WorldWideScience

Sample records for early childhood abuse

  1. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  2. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-06-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424

  3. Singaporean Early Childhood Teachers' Responses to Myths about Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…

  4. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  6. Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  8. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  9. Does Physical Abuse in Early Childhood Predict Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance us...

  10. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  11. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  12. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallimberti

    2015-01-01

    The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”

  13. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  14. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  15. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Aktepe, Evrim

    2009-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  17. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl;

    2014-01-01

    had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning...

  18. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  19. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  20. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  1. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent’s gender and timing of childhood abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mot...

  2. History of childhood abuse in portuguese parents

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bifulco, A.; Paiva, Carla; Maia, Ângela; Fernandes, Eugénia M.; Matos, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study examines the self-reported prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in a large sample of Portuguese parents. Method: Nearly 1,000 parents (506 mothers and 426 fathers) were selected through public primary schools from the Northern area of Portugal. All completed the Portuguese version of the Childhood History Questionnaire (CHQ) [Journal of Family Violence 5 (1990) 15]. Results: Results show that the prevalence of abuse was 73%, but more sever...

  3. Childhood Abuse and the Content of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J.; Brett, Emma; Collinge, Miriam; Curr, Helen; Rhodes, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate possible associations between histories of childhood abuse and the content of delusions for individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods: 39 participants with a psychotic disorder including one or more delusional beliefs successfully completed structured interviews about childhood trauma, delusional beliefs and…

  4. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  5. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...

  7. Frequency of childhood abuse in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Zeren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

  8. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Swogger, Marc T.; CONNER, KENNETH R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...

  9. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  10. Psychological sequelae of sexual abuse in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, P D

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13...

  11. Personal constructs, childhood sexual abuse and revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Kate; Leach, Chris; Aldridge, Jan

    2001-09-01

    Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11802849

  12. Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

  13. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  14. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  15. Early Childhood Education 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Gloria Owens

    This module adapts the content of an on-campus early childhood education program to a competency-based set of self-paced learning activities for use in largely self-directed, supervised instruction of student child caretakers employed at such settings as a day care center or Head Start agency. Addressed in the individual sections of the module are…

  16. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  17. Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bakilana, Anne; Moucheraud, Corrina; McConnell, Christin; HASAN, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...

  18. Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    HASAN, Rifat; Moucheraud, Corrina; Bakilana, Anne; Nadeau, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse Among University Students in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter K.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N= 487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering information about age of victim, duration of abuse, perpetrators, amount of force or persuasion involved, and potential causes of child sexual abuse. ...

  20. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  1. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Bizu Gelaye; Qiuyue Zhong; Christina Nicolaidis; Rondon, Marta B; Garcia, Pedro J.; Pedro A Mascaro Sanchez; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatolo...

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  3. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  4. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  5. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: Relationships with Abuse in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is allegedly the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis in the United States. The etiology of this syndrome appears to entail the interaction of both genes and the environment. One potential environmental contributory factor to irritable bowel syndrome is abuse in childhood. Of the various forms of abuses previously examined, sexual abuse in childhood appears to be the most patent contributor. However, both emotional and physical abuses may also contribute to irritabl...

  6. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  7. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karakuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

  8. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karakuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

  9. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  10. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  11. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  12. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  13. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  14. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  15. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  16. Childhood Physical Abuse Is Associated with Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Mid-Life Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse are associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease. Our objective was to examine whether childhood abuse predicted incident metabolic syndrome, a precursor to heart disease, in mid-life women. Methods Participants were 342 (114 Black, 228 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). SWAN included a baseline assessment of premenopausal or early perimenopausal women in midlife (mean age = 45.7), and women were evaluated for presence of the metabolic syndrome over 7 annual follow-up visits. Women were classified as having metabolic syndrome if they met 3 of the following criteria: waist circumference > 88 cm, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL < 50 mg/dl, SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or on blood pressure medication, and fasting glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl or diabetic. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire is a standardized measure that retrospectively assesses three domains of abuse in childhood and adolescence: emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Results Approximately 34% of the participants reported a history of abuse. Cox model survival analysis showed that physical abuse was associated with incident metabolic syndrome over the course of seven years (HR = 2.12, p = .02), adjusted for ethnicity, age at baseline, and time-dependent menopausal status. Sexual abuse and emotional abuse were unrelated to the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion This is the first study to show that a history of childhood abuse, specifically physical abuse, is related to the development of metabolic syndrome in mid-life women. PMID:22775234

  17. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  18. Childhood abuse and fear of childbirth--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Vangen, Siri; Øian, Pål;

    2010-01-01

    Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth.......Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth....

  19. Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Karakuş

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse...

  20. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: Relationships with Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is allegedly the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis in the United States. The etiology of this syndrome appears to entail the interaction of both genes and the environment. One potential environmental contributory factor to irritable bowel syndrome is abuse in childhood. Of the various forms of abuses previously examined, sexual abuse in childhood appears to be the most patent contributor. However, both emotional and physical abuses may also contribute to irritable bowel syndrome, although less distinctly. Studies examining a combined childhood-abuse variable (i.e., sexual, emotional, and/or physical abuses) in relationship to irritable bowel syndrome also indicate inconsistent results. Given the presence of childhood abuse as a potential factor in the development of irritable bowel syndrome, a number of pathophysiological events are postulated to explain this relationship, including alterations in norepinephrine and serotonin levels as well as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Only future research will clarify the specific abuse elements (i.e., further clarification of the individual types of abuse, duration of abuse, roles of the perpetrator/victim) and the pathophysiological changes that culminate in irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:26155376

  1. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  2. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  3. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  4. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  5. Career Perspectives of Male Students in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliak, Sakire; Beyazkurk, Derya Sahin

    2008-01-01

    While, in some professions, the gender balance seems to be changing in the direction of equality, the participation of males in early childhood education has not expanded because of stereotypical perceptions of this occupation, low salaries and status, and fear of being accused of sexual abuse. Males may make important contributions to the field…

  6. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  7. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

    This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

  8. Pathways from physical childhood abuse to partner violence in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D

    2004-04-01

    Analyses investigated several competing hypotheses about developmental pathways from childhood physical abuse and early aggression to intimate partner violence (IPV) for young adult males and females at age 24. Potential intervening variables included: adolescent violence (age 15 to 18), negative emotionality at age 21, and quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner at age 24. At the bivariate level, nearly all variables were associated in the expected directions. However, tests of possible intervening variables revealed only a few significant results. For males, a strong direct effect of abuse on later partner violence was maintained in each model. For females, the quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner did appear to mediate the effect of childhood abuse on later violence to a partner, raising the possibility of gender differences in developmental pathways linking abuse to IPV. Implications with regard to prevention are discussed. PMID:15384450

  9. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  10. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  11. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  12. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  13. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  14. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  15. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  16. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…

  17. Early Childhood Education 295. Special Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Gloria Owens

    This module, part of a series of early childhood education instructional materials, is intended to assist teachers in adapting an on-campus early childhood education program for use by students desiring self-paced instruction in early childhood education. The course consists of individualized study of a topic chosen by the student or approved work…

  18. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  19. Childhood abuse, the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism and adult psychotic-like experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Alemany, Silvia; Arias Sampériz, Bárbara; Aguilera, Mari; Villa Martín, Elena; Moya Higueras, Jorge; Ibáñez Ribes, Manuel Ignacio; Vossen, Helen; Gastó, Cristóbal; Ortet i Fabregat, Generós; Fañanás Saura, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Individuals exposed to childhood abuse are more likely to report positive psychotic-like experiences. Met carriers reported more positive psychotic-like experiences when exposed to childhood abuse than did individuals carrying the Val/Val genotype. Therefore, the observed gene–environment interaction effect may be partially responsible for individual variation in response to childhood abuse.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...

  1. Medical problems of adults who were sexually abused in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, R P; Rogers, D; Cook, D A

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to see whether adults who had been sexually abused in childhood were vulnerable to physical symptoms and therefore investigation and intervention. The case histories of seven patients who were aged 22-39, were under the care of three consultant psychiatrists, had experienced childhood sexual abuse, and had a history of medical or surgical intervention were surveyed. The patients had had a mean of 18 contacts with non-psychiatric consultant teams and a mean of eight op...

  2. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  3. "Normal" Childhood Sexual Play and Games: Differentiating Play from Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Coakley, Mary

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 128 undergraduate female students indicated that 44% had experienced cross-gender sexual play as children, which was often seen as involving persuasion, manipulation, or coercion. A typology of six kinds of sexual play experiences was derived. Discussion focuses on the differentiation of childhood sexual abuse from play and gender…

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  5. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  7. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse. PMID:19102471

  8. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in...

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  10. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  11. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  12. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  13. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  14. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family. PMID:25905734

  15. Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patria Rojas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies

  16. Linking Families and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1985-01-01

    Discusses and uses a global human ecological system framework to analyze family needs in relation to early childhood education. Topics emphasized include family support systems, population trends, health care, employment patterns, and political systems. Suggestions for meeting these needs are addressed to early childhood educators. (DST)

  17. Computer Training for Early Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jacqueline; Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena

    Recent research in early childhood education (ECE) centers suggests that some teacher characteristics are not at a level that would support computer learning opportunities for children. This study identified areas of support required by teachers to provide a smooth introduction of the computer into the early childhood education classroom.…

  18. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  19. UNESCO Policy Briefs on Early Childhood, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This document consists of eight double-sided briefs addressing aspects of the field of early childhood education. Titles of the briefs are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Care? Development? Education?," outlining the distinctions between these terms; (2) "Planning for Access: Develop a Data System First," highlighting Brazil's census to collect…

  20. Early Childhood Teachers' Sustainment in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of Australian early childhood teachers' sustainment in their profession, focussing on those factors which enhance professional commitment, job satisfaction and occupational motivation. Utilizing qualitative methodology this study also identified key factors early childhood teachers consider crucial to…

  1. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  2. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  3. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki;

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cyper...

  4. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  5. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  6. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  7. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  8. Prevalence of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Veterans With Psychiatric Diagnoses

    OpenAIRE

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L.; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical o...

  9. Psychosocial Resources and Associations Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Pitzer, Lindsay M.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse is often associated with detrimental physical and psychological consequences in adulthood. Yet, some adults appear to overcome effects of very severe parental physical abuse in childhood. This study considered whether psychosocial resources (i.e., emotional and instrumental support, personal control) explain variability in well-being for adults who experienced childhood physical abuse by their parents. Participants included 2,711 adults aged 25–74 years from the Midli...

  10. Coping and Dissociation among Female College Students: Reporting Childhood Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipple, Deborah Ellen; Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among coping strategies, dissociation, and childhood abuse experiences of female college students. Results provided support for the theoretical links between 3 types of child abuse experience (sexual abuse, physical abuse, and negative home environment) and coping style and dissociation. The study's results add…

  11. Predicting Childhood Sexual or Physical Abuse: A Logistic Regression Geo-mapping Approach to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tadoum, Roland K.; Smolij, Kamila; Lyn, Michelle A.; Johnson, Craig W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which gender, ethnicity, relationship to perpetrator, and geo-mapped socio-economic factors significantly predict the incidence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and non- abuse. These variables are then linked to geographic identifiers using geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a geo-mapping framework for child sexual and physical abuse prevention.

  12. Carrying the Pain of Abuse: Gender-Specific Findings on the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Obesity in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Results: Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.09, 1.67. Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53. Conclusions: This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration.

  13. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter vol...

  14. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  15. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  16. Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…

  17. Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Dickey, R

    1990-12-01

    The reliability of the notion that pedophilia is caused by sexual abuse in childhood was explored by examining retrospective self-reports of 344 males. Included in the study were 77 heterosexual pedophiles, 54 homosexual pedophiles, 51 nonpedophilic sex offenders against children, 36 sex offenders against physically mature females, 75 heterosexual paid volunteers who erotically preferred mature females, and 51 homosexual clients who preferred mature males. For each sex offender the differential diagnosis of an erotic preference for minors vs. a preference for physically mature partners was made by means of the phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. The analysis of self-reports confirmed that the proportion of pedophiles who report having been sexually abused in childhood by mature persons is larger than that of men who were not charged for or accused of a sex offense against a child though the difference is relatively small (28.6 vs. 13.9 and 10.7% for the heterosexual pedophiles and the two groups of gynephiles, respectively, and 25.9 vs. 11.8% for the homosexual pedophiles and androphiles, respectively). Further analysis demonstrated, however, that pedophiles who admitted having an erotic interest in children significantly more often claimed that they had been sexually abused as children than pedophiles who did not admit having such feelings. This interdependence renders the reliability of these self-reports questionable. PMID:2082860

  18. Analysis of monoaminergic genes, childhood abuse, and dimensions of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Verona, Edelyn

    2013-02-01

    Psychopathy is a multidimensional construct characterized by an interpersonally manipulative and emotionally detached personality profile that differentiates it from other antisocial syndromes. Previous research with youth has linked the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene in the presence of environmental stress with the interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy, but these relationships have yet to be examined in relation to adult psychopathy. Consequently, we examined how serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) variants, and childhood abuse measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire relate to dimensions of psychopathy in a forensic sample of 237 men with elevated levels of environmental adversity. We found that the emotional deficits characterizing the affective factor of psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, were highest among carriers of the 5-HTT long allele. Furthermore, the impulsive and irresponsible lifestyle features of psychopathy were higher among low-activity than high-activity MAO-A carriers. These genetic effects were unexpectedly not moderated by a history of childhood abuse. Results provide evidence on the molecular genetics correlates of psychopathic traits in adulthood, relationships that should be investigated further in future research. PMID:22985017

  19. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  20. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...

  1. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent social and healthcare problem. The processes by which individuals heal from CSA are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from CSA. Community recruitment for an on-going, broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to as the Sexual Violence Study, yielded a subsample of 48 women and 47 men who had experienced CSA. During semi-structured, open-ended in...

  2. Is There a Specific Relationship between Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Repeated Suicidal Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystgaard, Mette; Hestetun, Ingebjorg; Loeb, Mitchell; Mehlum, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Studies show that childhood sexual and physical abuse predict repeated suicide attempts and self-mutilation. Little is known about the importance of sexual and physical abuse when compared to other severe childhood adversities with respect to chronic suicidal behavior. Method: Seventy-four subjects, 65% of whom were women, consecutively…

  3. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  4. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  6. Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

  7. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  8. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  9. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using t...

  10. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  11. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE: Associations between Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Abuse Experiences among Latinas

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated...

  12. Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Policy in Senegal. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    As part of a UNESCO-sponsored series of studies examining how integrated and coordinated early childhood policies are implemented, this case study focuses on Senegal's integrated early childhood policy. The case study examines the context for policy development and analyzes the structure and resources of the Ministry for the Family and Early…

  13. Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

  14. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  15. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....

  16. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  17. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult

  18. The disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood : a forensic social work perspective / Yolanda van Huyssteen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Huyssteen, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Working with sexually abused children and conducting forensic assessments is a difficult task for many professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse. In this specialised field, it is imperative that professionals are aware of the disclosure process, as well as what contributes to, or hampers the disclosure of sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood years from a forensic social work perspective. Resear...

  19. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Omkar S; Vaishali V

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: ...

  20. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  1. Childhood trauma and METH abuse among men who have sex with men: Implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Patton, Maria; Kumar, Mahendra; Jones, Deborah; Fonseca, Marla; Kumar, Adarsh M; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has become one of the most widely abused drugs in South Florida, particularly among MSM who may or may not be HIV seropositive. High rates of childhood trauma have been reported among HIV-infected MSM (Chartier et al., 2010), but, the association of childhood trauma, and mood disorders with methamphetamine use in HIV-infected men, has not been comprehensively explored. A better understanding of the association between these factors could improve existing substance abuse treatment intervention strategies and medical treatment programs (e.g., medication adherence; Carrico, 2010) to enhance positive health outcomes for male meth abusers living with the psychological consequences of childhood abuse. This study, as part of a larger study, examined the occurrence of childhood trauma and depression in a group of HIV seropositive METH abusing MSM. Significantly higher levels of depression symptom severity were found among METH users relative to non-METH users (p emotional, physical and sexual child abuse relative to non-METH users (p emotional neglect. These results suggest that childhood maltreatment may be implicated in the development of emotional distress (e.g., depression) and higher prevalence of methamphetamine/drug abuse in this population. These findings have important implications for substance abuse interventions, specifically targeting METH addiction among MSM. Addressing childhood trauma and depression may play a key role in enhancing the effectiveness of interventions for methamphetamine addiction. PMID:26519763

  2. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  3. Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S

    2016-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207

  4. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  5. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389621

  6. The Impact of Childhood Abuse on Inpatient Substance Users: Specific Links with Risky Sex, Aggression, and Emotion Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Banducci, Anne N.; Hoffman, Elana M.; Lejuez, C.W.; Koenen, Karestan

    2014-01-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abu...

  7. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  8. Tests of a Direct Effect of Childhood Abuse on Adult Borderline Personality Disorder Traits: A Longitudinal Discordant Twin Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William

    2012-01-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine the causal association between sexual, emotional, and physical abuse in childhood (before age 18) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits at age 24 using a discordant twin design and biometric modeling. Additionally, we examined the mediating and moderating effects of symptoms of childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders on the link between childhood abuse and BPD traits. Although childhood abuse, BPD traits, and internalizing a...

  9. Binge eating & childhood emotional abuse: The mediating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies reveal that childhood emotional abuse (CEA) is the trauma most clearly associated with adult eating pathology. Yet, relatively little is understood about psychological mechanisms linking these distal experiences. Anger's mediational role in the relationship between CEA and adult binge eating (BE) is explored in a community-based sample of 498 adult women (mean age 44). Detailed telephone interviews assess BE (7 items), CEA (single item), and unresolved anger (single item) along with self-criticism (modified Rosenberg self-esteem scale), depression and anxiety symptoms (BSI sub-scales). Statistical analyses include Pearson correlations, Baron and Kenny's steps for mediation, and Preacher and Hayes bootstrapping method to test proposed multiple mediators simultaneously. Findings reveal significantly more respondents (n = 476 with complete data) with serious BE behaviors report a history of CEA compared to women with considerable and/or minimal BE (53% vs 37%, p = 0.002 respectively). Significant correlations are found among all study variables. Mediation analyses focus on anger together with self-criticism, depression and anxiety. Findings reveal anger and self-criticism fully mediate the CEA-BE relationship. In contrast, depression and anxiety symptoms are not significant mediators in a model that includes anger and self-criticism. Although additional research is warranted to more fully understand complex causal processes, in the interim, treatment interventions should be broadened to include assessments of anger among adult women with BE behaviors, especially those with histories of childhood abuse. Additionally, prevention strategies that incorporate learning how to express anger directly and positively may be particularly effective in reducing various disordered eating behaviors among women and girls. PMID:27208594

  10. [Having the best intentions is necessary but not sufficient--quality dimensions for early childhood interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Tanja; Brand, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood interventions are a promising strategy to improve the development of children in socially disadvantaged families and to reduce their risk for abuse and neglect. However, proven effects are small with substantial variations between existing programs depending on differences in program planning and implementation. On the basis of international findings on the effectiveness of early childhood intervention, health promotion, and implementation research, we provide an overview of different quality aspects in the development, implementation, and evaluation of early childhood interventions, and a framework for future quality assessment of early childhood intervention programs in Germany. Scaling up of these programs should be accompanied by intensive quality assessment and development in order to achieve the intended outcomes. PMID:23367805

  11. Abuse in childhood and psychopathic traits in a sample of violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmenti, Adriano; Di Carlo, Giovanbattista; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    A significant body of research underlines the link between the exposure to abuse in childhood and subsequent criminal behaviors. Research on the role played by childhood interpersonal trauma in the development of psychopathy, however, is still scant. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and psychopathic traits in a group of violent offenders from Italy. Seventy-eight inmates who were convicted of violent crimes participated in this study. Participants were administered the Traumatic Experience Checklist to assess childhood experiences of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to assess psychopathic traits. Almost two thirds of the participants reported either emotional, physical, or sexual abuse in childhood, with 17% having experienced all 3 types of abuse investigated in this study. Emotional abuse resulted in a positive predictor of PCL-R total scores and its Interpersonal-Affective and Lifestyle-Antisocial factors. This suggests that emotional abuse in childhood, in combination with neurobiological and temperamental vulnerabilities, can foster the development of psychopathic traits. PMID:26147519

  12. ATLIS. Early Childhood Development and the Electronic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)

  13. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  14. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  15. Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

  16. Early Childhood Curriculum: Planning, Assessment, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan

    2010-01-01

    "Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…

  17. Introduction: Early Childhood Education and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeland, William M.; Duane, Edward A.

    1980-01-01

    Synthesizes and briefly reviews articles in this issue. Focuses on the "policy arena" (defined as a political culture, a set of interrelated public programs, and a network of political organizations) as it relates to early childhood education and the allocation of resources to children of all ages. (GC)

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  19. Following Watery Relations in Early Childhood Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…

  20. The Early Childhood Generalized Trust Belief Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Trueman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to develop and evaluate the Early Childhood Generalized Trust Belief Scale (ECGTBS) as a method of assessing 5-8-year-olds' generalized trust. Two hundred and eleven (103 male and 108 female) children (mean age 6 years and 2 months at Time 1) completed the ECGTBS twice over a year. A subsample of participants completed the…

  1. Creativity in Music and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)

  2. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  3. Fostering Social Expertise in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…

  4. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia O'Campo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.

  5. Linking childhood and adult criminality: using a life course framework to examine childhood abuse and neglect, substance use and adult partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children's life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410

  6. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Mason

    Full Text Available Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length among 1,135 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII.The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes collected between 1996 and 1999. The ratio of telomere repeat copy number to a single gene copy number (T/S was determined by a modified version of the quantitative real-time PCR telomere assay. Telomere length was log-transformed and corrected for assay variation across batch. We regressed telomere length on childhood abuse exposure variables and covariates using linear regression.We observed a reduction in telomere length associated with moderate physical abuse versus no physical abuse, but there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship for increased severity of physical abuse. No associations were noted for sexual abuse.We found no evidence of an association between severity of childhood physical or sexual abuse and leukocyte telomere length in the NHSII.

  7. Early Childhood Teachers' Behavior Intention to Apply Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chuen-Tzay

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the behavior intention of early childhood teachers to apply teaching aids. The survey method was used to collect data from 281 early childhood teachers currently working at early childhood education institutes. The data was analyzed by t-test, Chi-square analysis, and Pearson coefficient to examine the…

  8. "Doing" Social Justice in Early Childhood: The Potential of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Louise; Press, Frances; Gibson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood education has long been connected with objectives related to social justice. Australian early childhood education and care (ECEC) has its roots in philanthropic and educational reform movements prevalent at the turn of the twentieth century. More recently, with the introduction of the National Early Childhood Reform Agenda, early…

  9. Early Childhood Data Systems: Putting Data to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, Philip; Fink, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Faced with rising demand for information about early childhood programs, states need to find tools and strategies to monitor the progress of and to identify high-quality early childhood programs. In response, REL Mid-Atlantic convened a regional workgroup for state personnel who work with the systems containing early childhood data. The workgroup…

  10. Reasons for the reluctance to disclose sexual abuse by middle childhood children / Sphokazi Gogela

    OpenAIRE

    Gogela, Sphokazi

    2013-01-01

    Fighting sexual violence against women and children in South Africa is regarded as a priority. The aim of this study is to explore the reasons for the reluctance to disclose sexual abuse by middle childhood children. Some of the factors that were highlighted that cause the reluctance to disclose sexual abuse by middle childhood children were: threats made by the perpetrator, the relationship with the perpetrator, stigmatization and talking about sexual related matters were seen as a taboo. ...

  11. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Susan M.; Jennifer Prescott; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Immaculata DeVivo; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte tel...

  12. Childhood abuse is related to working memory impairment for positive emotion in female university students

    OpenAIRE

    Cromheeke, Sofie; Herpoel, Laure-Anne; Mueller, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Childhood abuse is an important risk factor for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use later in life. One possible mechanism underlying this association could be deficits in cognitive processing of emotional information. This study tested the impact of distracting emotional information on working memory performance in 21 young women with a history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood/adolescence (mean age = 20.0), and compared their performance to 17 individuals reporting n...

  13. Childhood Abuse and Delinquency: A Descriptive Study of Institutionalized Female Youth in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ng, Vivienne P. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood abuse experiences appear prevalent in institutionalized children and youth, but research to date has been limited. Moreover, there is no published study that has examined the issue of childhood abuse and delinquency within institutionalized children and youth in Singapore. This study was cross-sectional in design with follow-up criminal record checks. Data were collected from multiple data sources including official records, structured clinical interviews, and self-report questionna...

  14. Cultural Sensitivity in Screening Adults for a History of Childhood Abuse: Evidence from a Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bennett, Wendy; Roy C Ziegelstein; Bernstein, David P; Scher, Christine D.; Forde, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background A number of practice guidelines and recommendations call for the assessment of childhood abuse history among adult medical patients. The cultural sensitivity of screening questions, however, has not been examined. Objective To assess whether questions that inquire about childhood abuse history function differently for black and white patients. Design Cross-sectional telephone surveys in 1997 and 2003. Subjects Randomly sampled adults from Memphis, Tenn (1997, N = 832; 2003, N = 967...

  15. Homeless Youths' Caretakers: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse on Street Victimization and Housing Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2016-04-01

    Homeless youths who live on the streets are particularly vulnerable to victimization and continued homelessness. Identifying factors associated with housing stability and victimization while homeless can offer useful guidance for those who serve these youths. The current study examined the relationship between multiple caretakers and the unique effect of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) on past-year housing and victimization experiences. Seventy-nine substance-using, street-living youths ages 14 to 24 years completed the survey. Findings confirmed a relationship between multiple caretaker transitions and childhood sexual abuse and neglect, but not physical abuse. Sexual abuse was further associated with higher street victimization and reduced housing stability. In addition, sexual abuse mediated the relationship between multiple caretakers and past-year victimization and housing instability. These findings suggest that sexually abused homeless youths are at particular risk for future victimization and housing instability compared with other youths, and specialized intervention for these youths is indicated. PMID:27180525

  16. Resistance, Reproduction, Both, or Neither: Exploring the Influence of Early Childhood Professional Development Specialists on the Field of Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This article details the findings from a qualitative study that explored the ways individuals who work with early childhood education (ECE) practitioners in professional development settings influenced those practitioners' understandings of early childhood policy and early childhood systems. Defined as individuals who work in the professional…

  17. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  18. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

  19. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  20. Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…

  1. The Relationship between Seclusion and Restraint Use and Childhood Abuse among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James

    2011-01-01

    Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…

  2. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  3. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  4. Childhood Psychological Abuse and Adult Aggression: The Mediating Role of Self-Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the utility of self-trauma theory for explaining the long-term impact of childhood psychological abuse on aggression. Specifically, the self-capacities of interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation are tested as mediators of the impact of psychological abuse on various types of aggression in adulthood.…

  5. Childhood abuse and negative automatic self-associations : The cognitive scars of emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; de Jong, Peter J.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals reporting Childhood Abuse (CA) (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional-, physical- and sexual-abuse) are marked by increased explicit (i.e. self-reported) negative self-associations, and an increased risk to develop depression or anxiety disorders. Automatic self-associations might play an i

  6. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  7. Early onset (childhood) monogenic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) with onset in childhood are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission and, in selected cases, pathological findings. Especially relevant to pediatrics are the items "secondary" versus "primary" neuropathy, "syndromic versus nonsyndromic," and "period of life." Different combinations of these parameters frequently point toward specific monogenic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first concern in pediatrics. As a rule, metabolic diseases include additional, orienting symptoms or signs, and their biochemical diagnosis is based on logical algorithms. Primary, motor sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating autosomal dominant (AD) forms (CMT1). Other forms include demyelinating autosomal recessive (AR) forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Peripheral motor neuron disorders are dominated by AR SMN-linked spinal muscular atrophies. (Distal) hereditary motor neuropathies represent 40 genes with various biological functions have been found to be responsible for primary HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait, and some for various types of transmission.

  8. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  9. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  10. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  11. Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

  12. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  14. Self-Reported Childhood Physical Abuse and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; CAINE, ERIC D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with...

  15. Childhood abuse or neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting among midlife women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Goldbacher, Edie; Brown, Charlotte; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that women exposed to childhood abuse or neglect would have an increased likelihood of reporting hot flashes and night sweats during the menopausal transition. Design This hypothesis was evaluated in 332 white and African American women participating in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study, a prospective investigation of women transitioning through menopause. Childhood abuse and neglect were measured once with the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Vasomotor symptoms (any/none hot flashes, night sweats) were reported annually over 8 years. Associations between maltreatment and vasomotor symptoms were estimated with generalized estimating equations. Results Childhood abuse or neglect was associated with increased reporting of hot flashes (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23–2.43) and night sweats (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.43) in age-adjusted models. Results persisted in multivariable models and across several types of abuse and neglect. Conclusions The experience of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting in adulthood. The sequelae of childhood abuse and neglect may persist well into adulthood to influence the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms at midlife. PMID:18257140

  16. THE EARLY CHILDHOOD DETERMINANTS OF TIME PREFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla

    2008-01-01

    Research on time preference formation and socioeconomic differences in discounting has received little attention to date. This article examines the extent to which early childhood differences emerge in measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and persistence, all of which are good psychometric analogues to how economists conceptualise discounting. We examine the distribution of these traits measured at age three across parental social class and analyse the extent to which different mechanism pl...

  17. An examination of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality disorder features: the role of difficulties with emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies.

  18. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  19. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Sevent...

  20. Does childhood sexual abuse victimization translate into juvenile sexual offending? New evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matthew; Kosloski, Anna E; Vaughn, Michael G; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R

    2014-01-01

    The cycle of violence thesis posits that early exposure to maltreatment increases the likelihood of later maladaptive and antisocial behaviors. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) specifically has been shown to increase the likelihood of sexual offending, although less is known about its linkages to other forms of crime. Based on data from 2,520 incarcerated male juvenile offenders from a large southern state, hierarchical logistic regression models suggested that CSA increased the likelihood of later sexual offending nearly sixfold (467% increase). However, CSA was associated with an 83% reduced likelihood of homicide offending and 68% reduced likelihood of serious person/property offending. These findings suggest further support for the cycle of violence where CSA promotes sexual offending but novel findings regarding the linkages between CSA and other forms of crime. PMID:25199390

  1. Patterns of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in a Representative German Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schilling

    Full Text Available Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set.In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2. Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment.Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2 and anxiety (GAD-2. Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress.The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in adulthood. The results

  2. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  3. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. PMID:25957197

  4. Stories and narratives in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

  5. Psychological Pathways from Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse to HIV/STI Outcomes among Homeless Women: The Role of PTSD and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Eric; SANDFORT, THEO G. M.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Caton, Carol L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/STI outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/STI diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of PTSD and BPD symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abus...

  6. The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…

  7. The Relationship among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Alcoholism, Family Environment and Suicidal Behavior in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yama, Mark F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among childhood sexual abuse and parental alcoholism, retrospective reports of family functioning, and having had a history of either suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Subjects (n=420) were drawn from a sample of undergraduate college women. Results indicate the experiences of childhood sexual abuse and parental…

  8. Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Experience between Adult Hispanic and Anglo Women in a Primary Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David A.; Burge, Sandra K.; Kellogg, Nancy; Parra, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    The literature on racial and ethnic factors in childhood sexual abuse is limited. The purpose of this exploratory study was to document Hispanic-Anglo differences in childhood sexual abuse experiences and assess whether these differences may be explained by socio-demographic and family environmental differences. Adult Hispanic (n = 69) and Anglo…

  9. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  10. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18-25 (N=268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood.

  11. The Long-term Health Outcomes of Childhood Abuse: An Overview and a Call to Action

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2003-01-01

    While the association between abuse in childhood and adverse adult health outcomes is well established, this link is infrequently acknowledged in the general medical literature. This paper has 2 purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of child abuse on mental and physical health including some of the potential pathways, and (2) to call for collaborative action among clinicians, psychosocial and biomedical researchers, social service agencies, crimina...

  12. Rural–Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population

    OpenAIRE

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural–urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in...

  13. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise; Marc G Weisskopf

    2015-01-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PT...

  14. People Believe it is Plausible to have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood of imagination inducing false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general population how plausible it would be for a person with longstanding emotional problems and a need for psychotherapy to be a victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though the person could not remember the abuse. Only 18% indicated that it was impla...

  15. Childhood sexual abuse and abnormal personality:A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, P.; Coffey, C.; Chanen, A.; Mann, A.; Carlin, J B; Patton, G C

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to be a risk factor for personality disorder (PD). However, no previous studies have examined whether associations exist between sexual abuse and abnormal personality as measured both categorically and dimensionally. Such enquiry would more fully illuminate the impact of CSA on adult personality.Method Using a large nationally representative sample, we set out to examine associations between CSA and categorically defined PD. We also exami...

  16. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  17. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Zahiredin; A. Kiany

    2004-01-01

    Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0). Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0)that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who...

  18. Impact of Childhood Abuse on the Risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Mainland Chinese Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    Full Text Available Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents.A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI.Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9% reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender.These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse.

  19. Associations between Childhood Abuse and Interpersonal Aggression and Suicide Attempt among U.S. Adults in a National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n = 34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM...

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Homosexual Men: Prevalence and Association with Unsafe Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Lenderking, William R; Wold, Cheryl; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Goldstein, Robert; Losina, Elena; Seage, George R.

    1997-01-01

    Of 327 homosexual and bisexual men participating in an ongoing cohort study pertaining to risk factors for HIV infection who completed a survey regarding history of sexual abuse, 116 (35.5%) reported being sexually abused as children. Those abused were more likely to have more lifetime male partners, to report more childhood stress, to have lied in the past in order to have sex, and to have had unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 6 months (odds ratio 2.13; 95% confidence interv...

  1. Voices of healing and recovery from childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Brittany J; Johnson, Chad V

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse continues to occur for a significant number of children, often having deleterious consequences for survivors' physical and mental health. Research has thoroughly explored various consequences as a result of child sexual abuse, but scholars and practitioners know less about the healing processes from survivors' viewpoints. Using a constructivist grounded theory design, this study examined perceptions of healing in 10 female survivors of child sexual abuse. Results conclude with a theoretical model of healing, capturing the significance of supportive relationships, internal characteristics, turning points, and sources of active healing. Important sources of active healing include therapy, informal and formal education, compassion and empathy, blame attribution to abusers, and confronting abusers. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24125084

  2. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina;

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  3. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  4. How ineffective family environments can compound maldevelopment of critical thinking skills in childhood abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostolitz, Alessandra C; Hyman, Scott M; Gold, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The high stress of childhood abuse is associated with neurobiological detriments to executive function. Child abuse survivors may also be cognitively and relationally disadvantaged as a result of being raised in emotionally impoverished families that lack cohesion, organization, flexibility, self-expression, and moral and ethical values and fail to provide opportunities for effective learning. A review of literature demonstrates how dysfunctional family of origin environments common to child abuse survivors, concomitant with the extreme stress of overt acts of abuse, can act as a barrier to the development of higher-order critical thinking skills. The article concludes by discussing ramifications of critical thinking skill deficits in child abuse survivors and highlights the importance of integrating and prioritizing critical thinking skills training in treatment.

  5. Measuring in support of early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Clyde; Clinton, Jean; Lynk, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    A child's early experiences and environments have a significant, measurable effect on later life trajectories of health and well-being. Each child's own world, especially parents and other caregivers, literally sculpts the brain and impacts stress pathways. Effective early childhood interventions exist that can improve adult and societal outcomes. In this statement, the Canadian Paediatric Society calls on federal and provincial/territorial governments to measure and monitor the developmental progress of children in Canada, which can vary widely among communities and demographic groups. The statement explores the objectives for collecting quality information about early child development, its determinants and long-term outcomes. It also examines four approaches to collecting population-based, person-specific and longitudinal data, both in young children and later in life. A key outcome of monitoring development is timely intervention. Linking individual data to the home and community levels is a critical step, so that communities and governments can monitor and take actions that support early child development. PMID:23204908

  6. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  7. Teacher Training for Early Childhood Development and Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Tata

    2009-01-01

    The training of early childhood development and education (ECDE) teachers in Kenya remains a priority in recognition of the vital role well-trained professionals play in the quality of early childhood experiences for children ages 0+ to 5+. This article provides a detailed overview of the current structure and training of ECDE professionals,…

  8. When Fewer Is More: Small Groups in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Small group instruction is important yet it is one of the most underused strategies in early childhood classrooms. This paper presents guidelines based on research-based best practices for using small groups in early childhood. In addition, the benefits of small group instruction for both children and teachers are described. Specific suggestions…

  9. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  10. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  11. Preparing Teachers for Inclusion: Jordanian Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Merfat; Dababneh, Kholoud; Jumiaan, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted during a period of national educational reforms in Jordan to investigate Jordanian preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and the adequacy of their current preparation for implementing inclusion. The study also sought to identify the perceived concerns of preservice early childhood teachers about…

  12. Literature Sources in Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Ruta Bulderis

    This bibliometric study assesses literature sources of elementary and early childhood education documents by examining, over a 30-month period, documents entered into the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data base by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. The document collection is sorted into three…

  13. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  14. Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education: Issues, Challenges, Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…

  15. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  16. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  17. Retention of Staff in the Early Childhood Education Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holochwost, Steven J.; DeMott, Kerri; Buell, Martha; Yannetta, Kelly; Amsden, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    What incentives can the administrators of early childhood education facilities offer their staff in order to retain them? In light of research identifying low staff turnover as a key component of high quality early childhood education, the answer to this question has ramifications beyond human-resources management. This paper presents the results…

  18. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2013-01-01

    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

  19. Parallel Goals of the Early Childhood Music Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Veronica Wolf

    Early childhood music programs should be based on two interacting goals: (1) to teach those skills most appropriate to a particular level and (2) to nurture musical creativity and self-expression. Early childhood is seen as the optimum time for acquiring certain musical skills, of which the ability to sing in tune is considered primary. The vocal…

  20. Stress in Early Childhood: Helping Children and Their Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…

  1. Education for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Suomela, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    In the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) curriculum, there is no specific content for education for sustainable development (ESD). Thus, it is not possible to get direct guidelines on how to conduct ESD in ECEC from the curriculum. We seek to look at the preferences of Finnish early childhood educators through the model of extended…

  2. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  3. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  4. Economic deprivation and early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K

    1994-04-01

    We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849

  5. A Clinician's Guide to STAIR/MPE: Treatment for PTSD Related to Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jill T.; Cloitre, Marylene

    2005-01-01

    Women who have PTSD related to childhood abuse have significant deficits in the areas of emotion regulation and interpersonal skills. These problems are associated with impaired functioning in social, work, and home life. In addition, there is substantial clinical concern that limited emotion-regulation skills puts this population at risk for…

  6. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  7. Posttraumatic Growth among Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Relation to the Perpetrator Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne; Besser, Avi

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and posttraumatic growth in young adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in relation to the identity of the perpetrator. Two hundred and forty-six non-clinical female university students were administered self-report…

  8. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on College Student Development: A Seven-Vectors Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of theory in this article expanded on Chickering and Reisser's ([Chickering, A. W., 1993]) 7-vectors framework by considering the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the normal experience of student development in higher education. The article includes an overview of the prevalence and effects of CSA and a case study of a…

  9. The Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behaviors in Adult Participants: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Childhood abuse was investigated as a potential mediator of the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behaviors (EXT) in adulthood among a large general population sample drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey. Community participants (N = 5,424) underwent diagnostic and psychosocial interviews and reported on their own adult symptoms…

  10. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  11. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  12. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  13. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  14. Verbal Abuse by the Teacher during Childhood and Academic, Behavioral, and Emotional Adjustment in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Using a prospective design spanning 17 years, the authors studied in a sample of 231 boys and girls the predictive links of verbal abuse by the teacher during childhood to high-school graduation and behavioral and emotional problems in young adulthood, as well as the putative mediating role of individuals' generalized and domain-specific…

  15. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse during Childhood and Parenting Outcomes: Modeling Direct and Indirect Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, P.; Eiden, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study examined the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and parenting outcomes including parenting stress, feelings of competence and discipline strategies. Maternal depression and current partner violence were hypothesized to be mediators of the association between CSA and parenting. Method:: This study is based on…

  16. Imagery rescripting as a stand-alone treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Raabe; T. Ehring; L. Marquenie; M. Olff; M. Kindt

    2015-01-01

    Objective This case series tested the feasibility and explored the efficacy of Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) as a stand-alone treatment for PTSD related to childhood physical and/or sexual abuse (CA). Method Participants (6 women and 2 men) were patients with PTSD related to CA who entered an 8 week tr

  17. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Incarcerated Males in County Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Regina J.; Ross, Michael W.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Williams, Mark L.; Carvajal, Raul I.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a jailed-based population. Methodology: A retrospective, self-reported survey was administered over an 8-week period to a random sample of 100 men who were incarcerated in a county jail in Southeastern Texas. The survey included questions about…

  18. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Ehring; R Welboren; N. Morina; J.M. Wicherts; J. Freitag; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusiv

  19. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  20. Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Eating-Disordered Cognitions and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…

  1. Disordered Eating in College Students: Links with Childhood Abuse and Maternal Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilke, Kim; Chambliss, Catherine

    The prevalence of sexual conflicts in many patients with eating disorders has been well documented. A parallel has been found between psychological problems experienced by victims of childhood sexual abuse and patients with anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia. Past studies have used inpatient clinical samples; however, this study extended this area of…

  2. Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

  3. The Effects of Childhood Abuse on Relationship Quality: Gender Differences and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Carly D.; Sandberg, Jonathan G.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse, romantic relationship quality, possible gender differences, and clinical implications. Three hundred thirty-eight women and 296 men who sought services at a university mental health clinic in the northeast region of the United States completed a…

  4. Coping Strategies Used by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Journey to Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies…

  5. Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

  6. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  7. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  8. Generating Visionary Policy for Early Childhood Education and Care: Politicians' and Early Childhood Sector Advocate/Activists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…

  9. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...

  10. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  11. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kakavand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form; and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion:  The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

  12. Childhood Maltreatment, Childhood Social Support, and Child Abuse Potential in a Basque Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paul, Joaquin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of a Basque (Spain) sample with a similar U.S. sample found similar overall rates of physical child abuse, though rates of physical abuse sequelae were lower in the Basque sample and sexual abuse of Basque males was twice that reported for U.S. males. Level of father support was important in both groups. (Author/DB)

  13. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  14. Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 ± 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females, whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females. The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR, Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS, and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI. Results. Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/ Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. Conclusions. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

  15. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV. PMID:26271817

  16. Particulate matter and early childhood body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Park, Eun Ae; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age. Exposure to PM10 during pregnancy lowered children's weight at 12months. PM10 exposure from seven to 12months negatively affected weight at 12, 36, and 60months. Repeated measures of PM10 and weight from 12 to 60months revealed a negative association between postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight. Children continuously exposed to a high level of PM10 (>50μg/m(3)) from pregnancy to 24months of age had weight z-scores of 60 that were 0.44 times lower than in children constantly exposed to a lower level of PM10 (≤50μg/m(3)) for the same period. Furthermore, growth was more vulnerable to PM10 exposure in children with birth weight 3.3kg. Air pollution may delay growth in early childhood and exposure to air pollution may be more harmful to children when their birth weight is low. PMID:27344372

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and neuropsychological performance in Latina victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vélez, Giselle M; González-Viruet, Maribella; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Pérez-Mojica, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning of 12 women with histories of child sexual abuse with a control group of 12 women without childhood abuse. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and various instruments assessing post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation. The child sexual abuse group had lower performance than the control group on long- and short-term visual and verbal memory and presented more limited performance on executive functioning tasks. Functioning in these areas showed a negative correlation with post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms. These findings suggest that child sexual abuse is associated with memory and executive functioning deficits and supports the idea that people with trauma histories and increased post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation symptoms may have alterations in neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24393090

  18. Prevalence and Overlap of Childhood and Adult Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse: A Descriptive Analysis of Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; McKinlay, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevale...

  19. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain;

    Background: Evidence suggests that early life infections, presence of older siblings and furred pets in the household affect the risk of developing allergic diseases through altered microbial exposure. Recently, low gut microbial diversity during infancy has also been linked with later developmen......-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later in childhood.   The work has recently (July 2015) been accepted for publication in BMC Microbiology...... early childhood, which could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling...

  20. Childhood Trajectories of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Oppositional Behaviors and Prediction of Substance Abuse/Dependence: A 15-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Galéra, Cédric; Genolini, Christophe; Falissard, Bruno; Vitaro, Frank; Richard E Tremblay

    2012-01-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with ADHD are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are two important limits to these studies: a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood sub...

  1. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Multiple Dimensions of Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Meera; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Elliott, Ann N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and self-concept in a nonclinical sample of female college students. Participants with a history of CSA had lower scores than participants without a history of CSA on four domains of self-concept: familial, affect, competence, and physical. History…

  3. Deficits in emotion regulation mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and later eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L; Harding, Hilary G

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual and physical abuse. Structural equation modeling was utilized to simultaneously examine the effects of all three abuse types on multiple dependent variables as well as examine whether deficits in emotion regulation mediated the relationship between abuse and eating pathology. Results from a survey of 1,254 female college students revealed significant paths from abuse subtypes to specific eating disorder symptoms, with CEA evidencing the strongest association with ED symptoms. Additionally, emotion dysregulation was positively associated with ED symptoms, and mediated the effects of emotional abuse on symptoms. Findings support previous research on the enduring effects of emotional abuse as well as highlight the importance of the assessment of CEA in the treatment of ED symptoms.

  4. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: Descriptive Cross sectional study . STUDY SETTING: Junior college of Rural Malkapur Maharashtra . STUDY SUBJECTS: Male students enrolled in Junior college during year 2012 to 2013 . RESULTS: It was found that more than half of male junior college students were the victims of verbal sexual assault. Threatening by the abuser and fe ar and poor knowledge associated with the assault leads to poor disclosure and poor identification of victims and perpetrators. CONCLUSION: Awareness program on child sexual abuse for students, teachers and parents must be adopted to prevent assault and to identify victims of child sexual abuse

  5. Positive and Negative Posttraumatic Change Following Childhood Sexual Abuse Are Associated With Youths' Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice

    2015-11-01

    Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440

  6. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  7. Descriptive Links between Childhood Sexual Abuse during the First Five Eriksonian Stages and the Development of the Last Four Stages: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendt, Elizabeth Ann

    The empirical literature regarding the descriptive links between childhood sexual abuse and adult development is reviewed from an Eriksonian perspective. The problems with studying the developmental effects of childhood sexual abuse are discussed. These include the following problems: the lack of differentiation between sexual abuse cases,…

  8. Scaffolding conceptual change in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.

  9. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  10. Automatic prejudice in childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as prejudice-related prime stimuli. In all 4 studies, a pattern occurred that suggests a linear developmental increase of automatic prejudice with significant effects of outgroup negativity appearing only around the ages of 12 to 13 years. Results of younger children, on the contrary, did not indicate any effect of automatic prejudice activation. In contrast, prejudice effects in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) showed high levels of prejudice independent of age (Study 3). Results of Study 4 suggest that these age differences are due to age-related differences in spontaneous categorization processes. Introducing a forced-categorization into the affective priming procedure produced a pattern of results equivalent to that obtained with the IAT. These results suggest that although children are assumed to acquire prejudice at much younger ages, automatization of such attitudes might be related to developmental processes in early adolescence. We discuss possible theoretical implications of these results for a developmental theory of prejudice representation and automatization during childhood and adolescence. PMID:20175618

  11. Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

    2005-10-01

    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

  12. People who Expect to Enter Psychotherapy are Prone to Believing that They Have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Trauma and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel

    2010-01-01

    We asked 1004 undergraduates to estimate both the probability that they would enter therapy and the probability that they experienced but could not remember incidents of potentially life threatening childhood traumas or physical and sexual abuse. We found a linear relation between the expectation of entering therapy and the belief that one had, but cannot now remember, childhood trauma and abuse. Thus, individuals who are prone to seek psychotherapy are also prone to accept a suggested memory...

  13. Providing Foundations for Social Studies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Alicia L.

    1978-01-01

    Recommends the introduction of social studies/social science content into early childhood and elementary grade curricula. Gives examples of activities based on simple concepts in history, psychology, and geography. (AV)

  14. Childhood Abuse is Associated with Adiposity in Mid-life Women: Possible Pathways through Trait Anger and Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between childhood abuse/neglect and central adiposity and obesity in a sample of 311 women (106 Black, 205 White) from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods SWAN included a baseline measurement of women in midlife (mean age = 45.7) and 8 follow-up visits during which waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire retrospectively assessed emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and emotional and physical neglect in childhood. Results ANCOVA analyses showed that women with a history of any abuse/neglect, and specifically physical and sexual abuse, had significantly higher WC and BMI at baseline than women with no abuse history. A significant interaction between abuse and BMI showed that among women with BMI < 30, any abuse/neglect and certain subtypes of abuse predicted greater increases in WC over time. Additional analyses showed that Trait Anger scores and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) attenuated cross-sectional relationships between abuse/neglect and WC and BMI. Conclusion This study suggests that abused/neglected women appear to have greater anger and lower levels of SHBG, which are associated with adiposity in mid-life. PMID:20064904

  15. Mentoring partnerships in early childhood education :three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Lynn T.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the partnerships of three mentor/protege teacher dyads in early childhood education. Particular attention was paid to the impact of the relationship on the job satisfaction and teaching practices of the participants. Quantitative data were gathered through the Early Childhood Job Satisfaction Survey and through the Teaching Practices Observation Scale. Qualitative data were gathered through the use of in-depth interviews and teacher journals. Findings sup...

  16. Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Romero Díaz; Paco Abril Morales

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, mater...

  17. Content and language integrated learning in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Žniderič, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays teaching and learning foreign languages is rapidly being introduced in early childhood. During this time, intensive cognitive, emotional and social development of the child takes place. Early childhood is therefore a particularly sensitive period with special characteristics and specificities. On one hand this may serve as an advantage in language learning, while on the other it requires their good comprehension and consideration. In the theoretical part of the thesis we therefor...

  18. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina C Kunseler

    Full Text Available This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243 participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25% experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success. Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline, but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood.

  19. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunseler, Florentina C; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verhage, Marije L; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  20. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunseler, Florentina C.; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Verhage, Marije L.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  1. A Qualitative Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Taiwan: Toward a Transactional and Ecological Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of 10 female Taiwanese childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (age range = 20-39 years) to broaden our understanding of the post-abuse coping process in a Chinese sociocultural context. This investigation was grounded on a feminist paradigm, and the consensual qualitative research method (Hill et…

  2. A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  4. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  5. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  6. Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France

    2009-01-01

    International audience The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardis...

  7. Exploration of explicit and implicit emotion in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Eimear; Mckay, Eimear

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise the socioemotional development of the victim resulting in an increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions and one’s sense of self. Emotion is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation will inform current treatment....

  8. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (s...

  9. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  10. A proposed support strategy for sexually abused boys in their middle childhood placed in a clinic school / Helga Steyn

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Boys in their middle childhood placed in clinic schools experience severe emotional and behavioural problems. Most of these boys have been sexually abused. The trauma of this sexual abuse may contribute to their problem behaviour. If the learners can be effectively supported in addressing the trauma of the male child sexual abuse during their time at the clinic school, some of their emotional and behavioural problems may also be addressed. Without these emotional and behavioural problems they...

  11. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  12. Childhood abuse and deprivation are associated with distinct sex-dependent differences in brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; Zwiers, Marcel; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; van Oostrom, Iris; Schene, Aart; Fernández, Guillén; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with long-term structural brain alterations and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Evidence is emerging that subtypes of CA, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation, lead to distinct neural and behavioral outcomes. However, these specific associations have yet to be established without potential confounders such as psychopathology. Moreover, differences in neural development and psychopathology necessitate the exploration of sexual dimorphism. Young healthy adult subjects were selected based on history of CA from a large database to assess gray matter (GM) differences associated with specific subtypes of adversity. We compared voxel-based morphometry data of subjects reporting specific childhood exposure to abuse (n=127) or deprivation (n=126) and a similar sized group of controls (n=129) without reported CA. Subjects were matched on age, gender, and educational level. Differences between CA subtypes were found in the fusiform gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, where subjects with a history of deprivation showed reduced GM compared with subjects with a history of abuse. An interaction between sex and CA subtype was found. Women showed less GM in the visual posterior precuneal region after both subtypes of CA than controls. Men had less GM in the postcentral gyrus after childhood deprivation compared with abuse. Our results suggest that even in a healthy population, CA subtypes are related to specific alterations in brain structure, which are modulated by sex. These findings may help understand neurodevelopmental consequences related to CA. PMID:26576924

  13. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zahiredin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

  14. The Origins of Early Childhood Anthropometric Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel L. Millimet; Tchernis, Rusty

    2013-01-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Non-causal evidence suggests that childhood obesity is highly persistent over the life cycle. However little in known about the origins of this persistence. In this paper we attempt to answer three questions. First, how do anthropometric measures evolve from birth through primary school? Second, what is the causal effect of past anthropometric outcomes on future anthropometric outcomes? In other words, how importa...

  15. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

  16. The PCDH1 gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon;

    2014-01-01

    for other symptom patterns or bronchial responsiveness. Significant association was observed for atopic dermatitis and rs11167761-A (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, p=0.0026). Common variations in PCDH1 increase the risk of developing both transient early asthma and atopic dermatitis in early childhood....... with longitudinally assessed asthma phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. We analysed eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed...... prospectively to the age of 7 years and asthma was categorised by temporal pattern: transient early respiratory symptoms, persistent symptoms and late-onset symptoms. Bronchial responsiveness was measured at age 6 years. We used additive genetic models. Kaplan-Meier plots revealed early onset in hetero...

  17. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Reza Kakavand; Mojgan Salavati; Mohammad Zargar; Mohammad Reza Jalali

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MA...

  18. Early Childhood Educator and Administrator Surveys on the Use of Assessments and Standards in Early Childhood Settings. REL 2014-019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo

    2014-01-01

    The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…

  19. Evaluating the association between childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide across the lifespan: Findings from a nationwide study of women in jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; DeHart, Dana D; Belknap, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have found childhood sexual abuse to predict suicidal behavior in adulthood. Women in jail suffer disproportionately high rates of childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide relative to women in the general population. Thus, better understanding the association between childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide among women in jail may inform prevention, assessment, and treatment initiatives for this at-risk population. This study examined the association between childhood sexual abuse and the onset of attempted suicide across the life span in a nationwide sample of women in jail. Participants included a randomly selected subsample of women (N = 115), drawn from a larger probability sample (N = 491), who completed Life History Calendars, which were coded for the presence/absence of attempted suicide and childhood sexual abuse across life history stages. Survival analysis and Cox regression indicated that women with histories of childhood sexual abuse perpetrated by an adult or a peer were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide across the life span, including increased risk for the onset of attempted suicide in adulthood. This study demonstrates the salience of childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of suicidal behavior among women in jail, and extends previous research by demonstrating the temporal sequence of childhood sexual abuse relative to attempted suicide across the life span. Given these findings, researchers, clinicians, and policymakers should consider further the influence of childhood sexual abuse with regard to the high rates of attempted and completed suicide among women in jail. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322516

  20. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses on the challenges of…

  1. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from…

  2. Inpatient Treatment of Early Sexually Abused Adults: Dissociation and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted within a naturalistic setting at the Department for Trauma Treatment at Modum Bad Psychiatric Center, Norway. Several follow-up studies have shown that adults with polysymptomatology related to child sexual abuse (CSA) may develop chronic symptoms and disorders that seriously impair their daily life. There are few studies on the course of illness in early traumatized adults following residential (first phase) trauma treatment. The present work provides knowledge of th...

  3. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  4. Development of Entrepreneurship Learning Model for Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Christianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an early pace in the research development of entrepreneurship learning model for early childhood. This study aims to explore how learning entrepreneurship that has been done in the early childhood; to know whether parents, teachers, and principals support the entrepreneurship learning; and what kind of values of entrepreneurship can be developed for early childhood. The results of this research are useful to create early childhood entrepreneurial learning design. The research conducts in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The result shows that the school which has been developing entrepreneurship has no clear guidance of learning to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship; all teachers and principals in the research agree that entrepreneurship learning developed from an early age. However, there are 90.79% of parents agreed that from an early age has begun to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship and 9.21% said they did not agree; and the values of entrepreneurship that are able to be developed since they are in early age are self-confidence, honesty, independence, responsibility, creative, never give up/hard work, caring for the environment, teamwork, discipline, and respect.

  5. Investing in Better Outcomes: The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel-McCormick, Michael; Amsden, Deborah

    This report details the outcomes for children enrolled in two types of early intervention programs in Delaware: those serving young children with disabilities and those serving young children living in poverty. The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was designed as a retrospective, two-group, posttest-only design. Participating in the…

  6. Mauritius Early Childhood Development : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in Mauritius. It is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and child protection policies and interventi...

  7. Handwriting in Early Childhood Education: Current Research and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.

    2015-01-01

    Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…

  8. Digital, Hybrid, and Multilingual Literacies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah

    2010-01-01

    This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…

  9. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  10. Continuing Evolution: The Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horm, Diane M.; O'Keefe, Beverly; Diffendale, Charlotte; Cohen, Amy; Schennum, Ruth; Pucciarelli, Larry; Collins, Cheryl; Merrifield, Margaret; Nardone, Virginia; Martin, Marilyn; Bryan, Linda; DeRobbio, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This narrative chronicles the continued evolution and development of the Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute, an intensive 5-day inservice professional development program designed for educational leaders from various sectors of the early care and education field. The goal is to review the continued use of successful practices…

  11. Sexual abuse and corporal punishment during childhood: a pilot retrospective survey of university students in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, S; Mata, L; Krugman, R

    1992-07-01

    A sample of 497 students at the University of Costa Rica completed a survey on perceptions and experiences with various forms of punishment and experiences with sexual abuse during childhood. Spanking was shown to be the most widely accepted and most common form of discipline. The majority of the students considered most types of punishment forms of abuse. This study lacks a comparison group and cannot be generalized to the entire Costa Rican population. The section on sexual abuse demonstrated that 32% of the women and 13% of the men experienced some type of sexual abuse during childhood. The abuse mainly occurred between the ages of 5 and 10, and men were most often perpetrators. PMID:1603642

  12. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.

  13. Early modifiable risk factors for childhood and adolescent mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Cherry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...

  14. Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Guil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

  15. Impact of a maternal history of childhood abuse on the development of mother-infant interaction during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Anna; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a maternal history of abuse on mother-infant interaction (emotional availability; EA) in infancy and early toddlerhood. Over an 18-month period, women giving birth to a child in the local obstetric units were screened using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Women who reported moderate or severe sexual and/or physical abuse were included in the maltreatment group (n=58; MG) and compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n=61; CG). EA was investigated under experimental conditions when the children were 5 and 12 months of age using the Emotional Availability Scales. While mother-child dyads in the MG showed only very discrete interactional alterations at an infant age of 5 months, their EA differed significantly from the CG at 12 months due to the lack of an increase in EA observed in the MG. Exploratory analyses showed an additional effect of emotional abuse on EA at 12 months. These data indicate that the period when child locomotion develops might represent a critical time window for mothers with a history of abuse. Our results constitute an advance in research on child abuse as they identify a possible time window of non-normative alteration in mother-child interaction. This period could be targeted by strategies to prevent intergenerational transmission of abusive experiences. PMID:26140735

  16. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  17. In their own words: the experience of mothering as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Oberle, Katherine

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews past research on the parenting characteristics of childhood sexual abuse survivors and presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the women's perspectives on mothering as a survivor. Grounded theory was used in the collection and analysis of the data. Data sources included the narrative responses of 79 women (mean age = 38.2 years) and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 15 women (mean age = 39 years). They had an average of 2.2 children, ranging in age from 5 months to young adulthood. The theoretical model identified through analysis of data using the constant comparison method was entitled "The Hard Work of Mothering as a Survivor." Processes emerged that described the ways participants managed the work of mothering in light of memories of the abuse and attempts to heal from this earlier trauma. The conditions for committing to the work included becoming aware of and accepting the reality of the abuse and how it affected one's life, and taking on the hard work of developing a mothering self. This included expanding awareness, developing and evaluating a personal model of mothering, navigating typical and abuse salient parenting challenges, mothering through the pain of recovery, and battling for balance. The findings highlighted the dynamic, multifaceted nature of recovery and resilience for these mothers and the need for an increased focus on parenting in counseling with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Provision of anticipatory guidance regarding commonly experienced stressors at varying stages of the child's development and the mother's stage of recovery and methods for coping with these challenges, would benefit these mothers and promote parenting competence. Specific implications for psychotherapy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22559129

  18. Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predi...

  19. COMT but not serotonin-related genes modulates the influence of childhood abuse on anger traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, Nader; Jaussent, Isabelle; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Baud, Patrick; Jollant, Fabrice; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Cathryn,; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience Anger-related traits are regulated by genes as well as early environmental factors. Both childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviors, possibly by affecting the constitution of intermediate phenotypes such as anger traits. The aim of this study was to test the interaction between nine candidate genes and childhood maltreatment in modulating anger-related traits in 875 adult suicide attempters. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventor...

  20. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  1. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    Trauma comes as a result of the subject's exposure to extremely negative and stressful events, such as natural or human-provoked catastrophes, wars, serious injuries, violent deaths, tortures, terrorist attacks, rapes and other sexual crimes. A child's exposure to traumatic circumstances of this level during the crucial period of self-structuring creates rather difficult conditions for its development. Moreover, if the child does not have the opportunity to elaborate and analyze all these stressful conditions and put them into words, serious consequences, both psychological and somatic, may occur in adult life. Specific factors and child characteristics, namely, the age, the developmental stage within which the trauma occurs, its type (physical or sexual abuse, neglect or traumatic social events), frequency, duration and intensity, have been proved to seriously affect the trauma's consequences. The immediate emotional impact of trauma may include isolation, fear, feeling of weakness or loss of the sense of confidence. Moreover, mood disorders such as depression and withdrawal, negative effects on cognitive ability, language development and academic performance, difficulties in creating a secure link and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also observed. The long-term consequences for the individual's mental health can be expressed through the following: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) combined or not with depression and anxiety disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, poor control of impulsions, dissociation disorder, psychotic disorder. Finally, apart from the dramatic impact of trauma on the person itself, there is also a high social cost to be paid as a result of the individual's poor adjustment and dysfunction in the community. Early support and intervention in the child's environment may significantly minimize the negative effects of trauma. Beyond the expression of genes, good maternal care as well as psychological support, lead to normal

  2. Linking childhood abuse and hypertension: sleep disturbance and inflammation as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E; Davis, Mary C; Belyea, Michael J; Zautra, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    The indirect association of childhood abuse with prevalent hypertension in adulthood through sleep disturbance and pro-inflammatory biomarkers was investigated in 589 community-dwelling, middle-aged adults. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and self-reported current sleep disturbance and medical diagnoses including hypertension. Blood pressure was taken and blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen. Hypertension was present in 41.3 % of the sample. In the full multiple mediation model, tested using structural equation modeling, all hypothesized pathways were significant (p's inflammation, which was subsequently associated with hypertension status. The model demonstrated good fit [χ(2) (122) = 352.0, p mediators was significant (indirect effect: 0.02, 95 % CI 0.005-0.03, p = 0.001). Sleep disturbance, body mass, and inflammation may be independent, intermediate steps between childhood abuse and subsequent hypertension that may be amenable to biobehavioral interventions. PMID:27098168

  3. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using str...

  4. [Neurobiological inscriptions of psychological trauma during early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, I

    2012-06-01

    Neurodevelopment is a highly complex process, influenced by a wide range of interacting genetic and environmental factors. Recent developments in fetal, neonatal and infant behavioural genetics and brain imaging methods have allowed for more detailed investigation of the effects of early adverse environment on the developing brain. This review aims to provide background for neurobiological understanding of how the prolonged exposure to stress or trauma during early childhood affects subsequent cognitive, emotional and social development. Initially, a brief overview of brain development is provided - focusing, in particular, on the limbic system structures, which are closely linked to emotional experiences and reactions, learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on the concept of neural plasticity, which is the biological base of memory and learning - the two most important mechanisms through which the environment affects the behavior. Moreover, the concept of sensitive periods, that is to say periods of "vulnerability" or "opportunity" during which particular experiences affect brain growth, functional organization and maturation, is discussed. Brief overview of the neuroendocrine stress response system and the long-term effects of prolonged exposure to stress hormones on early brain development clarify further why children are more vulnerable than adults to the effects of stress. The section dealing with the memory, which is closely linked to the limbic system, attempts to discuss how early exposure to chronic stress or psychological trauma, through neurobiological effects and the process of learning, can lead to dysfunctional behaviors, which in its extreme form can be mental disorders. The two types of memory are discussed: (a) the implicit (nondeclarative), which develops during the prelingual stage of child's development and refers to unconscious memories of previous experiences, and (b) the explicit (declarative) memory, which is closely linked to language

  5. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

  6. Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Romero Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

  7. The relationship between parents with a history of childhood problems and incidence of consequent child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroko; Tani, Hiroe; Ninomiya, Tsuneo; Mori, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related to the need for cooperation with child guidance centers with a focus on the presence or absence of a history of childhood problems in at-risk parents receiving support from their municipality. Among the 1890 parents who received child care support from public health nurses in the municipalities, 164 parents (8.7%) had a history of childhood problems. Among these, 50 parents (30.5%) received support from child guidance centers. The parents with a history of childhood problems had a higher incidence rate for receiving support from child guidance centers than other parents. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that "marital strife or domestic violence", and "financial problems" were associated with consultations with child guidance centers among parents with a history of childhood problems. The results showed that family situations of parents who had a history of childhood problems may, in time, become more severe, even if they have received support from public health nurses in the municipalities. Therefore, parents with a history of childhood problems need support as early as possible. In addition, those parents with "marital strife or domestic violence" and "financial problems" also need guidance and early nursing care interventions. J. Med. Invest. 63: 209-215, August, 2016. PMID:27644560

  8. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) symptoms following prostitution and childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunjung; Klein, Carolin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Hoon-Jin

    2009-08-01

    With the participation of 46 prostituted women in Korea, this study investigates the relationship between prostitution experiences, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS). Prostituted women showed higher levels of PTSD and DESNOS symptoms compared to a control group. Women who had experienced both CSA by a significant other and prostitution showed the highest levels of traumatic stress. However, posttraumatic reexperiencing and avoidance and identity, relational, and affect regulation problems were significant for prostitution experiences even when the effects of CSA were controlled.

  10. Does Childhood Sexual Abuse Set in Motion a Cycle of Violence Against Women? What We Know and What We Need to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews evidence for the deleterious effects of childhood sexual abuse on female development in both the acute and long-term phases. Taken in aggregate, there is evidence to suggest a persistent cycle of violence perpetrated against women that begins in childhood in the form of sexual abuse, reemerges later in adolescence and early…

  11. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  12. Delineating Selection and Mediation Effects among Childhood Personality and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmenta...

  13. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. PMID:24210271

  14. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  15. Creating Relational Spaces: Everyday Spirituality in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This research addressed the question of how the spiritual experience of young children might be supported in early childhood educational settings. Qualitative case study research took place in three different contexts: a Montessori casa, a Rudolf Steiner kindergarten and a private preschool. Children aged 2 1/2-6 years, their parents and teachers…

  16. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  17. Out of Place: Economic Imperialisms in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand has received world-wide accolades for its Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum, Te Whariki. This paper explores the tension between economic imperialism, and a curriculum acknowledged as visionary. The foundational ideas of Te Whariki emanate from sociocultural and anti-racist pedagogies. However, its implementation is hampered…

  18. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  19. Compassionate Pedagogy: The Ethics of Care in Early Childhood Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This article builds upon an earlier attempt (Taggart 2011) to articulate a rationale for professional training in early childhood education and care (ECEC) which is "ethical" as opposed to one which is purely instrumental or rooted in a patriarchal notion of women's supposed unique suitability. The argument proposes that a feminist…

  20. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario that might…

  1. Exploring Bullying: An Early Childhood Perspective from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Janet S.; Luo, Nili

    2008-01-01

    This article explores bullying in mainland China. The authors conducted a study to determine the existence of a problem with bullying in younger Chinese children. Samples included 40 randomly selected, early childhood educators serving children ages 2 through 6, located in 10 different urban school settings along the Yangzi River. The authors…

  2. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  3. Children's Rights and Early Childhood Policy: A New Zealand Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    One, Sarah Te

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief historical overview of children's rights in Aotearoa New Zealand and then examines some of the key early childhood education documents since the 1984 Labour Government's reform agenda, the great experiment (Kelsey, 1995), which not only changed the language of education but also revolutionized the sector…

  4. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  5. Pedagogy and Space: Design Inspirations for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The intersection of design and learning is a new and burgeoning area of interest in all levels of education. "Pedagogy and Space" combines architectural design information with early childhood theory to enhance children's learning and educators' experience within the space. Filled with colorful, inspiring photographs of intentionally…

  6. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  7. Associations between Early Childhood Temperament Clusters and Later Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Ann; Letcher, Primrose; Smart, Diana; Prior, Margot; Toumbourou, John W.; Oberklaid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The study adopted a person-centered approach to examine whether clusters of children could be identified on the basis of temperament profiles assessed on four occasions from infancy to early childhood, and if so whether differing temperament clusters were associated with subsequent differences in behavior problems, social skills, and school…

  8. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  9. Ethics and the Early Childhood Educator: Using the NAEYC Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephanie; Freeman, Nancy K.

    Ethics--in the form of knowledge and skill in making responsible professional decisions--is one of the most fundamental qualities of a competent early childhood educator. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) developed its Code of Ethical Conduct to promote the application of core values, ideals, and principles to…

  10. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  11. Asthma Symptoms in Early Childhood: A public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on asthma symptoms in early childhood. From a public health perspective, we aim to improve health and health-related quality of life through the prevention of asthma symptoms and by signaling, counselling or management of children who are at a high r

  12. Research in Early Childhood Music and Movement Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie

    Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…

  13. Writing in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidance for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Bingham, Gary E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing is a critical emergent literacy skill that lays the foundation for children's later literacy skills and reading achievement. Recent work indicates that many early childhood programs offer children materials and tools for engaging in writing activities but teachers rarely are seen modeling writing for children or scaffolding children's…

  14. Listening in Early Childhood: An Interdisciplinary Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2010-01-01

    Three general purposes of research in human development are to explain, predict, and modify behavior. Studies of listening during early childhood (birth through age eight) are of particular significance to the field because they enable researchers to describe listening processes from their very origins (explain), they demonstrate the effects of…

  15. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  16. Beginning Together: Reforming Schools by Investing in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Kaufman, Sherelyn R.; Nelson, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    The most productive way to reform education would be to invest in effective early childhood education programs. Such an investment would produce remarkable educational, social, and economic benefits. It would also transcend the current divisive debates about education reform by uniting advocates with different perspectives on issues of funding,…

  17. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  18. The Use of Email to Coach Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…

  19. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  20. Thinking about Art: Encouraging Art Appreciation in Early Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the place of art appreciation in early childhood education programs. Discusses historical changes in philosophies of art education and young children's capability for appreciating art. Presents suggestions for including art appreciation in the preschool curriculum, and describes ways to tie art activities to children's interests,…

  1. Supporting Early Childhood Practitioners through Relationship-Based, Reflective Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…

  2. The Role of Meaningful Dialogue in Early Childhood Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakins, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…

  3. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  4. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  5. Reconceptualising the "Child": Power and Resistance within Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This article reconceptualises the postmodern "Child" through the lens of Havel's work on ideology, power and subject formations. Set in an any ideologically charged early childhood setting, it analyses Havel's claim that all citizens, including children, are instrumental in maintaining the ideology of the establishment, and…

  6. Early Childhood Educational Software: Specific Features and Issues of Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

    2007-01-01

    The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…

  7. The Use of Personal Data Assistants in Early Childhood Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…

  8. A Comprehensive Approach to Technology Training for Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; Chang, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive approach to computer technology training for early childhood teachers. Departing from the singular goal of conveying skills and knowledge, a comprehensive program targets the development of teachers' attitudes and practices as well as knowledge and skills. All 3 areas are…

  9. Communicating and Thinking through Drawing Activity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article considers drawing as a meaning-making activity that takes place in certain sociocultural contexts to find evidence for its communicative potentials as well as the relationship between thought and drawing in early childhood. The researcher challenges traditional views about young children's drawing that focus on the result of the…

  10. Playing the Assessment Game: An English Early Childhood Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, Jo; Bath, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and the documentation of learning is an international issue in early childhood education (ECE) and has increasingly become a way for governments to exercise direct control over the practitioners working with young children. This paper details recent statutory guidance about assessment and documentation for English ECE settings and…

  11. Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.

    Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and identifying eight…

  12. The Emotionally Intelligent Early Childhood Educator: Self-Reflective Journaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard

    2005-01-01

    A current interest in education is the growing awareness that the development of social and emotional skills in children is critical for the foundation of academic knowledge in the classroom. The early childhood educator is in a position to be a powerful nurturer of the social emotional development in young children. It is important, therefore, to…

  13. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  14. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is an uncommon benign neoplasm characterized by focal perineural cell proliferation. The typical course is indolent, with gradual onset and slow progression of motor loss. In early childhood, uncertainty concerning the time of onset can lead to difficulty in distinguishin...

  15. Should Rewards Have a Place in Early Childhood Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Virginia M.; O'Flynn, Janet C.; Reineke, June; Sonsteng, Kathleen; Gartrell, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Does the use of rewards to motivate children to learn or to follow classroom rules run counter to fostering a true desire for mastery? This column, which consists of two separate articles, provides the opposing opinions of the authors regarding the appropriateness of giving rewards in an early childhood classroom. In "Using Rewards in the Early…

  16. Knowledge, Practice, and the Shaping of Early Childhood Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…

  17. The Gymnasium of the Mind: Teaching Chess in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Patrick J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…

  18. An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Trisha, Ed.; Thomas, Nigel, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The second edition of this best-selling textbook provides students and practitioners with a broad introduction to, and critical analysis of, the main theories and issues within the field of early childhood studies. The book adopts a multi-disciplinary approach and pulls together all the key themes involved in the study of young children and…

  19. Early Childhood Directors as Socializers of Emotional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…

  20. Routines and Transitions: A Guide for Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfont, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    In early childhood settings, children spend over 50 percent of their time on handwashing, dressing, napping, and other routines and transitions. "Routines and Transitions" is a guide to help turn these routine daily activities into learning experiences. By using transitions wisely, providers not only help children develop skills, but also run a…

  1. Free Play in Early Childhood Education: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Selda

    2016-01-01

    It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…

  2. Understanding the Multicultural Experience in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    Chapters in this book are organized into sections devoted to (1) the nature of multiculturalism in children, (2) educational practices and materials, and (3) issues in preparing early childhood educators. The first four chapters in section 1 focus, respectively, on Mexican-American culture; the roots, culture, and learning styles of Black…

  3. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  4. The Importance of Music Centers in the Early Childhood Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Discusses the importance of music centers in the early childhood class to the development of music abilities of children. Significance of understanding of the fundamental concepts in music including pitch and duration to the musical skills of primary and elementary students; Impact of environment on the learning abilities of children; Role of…

  5. Public School Early Childhood Music Education: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brittany Nixon

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of preK programs in public schools, music educators are increasingly more involved in teaching 3- and 4-year-old students. Many music educators find this difficult, as teaching young children requires different--and often unfamiliar--training and experience in child development and appropriate early childhood methodologies. This…

  6. Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

  7. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  8. Diversity in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…

  9. Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

  10. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  11. Development and Implementation of an Effective Early Childhood Handicapped Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Kathryn; Dahlstrom, Mark

    The paper describes the Early Childhood Handicapped Program of Kenosha (WI). The program focuses on receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor skills, self-help skills, cognitive skills, perceptual skills, and social/emotional skills development. For admission into the program, children must exhibit significant delays in two or more…

  12. Professional Development Needs and Interests of Early Childhood Education Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Tannock, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of early childhood education (ECE) trainers was conducted to assess their professional development needs and determine any differences between new and experienced trainers. Trainers identified teaching techniques and resources commonly used. The survey information is guiding the development of ECE trainer criteria in a…

  13. How Do They Manage? An Investigation of Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Harris, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) leadership literature indicates few theoretically based studies identifying and testing different models and characteristics of leadership. Objectives were thus to identify, describe and analyse what leadership meant to key EC participants; to consider roles, responsibilities and characteristics; to investigate core…

  14. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  15. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  16. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  17. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts (ERA) Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 17 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and issue (journal citation information for the resource within the…

  18. The Incoherence of Curriculum: Questions Concerning Early Childhood Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines curriculum debates, particularly those that influence an understanding of the nature and purpose of curriculum, in providing teacher education and in influencing teaching practice. The work of Martin Heidegger provides a framework for questioning the early childhood teacher education curriculum. Central to this analysis are…

  19. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a…

  20. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Singer

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  1. "Pedagogy of Third Space": A Multidimensional Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This paper will illustrate how philosophical and pedagogical boundaries that are defined by diverse cultures and ideologies might be navigated in the practical implementation of an early childhood curriculum in postcolonial urban India. Findings from a qualitative naturalistic inquiry indicated that a complex, multifaceted curriculum shaped by…

  2. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  3. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  4. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  5. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  6. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  7. Methylation of BDNF in women with bulimic eating syndromes: associations with childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Groleau, Patricia; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Israel, Mimi; Wilson, Samantha; Steiger, Howard

    2014-10-01

    DNA methylation allows for the environmental regulation of gene expression and is believed to link environmental stressors to such mental-illness phenotypes as eating disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and variations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been linked to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to such traits as reward dependence. We examined the extent to which BDNF methylation corresponded to bulimic or normal-eater status, and also to the presence of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and childhood abuse. Our sample consisted of 64 women with BN and 32 normal-eater (NE) control women. Participants were assessed for eating-disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and childhood trauma, and then they were required to provide blood samples for methylation analyses. We observed a significant site×group (BN vs. NE) interaction indicating that women with BN showed increases in methylation at specific regions of the BDNF promoter. Furthermore, examining effects of childhood abuse and BPD, we observed significant site×group interactions such that groups composed of individuals with childhood abuse or BPD had particularly high levels of methylation at selected CpG sites. Our findings suggest that BN, especially when co-occurring with childhood abuse or BPD, is associated with a propensity towards elevated methylation at specific BDNF promoter region sites. These findings imply that hypermethylation of the BDNF gene may be related to eating disorder status, developmental stress exposure, and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24801751

  8. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  9. Engaging Men, An Exploration of the Help-Seeking Experiences of Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Counselling Psychologists working in a variety of settings are likely to encounter male clients who have significant histories of childhood trauma, including childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The existing literature on the topic of CSA is largely quantitative, and whilst there is qualitative research that explores adult female experiences of CSA, research concerning men’s perspectives is limited. This qualitative phenomenological study examined the experiences of help-seeking in male survivors of...

  10. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on cortisol trajectories in pregnancy are moderated by current family functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bublitz, Margaret H.; Parade, Stephanie; Stroud, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and current family functioning on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in pregnancy. Participants were 185 pregnant women (ages 18–40) who completed items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale to measure child maltreatment history and the Family Assessment Device to measure current family functioning. Participants provided saliva samples at wake-up and 30 minutes after wake-up at 25,...

  11. Childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual health among indigenous Kanak women and non-Kanak women of New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Guéguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVES: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in New Caledonia. METHODS: Data come from a population survey on violence against women and health. Face-to-face interviews w...

  12. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA'S DOMESTIC EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆彩燕

    2012-01-01

    Being in the early development stage, early childhood education (ECE) in China turns out to be very promising in the near future. The number of ECE institutions is increasing rapidly. However, there is still deficiency in the administration of China' s domestic ECE institutions. This paper first analyze the present development of deomestic ECE institutions. Then suggestions are drawn for domestic institutions by applying theory of marketing management.

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  15. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  16. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  17. The New Turkish Early Childhood Teacher Education Curriculum: A Brief Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay-Turhan, Tulay; Koc, Yusuf; Isiksal, Mine; Isiksal, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to describe and reflect on the new early childhood teacher education curriculum in Turkey. The new curriculum is part of a large-scale reform agenda to improve education at all levels. The article begins with a brief history of early childhood education and early childhood teacher education in Turkey. Then, the needs for the…

  18. The Power and Possibilities of Performative Critical Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa; Dice, Jaime; Wooten, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    While early childhood education programs seek to provide the tools to work with children and explore content, many fail to address the social and emotional contexts in which early childhood education occurs. This is evident in the seldom addressed topic of collaboration between lead teachers and assistant teachers in the early childhood classroom.…

  19. No Child Misunderstood: Enhancing Early Childhood Teachers' Multicultural Responsiveness to the Social Competence of Diverse Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2010-01-01

    As a result of rapid demographic changes in our society, more children from diverse racial/cultural backgrounds join our early childhood classrooms. The majority of early childhood teachers, on the other hand, are middle-class and of European-decent. This paper provides early childhood teachers with both theoretical and practical understandings…

  20. The Development of Early Childhood Teachers' Language Knowledge in Different Educational Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Janina; Mischo, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers should have extensive knowledge about language and language development, because these facets of professional knowledge are considered as important requirements for fostering language development in early childhood education settings. It is assumed that early childhood teachers acquire this knowledge during pre-service…

  1. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice of..., Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and Time: March 23, 2011, 9 a.m.-3 p.m. EST. Place: Webinar. The Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...

  2. 78 FR 53150 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice of Meeting ACTION: Notice of Meeting: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home... Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and Time: September 12,...

  3. 76 FR 71979 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation; Notice of... the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE). Dates and Times... Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

  4. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Early Childhood Philosophy and Pedagogy: A Case Study Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Alison; McFarland, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three primary teacher education students participating in early childhood-focused community play sessions, as well as their perceptions of early childhood and primary philosophy and pedagogy. The purpose was to explore perceived differences in primary and early childhood pre-service teacher courses, which may…

  5. Emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood emotional abuse and current depression in a low-income African-American sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Thomas; Cross, Dorthie; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Abuse and neglect in childhood are well-established risk factors for later psychopathology. Past research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse may be particularly harmful to psychological development. The current cross-sectional study employed multiple regression techniques to assess the effects of childhood trauma on adulthood depression and emotion dysregulation in a large sample of mostly low-income African Americans recruited in an urban hospital. Bootstrap analyses were used to t...

  6. Early Childhood Education for the San in Namibia: The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities Early Childhood Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraseb, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa (WIMSA) has been working to improve conditions for San communities since 1996. San communities in Namibia have an extremely high dropout rate compared to all other populations in the country, and one of WIMSA's most important areas of focus is education. Early Childhood Development…

  7. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  8. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  9. Schema modes and childhood abuse in borderline and antisocial personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2005-09-01

    Complex personality disorders (PDs) have been hypothesized to be characterized by alternating states of thinking, feeling and behavior, the so-called schema modes (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar (2003). Schema therapy: A practioner's guide. New York: Guilford). The present study tested the applicability of this model to borderline personality disorders (BPD) and antisocial personality disorders (APD), and related it to a presumed common etiological factor, childhood trauma. Sixteen patients with BPD, 16 patients with APD and 16 nonpatient controls (all 50% of both sexes) completed a Schema Mode Questionnaire assessing cognitions, feelings and behaviors characteristic of six schema modes. Participants were interviewed to retrace abusive sexual, physical and emotional events before the age of 18. BPD as well as APD participants were characterized by four maladaptive modes (Detached Protector, Punitive Parent, Abandoned/Abused Child and Angry Child). APD displayed most characteristics of the Bully/Attack mode, though not significantly different from BPD. The Healthy Adult mode was of low presence in BPD and of high presence in APD and the nonpatients. Frequency and severity of the three kinds of abuse were equally high in both PD groups, and significantly higher than in nonpatients.

  10. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  11. Resiliency Factors in the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Sexual Assault in College-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…

  12. The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

    2009-01-01

    Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

  13. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  14. The Impact of Childhood Abuse History and Domestic Violence on the Mental Health of Women in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…

  15. Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

  16. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  17. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  18. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  19. Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2014-03-01

    In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

  20. Linking Childhood Maltreatment with Girls' Internalizing Symptoms: Early Puberty as a Tipping Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N

    2014-12-01

    Early pubertal timing in girls is one of the most frequently replicated antecedents of adolescent emotional distress. Yet understanding the impact of pubertal timing in psychosocial development has presented something of a conundrum for developmentalists, as earlier physical maturation may often be preceded by a range of early adversities and life stressors. The present paper disentangles these associations by investigating childhood maltreatment, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and perceived pubertal timing in girls who were residing in foster care at study entry (N = 100, M = 11.54 years old at Time 1). Girls were assessed at two time points two years apart. There were no significant direct effects of maltreatment on internalizing symptoms; rather, childhood sexual abuse predicted earlier perceived pubertal development at study onset which, in turn, was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptomatology. These higher levels of internalizing symptoms persisted over the two years of the study. This distinctive role for early pubertal timing - even within a sample subject to stressors and risks which far exceed the developmental norm - confirms the unique salience of pubertal timing in emotional adjustment, and suggests that the heightened sexual circumstances of puberty may be especially disturbing for girls whose lives have already been traumatically disrupted by inappropriate and unwanted sexual experiences. PMID:25419091

  1. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  2. Sharing Alphabet Books in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Jones, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To achieve academically, young children need a strong foundation in literacy. Alphabet knowledge is one aspect of early literacy. This article presents the importance of and the components of alphabet knowledge. An exploratory study in which prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers read aloud three different alphabet books to their students in a…

  3. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailhache, Marion; Leroy, Valériane; Pillet, Pascal; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. METHODS: We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accu...

  4. Disorganized attachment in young adulthood as a partial mediator of relations between severity of childhood abuse and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sooyeon; Brumariu, Laura E; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2016-01-01

    Disorganized attachment has been proposed as a mediating mechanism in the relation between childhood abuse and dissociation. However, support for mediation has been mixed when interview or self-report measures of attachment have been used. In the current work, relations among severity of abuse, attachment disorganization, and dissociation were assessed in young adulthood using both interview and interaction-based measures of attachment. A total of 112 low-income young adults were assessed for socioeconomic stresses, abusive experiences in childhood, and attachment disorganization at age 20. Attachment disorganization was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview, coded independently for Unresolved states of mind and for Hostile-Helpless states of mind. Attachment disorganization was also measured using a newly validated assessment of young adult-parent interaction during a conflict discussion. Mediation analyses revealed that the link between childhood abuse and dissociation was partially explained by disturbances in young adult-parent interaction. Narrative disturbances on the Adult Attachment Interview were related to abuse and to dissociation but did not mediate the link between the two. Results are discussed in relation to the role of parent-child communication processes in pathways to dissociation. PMID:26836233

  5. Disorganized attachment in young adulthood as a partial mediator of relations between severity of childhood abuse and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sooyeon; Brumariu, Laura E; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2016-01-01

    Disorganized attachment has been proposed as a mediating mechanism in the relation between childhood abuse and dissociation. However, support for mediation has been mixed when interview or self-report measures of attachment have been used. In the current work, relations among severity of abuse, attachment disorganization, and dissociation were assessed in young adulthood using both interview and interaction-based measures of attachment. A total of 112 low-income young adults were assessed for socioeconomic stresses, abusive experiences in childhood, and attachment disorganization at age 20. Attachment disorganization was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview, coded independently for Unresolved states of mind and for Hostile-Helpless states of mind. Attachment disorganization was also measured using a newly validated assessment of young adult-parent interaction during a conflict discussion. Mediation analyses revealed that the link between childhood abuse and dissociation was partially explained by disturbances in young adult-parent interaction. Narrative disturbances on the Adult Attachment Interview were related to abuse and to dissociation but did not mediate the link between the two. Results are discussed in relation to the role of parent-child communication processes in pathways to dissociation.

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in infancy to parent-infant clinical services. Fifty-six of these families had been studied longitudinally since the first year of life. In infancy, attachment disorganization and disrupted mother-infant interaction were assessed; in middle childhood, disorganized-controlling attachment behaviors were reliably rated. In kindergarten and second grade, behavior problems were assessed by teacher report. In cross-sectional analyses, maltreatment was significantly associated with ASPD features but did not account for the independent effect of early referral to parent-infant services on ASPD features. In longitudinal analyses, maternal withdrawal in infancy predicted the extent of ASPD features twenty years later, independently of childhood abuse. In middle childhood, disorganized attachment behavior and maladaptive behavior at school added to prediction of later ASPD features. Antisocial features in young adulthood have precursors in the minute-to-minute process of parent-child interaction beginning in infancy.

  7. The influence of geographical and economic factors in estimates of childhood abuse and neglect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A worldwide meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Thiago Wendt; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    This multilevel meta-analysis examined the effects of geographical and economic factors on worldwide childhood maltreatment estimates measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) short-form. The primary outcome extracted was continuous scores on the CTQ subscales - emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect - and total score. Geographical, economical and methodological variables were extracted for use as covariates in meta-regression models. A literature search identified 288 studies suitable for the CTQ total score analysis (N=59,692) and 189 studies suitable for maltreatment subtype analysis (N=44,832). We found that Europe and Asia were associated with lower CTQ estimates while South America presented the highest estimates among continents. Specifically, studies from China, Netherlands and United Kingdom presented the lowest maltreatment estimates. Furthermore, high-income countries presented lower CTQ physical neglect estimates in comparison to low- or middle-income countries, while per-capita gross domestic product of countries was negatively associated with childhood physical neglect estimates. Despite the influence of methodological covariates, these findings indicate that geographical and economic factors could influence variations of childhood maltreatment estimates around the world, particularly when assessed by a structured standardized questionnaire. PMID:26704298

  8. Professionalisation in Early Childhood Education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Yurchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dialogue around preschool educators has increased as concerns about the quality of early education have been raised across the world. This paper contributes to a novel historical and contemporary understanding of the professionalisation of Russian preschool educators. This history bears similarities and differences to those of other nations, making this project of interest to cross-cultural comparisons. A particular emphasis is laid on the challenges of, and opportunities for, professionalisation by discussing the issue of professional knowledge and expertise, autonomy, and authority. Data for the study comes from two sources: (1 the historical analysis of preschool educators in Russia; (2 semi-structured interviews undertaken with 25 preschool educators from the major organisations representing them. The research showed the central role played by the state in all historical phases of the professionalisation of Russian early education. It was found that Russian preschool educators are discontented with their current professional standing, and look to the state to enhance it.

  9. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  10. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  11. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  12. Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Man's Guide to Coping with the Effects of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based on Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Child Abuse and Neglect Issues , 36 in the Treatment Improvement ... or depressed and may be part of the reason you abuse substances. You may ■ Have flashbacks of the abuse ■ ...

  13. A function of social institutions of early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Acires Candal Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Try to explain this text, in my view, essential aspects of the social function of institutions for children's education. The principles and general guidelines for early childhood education that we presents the results of a discussion process to coordinate with the Municipal Department of Education Florianópolis (Division of Child Education between 2000 and 2001. The aim of the debate was to subsidize the movement of defining guidelines for action for childcare and educational Neise (Centers for Children's Education of the municipal network. As a starting point, were recovered documents previously produced a guidance curriculum. The idea was to get a deeper understanding to help rewrite the curriculum guidelines of the city, both in the light of experience by educators of the network as a function of the definitions given for early childhood education by more current legislation.

  14. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Care and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

  16. Long-term effects of early childhood care and education

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

  17. Early childhood educators' recognition and treatment of violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses violence against children and early childhood educators' recognition of violence against children and their treatment. The theoretical part defines different types of violence which are: physical, mental, and sexual violence, child neglect, and economic violence. Definitions as well as signs of a certain type of violence are presented. The author also describes the role of practitioners in recognition of violence against children and the legislation that defines their ...

  18. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Mario Gil; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child’s height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and s...

  19. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and s...

  20. Leadership in Early Childhood Education:cross-cultural perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nivala, V. (Veijo); Hujala, E. (Eeva)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The book consists of presentations given at the Open Forum at the University of Oulu on March 2001. It highlights the contextual approach in leadership in early childhood. The studies introduced in this volume provide strong evidence that leadership is not only a leader's matter — it is a matter of concern for the whole leadership community. Different methods, like focus group — discussion, self study report and shared data will be introduced in the articles. The articles are ...

  1. How to Improve Eating Behaviour during Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Robin John; Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M.; Lewis, Humphrey; Emmanuel E Ekanem; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but le...

  2. Reducing Early Childhood Tooth Decay: Leading Steps for State Policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Foster; Meg Booth; Colin Reusch

    2015-01-01

    Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt. Children with ECC may experience pain, difficulty eating, developmental complications, and loss of days in day care or preschool. ECC is expensive to treat and untreated ECC can lead to other serious infections.

  3. Early childhood educator training as a service to society

    OpenAIRE

    María Eliana Arias Meriño

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a small portion of a research project conducted at Chile’s Bernardo O’Higgins University (UBO), which aspires to recognition as a national pacesetter in the education of outstanding graduates and professionals. The general objective of the research is to do society a service by assessing the UBO’s early childhood education degree programme (major in first-year primary school teaching) and to verify the consistency...

  4. Move to Learn, Learn to Move: Prioritizing Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunlei; Montague, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    The global childhood trend towards obesity and unhealthy lifestyles is a growing concern. Childcare settings have been identified as the most influential factors for children's physical activity, and physical activity habits are better formed and maintained if started in early childhood. As a result, early childhood education environments are in…

  5. Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry; Diaz, Criss Jones

    2005-01-01

    Early childhood professionals are often required to work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. This book goes beyond simplistic definitions of diversity, encouraging a much broader understanding and helping early childhood educators develop a critical disposition towards assumptions about children and childhood in…

  6. Things that can be changed in early intervention in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Špela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. Material and Methods. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7, who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Results. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50% why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. Conclusions. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children’s early age is vital.

  7. [Metabolic disorders in epilepsy of early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, V; Týnová, L; Saxl, O; Podhradská, O; Mrskos, A

    1970-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are discussed which are associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of the origin of convulsions. Homeostasis impairment, e. g. hyponatremia, hypo- and hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia is mentioned, as well as vitamin deficiencies, such as pyridoxin deficiency, and the problem of phenylketonuria is discussed in connection with aminoacid disorders. Possible connections between aminoacid disorders and BNS, occurring in 8.1% of 1,688 children treated for epilepsy at the neurological department of the Brno Faculty Children's Hospital, are further discussed. Results of screening for amino-aciduria (according to Berry's method) were negative in 3000 healthy infants, whereas careful investigation resulted in pathologic aminoaciduria in 17 out of 20 children with BNS. Also results of hormonal treatment in children with this sort of convulsions are reported. It is concluded that early therapy, even though incapable of influencing neurological abnormities, suppresses convulsions and may lead to the disappearance of hypsarythmia from the EEG curve. A benign influence upon mental development was observed in a small group of children in whom therapy had been initiated very early. It is emphasized that this, by no means indifferent, type of therapy should only be performed in a well equipped and managed pediatric department.

  8. Childhood sexual abuse and depression in Latino men who have sex with men: Does resilience protect against nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Wiebe, John S; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-06-01

    This study tested depression as a mediator between childhood sexual abuse and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, an effect moderated by resilience. In total, 149 HIV+ Latino men who have sex with men were recruited for this study. Using a regression-based bootstrap approach, depression mediated the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and antiretroviral therapy adherence, with worse adherence for participants at lowest percentiles of the resilience index. The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and depression in HIV+ men who have sex with men is high and must be addressed to better prevent disease progression and reduce transmission, especially in expanding Latino populations. PMID:25156387

  9. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of eczema suggests the role of environmental factors triggering a genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of environmental exposures in early life and genetic predisposition on the development of eczema before age 3 years. METHODS...... assessments included filaggrin loss-of-function mutation; parent's atopic disease; sex; social status; previous deliveries; third trimester complications and exposures; anthropometrics at birth; month of birth; duration solely breast-fed; introduction of egg, cow's milk, and fish; time spent in day care; cat...... and dog at home; feather pillow; nicotine in infant's hair; and temperature and humidity in bedroom. RESULTS: Eczema developed in 43.5% of the infants. Filaggrin mutation (odds ratio [OR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.46-7.02; P = .004), mother's eczema (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63; P

  10. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

  11. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children.

  12. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children. PMID:26455263

  13. Do Early Childhood Interventions Prevent Child Maltreatment? A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Topitzes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the empirical evidence on whether early-childhood primary prevention programs can reduce rates of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen studies of 14 programs for children ages birth to 5 years were completed from 1990 to 2007 and assessed impacts with methodological rigor. All but one of the programs intervened from birth to age 3 through home visits, parent education classes, or the provision of health services. The weighted average effect size of program participation was a 2.9 percentage-point reduction in maltreatment (6.6% vs. 9.5%), which is equivalent to a 31% reduction in the rate of maltreatment and a fifth of a standard deviation. Of the five programs showing significant reductions in substantiated rates of child maltreatment, three provide strong evidence of preventive effects. Only the Child-Parent Centers and the Nurse Family Partnership assessed longer-term preventive effects. Common elements of these effective programs included implementation by professional staff, relatively high dosage and intensity, and comprehensiveness of scope. The major conclusion is that the evidence base for programs in early childhood to prevent child maltreatment remains relatively weak. To advance the field, more longer term studies of a variety of intervention models are needed. PMID:19240245

  14. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  15. Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

  16. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and scienc...

  17. Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

    2013-09-01

    This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma. PMID:24033236

  18. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self- regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task, measures of peer rejection were collected during middle childhood at the summer camp, and reports of antisocial behavior were obtained during earl...

  19. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  20. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.