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto
This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…
Nicholson, Julie; Maniates, Helen
Current interest in the development of leadership capacity within the early childhood profession provides an important opportunity to critically examine our field's conceptualizations of leadership. Modernist binary leader/follower conceptions are not reflective of contemporary scholarship describing identities as multiple, dynamic, socially…
Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian
Intraneural perineurioma is an uncommon benign neoplasm characterized by focal perineural cell proliferation. The typical course is indolent, with gradual onset and slow progression of motor loss. In early childhood, uncertainty concerning the time of onset can lead to difficulty in distinguishin...
Explains terminology related to the use of the Internet, describes how to find Web sites, and explains some of the sites designed for child-care professionals. The sites included are those related to health and nutrition, early-childhood and parenting organizations, children's television, reading and literature, sites for children, and regional…
Costello, Patrick J. M.
The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…
This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...
Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah
This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…
Callister, Paul; And Others
This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this…
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven
The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…
Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…
Dec 17, 2012 ... Key Words: Early childhood education; school-parents relations; parent ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012 .... employed in positions with higher pay and power than those who do not ..... on Cognitive Development among East-African Pre-School Children A Flexibly.
McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline
The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…
Meyer, Grete Skjeggestad; Eilifsen, Margareth
Based on many years' work designing introductory, immersive, aesthetic experiences that lead to problem-based learning (PBL) tasks for student teachers (called "INTRO"), we problematize the concept of creativity and playfulness in Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECTE). The article reports on our analysis of students' experiences of…
The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01). Results: Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of .... linked to poorer cognitive attainment later in life (22). .... to the questionnaires and organization of the field work.
Early childhood care and education has been for many years in Ethiopia. However, these experiences were not systematized, reflected up on and, hence, efforts were not made to extract lessons and delineate future directions. This paper has made a modest attempt to bring to light developments registered, gaps noted and ...
Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel
Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…
Much of the debate about the desirability or otherwise, of attempting to address the gender imbalance in the early childhood teaching profession has been limited by a reliance on rhetoric rather than empirical evidence. The purpose of this article is to assist in shifting this debate to a more empirical basis by reporting findings from an…
Murakami, Christopher Daniel; Su-Russell, Chang; Manfra, Louis
Learning gardens can provide dynamic learning and developmental experiences for young children. This case study of 12 early childhood teachers explores how teachers describe (1) learning across numerous school readiness domains and (2) how to support this learning by promoting opportunities for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Participants…
This study examined how preservice teachers view the nature and role of creativity in light of the complexities of contemporary early childhood classrooms. A multiple methods approach was utilized and data were collected with the Questionnaire Examining Student Teachers' Beliefs about Creativity (Diakidoy & Kanari, 1999) survey instrument and…
Basford, Jo; Bath, Caroline
Assessment and the documentation of learning is an international issue in early childhood education (ECE) and has increasingly become a way for governments to exercise direct control over the practitioners working with young children. This paper details recent statutory guidance about assessment and documentation for English ECE settings and…
In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...
McLaren, Elizabeth; Rutland, Julie Harp
National shortages of qualified personnel in the field of early childhood special education are well documented, with shortages magnified in regions characterized by poverty and rural geography. This article provides an overview of the challenges faced and innovations implemented by an alternate-track, personnel preparation program in Appalachian…
This article sketches out a philosophy and practice of open listening, linking open listening to Bergson's (1998) concept of creative evolution. I draw on examples of small children at play from a variety of sources, including Reggio-Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The article offers a challenge to early childhood educators to listen and to…
This article considers drawing as a meaning-making activity that takes place in certain sociocultural contexts to find evidence for its communicative potentials as well as the relationship between thought and drawing in early childhood. The researcher challenges traditional views about young children's drawing that focus on the result of the…
Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard
A current interest in education is the growing awareness that the development of social and emotional skills in children is critical for the foundation of academic knowledge in the classroom. The early childhood educator is in a position to be a powerful nurturer of the social emotional development in young children. It is important, therefore, to…
Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.
Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…
Hewes, Dorothy W.
As the end of the century nears, it is important to reflect upon the history of early childhood education and what the future holds. Centuries before the Christian era began, Plato wrote that the welfare of children from birth onward was a responsibility of the entire community. In 1628, the first written guidance for out-of-home education of…
It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…
Weitman, Catheryn J.; Humphries, Janie H.
Data were collected from elementary school principals and kindergarten teachers in Texas and Louisiana in an effort to identify qualities that are thought to be important for kindergarten teachers. A questionnaire listing 462 qualities of early childhood teachers was compiled from literature reviews. Subjects were asked to check a maximum of 50…
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony
Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…
Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise
This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming
This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…
This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…
Rameka, Lesley Kay
Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…
Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara
Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…
Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…
This study examined pre-service teachers' understanding, attitudes, preparation and concerns regarding inclusion in early childhood education (ECE) in Zimbabwe. Entrenched within inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study draws on a sample of 24 pre-service teachers purposively selected from the largest teachers' college with the oldest…
Swick, Kevin J.
This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…
Hertzog, Nancy B.
Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…
This paper will illustrate how philosophical and pedagogical boundaries that are defined by diverse cultures and ideologies might be navigated in the practical implementation of an early childhood curriculum in postcolonial urban India. Findings from a qualitative naturalistic inquiry indicated that a complex, multifaceted curriculum shaped by…
Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…
E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on asthma symptoms in early childhood. From a public health perspective, we aim to improve health and health-related quality of life through the prevention of asthma symptoms and by signaling, counselling or management of children who are at a high
Bartik, Timothy J.
Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…
Ishimine, Karin; Tayler, Collette
Evaluating quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) service internationally is increasingly important. Research to date indicates that it is "high-quality" programmes that boost and sustain children's achievement outcomes over time. There is also growing interest in the accountability of public funds used for ECEC…
Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.
A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…
Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Black, Sharon
Purpose: This pilot project implemented and evaluated a theme-based unit designed to teach expository comprehension skills to young children in four preschool classrooms. Method: The program and the unit were collaborative efforts of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and early childhood educators. Within topically related units, 71 children ages…
The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)
This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According
Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.
Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…
Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie
Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…
Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.
Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…
Richards, A.; Sallafranque, R.
As early childhood educators who participated in the discussion of optimal scene management involving children and families in the event of a radiological/nuclear event, the authors would suggest consideration be given to the formal preparation for evacuation of educators and families and how to ensure that families are provided factual and updated information. (authors)
Nikolić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.
Blushing has adaptive social functions. However, blushing is also assumed to be a hallmark of social anxiety and shyness. For the first time, blushing and its relation to the expressions of shyness and social anxiety was examined in early childhood. Four-and-a-half-year-old children (N = 102) were
This profile describes various facets of Saint Lucia's National Association of Early Childhood Educators (NAECE), whose mission is "to stand up for the rights of children." The profile first presents the association's 5-year action plan, which includes goals for: (1) technical assistance, for example scholarships for the poor to attend…
Edwards, Nicole Megan
This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley
Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…
Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.
In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…
Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan
Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…
Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian
As consumers of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), Chinese parents play a crucial role in the ongoing process of monitoring, evaluating, and improving the quality of ECEC in China. This study used questionnaires to solicit parental feedback on the importance of, and their quality ratings for, aspects of ECEC. The researchers used a random…
Brown, Christopher P.
As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…
Early childhood is one of the major stages in ones development in life. It is a period .... through the exploration of nature, the environment, art, music and playing with toys etc. .... systems have all increased the visibility of the movement. Various.
that it has been argued that the early childhood teacher should strive to develop in the young learner, the freedom to explore. The crux in this article ... story – telling, music, dramatic play, dance and visual arts. The focus in this ... with a general movement towards realistic representation of what they know of the world.
This research addressed the question of how the spiritual experience of young children might be supported in early childhood educational settings. Qualitative case study research took place in three different contexts: a Montessori casa, a Rudolf Steiner kindergarten and a private preschool. Children aged 2 1/2-6 years, their parents and teachers…
Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C
The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association. Multiple databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar) were used in the search as well as a "snowball" search strategy. All study designs were included. Early life stress and adverse childhood experiences are associated with obesity and overweight in adults. Evidence is less consistent in children. Studies vary in the nature of the stress examined (e.g., chronic vs. acute), sample characteristics, and study designs. Longitudinal studies are needed, as the effects of early life stress exposure may not emerge until later in the life-span. Early life stress exposure is associated with biological and behavioral pathways that may increase risk for childhood obesity. There is evidence that early life stress is associated with multiple biological and behavioral pathways in children that may increase risk for later obesity. Little work has detailed the interconnections among these mechanisms across development or identified potential moderators of the association. Mapping the mechanisms connecting early life stress exposure to obesity risk in young children longitudinally should be a priority for obesity researchers. Recommendations for developmentally sensitive approaches to research that can inform obesity prevention strategies are presented. © 2018 The Obesity Society.
Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua
Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the...
Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.
Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (students for inter-item correlation while the 2nd and 3rd reading of LF displays the best agreement. ICDAS II score favors more non-invasive treatment compared to LF. ICDAS II showed good repeatability except on buccal and lingual surfaces. In line with some of the previous study, ICDAS II is applicable for caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.
Dehouske, Ellen J.
This article examines the concept of an early childhood teacher learning, in stages, a new method for integrating the arts into the early childhood curriculum. An early childhood graduate course, Aesthetics as Learning, is the learning ground. In this course, the graduate students discover the "Adult Within," the "Child Within," the "Teacher…
Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin
Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…
In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…
Bartik, Timothy J.
This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…
... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and...
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…
Arend, Lauren E.
Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…
Paulo Antônio Martins-Júnior
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. A total of 247 children aged 2 to 5 years and their parents/guardians participated in this study. A clinical oral examination was performed and the parents/guardians completed the ECOHIS questionnaire. Within a period of four-weeks, 20% of the participants repeated the ECOHIS questionnaire. Construct validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation. Discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also evaluated. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (with dental caries and group 2 (caries-free. Children with caries showed higher mean ECOHIS scores than the caries-free children. The child impact section (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. Duzentas e quarenta e sete crianças de 2 a 5 anos e seus pais/cuidadores foram convidados a participar. Foi realizado exame clínico bucal e os pais completaram o ECOHIS. Após quatro semanas, 20% dos participantes responderam ao ECOHIS pela segunda vez. A validade de construto foi determinada através da correlação de Spearman. A validade discriminante, consistência interna e confiabilidade teste-reteste foram avaliadas. As crianças foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (com cárie e grupo 2 (sem cárie. As crianças com cárie tinham maiores escores médios do ECOHIS do que as crianças sem cárie. Os domínios impacto na criança (p < 0,01, impacto na família (p < 0,01 e escores totais ECOHIS (p < 0,01 foram significativamente correlacionados com dentes cariados. Coeficientes alfa de Cronbach demonstraram consistência interna satisfatória. A versão brasileira do ECOHIS é apropriada para a avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em crianças pré-escolares de pais cuja língua prim
Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan
Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain
.006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...
Gibbs, B G; Forste, R
Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Full Text Available Despite recent successes in the control of dental caries, the mechanism of caries development remains unclear. To investigate the causes of dental decay, especially in early childhood caries, the supragingival microflora composition of 20 twins with discordant caries phenotypes were analyzed using high-throughput pyrosequencing. In addition, the parents completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 228,789 sequencing reads revealed 10 phyla, 84 genera, and 155 species of microflora, the relative abundances of these strains varied dramatically among the children, Comparative analysis between groups revealed that Veillonella, Corynebacterium and Actinomyces were presumed to be caries-related genera, Fusobacterium, Kingella and Leptotrichia were presumed to be healthy-related genus, yet this six genera were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that the microbial composition of samples in the same group was often dissimilar but that the microbial composition observed in twins was usually similar. Although the genetic and environmental factors that strongly influence the microbial composition of dental caries remains unknown, we speculate that genetic factors primarily influence the individual's susceptibility to dental caries and that environmental factors primarily regulate the microbial composition of the dental plaque and the progression to caries. By using improved twins models and increased sample sizes, our study can be extended to analyze the specific genetic and environmental factors that affect the development of caries.
Kugel, Gerard; Arsenault, Peter; Papas, Athena
Seemingly against all odds, dental caries still affects most people in the US. While fluoridated products, school-based screening and cleaning programs, better patient education, and professional and chemotherapeutic interventions have all impacted certain populations, caries is still the most prevalent chronic childhood disease and continues to affect a high percentage of adolescents, young and middle-aged adults, and seniors. Much research has proven that dental caries is not just an occasional cycle of cavitation but a complex and infectious disease process. Historically, addressing the caries challenge has relied on prevention and restoration, with no intermediary means to stop lesion progression. Recently, a technique called caries infiltration was introduced that fills the noncavitated pores of an incipient lesion with a low-viscosity resin by capillary action, creating a barrier that blocks further bacterial diffusion and lesion development. This microinvasive method for stabilizing early lesions requires no drilling or anesthesia and does not alter the tooth's anatomic shape. In cases of white spot lesions in the esthetic zone, it also eliminates opaqueness and blends with surrounding natural teeth. This article presents an overview of caries prevention initiatives and a case demonstrating the new caries infiltration technique. Combined with shifting the focus to caries risk assessment, this promising technology may prove to be a significant addition to the profession's caries treatment armamentarium.
Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.
Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)
Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung
We are living in a fast-changing, technology-driven world, where technology affects the daily lives of every person, directly or indirectly. While the importance of providing young children with technological knowledge and experience has been well-recognized, how the curriculum should be developed deserves greater study. Using early childhood…
Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M
The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance
Full Text Available Context Oral health status plays an essential role in human health. Recently, enhancement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and developing countries. Dental caries is still very common among children. Screening and preventive interventions is necessary. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic and preventive approaches for dental caries in children. Evidence Acquisition Searching PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library (for 5 recent years from 2011 - 2016, and reference lists for keywords and phrases such as “dental caries in children” and prevention and diagnosis, we included trials and controlled observational studies regarding the diagnosis and preventive techniques for dental caries in children. Results We found no study demonstrating the effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. In a cohort study, pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 was reported to identify dental caries in children. The results of the new randomized trials that were confirmed by previous studies showed that the efficacy of fluoride varnish is more than no varnish in reduction of dental caries from 18% to 59%. Some of the trials regarding xylitol had no results regarding the effects on dental caries. New observational studies have shown an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. There is no evidence on the accuracy of prediction instruments in primary care settings. Conclusions We found no direct evidence that reveals that screening by primary care clinicians can decrease early childhood caries. Previous evidences reviewed by the United State Preventive Services Task Force demonstrated that oral fluoride supplementation is effective in decreasing caries incidences, and recent evidences supported the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.
Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.
Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A
Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.
Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…
Kirch, Susan A.
In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.
Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.
This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…
The goal of this paper is to elaborate and to re-invent the competencies needed by early childhood education teachers. Building children’s character from an early age is significant, but the main problem that is often overlooked is the contribution of Early Childhood Education teachers. Children’s character formation is largely determined by the quality of early childhood teachers. So if we want to instill character values required by our nations, the improvement of the quality of early child...
Eshach, Haim; Fried, Michael N.
This essay considers the question of why we should teach science to K-2. After initial consideration of two traditional reasons for studying science, six assertions supporting the idea that even small children should be exposed to science are given. These are, in order: (1) Children naturally enjoy observing and thinking about nature. (2) Exposing students to science develops positive attitudes towards science. (3) Early exposure to scientific phenomena leads to better understanding of the scientific concepts studied later in a formal way. (4) The use of scientifically informed language at an early age influences the eventual development of scientific concepts. (5) Children can understand scientific concepts and reason scientifically. (6) Science is an efficient means for developing scientific thinking. Concrete illustrations of some of the ideas discussed in this essay, particularly, how language and prior knowledge may influence the development of scientific concepts, are then provided. The essay concludes by emphasizing that there is a window of opportunity that educators should exploit by presenting science as part of the curriculum in both kindergarten and the first years of primary school.
Rosario Mérida Serrano
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]. Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]. Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1 Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2 The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3 The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4 The adviser provides continuing professional development.
Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner
on their profession. Obviously, attracting men to a BA study programme within care and Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) is one thing, recruiting men afterwards to ECEC is quite another matter, especially when gender and ECEC hold so very strong gender associated expectations. The participants and especially......This article reports the results from five recently completed projects funded by the Danish Ministry for Children, Education and Gender Equality and based on an idea developed in cooperation with the Danish Union of Early Childhood and Youth Educators. The Danish government is obliged not only...... by European legislation but also by national resolutions and therefore is very interested in ways to break down the gender segregated labour market and the gender segregated choices of education. The five projects spread across Denmark in five different municipalities took place in day-care institutions...
Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.
Golubović, Špela; Marković, Jasminka; Perović, Lidija
Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7), who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50%) why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children's early age is vital.
Nivala, V. (Veijo); Hujala, E. (Eeva)
Abstract The book consists of presentations given at the Open Forum at the University of Oulu on March 2001. It highlights the contextual approach in leadership in early childhood. The studies introduced in this volume provide strong evidence that leadership is not only a leader's matter — it is a matter of concern for the whole leadership community. Different methods, like focus group — discussion, self study report and shared data will be introduced in the articles. The articles are ...
Løkken, Gunvor; Moser, Thomas
This issue of Education Inquiry includes a thematic section with five articles about different aspects of the physical environment in Norwegian early childhood education institutions (kindergartens). The contributions represent five out of nine sub-projects in a research project entitled Kindergarten space – materiality, learning and meaning making – The importance of space for kindergarten’s pedagogical activities conducted at Vestfold University College (VUC) funded by the Norwegian Researc...
Llena, C; Leyda, A; Forner, L; Garcet, S
An investigation was conducted in a population of paediatric patients with a high risk of caries in order to assess the association between caries history (CH) and the number of early carious lesions (ECLs) and the frequency and timing of cariogenic food and beverage intake, sugar-containing medication, the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing, and the use of topical fluorides. Study design: descriptive study. One hundred children aged 6-15 years with≥ ECL of a permanent tooth and not enrolled in any dental health educational or preventive programme were selected. For diagnosis it was used an explorer according to the ICDAS II criteria. The participants completed a closed-list questionnaire on the frequency and timing of cariogenic food intake. There was a nonsignificant tendency to present more ECLs and a greater CH among patients who consumed cariogenic foods and beverages. A significant relationship (pcariogenic beverages and the number of ECL or CH. Using the number of ECLs as dependent variable, regular fluoridated rinses (p=0.003), frequent sugar-containing medication (p=0.007), and cariogenic beverage consumption (p=0.024) were identified as explanatory parameters in the linear regression model. The Student t-test was used to compare ECL and CH with dietetic factors, fluoridated rinses, sugar- containing medicines, and the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing. Linear regression analysis correlated the number of ECLs to the mentioned explanatory variables. The frequent consumption of sugary beverages and medications, and failure to regularly use fluoridated rinses, were positively correlated to an increased number of ECLs in patients with a high prevalence of caries.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Root, Elisabeth Dowling
Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing family, school, and neighborhood influences on child well-being. We examined the consequences of residential mobility for socioemotional and cognitive kindergarten readiness using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal survey that followed U.S. children born in 2001 from infancy to kindergarten. We described individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. Our residential mobility indicators examined frequency of moves, nonlinearities in move frequency, quality of moves, comparisons between moving houses and moving neighborhoods, and heterogeneity in the consequences of residential mobility. Nearly three-quarters of children moved by kindergarten start. Mobility did not predict cognitive scores. More moves, particularly at relatively high frequencies, predicted lower kindergarten behavior scores. Moves from socioeconomically advantaged to disadvantaged neighborhoods were especially problematic, whereas moves within a ZIP code were not. The implications of moves were similar across socioeconomic status. The behavior findings largely support an instability perspective that highlights potential disruptions from frequent or problematic moves. Our study contributes to literature emphasizing the importance of contextualizing residential mobility. The high prevalence and distinct implications of early childhood moves support the need for further research.
Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys. Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey. Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided. Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions
Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.
Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Alessandra de Carvalho Faria
childhood education. This paper intends to discuss the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, which define how they should be organized teaching practice, and examine how the activities should be developed in early childhood education institutions, to objectify the holistic development of children in seeking quality care this stage of basic education.
Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A
Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the st...
The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...
Grace, Rebekah; Trudgett, Michelle
This paper presents the findings from semi-structured interviews with six Indigenous Australian early childhood workers who were asked about how Indigenous families might be better supported to engage with early childhood education and care services. The workers identified three key barriers to family participation: transport difficulties, family…
Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine
This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…
Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth
Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…
Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.
In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…
Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany
Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina
Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…
Hasnain, Syed Ridda; Singer, Martha R.; Bradlee, M. Loring; Moore, Lynn L.
Background: Childhood obesity is closely associated with adult obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This study's aim was to determine the effects of beverage intake patterns on body composition from early childhood into adolescence in the Framingham Children's Study.
Laura E Pryor
Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.
Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.
Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID
Pinkerton, Relana; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Lima, Aldo A M; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Oriá, Mônica O B; Patrick, Peter D; Moore, Sean R; Wiseman, Benjamin L; Niehaus, Mark D; Guerrant, Richard L
Understanding the complex relationship between early childhood infectious diseases, nutritional status, poverty, and cognitive development is significantly hindered by the lack of studies that adequately address confounding between these variables. This study assesses the independent contributions of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) and malnutrition on cognitive impairment in later childhood. A cohort of 131 children from a shantytown community in northeast Brazil was monitored from birth to 24 months for diarrhea and anthropometric status. Cognitive assessments including Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), coding tasks (WISC-III), and verbal fluency (NEPSY) were completed when children were an average of 8.4 years of age (range = 5.6-12.7 years). Multivariate analysis of variance models were used to assess the individual as well as combined effects of ECD and stunting on later childhood cognitive performance. ECD, height for age (HAZ) at 24 months, and weight for age (WAZ) at 24 months were significant univariate predictors of the studies three cognitive outcomes: TONI, coding, and verbal performance (P < 0.05). Multivariate models showed that ECD remained a significant predictor, after adjusting for the effect of 24 months HAZ and WAZ, for both TONI (HAZ, P = 0.029 and WAZ, P = 0.006) and coding (HAZ, P = 0.025 and WAZ, P = 0.036) scores. WAZ and HAZ were also significant predictors after adjusting for ECD. ECD remained a significant predictor of coding (WISC III) after number of household income was considered (P = 0.006). This study provides evidence that ECD and stunting may have independent effects on children's intellectual function well into later childhood. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...
Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír
Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 62-76 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.733, year: 2015
Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C
Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children's health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother's health. Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.
Aljabar, P.; Bhatia, K. K.; Murgasova, M.; Hajnal, J. V.; Boardman, J. P.; Srinivasan, L.; Rutherford, M. A.; Dyet, L. E.; Edwards, A. D.; Rueckert, D.
In this work we obtain estimates of tissue growth using longitudinal data comprising MR brain images of 25 preterm children scanned at one and two years. The growth estimates are obtained using segmentation and registration based methods. The segmentation approach used an expectation maximisation (EM) method to classify tissue types and the registration approach used tensor based morphometry (TBM) applied to a free form deformation (FFD) model. The two methods show very good agreement indicating that the registration and segmentation approaches can be used interchangeably. The advantage of the registration based method, however, is that it can provide more local estimates of tissue growth. This is the first longitudinal study of growth in early childhood, previous longitudinal studies have focused on later periods during childhood.
Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon
Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene with longit......Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene...... with longitudinally assessed asthma phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. We analysed eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed...
Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh
Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.
Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803
Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf
The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...
Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.
Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…
Kernan, Margaret; Devine, Dympna
This study is based on a study of the experience of the outdoors in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland. Central to the analyses are the inter-linkages drawn between constructions of a "good" childhood, and children's "need" for outdoor play, as well as the contradictions which arise around competing…
Full Text Available Abstract Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with special needs or children who are at risk to have sufficient knowledge about early childhood intervention and be competent in this area. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the views of preservice special education teachers about early childhood intervention. This study used quantitative research method and a questionnaire form was used to collect the data. The results are discussed in detail with reference to relevant literature. Implications and recommendations for further research are also provided in order to improve the quality of education policies, programs and practices related with early childhood intervention and increase awareness and knowledge related with early childhood interventions among teacher candidates.
Full Text Available This qualitative study focuses on primary schools' state of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. Adopting a multiple case study design, the article explores, through semi-structured interviews and documentation, school heads, teachers-in-charge and classroom teachers' perceptions of their respective schools' state of readiness for the installation and implementation of early childhood education. The study established that, while classroom teachers were adequately qualified to implement early childhood education, teachers-in-charge were not. Secondly, school heads received limited induction for the introduction and implementation of early childhood education. Additionally, inadequate teaching-learning resources and lack of on-going teacher support contributed to schools' lack of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. The study recommends interventions that curriculum planners and implementers can utilise in order to create conditions that enable primary schools to be ready for introducing and implementing early childhood education.
Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)
Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)
Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D
Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...
Hansen, Ole Henrik; Greve, Anne
-called Nordic model represents a uni ed system of early childhood education and care (ECEC). This chapter underlines the distinctive shared characteristics of the Nordic approach to play and learning, and care and education, where participation, democracy, respect for other cultures and religions...... and character of the Nordic people. Here, there is a strong foundation in an ideal of freedom, democracy, equality, in uence and sustainability, but also a focus on education that emphasises the toddler as a learning being. However, toddlers in ECEC represent an area in need of more attention and new research....
Munksgaard, Kristian Fahnøe
(Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2016). Therefor the aim of the study was to examine relevant factors for teachers working in early childhood education and care to consider, when working didactically with enhancing movement opportunities for children. Method: The study was conducted as a Realist Review (Pawson, Greenhalgh...... for preschool children. Relevant factors for preschool teachers to consider are parent involvement in movement activities, being a good role model, providing good physical environments for movement, applying policies and strategies that support movement, assuring sufficient teacher competencies in movement...
Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.
"The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…
Herrmann, T.; Doerr, W.; Lesche, A.; Lehmann, D.; Koy, S.
Background: only few reports of effects of radiotherapy in childhood on the dental apparatus are available in the literature. The basis for early loss of teeth appears to be a reduction of the root surface area after radiation exposure. These effects in the periodontium are a consequence of combined radiochemotherapy usually applied for treatment of childhood neoplasia. Chemotherapy alone also results in changes of periodontal development. Case report: a 33-year-old patient is reported, who, at the age of 11 years, received high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy of neuroaxis and cranium for acute lymphatic leukemia with relapse. The patient consulted the Implant Section of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery because of severe dental changes and tooth loss despite adequate dental care and oral hygiene. Radiation doses given to the superior maxilla and mandible at the age of 11 were estimated to be in the range of 8-25 Gy. Conclusion: intense, life-long dental care and follow-up of patients cured from malignant disease in childhood must hence be postulated in order to minimize dental treatment sequelae by supportive measures, but also to initiate timely adequate dental and prosthetic management. (orig.)
Full Text Available This article is the result of the research work been carried on by the research group History of Education and Early Childhood Education at Federal University of São Carlos. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities and paths for the application of the principles of Pedagogia Histórico-Crítica for Early Childhood Education. Therefore we expect that this article generate discussions in order to improve methodologically and pedagogically our Early Childhood Education.
Crowe, K.; Cumming, T.; McCormack, J.; McLeod, S.; Baker, E.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Masso, S.
Early childhood educators are frequently called on to support preschool-aged children with speech sound disorders and to engage these children in activities that target their speech production. This study explored factors that acted as facilitators and/or barriers to the provision of computer-based support for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) in early childhood centres. Participants were 23 early childhood educators at 13 centres who participated in the Sound Start Study, a randomiz...
The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…
Plumb, Melinda; Kautz, Karlheinz; Tootell, Holly
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in early childhood educational settings, in particular touch screen technology such as interactive whiteboards and tablet computing devices has potential for use within early childhood educational institutions. We conducted a literature...... that can support the successful implementation of touch screen technology within early childhood educational institutions....... in regards to touch screen technology in early childhood, particularly from a process perspective, and suggest that further research is required to understand the interplay between individual actions and organisational structural influences. This will contribute to the development of an understanding...
Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin
This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…
Ames, Patricia; Rojas, Vanessa; Portugal, Tamia
This working paper is part of a series on early transitions from "Young Lives," a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores the diverse experiences of 28 children from four contrasting communities in Peru as they start school. These detailed case studies highlight common problems:…
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the Bruner's early childhood education. This paper examined an education theory of Bruner in the change of early education as the clue. In section 1, it clarified about the history of Japanese early education. In section 2, it not only clarified about the hypothesis of Bruner which affected early childhood education, but it clarified about the error with Bruner by hypothetical understanding. A hypothesis of Bruner is "We begin with the hypothesis that s...
Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay A
To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc.). Predictors included 8 ACEs (divorce of a parent, death of a parent, exposure to domestic violence, living with someone with a drug or alcohol abuse problem, household member with a mental illness, parent incarceration, neighborhood violence, discrimination). Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for demographic characteristics, having a personal doctor, health insurance coverage, and seeing a health care professional in the previous year. Experiencing 3 or more ACEs before the age of 5 years was associated with increased likelihood of nearly every co-occurring condition combination across 3 domains of health. Most notably, experiencing 3 or more ACEs was also associated with a 2-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical condition and ≥1 developmental condition, a 9-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 mental and ≥1 developmental condition, and a 7-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical, ≥1 mental, and ≥1 developmental condition. This study demonstrates that we can identify the health effects of adversity quite early in development and that management should include communication between both health care and early childhood education providers.
Reifen Tagar, Michal; Federico, Christopher M; Lyons, Kristen E; Ludeke, Steven; Koenig, Melissa A
In the research reported here, we examined whether individual differences in authoritarianism have expressions in early childhood. We expected that young children would be more responsive to cues of deviance and status to the extent that their parents endorsed authoritarian values. Using a sample of 43 preschoolers and their parents, we found support for both expectations. Children of parents high in authoritarianism trusted adults who adhered to convention (vs. adults who did not) more than did children of parents low in authoritarianism. Furthermore, compared with children of parents low in authoritarianism, children of parents high in authoritarianism gave greater weight to a status-based "adult = reliable" heuristic in trusting an ambiguously conventional adult. Findings were consistent using two different measures of parents' authoritarian values. These findings demonstrate that children's trust-related behaviors vary reliably with their parents' orientations toward authority and convention, and suggest that individual differences in authoritarianism express themselves well before early adulthood.
Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M
As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter
vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child...
Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S
Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.
Rocío BERENGUER SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available In primary education is essential to know and develop methodologies using the development of creativity and laterality in the process of teaching and learning in our student. It is an ideal place to study the relationship between these variables period. As we understand creativity as an integral part of all the languages in which student in early childhood education (verbal and written language, plastic body… are expressed, for all languages represent a creative process, a way to communicate with others, either verbal or written form, plastic. All these forms of communication is also related to another concept as laterality. It is essential to identify and examine the importance of laterality and dominations in kindergarten because all these processes are required before accessing other languages such as literacy. The objective of this study is to describe the relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education. This has been evaluated 60 children in the second cycle of Infant Education and creativity variables defined and undefined laterality. In the development of this research test Torrance Creative Thinking (1974 of figurative expression and the test of laterality of the neuropsychological test (2011 it was applied. The results show that most of the student have defined laterality with 75%. These student earn higher average scores on each component of creativity, the group with undefined laterality and more creativity than the group with undefined laterality.
Minasyan, Anna; Babajanyan, Arman; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph
Parental questionnaires to assess incidence of pediatric allergic disease have been validated for use in school-aged children. Currently, there is no validated questionnaire-based assessment of food allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma for infants and young children. The Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire was designed for detecting AD, asthma, and IgE-mediated food allergies in children aged 1-5 years. A nested case-control design was applied. Parents of 150 children attending pediatric outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire before being clinically assessed by a pediatrician for allergies. Sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the questionnaire were assessed. Seventy-seven children were diagnosed with one or more current allergic diseases. The questionnaire demonstrated high overall sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.98) with a specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.88). Questionnaire reproducibility was good with a kappa agreement rate for symptom-related questions of 0.45-0.90. Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire accurately and reliably reflects the presence of allergies in children aged 1-5 years. Its use is warranted as a tool for determining prevalence of allergies in this pediatric age group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.
The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.
Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Pagani, Linda S; Barnett, Tracie A
The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.
Otsuki, Taisuke; Honda, Ryoko; Takahashi, Akio; Kaido, Takanobu; Kaneko, Yu; Nakai, Tetsuji; Saito, Yuko; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki
To describe operative procedures, seizure control and complications of surgery for cortical dysplasia (CD) causing intractable epilepsy in infancy and early childhood. Fifty-six consecutive children (less than 6years old) underwent resective epilepsy surgery for CD from December 2000 to August 2011. Age at surgery ranged from 2 to 69months (mean 23months) and the follow-up was from 1 to 11years (mean 4years 4months). Half of the children underwent surgery during infancy at an age less than 10months, and the majority (80%) of these infants needed extensive surgical procedures, such as hemispherotomy and multi-lobar disconnection. Seizure free (ILAE class 1) outcome was obtained in 66% of the cases (class 1a; 55%): 85% with focal resection (n=13), 50% with lobar resection (n=18), 71% with multilobar disconnection (n=7) and 67% with hemispherotomy (n=18). Peri-ventricular and insular structures were resected in 23% of focal and 61% of lobar resections. Repeated surgery was performed in 9 children and 5 (56%) became seizure free. Histological subtypes included hemimegalencephaly (16 patients), polymicrogyria (5 patients), and FCD type I (6 patients), type IIA (19 patients), type IIB (10 patients). Polymicrogyria had the worst seizure outcome compared to other pathologies. Surgical complications included 1 post-operative hydrocephalus, 1 chronic subdural hematoma, 2 intracranial cysts, and 1 case of meningitis. No mortality or severe morbidities occurred. Early surgical intervention in children with CD and intractable seizures in infancy and early childhood can yield favorable seizure outcome without mortality or severe morbidities although younger children often need extensive surgical procedures. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dr. Nirmal Kaur; Miss Neha Qumar; Nisha Gangwar
Unfortunately, today’s world has been adapted to a system of consumption of junk foods which has several adverse effects on health. Thus the study was conducted to find out the food habits and problems associated with fast food consumption amongst the children of 3-6 years of age of Pilibhit District of UP. The result showed that cent per cent respondents consumed candies followed by potato chips, chocolate, ice-cream and soft drink, as 93.33 %, 90 %, 96.66 %, and 66.66 % respectively. Beside...
Ximenes, Marcos; Armas, Rafael Dutra de; Triches, Thaisa Cezária; Cardoso, Mariane; Vieira, Ricardo de Souza
To characterise in vivo the structure of bacterial communities in decayed and sound primary teeth. Samples of biofilms were collected from three groups of patients with complete and exclusively primary dentition (n = 45): G1: sound teeth (n = 15); G2: enamel lesion (n = 15); G3: dentin lesion (n = 15). DNA was extracted (CTAB 2%) from the biofilm, the partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified with Bacteria Universal Primers (BA338fGC - UN518r) and subjected to DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Multidimensional scaling and ANOSIM (analysis of similarity) were employed to determine the structure of the bacterial communities. The amplicon richness was determined by averaging amplicons, with the differences between treatments determined with ANOVA, while means were compared using Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Compared to sound teeth, a greater variety of bacterial communities was found in decayed teeth. Despite the differences between the bacterial communities of sound teeth and decayed teeth, the Venn diagram showed that the samples had 38 amplicons in common. Greater amplicon richness was observed in samples of decayed teeth (enamel: 20.5 ± 2.7; dentin: 20.1 ± 2.8) compared with the sound samples (12.0 ± 4.3) (p <0.05), indicating enhanced growth for specific groups of bacteria on decayed teeth. Although there is less bacterial diversity on sound than ECC-decayed teeth, the bacterial communities are very similar.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to define the underlying dimensions of psychosocial barriers to obtaining and providing dental care for young children among recent immigrants. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with 99 primary caregivers from African, South Asian, and Chinese recent immigrants. A secondary analysis of identified barriers using dimensional analysis methodology was performed to determine dimensions and properties of barriers. The analysis continued until irreducible properties were found or emerging dimensions were not relevant to the study. Identified dimensions were associated with barriers and individuals. Type, number, level, objectiveness, nature, and impact were barrier-related; awareness and controllability were individual-related dimensions. Type refers to barriers themselves. Number and level indicate the amount and location of barriers, respectively. Objectiveness refers to the extent that perceived barrier reflects reality and nature indicates its intrinsic characteristic. Impact concerns behaviors, goals, and outcomes compromised by barriers. Awareness alludes to the extent that individuals are aware of the barriers and controllability explains how much control people perceive to have over barriers. Identified dimensions are useful for better understanding and addressing existing barriers to children’s optimal oral health.
Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.
We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....
For the past 20 years, early childhood education has undergone changes that have resulted from an alteration in Indonesian socio-political situations. One of the changes has resulted in the emergence of the internationalisation of early childhood education in Indonesia. This paper unpacks the complexity of the process. Three teachers from three…
Baglama, Basak; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli
Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with…