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Sample records for early byzantine pilgrimage

  1. Early Byzantine steelyard from Belgrade

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    Vujović Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial aim of this paper was to present scholarly circles with a detailed report about the insufficiently known Early Byzantine steelyard beam (Figs. 2-5; Pl. I/1 treasured in Belgrade City Museum (further in the text BCM together with a small counterweight (Fig. 6; Pl. I/2 which, judging by its dimensions and weight, does not belong to it. However, after inspecting the documentation of BCM and the National Museum in Belgrade (further in the text NMB, the supposition that the steelyard beam from BCM represents a part of the same hoard with the well known counterweight (Fig. 7 in the form of a bust of a Byzantine empress, and the unpublished chain system with hooks for hanging loads (Fig. 8; Pl. IV, which are kept in NMB, was confirmed. The detailed examination of the museum inventory records shed light on the set of circumstances which led to the separation of the parts of the Belgrade steelyard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: Romanizacija, urbanizacija i transformacija urbanih centara civilnog,vojnog i rezidencijalnog karaktera u rimskim provincijama na tlu Srbije

  2. Pilgrimage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning; Kosiewicz, Jerzy; Contiero, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    from a loved one, waiting for the visit of a good companion, or, finally, expecting the end of life? This study is based on interviews with people from different countries, cultures, and religions. They show that a pilgrimage can push the elderly to do physical activities of some importance...... that are at the same time related to some sort of religious motivation. The pilgrim's walking in itself, as well as the achievement of its goal, helps people to reconsider their quality of life and active behavior. Elderly people also experience their independence, which perhaps was considered to be lost......, with a pilgrimage, giving a new meaning to their aging. In light of these activities, old age becomes a period not just of physical and mental decay, but of self-discovery. It becomes an age that allows one to do something that one has not done during one's youth. And pilgrimages give people time to discover...

  3. [Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations in early Byzantine period].

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    Yildirim, R Vedat; Ataç, Adnan

    Early Byzantine Period includes between A.D. 330 when Constantinople was established and A.D. 518 when Justinus I became emperor. In this time period, a lot of philanthropic foundations such as hospitals, hospices, orphanages, rest homes and soup kitchens are established. Many of patriarchs and religious men opened them. In some of them, it refers to there was patients' care. The oldest hospital in Constantinople was established by Hasios Marcianos, and was next to Saint Irene Church. In addition to this Empress Flacilla wife of Theodosius the Great made hospitals restored and visited patients regularly. Hospitals were not limited in the center of Empire. Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations were established in Antiochia, Alexandria, Nikea, Adrianopolis, Castoria and Jerusalem. The concept of the modern hospital (the actual care, 'hospitality' and treatment of visitors) for the civilian masses in Europe didn't come to fruition until post Constantine and the rise of Christianity. While these early Christian hospitals were grossly over their heads regarding medical capability (they essentially served as last stops for the dying or quarantine centers), the concept of providing care to the public was the actual intent. In this regard, the first civilian hospitals were developed.

  4. Early byzantine lamellar armour from Carthago Spartaria (Cartagena, Spain

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    Vizcaíno Sánchez, Jaime

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an Early Byzantine lamellar armour, retrieved in the excavations at the quarter built over the Roman Theatre of Cartagena. The armour has close parallels with contemporary known material from the central and eastern Mediterranean or other sites, and it is an important find which increases the body of archeological evidence about Byzantine presence in Spania.

    Este artículo presenta una coraza laminar protobizantina hallada en las excavaciones del barrio construido sobre el teatro romano de Cartagena. La coraza tiene estrechos paralelos con materiales contemporáneos del Mediterráneo Central y Oriental u otros lugares, y es un importante hallazgo que incrementa la nómina de evidencias arqueológicas acerca de la presencia bizantina en Spania.

  5. Pronoia in the Military Organization of the Byzantine Empire at Early Palaeologian Period (Part 2

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    Zolotovskiy Vladimir A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author disclosed the role of pronoia in the military organization of the Byzantine Empire at early Palaeologian period. The concrete cases of the award allow recognizing the proniarety as the Byzantine military institution dealing exclusively with the military leadership. The grant of pronoia was a replacement for traditional rewards of military commanders of noble origin. However, in some cases it was identified that compulsory military service was a function of power which was granted to the proniares in addition to the tax quota. Holders of pronoia were not only the Romans military commanders but also the mercenaries. Such awards could reduce the costs of imperial treasury for direct payments. In the case of proniares-Byzantines, depending on posotis, we can talk about the conferring upon pronoia the representatives of various levels of the military leadership. The pronoias granted as a reward or the compensation for losses incurred as a result of the performance of official engagements, could be transferred to the commanders of low levels which were recruited from among stratiotes (obviously, dekarhes. Definition of the role of pronoia in military practice of the early palaeologian period which would be possible in the identification of the proportion of pronoiares and strateia contingents and the correlation of victories and defeats, won by them, is impossible in practice.

  6. Pronoia in the Military Organization of the Byzantine Empire at Early Palaeologian Period. Part 1

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    Vladimir Alekseevich Zolotovskiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author disclosed the role of pronoia in the military organization of the Byzantine Empire at early Palaeologian period. The concrete cases of the award allow recognizing the proniarety as the Byzantine military institution dealing exclusively with the military leadership. The grant of pronoia was a replacement for traditional rewards of military commanders of noble birth. However, in some cases it was identified that compulsory military service was a function of power which was granted to the proniares in addition to the tax quota. Holders of pronoia were not only the Romans military commanders but also the mercenaries. Such awards could reduce the costs of imperial treasury for direct payments. In the case of proniares-Byzantines, depending on posotis, we can talk about the conferring upon pronoia the representatives of various levels of the military leadership. The pronoias granted as a reward or the compensation for losses incurred as a result of the performance of official engagements, could be transferred to the commanders of low levels which were recruited from among stratiotes (obviously, dekarhes.

  7. The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middle-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries)

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    Werner Seibt

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letter...

  8. Byzantine Neumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    musikeksempler med transskription til moderne linjenotation og en detaljeret bibliografi. Bogen er tænkt som en opdatering og uddybning af H.J.W. Tillyards Handbook of the Middle Byzantine Musical Notation (København 1935), en af de første udgivelser i serien Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae. Udgivelsen opsummerer...

  9. Barbarians in the City: Burials of the Germans in the Urban Cemeteries of Northern Illyricum in the Early Byzantine Period

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    Miсhеl Kazanskiy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the topography of the burials of the Early Byzantine period (5th – 6th centuries, containing in their inventory items of German origin found in some cities of Northern Illyricum, whose necropolises were subjected to extensive excavations: Sirmium, Singidunum, Viminacium (present-day Northern Serbia. Two different types of burial places with German objects were witnessed on these city burials: isolated burials on cemeteries common to the whole population and separate cemeteries with the predominance of the German element. It can be assumed that these different types of organization of the funerary space correspond to different forms of settling of barbarians in the cities of the northern borderland of the Late Roman / Early Byzantine Illyricum. The barbarous presence in the urban burial context is very slight. In Syrmium, which repeatedly fell under the power of the barbarians (priests, gepids, a few barbarous burials were committed in cemeteries, which belonged mainly to the Roman city population, which indicates a fairly deep integration of the outgoing barbarians into the urban late-antique environment. In Singidunum and Viminacium, the frontier fortresses on the Danube, special “barbarian” cemeteries stand out, since the barbarians settled here were primarily a military force, that is, a separate social group with its own structure. It is also possible that unlike Sirmium, where archaeological traces of the presence of the Roman population are clearly revealed, barbarian mercenaries and their families accounted for a numerical majority in the garrison towns of the Danube borderland.

  10. The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middle-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries

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    Werner Seibt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letters for other ones the well-known Latin monogram of Theoderich is explained in detail.  But the “typical Byzantine monogram” became the cross monogram, with letters more or less affixed on the arms of a Greek cross. The earliest example stems from a coin of Justinus I, starting 522, quite earlier than Theodora’s monograms on capitals in the Hagia Sophia. These cruciform monograms presented in the beginning also a name, a title or an office, but in the 8th century already often a combination of them; these monograms with prosopographical information stopped in Byzantium at the end of the 8th century.  On the other hand invocative monograms (like Θεοτόκε βοήθει, often with the tetragram τῷ σῷ δούλῳ in the free quarters of the monogram, started around the middle of the 7th century and can be found till the earlier 11th century. The most common ones were collected by V. Laurent – we use this system till today, though there are much more types documented.  An important problem is that sometimes single letters are “hidden” in another letter, e. g. Lambda in Alpha or Delta, Epsilon in a Kappa on the left bar of a cross monogram, Sigma in Epsilon, Sigma in Kappa, Omikron in Rho, etc. In Vienna we developed a special program to solve many monograms. If we bring all the readable letters of a monogram (including the possibly additional ones in an alphabetical order, and do the same with the letters of names, titles and offices

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL TOURIST RESOURCE OF THE ROMAN LEGIONARY FORTRESS AND EARLY BYZANTINE TOWN OF NOVAE

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    Plamen Lakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is part of a research series for ancient Roman sites in Northern Bulgaria which aim to present the possibilities of creating a specialized form of cultural and historical product that ensures sustainable utilization of tangible heritage on the Bulgarian coast of the Danube. The methodology applied in assessing the potential of the Roman legionary fortress and Early Byzantine town of Novae is primarily designed for historical and cultural sites. An evaluation is made under the following criteria: potential for development, degree of impact / interaction, degree of modification with relevant indicators. The fieldwork and surveys were made in the summer of 2017 before the active archaeological season. The opportunities for creating a regional tourism product is analysed to ensure the region's recognition and sustainable development as a tourist destination.

  12. Physics as Pilgrimage

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    Gary E. Bowman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilgrimage typically refers to a religious quest or journey. Can science ever be viewed as a sort of pilgrimage, even retaining some of the religious hallmarks thereof? Employing the views of Joseph Campbell, a widely-known religious thinker, and Albert Einstein, creator of the special and general theories of relativity, I so argue for the case of theoretical physics—the most basic and fundamental physical science. I then sketch the centuries-long (and still ongoing development of physical ideas of space from Newton to Einstein. These ideas, while relatively accessible to non-physicists, are of the most profound physical significance, determining the large-scale behavior of not only Earth, but the cosmos itself. I argue how their development may, in consonance with Campbell and Einstein, be viewed as a sort of pilgrimage.

  13. An Investigation on an Early Byzantine Higher School in Russian Historiography

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    Nikolai N. Bolgov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the main approaches and achievements in the Russian studies of Late Antiquity in-between period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. The current literature has an attempt to highlight the activities of leading scientists and their works as well as the activities of various regional schools on studying the higher schools of the Early Byzantium. The authors of the article came to the conclusion that there are some difficulties with the terminology in Russia, also there is no common understanding of this transitional time and many specialists prefer to work with narrow-focused material. Furthermore, there remains a ‘format’ of antiquists, Byzantinists and medievalists what makes integrative researches more difficult. To reveal these issues, the current study investigates the academic bibliography.

  14. Continuity and change in ceramic manufacture: Archaeometric study of Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition in Jordan

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    Alawneh, Firas Mohamad

    This thesis investigates continuity and change of ceramics from Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition period Jordan. The transition period has been characterized largely by an overlap of two ceramic traditions. The material culture of this period has been primarily viewed through formal and stylistic changes. However, ceramic technology and distribution have never been subjected to rigorous analytical study. In order to explain continuity and change in ceramic tradition the undertaken study has focused on the provenance and technology, using multifaceted analytical approach. This study of the transition period pottery has focused on the classification and technological features of potsherds from selected sites in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Beit Ras, Khirbet el-Nawafleh, Jarash, Jericho, Pella, Madaba, Gharndal, Humaimah, Um er-Rassas and Um el-Waleed). Samples were studied by particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and optical microscopy to analyze their chemical, mineralogical and textural features in the aim of determining their possible provenance and production technology. Compositional data were statistically processed with multivariate analysis using SYSTAT II software 2006. To obtain further information about possible source areas of raw materials used in ceramic production, clays were also sampled in the studied areas. Firing experiments were conducted for clays with compositions comparable with those of ceramic sherds, to better understand the firing technology of the pottery. The multifaceted analytical approach has revealed important information on ceramic production in Transjordan. Khirbet el-Nawafleh and Aqaba in the south, Jarash and Pella in the north, Amman and Madaba in the middle are possibly just a few important production centers during this period. The study shows a multidirectional socio-cultural exchange and economic trade patterns within each region and between adjacent regions, as well. Also, importation from

  15. THE ANDREIOS EUNUCH-COMMANDER NARSES: SIGN OF A DECOUPLING OF MARTIAL VIRTUES AND MASCULINITY IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE EMPIRE?

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    Michael Edward Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sixth-century Byzantine general Narses (478-573 has long earned historians’ respect. This acclaim is deserved since his major victories over the Goths in 552 and versus the Franks and Alamanni in 554, helped to secure the Emperor Justinian I’s (ruled 527-565 reconquest of Italy. So too did Narses perform admirably for twelve years in his role as prefect of Italy. Of course, it has always been important to emphasize that Narses was a eunuch. Indeed, for many modern historians, Narses’ identity as a castrate is more important for study than his military deeds and political achievements that proved ephemeral. For some, the presence of a eunuch in such an essential military role indicates a turning away from codes of generalship based on traditional martial courage and manliness. This paper questions such a view. It suggests that Byzantium had a much more flexible notion of the gender status of eunuchs than some recent scholarship allows. Indeed, I will show that Narses fits into a continuing hegemony of traditional masculine values based on the supremacy of Byzantine men’s martial virtues.

  16. Notes on byzantine Panagiaria

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    Drpić Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers some new insights into the significance and function of Byzantine panagiaria, small-scale containers for the bread sanctified in honor of the Virgin in a rite known as the Elevation of the Panagia. This rite, it is argued, was not limited to monastic and courtly contexts or to routine liturgical observance, as is often assumed, but could be performed by the laity as well. Proposing that the use of panagiaria as personal devotional instruments was fairly common in Byzantium, the article explores the interplay between the design, materiality, epigraphic enhancement, and ritual and devotional use of these objects.

  17. Gender, Nation and Religion in European Pilgrimage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.H.M.; Notermans, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the forces of secularization in Europe, old pilgrimage routes are attracting huge numbers of people and given new meanings in the process. In pilgrimage, religious or spiritual meanings are interwoven with social, cultural and politico-strategic concerns. This book explores three such

  18. Byzantine Theme of Chios

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    Anton S. Mokhov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the Byzantine theme system in the 10th - 11th centuries. The author believes that the reign of Basil II (976-1025 was marked by the mikra themata in Balkans and on Aegean Sea islands. They were in need of effective border defense. Theme of Chios was one of the mikra militaryadministrative districts, which were created in this period. The author detected five leaders of the theme in accordance with the historical sources: protospatharios and strategos Theodoros Beriboes; protospatharios, tagmatophylax and strategos Leon Karikes; protospatharios, tagmatophylax and strategos Bardas Mersiniotes; vestarches and strategos Ioannes Aristenos; vestes and strategos Michael Maurikas. The analysis of the sigillographic data led to the conclusion that the regular tagmata were the base of the military force of theme of Chios. Moreover, the fortress of Volissos was located in the northwest of Chios. The area around the fortress was inhabited by representatives of one ethnic group. They were under the leadership of doux, which was subordinate to the strategos of the theme. The famous officials of the civil administration of Chios included fiscal clerks – dioiketes, horreiarios and judicial clerks – krites of the velon. Theme of Chios had existed for about one hundred years. It was liquidated during the war between Byzantine and Tzachas, Turkish amir of Smyrna.

  19. Byzantine gold coins and jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddy, A.; La Niece, S.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the dating of Byzantine gold coinage. The results of such a study are of fundamental importance for the study of the economic history of the later Byzantine Empire and they are also of importance for the historian of technology when studying the composition of the contemporary Byzantine jewellery. Although Carbon-14 dating cannot be used as a method af dating, historians can still benefit from the analysis of the alloy of which the antiquity is made, as this is sometimes characteristic of the period in which it was used. A number of pieces of Byzantine jewellery has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis, after first gently abrading a small area of the surface of the gold with the carborundum paper in an inconspicious position on the back or side of the object. A table is given on the results of this analysis

  20. Pilgrimage as post-secular therapy

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    Lisbeth Mikaelsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the institutionalized pilgrim role and then turns to the therapeutic discourse which is so prominent in the modern pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Both the role and the discourse can be related to the concept of post-secularity, demonstrating that complex cultural fields such as religion and therapy, become intertwined in new ways through modern pilgrimage. This article also shows that churches cooperating in this type of pilgrimage are adapting to the post-secular age, finding a new sort of raison d’être in a multi-religious, international world. Here the author refers to the Church of Norway and its role in Norwegian pilgrimage. The latter is modelled upon the Santiago example.

  1. Paphlagonia Bölgesi’nde Geç Antik ve Erken Bizans Yerleşimi: Sora / Late Antique and Early Byzantine Settlement in Paphlagonia Region: Sora

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    Durmuş Gür

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The late antique, early Byzantine settlement area locates at 12 km. distance to southwest of Karabuk Central District, on a sloping land with an altitude of 700 meters piedmont of Keltepe mountain. This settlement area, called as Zora, Zara, Zopran, Sora, Sopran or some other similar names by the researchers, locates within the boundaries of Akören (Kaleköy and Zopran today. This area is one of the five central eparchies bounded to Paphlagonia district of Gangra (Çankırı. Various column headers, inscriptions, sculptures, Hellenistic sepulchres and architectural ruins belonging to Roman age are identified there. The settlement area called as Sora since the 4th century is observed by Doublet (1889, Mendel (1901, Gökoğlu (1952, Marek (1993, 2003, Belke (1996 and Umar (2007, and they found out that it used to be called Zobran in the records of 16th century Ottoman archive. Within the scope of this research, Sora is observed in details for the periods of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman. The life of St. Autonomous, who had came there in the 4th century to proselytize Christianity and became a martyre, their sepulchre constructions, the bishops of the city, architectural plastic works and scriptures are all researched. Moreover, the problem of naming the area which was confusing for many years is tried to be solved by this research beside documenting the present condition of the architectural ruin on their original places. Öz Karabük’ün 12 km. güneybatısında bulunan geç Antik-erken Bizans dönemi yerleşim alanı Sora (günümüzde Zopran ve Akören, Keltepe Dağı’nın eteklerinde ortalama 700 m. rakımda eğimli bir arazi üzerinde yer almaktadır. Araştırmacılar tarafından Zora, Zara, Zopran, Sora, Sopran gibi çeşitli isimlerle adlandırılan yerleşim, günümüzde Akören (Kaleköy ve Zopran sınırlarında kalmaktadır. Sora, Paphlagonia bölgesinde Gangra (Çankırı Metropolitliğine bağlı beş Piskoposluk

  2. Byzantine Oecumene in the Iconoclast Controversy

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    Lev Lukhovitskiy

    2017-01-01

    In 754 emperor Constantine V sought to defame the iconophile opposition by labeling John Damascene an agent of Arab influence. The fathers of Nicaenum II in 787 made a case for justifying external interference in the religious life of the Byzantine Empire. This stance was nuanced in polemical writings of the early 9th century. The author of the Life of St. Stephen the Younger presented external political pressure as internal by making the saint deliver a sermon on the geography of the iconocl...

  3. Middle Byzantine Historiography: Tradition, Innovation, and Reception

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    Staffan Wahlgren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Greek historical writing of the Middle Byzantine period (approx. 800 until 1000 A.D., with a particular focus on the major chronicles, such as Theophanesthe Confessor (early 9th c., George the Monk (probably late 9th c., and Symeon the Logothete (second half of the 10th c.. On the one hand, it is discussed how the chroniclers engage with tradition and either accept it or reject it. Acceptance of tradition is illustrated by many cases where chroniclers keep very close to the narrative modes of their predecessors and in particular where they copy them extensively. Rejection of, or at least deviation from tradition is illustrated by many cases where new narrative techniques and modes of expression are apparent. Particular attention is paid to some aspects of narrative technique which seem to be innovative. In short, there seems to be an increased tendency towards greater logical (and hence, narrative coherence in the chronicles and an increased tendency towards concentration on a small number of settings, issues and persons (in particular, there is an increased concentration on the Capital of Constantinople and the Emperor’s person. Further, reception is discussed, and especially how Middle Byzantine historical texts were read and used in later writings, including the Slavic literatures. The need for further research in order to understand the transmission processes, especially in the form of the philological study of manuscripts, is stressed.

  4. Byzantine Oecumene in the Iconoclast Controversy

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    Lev Lukhovitskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 754 emperor Constantine V sought to defame the iconophile opposition by labeling John Damascene an agent of Arab influence. The fathers of Nicaenum II in 787 made a case for justifying external interference in the religious life of the Byzantine Empire. This stance was nuanced in polemical writings of the early 9th century. The author of the Life of St. Stephen the Younger presented external political pressure as internal by making the saint deliver a sermon on the geography of the iconoclast world in which political borders and ecclesiastical jurisdictions were deliberately tempered with. In late 810ies Theodore Studite and Patriarch Nicephorus launched a diplomatic enterprise aiming to increase the political pressure exercised from abroad over the recently reestablished iconoclast regime of Leo V. A close reading of Theodore’s letters and Nicephorus’ writings from exile sheds light on the underlying ideological basis of this trend. Michael II in his turn appropriated his opponents’ stratagem and tried to win over to his side an expanding external power -- the Carolingian empire -- and use it to suppress the iconophile opposition. In spite of the fact that the iconophile diplomatic efforts had negative rebound effects during the reign of Michael II, they were allotted a proper place in Byzantine cultural memory.

  5. Transcription of Byzantine Chant - Problems, Possibilities, Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes.......Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes....

  6. Byzantine Parthenogenesis as Hierotopy of Fluid Brilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Images Borne on Dewy Lightning Byzantine παρθένογένεσις as Hierotopy of Fluid Brilliance......Images Borne on Dewy Lightning Byzantine παρθένογένεσις as Hierotopy of Fluid Brilliance...

  7. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this defini...

  8. The Crossroads of Plastination and Pilgrimage

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    Chadwick Co SY SU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At the Singapore Science Centre in 2010, I went to Body Worlds, an exhibit set up by the Institute for Plastination, founded by Gunther von Hagens. As I later learned, he pioneered plastination—the art, science, and technique of preserving entire bodies and body parts for use in medical and anatomical research, exhibition, or both. A few months after, I made the decision to donate my body after death to the Institute under arrangements similar to that of a Living Will. In my visits to two other Body World exhibits in Germany and the Netherlands, I have seen organs perfectly preserved and had thoughts occur to me that one day, I may well be an exhibit specimen instead of an exhibit attendee. By establishing a connection with existing pilgrimage literature; and using a combination of thick description and pragmatic analyses; this paper puts forward the proposition that visits to these; and other similar; exhibits constitute a pilgrimage of and to the self. The paper also discusses the ethics and practical consequences of body donation; and evaluates the arguments for and against the body donation decision from the lenses of the person making the donation; the person’s significant others; and societal influencers. The paper concludes by suggesting take-off points in discussing the connection between plastination and pilgrimage; particularly in the contexts of intercultural communication and religious studies.

  9. The economic impact of pilgrimage: An economic impact analysis of pilgrimage expenditures in Galicia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graave, Elisabeth J.E.; Klijs, J.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we calculate the economic impact of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in the NUTS 2 region Galicia (Spain) in 2010. This economic impact is relevant to policymakers and other stakeholders dealing with religious tourism in Galicia. The analysis is based on the Input-Output model.

  10. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

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    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  11. Patriotic pilgrimages during the Italian liberal period: sites and terminology

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    Davide Bagnaresi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the phenomenon of "laic pilgrimage": the trips that during the first fifty years of Italian unity, saw the places of memory as the protagonists of the Risorgimento. Specifically will be analyzed the trips to ossuaries, battlefields, monuments and tombs of the fathers of the Nation. The text try to create a map - on a national scale - of the places of pilgrimage divided according to the "users". To different destinations, in fact, correspond different types of pilgrimage, mirrors of Italian political situation of this period.

  12. Classicisation or representation? Mimesis in Byzantine pictorial arts as a derivative of style

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    Grotowski Piotr Ł.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of mimesis in art theory has been neglected by Byzantine scholars. Reasons for this may lie in the fact that the understanding of the term in Byzantium was very complex and that it changed over time. In the Early Byzantine period and the so-called Macedonian Renaissance, a tendency to use tonal modelling, which was inherited from ancient Greco-Roman art, can still be observed. Starting in the late tenth century they give way to a more linear style. Simultaneously, a change in the understanding of mimesis in theological writings can also be observed. The aim of this paper is to introduce the problem of a mimetic approach in visual arts as a phenomenon in Byzantine culture.

  13. Spiritual Health through Pilgrimage Therapy: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Moaven; Majid Movahed; Mohammad Taghi Iman Iman; Mansour Tabiee

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Going on a pilgrimage for spiritual and religious purposes is not a new phenomenon and can be considered one of the oldest tourism typologies. This form of travel is related to the task social perception, which is stronger than leisure or pleasure. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to study how spiritual well-being is achieved through pilgrimages trips. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out using ethnographic methodology. Data collection was...

  14. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

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    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  15. The Royal pilgrimage of the Goddess Nanda

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    William S. Sax

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Once every twelve years, when it is thought that some calamity has taken place because of the curse of the goddess Nanda Devi, a four-horned ram is born in the fields of the former king of Garhwal, an erstwhile Central Himalayan kingdom in north India (see map of Garhwal. This four-horned ram leads a procession of priests and pilgrims on the most dangerous and spectacular pilgrimage in all of India: a three-week, barefoot journey of one-hundred and sixty-four miles, during some of the worst weather of the year, at the end of the rainy season. The procession reaches Rupkund, a small pond located at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, which is surrounded by human­ skeletons, and from there it goes yet further, to Homkund, the ‘Lake of the Fire Sacrifice’. According to the faithful, the four-horned ram leaves the procession at that point and finds its way, unaided, to the summit of Mount Trishul. As its name suggests, the Royal Procession is closely associated with the ruler of this erstwhile Himalayan kingdom: he attends its inaugural rituals, the bones that litter the shores of Rupkund are believed to be those of one of his ancestors, and the chief sponsor of the event is a local ‘Prince’ who is thought to be descended from the first kings of Garhwal. This Prince traverses the domain of his ancestors and thereby lays claim to it in the name of the goddess Nanda, who is not only his lineage goddess but was also the royal goddess of the neighbouring kingdom of Kumaon, in pre-colonial times. Although the Royal Procession ideally fosters social integration, it was disrupted in 1987 by a quarrel between two factions of priests. The goddess’s itinerary, the culminating date of the pilgrimage, the type of sacrifice to be performed, the order of procession, the participation of previously excluded persons, and the competency of certain ritual specialists—all were subjects of heated dispute between the rival groups. What was the reason for

  16. [Byzantine therapeutics in the Ottoman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, E A

    1999-01-01

    The medical literature of the greek speaking ottoman world was deeply influenced by its byzantine heritage: the major authors were copied and commented, while practical manuals containing recipes and therapies - the iatrosophia- kept being enlarged with useful information. Furthermore, during the first centuries hospitals closely followed the models of their glorious past in what concerns architecture, scientific level, means and targets. In fact, only the years after 1770 rely on occidental academic knowledge and adopt modern conceptions.

  17. FUZZY DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR BYZANTINE AGREEMENT

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    S. MURUGAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Byzantine fault tolerance is of high importance in the distributed computing environment where malicious attacks and software errors are common. A Byzantine process sends arbitrary messages to every other process. An effective fuzzy decision making approach is proposed to eliminate the Byzantine behaviour of the services in the distributed environment. It is proposed to derive a fuzzy decision set in which the alternatives are ranked with grade of membership and based on that an appropriate decision can be arrived on the messages sent by the different services. A balanced decision is to be taken from the messages received across the services. To accomplish this, Hurwicz criterion is used to balance the optimistic and pessimistic views of the decision makers on different services. Grades of membership for the services are assessed using the non-functional Quality of Service parameters and have been estimated using fuzzy entropy measure which logically ranks the participant services. This approach for decision making is tested by varying the number of processes, varying the number of faulty services, varying the message values sent to different services and considering the variation in the views of the decision makers about the services. The experimental result shows that the decision reached is an enhanced one and in case of conflict, the proposed approach provides a concrete result, whereas decision taken using the Lamport’s algorithm is an arbitrary one.

  18. The Byzantine Chant Heritage in Sicily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    historical development, and function as marker of identity among the Arbëreshe community in Sicily. Therefore, the Byzantine chant heritage in Sicily is not an inflexible and static musical tradition, but it envisages a dynamic mode of existence, susceptible to changes, and maintained by interior principles...... of organisation. After five centuries of oral transmission, it still lives, despite, or maybe thanks to the lack of ‘original’ written sources, and it might thus be seen as a multi-layered musical tradition, featuring multiple versions and encompassing a certain degree of melodic heterogeneity....

  19. Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

    A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

  20. The 'Byzantinisms' of king Stefan Radoslav

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    Maksimović Ljubomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The life-style and politics of Stefan Radoslav bear the mark of activities that indicated his special attachment to the Byzantine world. These activities were prompted by a combination of ideological ambitions and political reality, but they were not in keeping with the modest achievements of Radoslav's reign. Moreover, most of these activities belong to the time when Radoslav was heir to the throne. There is no doubt that Stefan Nemanjić the Grand Zhupan and subsequently the first crowned king, had exclusive connections with the Byzantine dynasty of the Angeloi, especially with the emperor Alexios III (1195-1203. In that context, the donor's inscription in the basic ring of the dome in the Church of the Mother of God in Studenica (1208, in which his father Stefan Nemanja, is mentioned as (former 'veleslavni gospodin vse srbske zemlje veli(ki župan i svat cara grčkog kir Alesija', is quite indicative. This ideological construction would acquire a contour in reality by means of a political marriage with one of the female offspring of Angeloi lineage, which would represent an alternative solution to Stefan's failed marriage with Eudocia, daughter of the emperor Alexios. Instead, several years elapsed in waging war with the Latins, the Bulgarians and the State of Epiros. However, efforts to create firmer, more tangible ties with the Angeloi dynasty from Epiros were not forgotten. Therefore, the Serbian monarch brought his eldest son Radoslav into play, intending to have him act as a link with the Angeloi bloodline. As a result of all this, the final attempt to have Radoslav become the husband of a princess from the Angelos dynasty is not surprising. At the end of 1219 or the beginning of 1220, he married Anna Doukaina, the daughter of the epirotic ruler Theodore I Angelos Doukas Komnenos, which at that point represented a marriage connection of the highest possible level between two ruling houses. Stefan's insistence on Serbia acquiring a stake

  1. Ontological-epistemological views of the beautiful Byzantine aesthetics

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    Vilić Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the ontological-epistemology aspects of the beauty of Byzantine art. Byzantine aesthetics and Byzantine art are unjustly neglected in the history of aesthetic thought. Christian aestheticians have an ambivalent attitude towards art. Because, Byzantine painting represents reality show based on the Christians view, where absolutizs a new dimension of spirituality and aesthetics deriving from the ontological-epistemological positions. The phenomenon of beauty in Byzantine art is primarily deposited in epistemological components, where everything is directed to the knowledge of the truth. In Byzantine art beauty has, above all, spiritual character; it does not have a classical aesthetic dimension, but primarily because the ontological character is recognized as one of the innumerable divine energies and of phenomena. The Byzantine painter makes an effort to realize the creative transformation of matter into a unique experience community and relationship with God, who volatility of the world beyond the ontological light that is converted from non-being into being.

  2. A Study on Impact of Informatization on Tourist Behavior : Analysis of Anime Pilgrimage

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 健

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows impact of informatization on tourist behavior in Japan. This research adopts analysis of "Anime Pilgrimage" in order to accomplish the above mentioned objective. Recently, in Japan, some of anime fans make "Anime Pilgrimage" which is a kind of tourist behavior. It would appear that this behavior was affected by informatization strongly. As a result, it was found that "Anime Pilgrim" was affected by informatization not only before "Anime Pilgrimage" but also throughout "Anime ...

  3. The analysis of the phenomenon of pilgrimage in the context of V.Turner theory

    OpenAIRE

    Liutikas, Darius

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the theory of Turners towards pilgrimage. The phenomenon of pilgrimage Turners analyzed using such elements from the previous works of V. Turner like communitas, liminality, the location of pilgrimage sites. The communitas in V. Turner theory is a relational quality of full unmediated communication, even communion between definite and determinate identities, which arises spontaneously in all kinds of groups, situations and circumstances. The achievement of communitas is t...

  4. Pilgrimage: Intrinsic Motivation and Active Behavior in the Eldery

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    Eichberg Henning

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Can intrinsic religious motivation have relevant effects on the motor activity of older people? How are processions and pilgrimages related to the dominant imagination of old age as a period of fatigue and gray hair, suffering and loneliness, retirement and rest – and of waiting: waiting for a call from a loved one, waiting for the visit of a good companion, or, finally, expecting the end of life?

  5. THE IMPACT OF SAINT PARASCHEVA PILGRIMAGE ON TOURISM IN IASI COUNTY

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    Alexandra Georgiana PARASCA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pilgrimage is a part of international tourism, being considered religious tourism, because it contributes to the development of economy, like any other type of tourism. This research paper takes into consideration the pilgrimage to Saint Paracheva, and how it helps the development of religious tourism in Iasi county, the economical implications. We try to capture the importance of Saint Parascheva pilgrimage, because year after year it bring many more pilgrims to Iasi city. In time, it could become an important place of pilgrimage at European level.

  6. Experiencing and Teaching Pilgrimage in a Sacred Spaces Course

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    Thomas J. Sienkewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of an integrated studies curriculum at the author’s college, all juniors must take a Reflections course in which students consider personal values and analyze familiar and unfamiliar systems of thought and belief, in order to explore their own and others’ ideas about the ultimate meaning and purposes of life. “Sacred Places Past and Present”, is a course designed to fulfil this requirement. This course focuses on a number of important religious sites in the ancient Mediterranean and in the modern world, including the Parthenon, Olympia, Delphi, Stonehenge, and Muir Woods. These places are compared and contrasted in terms of what makes them sacred. Two pilgrimage experiences are part of this course: the hajj to Mecca and the Camino de Santiago de Compostela. In the past, the unit on the Camino focused on Emilio Estevez’s 2010 film “The Way”; however, during the summer of 2016, the author walked the Camino de Santiago. As a result, the course was substantially revised to reflect the author’s own personal experiences as a pilgrim. In particular, Paulo Coelho’s The Pilgrimage was incorporated into the course and students were given an opportunity to participate in a one-day pilgrimage walk in western Illinois.

  7. Legendary genealogies of Byzantine Emperors and their families

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    Krsmanović Bojana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the Byzantine Emperor was, just like in the times of the Roman Empire, chosen on the basis of his personal qualities and merits — by the grace of God, of course. Practically, the factors which determined the ascension of a person to the throne were much more complex, the methods of gaining power being multifarious. In consequence, the political philosophy was confronted with the question of whether it is virtue (aretç or origin (génoz that defines an Emperor. Independently of this rather theoretical question, however, and despite the claims that the personal qualities are decisive in the choice of the Emperor, the origin of the ruler played an important role in the consciousness of the Byzantines of all epochs. This is why great attention was paid to the creation of family trees, especially in the cases when the Emperor was of low origin (homo novus or when it was for some reason necessary to strengthen his legitimacy. The choice of the genealogy was not random: since it carried a clear political message, it was of utmost importance with whom the Emperor in power would be associated and whose historical deeds or legendary personality would serve as a moral model. Also important is the fact that the search of a "good family" was as a rule triggered by the need to confirm one's own virtue. Thus, genealogies often reflect a certain system of values, usually emphasizing morality, courage in war, care for the welfare of the country, piety, etc. The choice of the archetype depended, of course, on the needs of the ruler for whom the genealogy was created. All this allows us to consider legendary genealogies as an expression of the imperial ideology. Notwithstanding their chronological diversity, the Byzantine imperial genealogies display very similar characteristics, i.e. they contain stereotypical elements, many of which had been established already in the first centuries of the Eastern Empire. In the early Byzantine period, when

  8. BESSARABIAN RELIGIOUS MUSIC OF BYZANTINE TRADITION REFLECTED IN AUTOCHTHONOUS MUSICOLOGY

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    BARBANOI HRISTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article below presents an overview of the main musicological studies that aim Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition, developed by musicologists from the Republic of Moldova and Romania. The author emphasizes the idea that although the study of Byzantine religious music in the Bessarabian space is carried out by a limited number of people, their research results deserve attention, being of high scientific value. Some of these results are even internationally recognized. At the same time, the author notes that Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition is not sufficiently researched.

  9. Arab-Byzantine War, 629-644 AD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunselman, David E

    2007-01-01

    .... In the course of just a few years the Arabs had conquered the valuable territories of modern day Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon from the Byzantines who in turn withdrew to Anatolia after great losses...

  10. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE BYZANTINE PORTRAIT ART

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    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the Christian faith, Byzantine art has attached special meaning to the representation of the human figure. Grounded on aesthetic principles, the artistic representation of the human face relinquished on the physical materiality of the represented model, searching for its essences and resemblances to the divine world. Subject to specific representation rules, Byzantine portraiture bears a series of peculiar characteristics that mark it out among other images of this kind belonging to other spirituality areas, periods and artistic styles. Both in icons, where it highlights a series of particular significances describing the divine nature of saints, and in other fields of Byzantine arts – such as mural painting or mosaic –the portrait stands out due to its importance. This paper intends to present a few of the defining characteristics of portraiture in Byzantine art, exemplifying the evolution of this artistic genre by analysing some of the most representative creations of this field.

  11. The Cosmological Potential of Byzantine Ascetic Aesthetics

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    Аndrey Tsarenok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the peculiarities of the cosmological senses, which exist in Byzantine ascetic aesthetical doctrine. Underlining the obvious strong connection between theological aesthetics, ontology and cosmology, the author of the article points out the interpretation of world’s beauty, order and harmony by representatives of ascetic culture of Byzantium (sts. Grigoriy the Theologian, Grigoriy, bishop of Niss, Ioann Chrysostom, Ioann Damaskin, Simeon the New Theologian and others. The aesthetics of the asceticism is characterized as theocentrical ontology of beauty. Its development has been influenced by theism, trinitary monotheism and theocentrism of Christian world-view tradition. The theologians speak about the existence of the Highest Absolute Beauty, Who is the cause of the beautiful things in created reality. The impressive qualities of cosmos are considered as evidence of being of their Almighty Creator. Therefore, the sensual cognition can help believer in his or her search of God. At the same time, ascetic aesthetics prevents from unreasonable enjoying of the sensual (material, somatic beauty for such enjoying is able to make the true person’s spiritual perfection impossible. Moreover, according to Christian theology, absolutization of the cosmical beauty regularly distorts the person’s belief: Byzantine ascetics point out the “aesthetical” cause of paganism appearance. Appealing to Bible, theologians differentiate two periods in history of cosmos, which can be interpreted as the pre-sin and the post-sin ones. The beginning of visible world existence was marked with being of original beauty, order and harmony, but the transgression, committed by the first people, distorted the cosmos to a great degree. Acknowledging of this sorrowful fact does not ruin quite an optimistic character of ascetic aesthetical, ontological and cosmological conceptions of Byzantium. According to them, the beauty of Universe will be completely

  12. Diverse Legal Significance of a Document in Byzantine Private Law

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    Tamara M. Matović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Byzantine, Graeco-Roman, law is the organic continuation of Roman law. However, the legal system itself, and many legal institutions in it, had gone through certain evolution. In this article, by researching Greek acts conserved in various monastic arhives, and confronting them with stipulations in the Byzantine law codes, we question the issues of consensuality of a contract, form of a legal deed, and acquisation of a real right in Byzantine private law. The nature of contracts in Byzantine law has not been sufficiently studied. Richful theoretical studies had been written in regards to the contract of purchase in Roman and Justinians law, however various and sometimes confronting information from the later Greek codes did not give definite answers to this question. Byzantine codices on this theme encompass already familiar stipulations and legal institutes. The attention of the lawgiver was on the notary system, on the mechanism which produced a written instrument. We believe that the issue of the παράδοσις δι̉ ἐγγράφου was not sufficiently highlighted in the field of Byzantine studies mostly due to the lack of information in the sources. However, when regarding the Athonite documents, it can be seen that the formulae describing the act of law transfer could be concidered as a relevant material to comment on this legal institute.

  13. Pilgrimage, Past and Present. Norwegian Perspectives with emphasis on Santiago de Compostela

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    Roger Jensen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the phenomenon of pilgrimage from a Norwegian perspective, exemplified by the past and present role and significance of Santiago de Compostela as a holy site and destination for pilgrims. By taking a historical view, the transformation of meaning and role is stressed. In the Middle Ages, Santiago was an important pilgrimage destination for people living in Northern Europe. Following the subsequent Protestant Reformation and the era of confessionalization, Santiago came to exemplify all the problems and challenges related to pilgrimage and the name of the city became a derogatory word. From this background, the present-day rediscovery of pilgrimage in Norway and the role of the city of Santiago, as the foremost example of the renaissance of the pilgrimage phenomena in present day postmodern times, are discussed. It is argued that the “rehabilitation” of Santiago and the new interest in pilgrimage in Norway were made possible due to the redefinition of pilgrimage that has taken place on what can be characterized as an ideological level. It is a redefinition that reflects the postmodern renaissance of pilgrimage and which is documented in recent social scientific empirical studies on the Camino.

  14. A Japanese media pilgrimage to a Tasmanian bakery

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    Craig Norris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A small bakery in regional Tasmania, Australia, has been reimagined as a pop culture destination by Japanese tourists who claim it is the inspiration for a key location in the anime Kiki's Delivery Service. To understand how and why Japanese tourists have located this bakery in the imaginary world of Kiki, two processes are explored: the media pilgrimage, where fans bridge their ordinary reality and enter the special media world, and the media scaffold, where Kiki becomes a way to interpret the world around them.

  15. Religious Landscape and Ecological Ethics: Pilgrimage to the Lithuanian Calvaries

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    Darius Liutikas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the ecology of pilgrimage at the Calvaries – Ways of the Cross – in Lithuania. Personal obligations to nature and respect of sacred place intermingle with devotional practices and certain rituals. Large scale arrivals at the Calvaries only occurs at certain times of year, mostly during the Indulgence Feasts. Devotional practices such as meditation on the suffering of Christ, prayers and hymns, playing musical instruments, washing one’s face at the Cedron spring are quite common during the Way. Research shows that walking the Way of the Cross doesn’t cause negative environmental, cultural and social impacts. Moreover, pilgrimage could be beneficial to local communities - providing opportunities to sell handcraft products, to meet relatives and friends. Visiting Calvaries is a religious act restrained by time: usually it takes about 3-4 hours to undertake the Stations of the Cross, about one hour to celebrate Holy Mass, and up to one hour at the market place buying religious memorabilia and other souvenirs.

  16. Lycanthropy in Byzantine times (AD 330-1453).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsiamis, C; Panteleakos, L G; Ploumpidis, D

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, the original Greek language texts of the Byzantine medical literature about lycanthropy are reviewed. The transformation of a human being into a wolf and the adoption of animal-like behaviour, which were already known from mythology and had been presented in the scientific works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians, were examined by six Byzantine physicians and explained as a type of melancholic depression or mania. In spite of the influence of Byzantine medicine, its rationality in the interpretation of lycanthropy was forgotten in medieval and Renaissance times when it was replaced by explanations based on demonic possession and witchcraft. More recently psychiatry has treated the phenomenon as a subject of medical inquiry and has again explained the condition in terms of mental disorder.

  17. A consistent time frame for Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrimage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, K. R.

    2001-08-01

    A consistent time frame for the pilgrimage that Geoffrey Chaucer describes in The Canterbury Tales can be established if the seven celestial assertions related to the journey mentioned in the text can be reconciled with each other and the date of April 18 that is also mentioned. Past attempts to establish such a consistency for all seven celestial assertions have not been successful. The analysis herein, however, indicates that in The Canterbury Tales Chaucer accurately describes the celestial conditions he observed in the April sky above the London(Canterbury region of England in the latter half of the fourteenth century. All seven celestial assertions are in agreement with each other and consistent with the April 18 date. The actual words of Chaucer indicate that the Canterbury journey began during the 'seson' he defines in the General Prologue and ends under the light of the full Moon on the night of April 18, 1391.

  18. On pilgrimage with biblical women in their land(s

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    Elaine M. Wainwright

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent sociological and anthropological studies have provided models for examining pilgrimage both in its ancient and contemporary manifestations. Such models can facilitate an examination of the phenomenon of study tours to biblical lands and the multivalence of the discourses associated with such tours. The first part of the article engaged critically with the literature in order to open up some frameworks for examining the study tour to biblical lands. Feminist critical biblical scholarship with its potential for a feminist hermeneutic of creative imagination contributes to the multivalence around the study tour. Therefore, the second part of the article engaged this scholarship in relation to an imagined tour with women of the biblical lands. The article highlighted significant issues for consideration for those planning a study tour of biblical lands, especially in terms of the consideration that ought to be paid to gender.

  19. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

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    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  20. Pilgrimage and Pilgrim Hierarchies in Vernacular Discourse: Comparative Notes from the Camino de Santiago and Glastonbury

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    Tiina Sepp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false This article is based on my fieldwork conducted in two important destinations in the spiritual landscape of European vernacular religion – the Camino de Santiago (pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain, and Glastonbury in southwest England. In this comparison between modern expressions of pilgrimage, I look into the power relationships that exist on the pilgrimage, describe how hierarchies of pilgrims are created and maintained, and reflect on the meaning of the words pilgrim and pilgrimage. The co-existence of the different belief systems of Christianity and New Age and the conflicts and tension between them will be explored. I will also examine discourse around competing male and female energies. 

  1. Mission and/or conversion: strategies of Byzantine diplomacy

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    Marius Telea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The religious element has always represented, inevitably, a feature of Byzantine diplomacy, offering it the instruments necessary for a fruitful dialogue with the pagan peoples in Eastern Europe. As one could notice, the classical policies of Constantinople involved different strategies, as well as exorbitant expenses, which did not always ensure long-term peace. On the other hand, religion operated at an abstract level, and in the medieval mentality, celebrating rituals such as baptism or marriage to a Byzantine Porphyrogenita established a stronger connection than the one constituted through peace treaties. Although one cannot assert a decisive opinion concerning the spread of eastern Christianity, whether it was a purpose of the external Byzantine politics or just a means of obtaining peace, one thing is certain: preaching the Gospel represented a diplomatic practice with an immense power of persuasion. These successes of the mission patronized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople, especially in the IXth and Xth centuries show us that in this direction, the Byzantines were one step ahead of the Western world.

  2. Contesting Conceptual Boundaries: Byzantine Literature and Its History

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    Panagiotis A. Agapitos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems of writing a history of Byzantine literature in the context of postmodern anxieties about canonization, authority and narrative histories of literature. An essential difficulty for such a project is the fact that Byzantine literature has been viewed as a continuation of or appendix to Ancient Greek literature, while, on the other, it has been divided into 'learned' and 'vernacular', the latter category having been defined as Modern Greek since the middle of the nineteenth century. The paper offers two sets of criteria for establishing new concepts of periodization and taxonomy. A series of examples are indicatively adduced in order to explain the scientific and ideological impasse in which Byzantine Studies have found themselves at the end of the previous century, while delineating a proposal for a different approach to content and structure of a wider synthesis. Writing a ‘new’ history of Byzantine literature is an experiment in proposing a radical paradigm shift by means of which this particular literary production in Medieval Greek can be studied within the broader context of Medieval European literatures as an integrated entity rather than as a separate and peripheral phase in the histories of Ancient or Modern Greek literature.

  3. The Effect of the Sasanian-Byzantine Wars (A.D. 603-628 on the Collapse of Sasanian Empire

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    Mehrdad Ghodrat Dizaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sasanian Empire in the early 7th century AD, due to long years of wars with Byzantine Empire (603-626 AD and its later defeat, lost its military and defensive strength, and went through a political crisis. Before this time, based on numismatic studies, it was revealed that following this defeat, only some provinces of the empire minted coins in the name of the Sasanian emperors, and it shows that other provinces were out of Sasanian’s control. Furthermore, literary sources have illustrated that Arab regions of the Sasanian Empire, after Sasanian’s defeat from Byzantine were out of Sasanian’s rule. The author, in this article has showed that according to archeological and numismatic evidence, Azerbaijan province which was the scene of Sasanian-Byzantine battlefield, received the most damages, and since about 623 AD was out of Sasanian’s control. The fall of the Sasanian hegemony in the provinces, was undoubtedly an important factor in weakening of Sasanian military and financial power and consequently contributed considerably to its defeat by Arab Muslims. This factor had also a significant role in Arabs’ penetration in the provinces which were out of Sasanian rule

  4. L’impératrice byzantine et la cour (XIIIe-XVe siècle

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    Malamut Élisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the Byzantine empress and the court in the empire of the Lascarides and under the Palaiologoi. It studies the arrival of the Byzantine imperial princess, the ceremonial of her marriage and her coronation. All sources emphasize the prokypsis of the newly crowned bride and the role of the mother-in-law. Orthodox ceremony remains in force and the latitude granted to the early fifteenth century Latin princesses to dispense appears not to be respected. Then the author examines clothing and insignia of the Empress of the time of the Palaiologoi, then questions the role of the Empress in the march of the empire: receiving the women at the court, assistance at the counseling, at last in her presence in urban life. Finally it seems that the empresses from the West kept with them the retinue that had accompanied them from their country of origin and practiced a way of life freer than the princesses that came from the Orthodox world. The author concludes with the «noise of the Gynekeion».

  5. This-worldly and other-worldly: a holocaust pilgrimage

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    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This story is about a kind of pilgrimage, which is connected to the course of events which occurred in Częstochowa on 22 September 1942. In the morning, the German Captain Degenhardt lined up around 8,000 Jews and commanded them to step either to the left or to the right. This efficient judge from the police force in Leipzig was rapid in his decisions and he thus settled the destinies of thousands of people. After the Polish Defensive War of 1939, the town (renamed Tschenstochau had been occupied by Nazi Germany, and incorporated into the General Government. The Nazis marched into Częstochowa on Sunday, 3 September 1939, two days after they invaded Poland. The next day, which became known as Bloody Monday, approximately 150 Jews were shot deadby the Germans. On 9 April 1941, a ghetto for Jews was created. During World War II about 45,000 of the Częstochowa Jews were killed by the Germans; almost the entire Jewish community living there.The late Swedish Professor of Oncology, Jerzy Einhorn (1925–2000, lived in the borderhouse Aleja 14, and heard of the terrible horrors; a ghastliness that was elucidated and concretized by all the stories told around him. Jerzy Einhorn survived the ghetto, but was detained at the Hasag-Palcery concentration camp between June 1943 and January 1945. In June 2009, his son Stefan made a bus tour between former camps, together with Jewish men and women, who were on this pilgrimage for a variety of reasons. The trip took place on 22–28 June 2009 and was named ‘A journey in the tracks of the Holocaust’. Those on the Holocaust tour represented different ‘pilgrim-modes’. The focus in this article is on two distinct differences when it comes to creed, or conceptions of the world: ‘this-worldliness’ and ‘other- worldliness’. And for the pilgrims maybe such distinctions are over-schematic, though, since ‘sacral fulfilment’ can be seen ‘at work in all modern constructions of travel, including

  6. Antonio Muñoz (1884-1960 and the history of Byzantine illumination: a new field of research in Italy under the aegis of Adolfo Venturi

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    Giovanni Gasbarri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Muñoz (1884-1960 is usually remembered for his successful career in the administration and conservation of the monumental heritage in Rome during the Fascist era. His brief yet relevant activity as a Byzantinist is often underestimated in the secondary literature, despite the fact that, before the 1914-18 war, he was unanimously considered as the most promising Italian specialist in Byzantine art. From 1903 onwards, after completing his studies with Adolfo Venturi, Muñoz developed an interest in Byzantine illumination, which became his primary area of expertise. At this early stage, his most important work was without doubt the new edition of the Rossano Gospels (1907, which was internationally praised as a significant step forward in the history of Byzantine illumination. With the support of previously unpublished or little-known documents, this article aims to provide a new critical analysis of Muñoz’s research on Byzantine illumination, as well as a more balanced evaluation of its impact on the scholarly community at the turn of the twentieth century.

  7. Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based on Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ittai; Malkhi, Dahlia; Nayak, Kartik; Ren, Ling; Spiegelman, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time. Another chal- lenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. To address these challenges, we propose Solida, a decentralized blockchain protocol based on reconfigurable Byzantine consensus augmented by proof-of-work. Solida improves on Bitcoin...

  8. Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based on Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ittai; Malkhi, Dahlia; Nayak, Kartik; Ren, Ling; Spiegelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time. Another challenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. To address these challenges, we propose Solida, a decentralized blockchain protocol based on reconfigurable Byzantine consensus augmented by proof-of-work. Solida improves on Bitcoin i...

  9. Accessibility improvement interventions realised in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, Greece

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    Aristotelis Naniopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Access to culture is a fundamental right of people with disabilities and a significant aspect in the development of accessible tourism. A visit to a monument provides an authentic experience which cannot be substituted by any representation. However, any interventions to improve accessibility should be made carefully, so as not to alter the monument�s character, or damage it visually or structurally. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical approach model was defined in the PROSPELASIS project for the improvement of accessibility in monuments which was applied in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki. This approach contains the following steps: evaluation of existing accessibility level; definition of alternative solutions; creation of final studies, approval by archaeological authorities and implementation of interventions. Findings – In six major Byzantine monuments significant improvements were realized which include: installation of two lifts and creation of a new staircase at Acheiropoietos; creation of a metal bridge, a new staircase and installation of a lift at Rotunda; opening of the secondary gate and creation of a ramp at the Heptapyrgion fortress; creation of an accessible toilet at the Saint Demetrios church; installation in the six monuments of a WiFi system providing text and audible information as well as information in Greek and International Sign Language; creation of two tactile models; creation of a �cultural route� connecting three major Byzantine monuments. Originality/value – For the first time, to the knowledge, a set of interventions has been realized in Byzantine monuments focusing on various categories of people with disabilities, i.e. motor, visual, hearing and cognitive.

  10. The Evolution of the Golden Temple of Amritsar into a Major Sikh Pilgrimage Center

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    Rajinder S. Jutla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today the Sikh diaspora encompasses much of the world, having spread from India and Southeast Asia to the Pacific Rim, the Middle East, East Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Sikhism is a monotheistic world religion founded in the 15th century by Guru Nanak. His successors continued his teachings and provided a distinct shape to the Sikh community with a written language, a religious scripture and many institutions. The paper examines the significance of sacred place and the role of pilgrimage according to Sikh scripture. It also explores Sikh attitudes and practices towards pilgrimage through a questionnaire based survey. Finally, the paper investigates how the Golden Temple of Amritsar emerged as a sacred place for Sikhs and how it evolved into a major place of pilgrimage.

  11. Forms of Pilgrimage at the Shrine of Khāled Nabi, Northeastern Iran

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    Mehdi Ebadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pilgrimage (religious tourism is one of the fastest growing forms of tourism. Nevertheless, there is still a gap between abstract theory and empirical research about this form of tourism in the literature. This dearth of tourism studies is even more glaring in the field of Ziyārat or pilgrimage in Islam which in spite of its importance and wide extended practice have been mostly ignored in tourism and geographic literature. The present study features one such area that is (almost unknown within the community of tourism and geography researchers. In Iran, religious pilgrimage has a long tradition. Numerous sacred places with varieties of rituals and traditions, which practice among the pilgrims all around the country, indicate on its antiquity (before Islamic periods. Among the most practiced forms of religious pilgrimage are the visits to several thousands of shrines, which are known in Iran as Ziyāratgah (lit. place of visit or Imāmzādeh. One of these Ziyāratgah is the pre-Islamic shrine of Khāled Nabi (also known as Halat Nabi, which belong to a legendary Christian holy man of the 6th A.D. The shrine lies in the northeastern Iranian province of Golestan, in a region called Turkmen-Sahra. Despite its relative remote setting, every year more than 90,000 travellers do visit this shrine. This article seeks to consider varieties of pilgrimage forms at the shrine. The results of the study shows that the travelers of Khāled Nabi shrine are not homogenous and comprise of different types of visitors. In addition to secular motivations, based on the visitors’ inventives, three zones/forms of pilgrimage, namely, ‘‘religious pilgrims’’, ‘‘cultural pilgrims’’, ‘‘nostalgic pilgrims’’have been recognized.

  12. Female incompetence, misogyny and xenophobia, or a faulty marital policy on the part of the late Byzantine emperors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melichar, Petra

    74, 2016 (2016), s. 58-70 ISSN 0007-7712. [Lives Roles and Actions of the Byzantine Empress es. Praha, 11.09.2015-12.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-08304P Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Byzantine empress es * Late Byzantine empire * medieval women Subject RIV: AB - History

  13. [The establishment of the hospital-system in the Byzantine Empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, László

    2011-01-01

    Byzantine hospitals developed out of Christian institutions for the poor and homeless. Philanthropy provided the initial impulse to create hospices (xenons) and to expand these institutions into specialized medical centers (iatreons or nosokomeions). However the Byzantine nosocomeions resemble more closely modern hospitals than they do any of the institutions of Greek-Roman antiquity or any of the houses of charity in the Latin West during the Middle Ages. Since the 4th century the Byzantine hospitals have stressed the central position of the nosocomeion in Byzantine society at the intersection of state, ecclesiastical and professional interest. In the great cities and in the capital, more than hundred hospitals worked in the East-Roman Empire. The Byzantine hospital rules guaranted patients private beds, required physicians to wash their hands after each examination and arranged the physical plant to keep all the sick warm. The Byzantine hospitals had separate sections (in modern terms: surgery-trauma surgery, internal medicine, ophthalmology, etc.) and at the beginning of the sixth century a separate institution for women. From the sixth century at least, bathing facilities normally adjoined Byzantine nosocomeia. By the twelfth century Byzantine hospitals also set aside a room or perhaps a separate building to treat outpatients. In addition to the main dormitories the surgery, baths and outpatient clinic, the large parts of hospitals also had separate rooms (or adjoining buildings) for library, for lecture hall, for administrative functions and record keeping for storage and for other services.

  14. Ritual Journey and Symbolic Journey. Elements of Pilgrimage to the Sufi Saints’ Shrines in Hyderabad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valdinoci, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2008), s. 201-234 ISSN 1970-951X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9021901 Keywords : Islam * saint * pilgrimage Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.fupress.net/index.php/rss/article/download/3175/2787

  15. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014 [In Bulgarian

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    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014. Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  16. Medieval Architectures for Religious Tourism and Hospitality along the Pilgrimage Routes of Northern Italy

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    Silvia Beltramo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sacred spaces are, and have always been, places of reception: hospitality is in fact a precept of God. Many biblical passages remind us of this, such as the one (Gen 18, 4-5 in which Abraham welcomes three guests, washes their feet and offers them a piece of bread and a place to rest under a tree. Saint Benedict too, in chapter 53 of the Rule, insisted on the need to honour pilgrims and travellers, who should be welcomed with a charitable service ready for devotion and stated that all guests who entered the monastery should be received as if they were Christ, washing their hands and feet. The reception of travellers, the sick, and pilgrims in religious centres in the Middle Ages has been one of the cornerstones of the life of many monastic and convent communities scattered throughout the territory. The growing number of domus hospitals and xenodochii, recorded from the early centuries of the Middle Ages until the 15th century, demonstrates the need for them and their widespread dissemination in Italy and Europe. It seems to be possible to identify some phases of this development linked to the different monastic and convent orders that dedicated themselves to relieving the suffering of travellers and the sick. An initial significant presence along the road axes was followed by a subsequent phase of settlement in the major urban centres. Each community had its rules which also influenced the choice of where the sites were positioned, the buildings in which to receive pilgrims and the architectural typologies, often clearly designed to identify the place immediately. The research findings presented here derive from research aimed at identifying religious hospitality architectures through a study of the documentary sources and an analysis of the buildings still preserved in the territory of Northern Italy. In particular, the analysis of the main cases linked to monastic hospitality, such as the Sacra di San Michele – the centre of worship of

  17. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M

    1999-01-01

    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

  18. Digital hajj: the pilgrimage to Mecca in Muslim cyberspace and the issue of religious online authority

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    Dominik Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to give an overview of the different representations of the pilgrimage to Mecca found in the ‘liminal space’ of the internet. For that purpose, it examines a handful of emblematic examples of how the hajj is being presented and discussed in cyberspace. Thereby, special attention shall be paid to the question of how far issues of religious authority are manifest on these websites, whether the content providers of web pages appoint themselves as authorities by scrutinizing established views of the fifth pillar of Islam, or if they upload already printed texts onto their sites in order to reiterate normative notions of the pilgrimage to Mecca, or of they make use of search engine optimisation techniques, thus heightening the very visibility of their online presence and increasing the possibility of becoming authoritative in shaping internet surfers’ perceptions of the hajj.

  19. HANS GEORG BECKAND BYZANTINE THEOLOGY. ON THE OCCASION OF THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS BIRTH

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    PETER SCHREINER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The life of Hans Georg Beck may be divided into two parts. Until 1944, he was known by his religious name of Hildebrand as a Benedictine monk and priest and was the product of a thorough theological education. He then abandoned both the priesthood and the Church and began a university career devoted to Byzantine studies, eventually emerging as one of the most outstanding authorities in his fi eld. In spite of this all, theology remained for him a principle focus of his interest and it guided his entire academic work, even when it was really not expected to play a role. Beck obviously did not want to be theologian but he did much to convince others that “Byzantine studies without any knowledge of Byzantine theology and the Church in the Byzantine Empire is quite a hopeless aff air, however hard one may try”

  20. Kashi and Cosmos: Spatial manifestation and the five pilgrimage journeys of Banaras

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rana P.B., PhD, FJF, FAAI, FACLA; Rana, Pravin S

    2016-01-01

    Historically, Hindu rituals, sacred journeys, festivities, deities and their symmetrical links, have come together to form sacred spatial systems that are still observed by both pilgrims and devotees. These pilgrimage traditions are deeply rooted in local space / place, as well as in the cultural inheritance and mentality of their adherents. This structure is reflected symbolically in the spatial frame of Hinduism in which both complexity and temporal stability meet, mediating between people ...

  1. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE TOURISM FACILITIES WITHIN THE ROMANIAN PILGRIMAGES PLACES

    OpenAIRE

    ?îrca Alexandra-Maria; Stãnciulescu Gabriela Cecilia; Chi? Alexandru

    2010-01-01

    Religious pilgrimages have a real history as economic generators for the visited areas and the elements of supply involved. Romanian monasteries are experiencing some continuous and constant flows of pilgrims, but, at the same time, they also turned into attractions for mass tourism. The aim of this paper is to identify tourism facilities and to establish their development level. The research method of this study was a questionnaire based survey among more than one hundred monasteries' superi...

  2. French Anime and Manga Fans in Japan : Pop culture tourism, media pilgrimage, imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Sabre, Clothilde

    2017-01-01

    Japanese pop culture, particularly anime and manga, have been an important part of the French cultural scene since the 1980s. French fans have created communities that share references about this pop culture and more generally about Japan. This specific imaginary drives some fans to travel to Japan to discover the actual places which appear in their favourite manga/anime. Focusing on the travel experiences of French tourists, this article introduces the notion of media pilgrimage as a useful ...

  3. The Pilgrimage to The San Nicola Shrine in Bari and its Impact

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    Katia Rizzello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pilgrimage is defined as a journey to the Holy but more specifically as an inner journey to one’s deepest religious feelings. This type of journey has assumed new forms and types that bring it closer to modern tourism in general, though it maintains its distinctive characteristics, which will be the object of this paper. These changes in the nature of pilgrimage, which in part reflect the parallel socio-cultural transformation of the average visitor, have brought about a major reorganisation of the places involved and have had a significant socio-economic impact on the territories involved. The concentration of visitors and in some cases the presence of various categories of visit have led to structural changes in holy places and their surroundings. These changes, which arise from the need to meet the requirements of travellers as consumers, in turn have social and environmental impacts on the surrounding area that are similar to those caused by mass tourism. The most evident types of impact are structural, resulting from the creation or expansion of hotel and catering infrastructure and the start-up of new businesses such as travel agencies, specialised tour operators, shops selling religious souvenirs and establishments providing entertainment. All this alters the physiognomy and the layout of the towns where the religious sites are located, in some cases completely transforming the economy of the location and the use of land. The aim of this research is to study pilgrimage flows associated with the cult of Saint Nicholas (San Nicola in Bari, specifically concerning the pilgrimage's main characteristics and the most significant impacts on the district. The study follows a mixed approach that includes participant observation, use of archival documents and empirical evaluation of the material landscape and observed practices.

  4. The Ghriba pilgrimage in the island of Jerba: the semantics of otherness

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    Dora Carpenter-Latiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Jewish pilgrimage to the Ghriba Synagogue on the island of Jerba (or Djerba in Tunisia, with a focus on the semantics of other­ness as it is condensed in the devotion to the Ghriba, the eponym­ous local saint of the synagogue. The author explores the semantics of the pilgrimage to the Ghriba (the ‘stranger saint’ and in particular, the polysemy of the name and the ambivalence of otherness in the Tunisian context, in particular in representations through discourse in the Tunisian Arabic language as shared by Muslims and Jews. She argues that this complex and ambivalent representation is the central meaning of the ritual of the Ghriba pilgrimage, as the negative connotations of otherness are reversed and amplified into the affirmation of a positive, healing ritual, dedicated to the stranger saint as a symbolic allegory of the otherness of the Jewish community as a whole, or as an allegory of the alienated, exiled, marginalized self.

  5. Pilgrimage Experience and Consumption of Travel to the City of Makkah for Hajj Ritual

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    Razaq Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern society which, by definition is increasingly secular and culturally motivated, the Hajj is considered the culmination of each Muslim's religious duty and aspiration. It is stated in the Holy Qur'an, that every physically and financially able Muslim should make the Hajj to the Holy City of Makkah once in his or her lifetime. This paper explores what people do during their pilgrimage, providing a brief description of the principle rites and experiences and their meaning to an individual participants travelling from the USA. The paper will draw upon previously published literature as well as an analysis of findings from a quantitative study in which steps within the pilgrimage process were explored. These findings include participants’ descriptions of the significance and value of the experience which individual pilgrims face during travel to the holy city of Makkah. The results from the quantitative study indicated that the main motivations to attend the annual pilgrimage of Hajj were to fulfil religious obligation, spiritual enhancement and to follow teachings of the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad.

  6. Les aspects matériels de la taxis byzantine The material aspects of the Byzantine taxis

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    Marie‑France Auzépy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La taxis grecque – correspondant exact de l’ordo latin – est un aspect essentiel de la civilisation byzantine : elle organise cette société de manière à ce que celle-ci soit un reflet aussi exact que possible de la société céleste, décrite en particulier par Denys l’Aréopagite. La taxis est donc à la fois précise et contraignante et nous a été transmise dans des livres décrivant le protocole : le De Cerimoniis au Xe siècle, le Traité du pseudo-Kodinos au XIVe siècle. Au cours de cérémonies où tous les aspects matériels – l’habit, la couronne, le trône, les acclamations à la gloire de l’empereur, l’orgue qui les accompagne, les gestes accomplis par l’empereur comme par ceux qui l’entourent – ont un sens, l’Empire byzantin affirme ainsi son équilibre et sa qualité de peuple élu. Jusqu’en 1204, les autres nations ont jalousé la qualité que s’était octroyée l’Empire romain d’Orient : celle d’image de la cour céleste, qui est figurée dans le cérémonial. Cette jalousie a pris d’autres formes après 1453, et l’on s’intéressera aux souverains européens qui, tel Louis XIV, ont voulu faire figure d’héritiers de l’empire défunt et relever ses cérémonies.The Greek taxis(order– the exact equivalent of the Latin ordo – is an essential aspect of Byzantine civilization: it organized society in such a way that it would reflect the celestial society as closely as possible, as has been described by Dionysius the Areopagite. The taxis is therefore both precise and restrictive and has been passed down to us through writings describing the protocol: the De Cerimoniis in the tenth century and the treatise of Pseudo-Kodinos in the fourteenth century. Through ceremonies in which all the material aspects have a meaning – the dress, the crown, the throne, the proclaiming of the glory of the emperor, the accompanying organ, the gestures of the emperor and of those around

  7. The Serbian state in the work of Byzantine historian Doucas

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    Nikolić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While the first two chapters of Doucas's historical work present a meagre outline of world history - a sketch which becomes a little more detailed from 1261 on, when the narration reaches the history of the Turks and their conquests in Asia Minor - the third chapter deals with the well-known battle of Kosovo, which took place in 1389. From that point on, the Byzantine historian gives much important information on Serbia, as well as on the Ottoman advances in the Balkans, and thus embarks upon his central theme - the rise of the Turks and the decline of Byzantium. Doucas considers the battle of Kosovo a key event in the subjugation of the Balkan peoples by the Turks, and he shows that after the battle of Kosovo the Serbs were the first to suffer that fate. At the beginning, Doucas says that after the death of Orhan, the ruler (o archgos of the Turks, his son and successor Murad conquered the Thracian towns, Adrianople and the whole Thessaly, so that he mastered almost all the lands of the Byzantines, and finally reached the Triballi (Triballous. He devastated many of their towns and villages sending the enslaved population beyond Chersonesus, until Lazar, son of King Stefan of Serbia (Serbias, who ruled (kraleyōn in Serbia at that time decided to oppose him with all the might he could muster. The Serbs were often called Triballi by Byzantine authors. For the fourteenth century writers Pachymeres, Gregoras, Metochites and Kantakouzenos the Serbs were Triballi. However, Pachymeres and Gregoras refer to the rulers of the Triballi as the rulers of Serbia. Fifteenth century writers, primarily Chalcondyles and Critobulos, use only that name. It seems, nevertheless, that Doucas makes a distinction between the Triballi and the Serbs. As it is known, the conquest of the Serbian lands by the Turks began after the battle on the river Marica in 1371. By 1387. the Turks had mastered Serres(1388 Bitola and Štip (1385, Sofia (1385, Niš (1386 and several

  8. A New Pilgrimage in Portugal: Following the Steps of Saint Nuno

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    Carla Braga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an ever-changing reality. Pilgrimages need different stimuli to attract new followers. In this context we propose to create an itinerary following the steps of Saint Nuno of Santa Maria, canonized in 2009. Nuno Álvares Pereira was the real name of Saint Nuno, who was granted the title Constable of Portugal, and became a historic legend in the independence wars of Portugal during the political crisis of 1383-1385. After fighting against the power of Castile (Spain he decided to devote his life to religion as a Carmelite Friar. He represents the perfect hero of the Middle Ages - associating military prowess with a religious character. Our proposal is to create a religious itinerary based on facts of Saint Nuno’s life, so that any visitor may easily discover the country following the steps of this saint who was deeply devoted to the Virgin - in fact, all temples he founded and restored were dedicated to Our Lady. One of his most famous foundations is the Carmelite Convent in Lisbon, which long after his death was an outstanding popular pilgrimage place, and today is still a strong visitor attraction. This exploratory study is based on literature review and text analyses about religious tourism, itinerary design and the life of the saint. The fieldwork includes acknowledging the different sites related to the saint. We believe that it is possible to create an original religious itinerary in Portugal, which will attract not only foreigners but also domestic visitors, increasing the ‘Production and Consumption of the Pilgrimage Tourism Experience’.

  9. Croatian Pilgrimages to Loreto from the 5000 Documents of the "Croatian Maritime Regesta" in the 18th Century - vol. I

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    Zrinka Podhraški Čizmek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small part of the pilgrimages undertaken by Croats during the 18th century across the Adriatic Sea to Loreto. The pilgrimages are described as a sui generis phenomenon of all human and religious societies. The history of the Catholic pilgrimage is analyzed through the perspective of common roots with Judaism and Islam, and the subsequent differentiation from other Christian confessions. Relations of the Croats with overseas territories since the 14th century are described, as well as their settlement in the hinterland of Ancona: Recanati and Loreto. The story of the Shrine of the Our Lady of Loreto is presented, the ties with the Croats settled there, and the foundation of a special seminary for Croats in 1580: the Illyrian College. During the review of the 4,890 documentary sources of volume I of the Croatian Maritime Regesta, a smaller segment of sources was found from the State Archive of Venice on the subject of pilgrimages. These sources list 44 pilgrimages from various locations on the Croatian coast. The types of ships they traveled on, the origin of the passengers, their number, organization in groups, the time of pilgrimage and the time of the year in which they occurred are analyzed. The most numerous pilgrims are from Lošinj (Lussino, followed by Cres (Cherso, Dugi Otok (Isola Lunga, Rovinj (Rovigno, Labin (Albona, Korčula (Curzola, Zadar (Zara and Vis (Lissa.This work is a contribution to the study of the links between the two sides of the Adriatic in the 18th century, which requires further publication and analysis of documentary sources.

  10. The Idea of Dialogue, Trust and Reconciliation in the Pilgrimage of Trust on Earth

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    Katarzyńska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the Pilgrimage of Trust on Earth organized by the brothers of Taizé Community as an event building a relationship of dialogue, trust and reconciliation between nations and cultures. The article features an in-depth discussion of the elements of youth meetings and their impact on developing an attitude of dialogue and trust. We will briefly discuss the means used by the brothers to develop a dialogue between people, as well as the methods of spreading the idea of dialogue, trust and solidarity in interpersonal and international relations.

  11. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE TOURISM FACILITIES WITHIN THE ROMANIAN PILGRIMAGES PLACES

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    Chis Alexandru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious pilgrimages have a real history as economic generators for the visited areas and the elements of supply involved. Romanian monasteries are experiencing some continuous and constant flows of pilgrims, but, at the same time, they also turned into attractions for mass tourism. The aim of this paper is to identify tourism facilities and to establish their development level. The research method of this study was a questionnaire based survey among more than one hundred monasteries superiors from different regions of Romania, places known as holy destinations for the Romanian religious people.

  12. Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaratos, J; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Marketos, S

    1999-06-01

    Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content.

  13. Menander Protector. History: On the Turkish Embassy to the Persians and Byzantines in 568 A.C. (translation and commentary

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    Olesia Zhdanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents annotated translation from ancient Greek into Russian of the book of Menander Protector. In this text Menander Protector describes first the Turkish embassy to the Persians, and then to the Byzantines. The Great Turkic Khanate was the first Steppe empire in history. The relationship between Turkic Khanate and Byzantine Empire began from the middle of 6th century, parallel to the establishment of the Steppe empire. The purpose of the first Turkish embassies to the Byzantines was conclusion of an alliance against the Persians. Since the end of the 4th century Sassanid Empire and Byzantium challenged each other for the territory of Armenia, part of Georgia and the lands of southern Arabia. At the same time the Byzantine Empire’s relationship with the barbarians in the West were problematic. In addition it was going through a difficult economical and political period inside Empire. Another side of antagonism between Persian and Byzantine Empire was silk trade. Persian Empire had a monopoly on it. Byzantine Empire was in dire need of silk and was forced to buy it overpriced. Turks had silk and proposed it to Byzantines at a bargain price. This article contains the view of the problems of relationship between European Byzantine and Asian Nomadic civilizations in terms of Byzantine author. Previously the Russian translation of Menander Protector was done in the middle of the 19th century by Spiridon Destunis. However, his translation was fragmented and unprofessional containing many imprecisions. Our versions have many rectifications and important comments to some elements of Nomadic and Byzantine style of life. This research should help to understand some part of life, customs and diplomacy of ancient Turks.

  14. The schemata of the stars Byzantine astronomy from 1300 A.D.

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, E A

    1998-01-01

    Most of the knowledge of ancient Greek science survived through Byzantine codices. A short Byzantine article, extant in three manuscripts, contains advanced astronomical ideas and pre-Copernican diagrams; it presents improvements on ancient and medieval astronomy. This important book includes the edited version and translation of the text and analyzes its content. It surveys the development of astronomical models from Ptolemy to Byzantium and compares them mathematically with several works of Arab astronomers, as well as with the heliocentric system of Copernicus and Newton.

  15. Experiences in adapting post-byzantine chant into foreign languages: Research and praxis

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    Olkinuora Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current state of the research and practical methodology of the adaptation of Byzantine melodies written in the “New Method” into foreign languages, with Romanian, English and Finnish serving as examples. The adaptation of independent, “fixed” melodies as well as metrical liturgical texts (prosomoia and canons are examined. The challenges emerging in adapting Byzantine chant into Finnish are also discussed. The author also suggests some future subjects for research, which include the synthesis of examining arrangements in both “Old” and “New Method”.

  16. Short Notes on the Prosopography of the Byzantine Theme of Koloneia (Part I

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    Pantelis CHARALAMPAKIS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, the first part of two, presents short notes and comments on the officials of the Byzantine theme of Koloneia. Two Byzantine lead seals are published here for the first time. One belongs to Leon, krites of Koloneia, the other to Michael, anagrapheus and krites of Koloneia and Sebasteia. The lost inscription of Ioannes, droungarios of Koloneia is also presented here, together with a previously unnoticed reference to another droungarios in the Passio of the 42 Martyrs of Amorion. The lists of the kritai and strategoi of Koloneia are completed on the basis of recently discovered and published, but also unpublished evidence.

  17. Byzantine-fault tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A rapid Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol that self-stabilizes from any state, tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a linear convergence time with respect to the self-stabilization period. Upon self-stabilization, all good clocks proceed synchronously. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  18. Outward Bound with Ayyappan: Work, Masculinity, and Self-Respect in a South Indian Pilgrimage Festival

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    Elizabeth (Liz Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The annual pilgrimage festival dedicated to the god Ayyappan has become immensely popular in the past sixty years. As many as fifty million pilgrims participate each year. This paper draws on interviews of pilgrims conducted in South India in 2012–2013. My fieldwork suggests that the increasing popularity of the event relates to the contemporary South Indian work environment, an environment in which traditional gender roles are being reshaped by the challenges posed by migration for work opportunities. Interviews of English-speaking pilgrims show that their interpretations of the pilgrimage festival highlight the complexities of manhood in a time of rapidly changing work roles for men and women. Specifically, my fieldwork demonstrates that pilgrims perceive Ayyappan as a source of aid for those who struggle to succeed as financial providers and heads of the family unit. Pilgrims anxious about the loss of traditional models of masculinity amidst rapid change find solace in the blessings the god Ayyappan yields.

  19. Embracing complexity: the post-secular pilgrimage of Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt

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    Ruth Illman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the phenomenon of pilgrimage as a personal transformative process; an exploration of spiritual space rather than a journey undertaken to a physical place. The analysis focuses on the life story and authorship of the novelist and playwright Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt (b. 1960. Schmitt began his career as an academic philosopher specialised in enlightenment rationality. A mystical experience in the deserts of Sahara, however, opened his eyes to the spiritual dimensions of reality and encouraged him to redirect his professional strivings from academic writing to fiction. Today, Schmitt has reached a world-wide audience with his plays and novels on interreligious dialogue, especially the series of five short novellas called Le cycle d’Invisible. These narratives all deal with inter-religious encounters in a complex and compassionate way as Schmitt is particularly concerned with preserving the mystery of the situations he describes. The atheist conviction of his previous life has thus given way to an agnostic and mystically inspired world view focusing on diversity, divinity and inexplicability: “I am obsessed with complexity”, as he puts it himself. The presentation is based on ethnographic material, and key themes to be addressed include pilgrimage as a spiritual journey, interreligious encounters and mystical experiences.

  20. A Byzantine chant collection from Sicily: a collaboration between Copenhagen and Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the collaboration between a collector of the Byzantine chant tradition of Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo) in Sicily, namely fr. Bartolomeo Di Salvo, and the editorial board of the Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, i.e. an institution under the aegis...

  1. The Byzantine Office  for the Translation of Saint Nicholas to Bari (AD 1087)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The contribution includes a historical introduction, transcriptions of selections of the music and tranlations of the texts for the Byzantine office composed on the occasion of the translation of the relics of St Nicholas to Bari in AD 1087. Texts and music is interpreted in relation...

  2. Western European influences on Post-Byzantine panel painting technique through binding media identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloumpi, E.; Lawson, G.; Pavlidis, B.

    2006-01-01

    Post-Byzantine is called the period after the invasion of the Ottomans in Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium in 1453, which lasted until the establishment of the first Greek State in 1836. The Post - Byzantine era is one of the most important artistic periods of the Neo-Hellenic Pictorial Art, since, through cultural exchanges with Western Europe, it sets the fundaments for oil painting. The thematology changes from religious to civil, the technique changes from egg yolk to egg-oil emulsion in order to end up to pure oil painting and finally, it opens 'the gates' for the modern artistic movements of the world. The current research is focused on the study of the effects of western influences on the technique and pictorial characteristics of the post-Byzantine icons by the study of any changes in the pigment's binding media through scientific analyses (SEM-EDX, micro-FTIR and GC), as well as of any changes in the painting style of the icons through comparison with both Byzantine and western painting standards. Research never ends and the results of this work give rise to further analysis, in order to throw some light to this transitional period of art. (Author)

  3. Gynaecomastia and scrotal rhacosis: two aesthetic surgical operations for men in Byzantine times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Marios; Manios, Andreas; de Bree, Eelco; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Tsiftsis, Dimitris D

    2010-08-01

    Nowadays, as in the past, much attention is paid to aesthetic operations in women, while only infrequently have such operations been referred to in males. Generally, male aesthetic surgery was introduced to surgical practise during the 19th century. In this study, we analysed the practise of such operations in Byzantine times and in other ancient cultures with surgical knowledge, i.e. ancient India and China The sixth book of Paul of Aegina's "Epitome of Medicine" was studied for description of aesthetic operations in males in the Byzantine period, since this book is completely devoted to surgery and is generally considered to be the most important reference for surgery in Byzantine times. The original text and its excellent translation by Francis Adams were used. References concerning aesthetic operations for males were identified. Accordingly, historical work and reviews on plastic surgery in ancient India and China were studied. Mainly, two aesthetic surgical procedures for males in the Byzantine period were identified. These two procedures comprise gynaecomastia and rhacosis (scrotal relaxation). Two different techniques were reported for the surgical management of gynaecomastia, through sub-mammary or supra-mammary access. Two procedures were noted for rhacosis, for which Paul of Aegina reproduced the respective chapters from Leonides' and Antyllus' works. Evidence supporting male aesthetic surgery in ancient India and China or elsewhere was not found. Despite the dubious aesthetic result, the existence of different aesthetic surgical techniques in males substantiate the advanced level of surgery achieved by physicians in the Byzantine period. Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bearing Witness to the Inhuman at M? Lai: Museum, Ritual, Pilgrimage

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    Roy Tamashiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the Son M? Memorial and Museum and its associated community activities and programs commemorate and memorialize the 1968 M? Lai Massacre and its aftermath. The museum provides space for reflection and bearing witness to the profound suffering in the Massacre. B'earing witness' means reliving or remembering and coming to know an experience, especially a traumatic one like M? Lai. Witness bearers are both those reporting first-hand experiences and memories, and those listening to and learning about the experiences. When locals and visitors alike participate in the activities and rituals at Son M?, in pilgrimages to M? Lai, or in touring the memorial and museum, an opportunity is available to recognize the “existential legitimacy” of the events, experiences, and memories. Bearing witness can open pathways to individual and societal healing as well as identity redefinition.

  5. To Arrive Is to Begin: Benjamin Sáenz's Carry Me Like Water and the Pilgrimage of Origin in the Borderlands

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    Alberto López Pulido

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the "pilgrimage of origin" as presented in Benjamin Sáenz's novel Carry Me Like Water . As is the case with other ethnic literature, Carry Me Like Water teaches us that we must first go back before we can move forward and transform our lives. By pilgrimage of origin I make reference to a journey where participants are required to return to the past and the familiar. Unlike the more commonly described linear pilgrimage experience where participants are required to travel beyond the range of their familiar space, the pilgrimage of origin obligates participants to return to their sacred sources of origin and to interpret and experience them in new and transformative ways. Through the character of María Elena developed by Sáenz, Carry Me Like Water represents a "lyric" for explaining and understanding the unique dimensions of Chicana/o experiences in the borderlands.

  6. Two hegemonies, one island: Cyprus as a “Middle Ground” between the Byzantines and the Arabs (650-850 A.D.

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    Luca Zavagno

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the political and cultural status of the island of Cyprus as the only place within the Mediterranean where Christian heirs of Romans and Muslims shared the local tax revenue to create a buffer zone between two empires. Geographically isolated between the Constantinopolitan and Damascene hegemonies, and marginalized by emperors and caliphs alike, the development of Cyprus was destined to take a unique, perhaps problematic, trajectory. Detailed examination of archaeological material (seals, coins, ceramics and material artifacts suggests a different interpretative scheme to the one traditionally adopted to interpret the declining fate of Cyprus after the Muslim raids and the occupation of Syria and Palestine. Instead, I propose, Cyprus and its cities were still active from late antiquity to the early middle ages, preserving a variable but still traceable degree of economic vitality (benefitting from the circulation of Byzantine and Arab coinage, which infers the maintenance of complex political, commercial and cultural relations (implicit in issues of imagery and prototypes of coins between the Byzantine Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate.

  7. [A development of Byzantine Christian charities during the 4(th)-7(th) centuries and the birth of the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and

  8. Holy land, lost lands, Realpolitik. Imperial Byzantine thinking about Syria and Palestine in the later 10th and 11th centuries

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    Shepard, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews Byzantine attitudes and state policy towards the region between Antioch and Mount Sinai, stressing the general cautiousness of imperial strategy and, from the late tenth century onwards, the government’s preference for peaceful coexistence and commerce with the Fatimid caliphate. Caliph al-Ḥākim’s destruction of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009 did not overturn this state of affairs, and the main bone of contention between Cairo and Constantinople was the city of Aleppo, not Jerusalem. Even here, the two powers were inclined to leave the initiative to local parties, rather than insisting on direct rule, and communications between Muslim and Byzantine-ruled territories were mostly fairly straightforward. During the relative détente of the first half of the eleventh century, pilgrimages to the Holy Land increased, and it may well have been primarily in order to impress pilgrims – those travelling from Byzantium itself, but especially those from the Christian west – that emperors lavished resources on reconstructing the church of the Holy Sepulchre in the 1030s and 1040s. Militant intervention on behalf of the Christian populations of south ern Syria and Palestine was not on their agenda. These conclusions rest on the collation of miscellaneous evidence, whose components are mostly well-known but have seldom received consideration side by side. The study highlights the value of trade to Fatimids and Byzantines alike, the esteem for ‘the holy places’ among Byzantines besides westerners, and the emperors’ desire to demonstrate concern for the Holy Sepulchre without jeopardising relations with the FatimidsEste estudio pasa revista a la política oficial del estado bizantino con respecto a la región situada entre Antioquía y el Monte Sinaí, haciendo énfasis en la prudencia adoptada por lo general en la estrategia imperial así como, a partir de finales del siglo X, en la voluntad del gobierno a favor de

  9. «O Sancta Haera». Pilgrims and Pilgrimage in the Sanctuary of Sainte Foy at Conques

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    Marco Papasidero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Liber miraculorum Sancte Fidis, written during the XI century, partially by Bernard of Angers, describes miracles, healings and rituals practiced in the sanctuary of Sainte Foy at Conques, martyr of the beginning of the IV century.The Liber allows us to analyze the anthropological and religious dimension of the pilgrims and their pilgrimage. As a matter of fact, through the descriptions of the pilgrims, their gestures, their aspects, their words, their ritual practices by the tomb, their rich or poor offerings, we can analyze the dimension of the Medieval pilgrimage as a specific case study, which can help us describe the idea of pilgrimage in Medieval West Europe and specifically in this sanctuary.Furthermore, through the reading of the accounts of miracle stories, we can analyze the healing ritual practices, the miraculous dimension of this cult and the Sainte’s ability to treat diseases. The center of the Conques cult was – and remains – the Majesty of Sainte Foy, a reliquary statue in which the power (virtus/dynamis of the saint’s relics is concentrated.

  10. Securing ad hoc wireless sensor networks under Byzantine attacks by implementing non-cryptographic method

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    Shabir Ahmad Sofi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless sensor network (WSN is a collection of nodes that do not need to rely on predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. The level of security and performance are always somehow related to each other, therefore due to limited resources in WSN, cryptographic methods for securing the network against attacks is not feasible. Byzantine attacks disrupt the communication between nodes in the network without regard to its own resource consumption. This paper discusses the performance of cluster based WSN comparing LEACH with Advanced node based clusters under byzantine attacks. This paper also proposes an algorithm for detection and isolation of the compromised nodes to mitigate the attacks by non-cryptographic means. The throughput increases after using the algorithm for isolation of the malicious nodes, 33% in case of Gray Hole attack and 62% in case of Black Hole attack.

  11. The Catholic of Stilo. Survey and analysis of a Byzantine monument.

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    Marinella Arena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattolica di Stilo, one of the greatest monu-ments of Calabria, is the most important example of the secular Byzantine influence on this region. The Greek cross inscribed in a square, with its five domes, denounces his connection with an archi-tectural style of oriental origin. Although built in a remote province of the Empire, the Catho-lic is not the expression of a poor art; all poetics typical of Byzantine architecture are manifested with originality. The first paragraph, written by Domenico Mediati, analyzes the geometries and correlates with contemporary buildings (X-XI cen-tury and similar in size and shape. The second paragraph, written by Marinella Arena, highlights the differences of construction compared to the theoretical form. The third paragraph, written by Daniele Colistra, reviews some representations of the monument trying to identify those who most influenced the collective imagination.

  12. Sacred byzantine music and its influence on old East Slavic Orthodox music

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    Włodzimierz Wołosiuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sacred Byzantine music originates from three sources: “the liturgy of heaven”, synagogue music as well as old Greek theory of music and lays at the bottom of the East Slavs liturgical chant. The tonal base of the Byzantine music formed tetrachords. From them the so called Diatonic mode took shape. It was the easiest and the most popular sound arrangement steming from Greek music. The Cristian Church considered it to be in accordance with its Spirit and needs. From the tetrachords mentioned above other tones were created, namely Doric tones, Lydian, Phrygian and Mixolydian and, together withall their derivatives they gave beginning to the Oktoechos tradition. Byzantine music was flourishing in monasteries and in town areas andmany different forms were elaborated on like troparions, kontakions, stichiry, canons, etc. If one speaks about composers then certainly some names cannot be omitted. These are: St. Anatolius (Patriarchof Constantinople, St. Andrew of Crete, St. Romanos the Melodist,St. Sophronius of Jerusalem and, above all, St. John of Damascus who collected and systematized the liturgical chants creating mentioned Oktoechos. The acceptance of the Greek form of Christianity by Rus’ caused a cultivation of the sacred Greek vocal art on its territory which manifested in a form of so called Znamenny chant. This type of chant was at first similar to the Greek model but later on it moved away from it. Musical notation of the Old East Slavic singing was based on neumes which names in Old East Slavic have changed a little and only few survived. Furthermore, liturgical note books together with their genre and music content have been taken over from Byzantium. Especially visible in the Old East Slavic monody, Byzantine patterns were pervading also the later polyphony which proves they were always current. Moreover, this allows to claim that Rus’ became the real successor of the Greek Orthodox traditions in new circumstances of sacral

  13. Bibliography of the Latest Russian Literature (2010-2015 on the Problems of Byzantine Military Organization

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    Pavel Ivanovich Lysikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present outline deals with the bibliographical review of Russian literature on the history of Byzantium published during the period from 2010 to 2015 and concerned with the problems of Byzantine military organization. All of the mentioned scientific works are divided into four parts for ease of data presentation: monographs, translations of sources (both of these two divisions are accompanied with the brief abstracts which reveal contents of the works indicated here, articles and theses.

  14. The Byzantine wall-paintings in the church of Saint Theodore at Platanos, Kynouria (Arcadia

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    Agrevi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The church of St Theodore (also known as "Sts Theodoroi" at Platanos, Kynouria, is a single-nave building of small dimensions. The interior surfaces of its walls preserve their Byzantine paintings, which are partially visible under the coat of plaster that covers most of them. The paintings exhibit affinity with wall-paintings of churches in the Peloponnese (neighbouring Laconia included, and can be dated to the last quarter of the thirteenth century.

  15. RITMO Y ESPACIO EN LA PINTURA BIZANTINA Rhythm and space in byzantine painting

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    Federico José Xamist

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX se lleva a cabo una revalorización de la pintura del medioevo heleno, ignorada durante todo el clasicismo europeo. AAnte la constatación de que el espacio representado en la pintura bizantina no reproduce el espacio natural se llega a la conclusión de que las operaciones pictóricas aplicadas por los pintores bizantinos tienen como objeto simbolizar un espacio sobrenatural. En las siguientes líneas intentaremos abrir la problemática del espacio en la pintura bizantina a una interpretación plástica, es decir, intentaremos presentar una lectura de las operaciones pictóricas en cuanto tales siguiendo los planteamientos de Georgos Kordis, profesor de la cátedra Eikonografia de la Facultad de Teología de la Universidad de Atenas y destacado pintor griego. Nuestro objetivo es plantear algunas directrices para introducirnos en la problemática pictórica de la representación del espacio en la pintura bizantina.During the twentieth century is carried out a revaluation of the Hellenic medieval painting, ignored during the European classicism. Given the finding that the space represented in Byzantine painting does not reproduce the natural space leads to the conclusion that painting operations implemented by the Byzantine painters are intended to symbolize a supernatural space. The following lines try to open the question of space in painting plastic Byzantine interpretation, ie to try to present a reading of the painting operations as such, following the approach of Georges Kordis, chair professor of the Faculty Eikonografia Theology of the University of Athens and prominent Greek painter. Our goal is to propose some guidelines for introducing us to the problem of pictorial representation of space in the Byzantine painting.

  16. A Byzantine resilient fault tolerant computer for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lala, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A quadruply redundant synchronous fault tolerant processor, capable of tolerating Byzantine faults, is now under fabrication at the C.S. Draper Laboratory to be used initially as a trip monitor for the Experimental Breeder Reactor EBR-II operated by the Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho. This paper describes the hardware architecture of this processor and discusses certain issues unique to quadruply redundant computers

  17. A Case Study in Byzantine Dragon-Slaying: Digenes and the Serpent

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    Christopher Livanos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Byzantine epic Digenes Akrites has similarities with ancient and medieval Iranian traditions that, in consideration of the epic’s Eastern settings, suggest Iranian influences. Digenes resembles dragon-slaying heroes of other Indo-European traditions. He also resembles the Irish hero Cú Chulainn in that he is not psychologically fit to live in the midst of the community that depends on his protection. Freudian readings of Digenes’ encounters with the dragon and the Amazon Maximou are proposed.

  18. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  19. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350-600 ce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S

    2014-08-01

    Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350-600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round-pyriform and probably used as vessels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  20. Cosmological Symbolism in the Decorative Cycles of Mid-Byzantine Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental links between theology and astronomy are widely reflected in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. From Genesis to Revelation, the great mysteries of the beginning and end of the universe, and the cycles of birth and death of individuals, are explained in terms of cosmological concepts. These are in turn reflected in art and architecture and nowhere more broadly, perhaps, than in Byzantine architecture and decoration. Following the Iconoclast prohibition of images in the Orthodox church (726-843), the mid-Byzantine period (843-1204) witnessed the primacy of the representation of the heavens in art and architecture. Reinforced by such writers as Cosmas Indicopleustes and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, not only were individual images reflective of the heavens (nativity and rebirth at the winter solstice, and rebirth/resurrection at the spring equinox) but entire cycles of church decoration were devised so as to reflect the ordering of God's universe. The architecture and decoration of the quintessential mid-Byzantine cross-in-square church was symbolic itself of the universe, as at Hosios Loukas and Daphni (eleventh century). From the location of the Pantocrator in the central celestial dome, to the descending zones of squinches and pendentives and the lowest earthly zones, decorative schemes are used to reflect the view of the sky/heavens above earth. Hierarchical systems depicting the life of Christ and ascending/descending ranks of saints and angels were rigorously adhered to, with Mary in the apse as bridge between heaven and earth.

  1. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013

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    Kholoud M. Alananbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%. The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person’s immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  2. Chants of the Byzantine Rite: the Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily / Canti Ecclesiastici della Tradizione Italo-Albanese in Sicilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Garofalo, Girolamo

    Chants of the Byzantine Rite: The Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily offers for the first time transcriptions of the full repertory of orally transmitted hymns for the celebration of the Byzantine Rite in Sicily. This little-known chant tradition has without interruption been cultivated by the Al...

  3. A refreshing alternative to the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre: the monumental burials of Christ in France (XVth-XVIth centuries

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    Elsa Karsallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1420’s in France some groups of sculptures appeared representing the life-size burial of Christ. These monumental “Entombments” experienced a strong expansion from the mid-15th century until approximately 1520, in France as well in bordering regions such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. From the end of the 19th century they were studied in a primarily stylistic perspective while the problem of their functions and uses have been addressed only very recently. The intent here is to appraise the hypothesis according to which they would have served as substitutes in a spiritual pilgrimage. First the study considers the situation of the pilgrimage in the Holy Land during the 15th century, then it analyzes the relationships between images and indulgences. Finally it ends with the examination of a number of burials accompanied by indulgences, that could be utilised as supports of a spiritual pilgrimage.

  4. Hyperglycemic emergencies in Indian patients with diabetes mellitus on pilgrimage to Amarnathji yatra

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    Mohd Ashraf Ganie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS represent two distinct metabolic derangements manifested by insulin deficiency and severe hyperglycemia, with estimated mortality rates of 2.5-9%. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM controlled by diet or oral agents, DKA does not occur unless there is significant severe stress such as severe sepsis, major surgery, trauma, etc. We observed many such emergencies occurring in pilgrims. Objective: We analyzed the data of 13 patients with DM admitted in our endocrine department with hyperglycemic emergencies during 2 years of the annual pilgrimage (yatra to Amarnathji. Materials and Methods: We reviewed and analyzed the case records of 13 yatris with DM who were referred and admitted in our hospital with hyperglycemic emergencies during the yatra season (July-August of 2006 and 2007. Results: Eleven of 13 had DKA and 1 each had HHS and hypoglycemia. After initial clinical assessment and blood sampling for blood counts, electrolytes, blood gases, urinalysis, chest radiography, and electrocardiography, these cases were managed with standard protocol published by American Diabetes Association (ADA for the management of DKA and HHS. Average blood glucose was 466 mg/dl and nine subjects had moderate to severe ketonuria. All the cases, except one, were in stable condition at the time of discharge. Conclusion: High altitude, strenuous exertion of going uphill, withdrawal of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, starvation, sepsis, and alcohol intake were recorded as predisposing factors. Therefore, there is an immense need for institution of a special health education program to all the yatris before taking the endeavor.

  5. The agreement to exchange (permutatio in roman, Byzantine and Serbian mediaeval law

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    Šarkić Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper is dedicated to the definition of the agreement to exchange (permutatio and emphasizes the difference, made by Roman lawyers, between exchange (barter and sale (emptio-venditio. The second part analyses Byzantine legal sources that mention this old contract, while the third part is dedicated to Serbian legal documents. In Serbian legal documents the exchange was mentioned as the agreement between a monarch and a monastery or a natural person (individual, concerning donations that were given to the Church.

  6. AUGUSTINIAN MODEL IN THE BYZANTINE POLITICAL THINKING. CASE STUDY: THE ELEMENTS OF POLITICAL AUGUSTINISM IN THE CURRENT ROMANIAN MENTALITY

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    ANDREI TINU; CATALIN BOBOC; ANDREI-SEBASTIAN DUMITRESCU; VIOLETA IOSEFIDIS-SERGHEI

    2012-01-01

    The byzantine society, de jure and de facto heir of the Greco-Roman world, has it’s own philosophy, it’s own structure model and policy thinking. Without doubt, for the New Rome this model is that sprang from the Christian teachings, and as a philosophy it harmoniously blends the legacy of the Roman world with Blessed Augustine’s thinking about man and city which itself is a symbiosis between the acquired pagan knowledge and Christian experience of the latter. The Byzantine fortress (The Empi...

  7. Tradition and modernity in Marques of Tarifa pilgrimage to Jerusalem: Influence on the cultural heritage of Seville

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    María Encarnación Cambil Henández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Tradition and modernity that characterizes the transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age in Spain, will be reflected in the pilgrimage trips to the Holy Land. During the sixteenth century, Christians travelers who came on pilgrimage to Jerusalem did their tour with a fundamentally religious and devotional interest. But he was not alone, as he joined other interests as the search of adventure, knowledge and business. During the journey, the pilgrim, full of emotion and spirituality, visiting shrines and relics for indulgences necessary for the good die and attain eternal life. However, during the return trip, and become traveler, carrying out other planned objectives becoming an experience that would later reflected in their environment and heritage. In this paper we analyze the stay of the Marquis of Tarifa in Jerusalem and his return trip to Seville, for his experience during these sections of the trip will be captured forever in the cultural landscape of the city of Seville.

  8. The reform of Byzantine military and territorial organization under Justinian II

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    Cvetković Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a contribution to the research of the initial stages in the evolution of the thematic system. It focuses on the role of Emperor Justinian II in the formation of the new imperial military and territorial organization. Byzantine scholars have determined a long time ago that it is Justinian II who should be credited with the founding of new military districts (themes in Hellas and Sicily. This paper, however, suggests that the formation of the themes in Thrace and Kibyrrhaiotai could also be considered a part of Justinian’s policy. In addition, the paper aims to highlight Justinian’s role in the formation of the frontier military and administrative system (the kleisourai of Strymon and Cappadocia, as well as in the reform of military and territorial organization in the Aegean basin. By creating new army units which were not based on the Late Roman heritage, Justinian essentially abandoned the principles that the Byzantine army had previously functioned on. Finally, the paper highlights the fact that the establishment of new thematic units under Emperor Justinian II was coupled with his extensive colonization measures. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  9. Archaeometric studies of Byzantine pottery from Hârşova-Carsium, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoi, Roxana, E-mail: bugoi@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Mǎgurele 077125 (Romania); Talmaţchi, Cristina, E-mail: ctalmatchi@gmail.com [Museum of National History and Archaeology, Constanţa 900745 (Romania); Haitǎ, Constantin, E-mail: costel_haita@yahoo.com [National Museum of Romania History, Bucharest 030026 (Romania); Ceccato, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.ceccato@lnl.infn.it [Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Padova 35131 (Italy); INFN – LNL, Legnaro 35020 (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    A set of 36 ceramic shards excavated at Hârşova, Romania, dated to the 11th century A.D., was investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM) and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission). The study aimed at revealing the raw materials and the manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine period and to distinguish the local products from the supposedly imported ones. The division of the ceramic shards based on stylistic grounds was refined by the petrographic observations that identified four types of fabrics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the PIXE data singled out two categories of ceramic: one made from kaolinitic clays and another produced from local sedimentary resources, with or without temper addition. Micro-PIXE scans of the interfaces between the green glaze and the underlying ceramic body indicated a high Pb content in the decorative layers. Glazing was made through the application of PbO onto a non-calcareous clay body. The petrographic and compositional data interpreted in correlation with archaeological information led to the characterization of a representative assemblage of ceramic finds from the Byzantine period, subject rarely tackled in the scientific literature.

  10. Byzantine influence on the Serbian customary law in the 9th century

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    Đekić Đorđe N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By the 10th century Serbian law recognized the following ways of dispute resolution: revenge and appeasement, and it may be indirectly proved that there was a system of compensation. As punishments, there was banishment into exile, blinding and a death sentence. Since revenge, appeasement and compensation system appear in the pre-state period, while the death penalty has its roots in the blood feud, that indicates they are all of local origin. A question remains about the origin of banishment and blinding a fallen ruler, that is, a rival to the throne. In the first half of the 9th century the Byzantine Empire managed to reinstate its power over the Adriatic Sea, to impose itself over the Serbian states, to Christianise them and to legalise ruling families in the Serbian lands. Suffice to say that in 869 the Serbian states fight wars on the Byzantine side. Origin of influences on the ways of the punishment we seek in Byzantium, or better still, in its legal practice. It has been found that Byzantium used to send their conquered rivals to the throne into exile, punishing them by blinding them, so we draw a conclusion that in the matter of punishment, i.e. in the customary law, it exercised its influence on Serbia.

  11. "Just Keep Going, Stay Together, and Sing OUT." Learning Byzantine Music in an Informal and Situated Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This project examines the communal process of music learning as it occurs in a Byzantine chant learning group at a Greek Orthodox Church. The goal of this project was to investigate the act of music making, as situated in a particular sociocultural context, in order to address the question: Through what processes do individuals share music…

  12. New Trends of Pilgrimage: Religion and Tourism, Authenticity and Innovation, Development and Intercultural Dialogue: Notes from the Diary of a Pilgrim of Santiago

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    Corinto Gian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of our society are often contradictory. Despite the "liquidity" theorized by Bauman, aspects and practices deeply related (in appearance and/or in substance with spirituality hold great importance in our days. Among these practices, we found the pilgrimages. In this article we analyse this phenomenon in one of its best-known forms, the religious pilgrimage, in particular that of the Camino de Santiago. Today this forms of “travelling”, the pilgrimage, is studied as a tourism product and a vehicle of local development, and many studies already analysed the profiles and the motivations of the “new pilgrims”, as well as their economic impacts. Nevertheless, we felt the necessity to meet directly the pilgrims and share this experience with them without any filter. We became part of them, by addressing their perception toward their overall experience, using a qualitative approach based on direct observation and unstructured interviews. We collected data during a 400 kilometres walk towards Santiago de Compostela, which enabled us to create a clear overview on this specific, increasing phenomenon: a pilgrimage between religion and tourism, authenticity and innovation, local development and intercultural dialogue.

  13. A Comparative Study About Cost of the Pilgrimage Characteristics-Based Rupiah and Dinar (Survey on Pt. Bank Syariah Mandiri Branch Bandung and Dinar Tauhid Bandung

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    Firmansyah Firmansyah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hajj is obligatory for Muslims who are able, physically, mentally, and materially. Trend of pilgrims making the Hajj pilgrimage from year to year increase. Due to capacity limitations in Mecca that makes every country of the quota number of people who can perform the pilgrimage every year. Because currencies are pilgrims Indonesia Rupiah (paper money not based on gold / fiat money, then the Hajj planning to use the money amount in at least two uncertainties, the factors of inflation and exchange rate factors (exchange rate. Because these two factors the cost of the pilgrimage (ONH has a tendency to increase every year, up from year to year. increases in the cost of the pilgrimage can be a very significant amount. To fulfill the ONH is one way to save money both in rupiah in PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri Branch Bandung or even saving dinar (4.25 grams of 22 carat gold in Dinar Tauhid Bandung. This study aims to determine the operating system cost of the pilgrimage rupiah based in PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri, operating system cost of pilgrimage Dinar based in Dinar Tauhid Bandung, and the comparison of operating system-based cost of pilgrimage rupiah in PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri with dinar based in the Dinar Tauhid Bandung. Object of research is only one ONH, with different places, there are PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri branch of Bandung and Dinar Tauhid Bandung. In this study, use of comparative research methods. With the type of research is a qualitative study consisting of a definition of Haj savings and the savings contract is used, the mechanism of how to save money, and profit sharing. Primary data obtained from interviews with relevant parties, while the secondary data obtained from books, journals, internet and other literature.Based on the results of research that has been done shows that saving money dinar with the product more profitable m-dinar is free of ONH price inflation rise to an average of 11.21% per year, and the dinar appreciated on

  14. Water and Gender in Recreating Family Life with Maa Ganga: The Confluence of Nature and Culture in a North Indian River Pilgrimage

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    Catrien Notermans

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the meaning of water and gender in the North Indian pilgrimage to the sacred river Ganges. It joins the recent criticism in anthropology concerning the nature/culture divide and aims to transcend that divide by focusing on water, not apart from but as part of social life. Assuming that water’s sociality is gendered, the authors look at how both the river water—itself as a landscape material—and the pilgrims’ engagements with that water are gendered. Starting from the central question: How do men’s and women’s ritual engagements with the sacred female river water (mutually construct social life? The article investigates men’s and women’s ritual use of water at different sites. It focuses on more than the central pilgrimage shrine and links the sacred river site to people’s homes to know how the moving river water, collected by pilgrims at the shrine, is used in water rituals back home. Trying to counterbalance the male and scriptural bias which is prominent in the literature on Ganges’ pilgrimage sites, the pilgrimage is studied from the perspective of lived religion that takes people’s embodied practices and sensory experiences of nature into account as well as people’s everyday life. By showing how men’s and women’s rituals differ and complement each other, it argues that men’s rituals at the pilgrimage site and women’s rituals at home serve the recreation of the family in a paired way. The argument is built on longitudinal and multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork at the Ganges river shrine in Haridwar (Uttarakhand and pilgrims’ residence in Udaipur (Rajasthan.

  15. Regional Exchange and the Role of the Shop in Byzantine and Early Islamic Syria-Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2012-01-01

    a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...... system has expanded greatly in recent years, giving a detailed insight into the system of exchange within an urban context. However, its social function as an urban institution has been, by comparison, little considered. This paper will reflect on the shops, their keepers, the suppliers and the patrons...

  16. A portrait oil lamp from Pontes: Possible interpretations and meanings within early Byzantine visual culture

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    Petković Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is a fragmented oil-lamp, discovered at Pontes (east Serbia dated to the 6th century, whose handle ending is shaped as a woman’s head. The question posed in this paper is whether the image of this woman could be identified as a portrait of some particular person or if it is just as a pictorial sign with some complicated symbolic meaning. The suggested identification alludes to the image of some of the empresses from the second half of the 6th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: Romanisation, urbanisation and transformation of urban centres of civil, military and residential character in Roman provinces in the territory of Serbia i br. 47018: Viminacium, Roman city and military camp - research of the material and non material culture of inhabitants by using the modern technologies of remote detection, geophysics, GIS, digitalization and3D visualization

  17. Byzantine Music

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampous, Charalampos

    2007-01-01

    Magdalény Rettigové 4, 116 39 Praha 1 tel.: +420 221 900 111 www.pedf.cuni.cz IČ 00216208 DIČ CZ00216208 Dle čl. 4 Opatření rektora č. 6/2010 o Zpřístupnění elektronické databáze závěrečných prací http://www.cuni.cz/UK-3470.html a čl. 1 Opatření děkana 17/2010 se z časového hlediska závěrečné práce dělí do tří skupin: a. "nové práce", tj. práce odevzdávané k obhajobě počínaje 29. 9. 2010, b. "starší práce", tj. práce odevzdané k obhajobě od 1. 1. 2006 do 28. 9. 2010, c. "práce před rokem 2006...

  18. Earthquakes and plague during Byzantine times: can lessons from the past improve epidemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Marketos, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters have always been followed by a fear of infectious diseases. This raised historical debate about one of the most feared scenarios: the outbreak of bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis. One such event was recorded in the Indian state Maharashtra in 1994 after an earthquake. In multidisciplinary historical approach to the evolution of plague, many experts ignore the possibility of natural foci and their activation. This article presents historical records from the Byzantine Empire about outbreaks of the Plague of Justinian occurring months or even up to a year after high-magnitude earthquakes. Historical records of plague outbreaks can be used to document existence of natural foci all over the world. Knowledge of these historical records and the contemporary examples of plague support the assumption that, in terms of organising humanitarian aid, poor monitoring of natural foci could lead to unpredictable epidemiological consequences after high-magnitude earthquakes.

  19. Colchicum genus in the writings of ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Papaioannou, Theodoros; Panayiotakopoulos, George; Saridaki, Zenia; Vrachatis, Dimitrios A; Karamanou, Marianna

    2018-01-14

    The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced by the ancient Greek physicians and passed on to the Byzantine and Arabian physicians to endure until nowadays. The first plant was most probably named "Medea" from the notorious Colchican witch. As the most common member of the family blossoms in autumn, the plant was named Colchicum autumnale. Various nominations were also used, such as Ephemeron, Hermodactyl, Anima articulorum and Surugen. Our article discusses them, while at the same time presents the most notable authorities who have used Colchicum plants in herbal medicine and toxicology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Military Equipment in the Byzantine Manuscript of Scylitzes in Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid

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    Bruhn Hoffmeyer, Ada

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the military equipment of the Second Golden Age of the Byzantine empire as represented not by the text of Scylitzes but by the illuminators of this marvellous manuscript, the relations of the illuminations to the actual weapons and their chronology.

    El propósito de este trabajo es proporcionar una introducción al equipamiento militar durante la Segunda Edad de Oro del Imperio Bizantino, tal y como se representa no a través del texto, sino de las iluminaciones, del manuscrito Scylitzes de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, y la comparación de las iluminaciones con el armamento auténtico y su cronología. [traducción para esta edición electrónica

  1. A computational comparison of theory and practice of scale intonation in Byzantine chant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panteli, Maria; Purwins, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Byzantine Chant performance practice is quantitatively compared to the Chrysanthine theory. The intonation of scale degrees is quantified, based on pitch class profiles. An analysis procedure is introduced that consists of the following steps: 1) Pitch class histograms are calculated via non-parametric...... kernel smoothing. 2) Histogram peaks are detected. 3) Phrase ending analysis aids the finding of the tonic to align histogram peaks. 4) The theoretical scale degrees are mapped to the practical ones. 5) A schema of statistical tests detects significant deviations of theoretical scale tuning from...... the estimated ones in performance practice. The analysis of 94 echoi shows a tendency of the singer to level theoretic particularities of the echos that stand out of the general norm in the octoechos: theoretically extremely large scale steps are diminished in performance....

  2. La vision de Saint Eustathe dans la peinture post-byzantine

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    Amprazogoula Katerina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski L'article étudie l'évolution de la Vision de saint Eustathe dans une série de peintures murales et d'icônes portatives - allant du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle - les formules iconographiques adoptées et leurs particularités ainsi que la place et la fonction de cette image dans la peinture murale. Le matériel étudié a montré une diversité de formules iconographiques qui exploitent pour l'essentiel la tradition byzantine et orientale du sujet, en manifestant en même temps ses propres traits ainsi que l'influence des images occidentales. .

  3. Byzantine history and the discourse of the Russian political/intellectual underground

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    Dmitry Shlapentokh

    2012-01-01

    In the view of the producer, the Byzantine Empire was strong when it followed its autocratic tradition and was attached to Orthodoxy. The movie generated extensive discussions, including among those who belong to Russia's political and intellectual fringe. Quite a few of them were neo-pagans; for them, Christianity, including Orthodox Christianity, was Russia's curse. For them, it was an Asian creed foreign to Aryan Russians. The fact that it was accepted by Russians implied that Russians had been subjugated by an alien, Asiatic, force. Many of these neo-pagans were quite pessimistic in regard to the country's future; and, indeed, their response indicates the deep alienation of quite a few Russians, which hardly bodes well for the country's future.

  4. Traces of 'Simple Psalmody' in late- and post-Byzantine musical manuscripts. Melodic, modal and textual analysis of the Kekragarion tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The study of the Kekragarion chant tradition has over time become an important aspect of Byzantine musicology, especially regarding the development of “simple psalmody”. Simple psalmody describes the functional side of Byzantine “psalm tones”, pointing out a set of recurrent behaviours in the ada......The study of the Kekragarion chant tradition has over time become an important aspect of Byzantine musicology, especially regarding the development of “simple psalmody”. Simple psalmody describes the functional side of Byzantine “psalm tones”, pointing out a set of recurrent behaviours......, but for the actual analysis two manuscripts representing the Kekragaria versions contained in the whole group of manuscripts were selected for transcription. My survey shows how the melodic tradition of the late medieval Kekragarion has been partly maintained and partly developed over four centuries, and it also...

  5. A repertoire of comic figures of the antique theatre in miniatures of Byzantine Psalters with marginal

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    Bemabò Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations on ninth-century Byzantine Psalters have focused mostly on the impact of the iconoclast controversy on the iconography of the marginal illustrations in these manuscripts. In fact this impact has been greatly exaggerated and the Psalter illustrations that can be connected to the debates on icon are less than a dozen out of a total of a few hundreds. The present article focuses on the iconography of figures illustrating social and moral types in the psalms. These figures cannot be considered as novel inventions of the ninth-century artists who painted our manuscripts. Their origin must be drawn back to late antique prototypes; in particular it is inferred that most of these figures represent characters that were originally modeled after the moral and social types acted on stage in late antique theater, mime and pantomime. A number of examples out of the miniatures in the Carolingian manuscripts of Terence and other media provides parallels to gestures, postures and features of the figures in the Psalter illustrations. The iconographical invention of these characters for the psalms must date from fourth to sixth century, a period during which theater was still very popular, notwithstanding the strong opposition of the Christian Fathers. Chroricius of Gaza' Apologia memoriam and other late antique writings witness the popularity of mime up to the middle sixth century and the ample variety of types that were acted on stage. The figures scissor out of marginal illustrations in the Byzantine Psalters are arranged in five plates collecting examples of, respectively, moral types, emotions caricatures, social types and professions, gods and devils.

  6. AUGUSTINIAN MODEL IN THE BYZANTINE POLITICAL THINKING. CASE STUDY: THE ELEMENTS OF POLITICAL AUGUSTINISM IN THE CURRENT ROMANIAN MENTALITY

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    ANDREI TINU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The byzantine society, de jure and de facto heir of the Greco-Roman world, has it’s own philosophy, it’s own structure model and policy thinking. Without doubt, for the New Rome this model is that sprang from the Christian teachings, and as a philosophy it harmoniously blends the legacy of the Roman world with Blessed Augustine’s thinking about man and city which itself is a symbiosis between the acquired pagan knowledge and Christian experience of the latter. The Byzantine fortress (The Empire-n.n. will use religion as the main instrument for political and social consolidation. Religion (Christianity – n.n. is, for the Byzantine monarchy , the path to divinity, immortality... The Byzantine Christianity is not just a "phrase invented by them" as in the words of Eminescu, but a complex mechanism which represents the totality of good concepts about the world and about life of the constantinopolitan city.In preparing this study we started from the model offered by St. Augustine, "De Civitate Dei", a model which compares the two types of cities - people's city, with all its flaws, and the City of God, personified by the Church to which the Christian Roman Empire provides the Regnum. Our study tries to reflect how the model of the two cities becomes a political ideology of the Byzantine Empire and, arch over time, how it is manifested in the public and political mind of the Romanian society. This research tries to increase the understanding of the mental archetypes amongst those who are active participants in public life in Romania. However, we want our message to be disseminated in a wider public and to provide the possibility of assimilation, as much as it can, of the participatory political culture. Thus, the study becomes an attempt of reporting the Byzantine society, respectively the current Romanian society, to the model of the three types of political culture offered by Almond and Verba - participatory, parochial and dependent.

  7. Odd Topics, Old Methods and the Cradle of the Ius Commune: Byzantine Law and the Italian City-States

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    Daphne Penna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to demonstrate how Byzantine law, a subject odd and exotic at first sight provides a piece of the puzzle that helps us to complete the big picture, the origins of our European legal identity. I refer to some concrete examples of legal interaction between the Byzantine and the Western side of Europe in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries – a period in which the ius commune began to take shape – and explain the method I used step by step, the specific challenges I confronted in the sources and the outcomes of this approach. The comparative legal study of documents of the medieval period at a European level can help us to answer the question whether, long before the making of today’s Europe, today’s European countries were already connected by common legal forms.

  8. PIXE and PGAA - Complementary methods for studies on ancient glass artefacts (from Byzantine, late medieval to modern Murano glass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Cristea-Stan, Daniela; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Kovács, Imre; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kasztovszky, Zsolt

    2018-02-01

    Combined external milli-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) analysis was applied to characterize the composition of paste and colorants from some fragments of Byzantine bracelets (10th-12th Centuries AD), late medieval (17th-18th Centuries AD) and modern Murano glass pieces. As fluxes, PGAA revealed the samples are soda-lime glass, except four samples - two medieval vessel white shards and two dark Byzantine fragments of bracelets - which have potash flux. Aluminium was detected in various proportions in all samples indicating different sources for the added sand. The presence of Magnesium is relevant only in one bracelet fragment suggesting the use of plant (wood?) ash and confirming that the Byzantine bracelet is manufactured from the mixture of both types of glass (natron and plant ash based). PGAA also indicated the presence of low quantities of Cadmium, high level of Arsenic and Lead (possibly lead arsenate) in one medieval sample and of ZnO in Murano glass, and of CoO traces (maximum 0.1%) in all blue-colored Byzantine, late medieval to modern Murano glass artefacts. PIXE confirmed the use of small quantities of CoO for blue color, indicated Manganese combined with Iron for dark glass, Copper for green, Lead, Tin and an Arsenic compound (orpiment?) for yellow and in the case of modern Murano glass Selenium and Cadmium to obtain a reddish color. Despite PIXE - PIGE combination is probably the best one for glass analysis, our external milli-PIXE - PGAA methods proved to be adequate complementary tools to determine many chemical elements from glass composition - Si, Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, various metallic oxides.

  9. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Searching the seat of the soul in Ancient Greek and Byzantine medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, Eleftherios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Demetrios N

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the ancient and medieval concepts about the seat of the mental functions, as exposed in Greek texts from Antiquity to Byzantine times. The review of the philosophical and medical literature from the original ancient Greek language from the Homeric epics to the Holy Fathers of Christianity, as the problem of the seat of the soul remained without a certain answer through the centuries. Primitive concepts attributed great significance to the soul and dictated cannibal behaviours for the possession and eating of the defeated enemy's heart. Mental functions, such as thinking, feeling and mainly those related to affective manifestations, were attributed to the heart and to some other internal organs (liver, diaphragm) from the times of Greek mythology. Philosophy and empirical medicine had underestimated the brain probably because it is a 'silent' organ, contrary to the palpitating heart, with its obvious participations in the emotional reactions. The role of the brain as the mental organ and the seat of emotions has been gradually recognized. The permanent question of the seat of the soul had been for many centuries a critical dispute and the contribution of Greek philosophical and medical thought was decisive for the contemporary transformation of the whole concept.

  11. A comparison between two migrations in the Byzantine Empire: the Goths and the Pechenegs

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    Alexandru Madgearu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares from several points of view two migratory movements across the Lower Danube: the Tervingi Goths in 376 and the Pechenegs in 1045-1047. In both cases the imperial authorities hoped they would gain supplementary military forces, but the events turned both migratory groups into internal enemies. There are some similarities in the causes of the aforementioned migrations, in the way the Danube was crossed, and as concerns the places granted for settlement, and the integration in the Roman /Byzantine army. In other respects, the movements differed, especially because of the nomadic type of life of the Pechenegs, the Goths being sedentary people who moved from a homeland to another. Both migrations had disastrous effects for the empire, because the emperors were not able to foresee or to prevent the rebellions of these warrior people received as refugees. Instead of more economic and military resources, both the Goths and the Pechenegs caused much trouble in the South-East European provinces.

  12. The Cultural Landscape Past of the Eastern Mediterranean: The Border Lord’s Gardens and the Common Landscape Tradition of the Arabic and Byzantine Culture

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    Konstantinos Moraitis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of landscape tradition, in Near and Middle East area, could emphasize a profound past of agricultural experience, as well as of landscape and garden art. In reference to this common past, Byzantine and Arabic landscape and garden art paradigms appear to be geographically and culturally correlated, as proved by a Byzantine 12th century folksong, presenting the construction of a villa, with its surrounding gardens and landscape formations, in the territory of Euphrates River. This song refers to Vasilios Digenes Akritas or ‘Border Lord’, a legendary hero of mixed Byzantine-Greek and Arab blood; ‘Digenes’ meaning a person of dual genes, both of Byzantine and Arabic origin, and ‘Akritas’ an inhabitant of the borderline. At the end of the narration of the song, contemporary reader feels skeptical. Was modern landscape and garden art born in the European continent or was it transferred to Western world through an eastern originated lineage of Byzantine and Arabic provenance?

  13. Population Movement and Virus Spreading: HEV Spreading in a Pilgrimage City, Mashhad in Northeast Iran; an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Miri, Rahele; Hedayatimoghadam, Mohamadreza; Shamsian, Aliakbar; Bidkhori, Hamidreza; Fathimoghadam, Fahad; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdorrahim

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health concern and responsible for large outbreaks of acute hepatitis in poor sanitary and living conditions. To investigate the impact of population movements on virus spreading, a large-scale population-based survey was performed in a pilgrimage- tourism area, the great Mashhad, capital city of Khorasan province. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1582 randomly selected individuals from general population of Mashhad, north east of Iran, between May to September 2009. Serum samples were tested for total anti-HEV antibody using a specific enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit. The prevalence of HEV infection was 14.2% (225/1582) with a maximum of 25.5 % (14/55) in densely populated areas. The highest prevalence was observed in visitant areas (≥ 20%) near the holly shrine with crowded hotels and inns. The differences between these areas and other districts were statistically significant (P socio-economic status, Illiterate individuals were significantly at higher risk for infection than educated persons (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrated that, high prevalence of HEV is related to populated district, which can reach to the highest rate in hotels and inns close to visitants. Traditional sanitation and water supplying systems are the second important factor for the virus transmission. Therefore, it can be concluded that such areas need efficient surveillance systems to prevent the spreading of infectious diseases.

  14. A Quantitative Comparison of Chrysanthine Theory and Performance Practice of Scale Tuning, Steps, and Prominence of the Octoechos in Byzantine Chant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panteli, Maria; Purwins, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Byzantine Chant performance practice is computationally compared to the Chrysanthine theory of the eight Byzantine Tones (octoechos). Intonation, steps, and prominence of scale degrees are quantified, based on pitch class profiles. The novel procedure introduced here comprises the following...... analysis steps: 1) The pitch trajectory is extracted and post processed with music-specific filters. 2) Pitch class histograms are calculated by kernel smoothing. 3) Histogram peaks are detected. 4) Phrase ending analysis aids the finding of the tonic to align pitch histograms. 5) The theoretical scale....... The analysis of 94 Byzantine Chants performed by 4 singers shows a tendency of the singers to level theoretic particu- larities of the echos that stand out of the general norm in the octoechos: theoretically extremely large steps are diminished in performance. The empirical intonation of the IV. scale degree...

  15. The Byzantine Silver Bowls in the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial and Tree-Worship in Anglo-Saxon England

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    Michael D. J. Bintley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ten Byzantine silver bowls included amongst the grave goods interred in the chamber of the Mound 1 ship burial at Sutton Hoo remain one of the most puzzling features of this site. It has been suggested that these items, which lay separated from the rest of the silver in the burial and close to the head of the body-space (where no body was found, may have had some special meaning which has never been discovered. This paper will argue that one of the possible keys to unlocking their significance may be found in the central roundel that adorns the centre of each bowl in the form of a rosette. These bowls, which are thought to have been manufactured in the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire in c. 600, entered the British Isles in unknown circumstances before coming into the possession of the man buried in (or commemorated by the Mound 1 burial. Through comparison with contemporary sculpture and vernacular literature, I will suggest that this central rosette, which was associated with both the cross of Christ and sacred trees in Byzantine sculpture, may have served as a conventional bridge between Christian and pre-Christian religious traditions associated with sacred trees in Anglo-Saxon England. The central rosettes adorning each of these bowls may have been understood as the flower of a sacred tree. Since the latter appears to have figured in Anglian paganism it is possible that the bowls may helped to convert the Anglian aristocracy, bridging a gap between Germanic insular religious traditions and those that were being introduced to Britain at the time that the ship burial itself took place.

  16. The Slavic Liturgy of the Byzantine Rite and the Corpus of Slavic Liturgical Books at the End of the 9th and the Beginning of the 10th Centuries

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    Aleksey M. Pentkovskiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship on the historical development of the Slavic liturgy in its early stage has shown that one of the important prerequisites for its practical implementation was the establishment, under the guidance of a bishop, of a church organization which was entitled to use Church Slavonic as a liturgical language. Research has also demonstrated that the methodological approach linking the history of the Slavic liturgical texts with the development of the Slavic ecclesiastical structures administered by bishops offers valuable insights. The first Slavic corpus of liturgical books of Byzantine rites (the so-called Corpus of Clement, CC came into being in the Slavic ethnic eparchy and then in the Slavic territorial dioceses which were to be integrated into the church organization of the First Bulgarian Empire. The core part of the CC, to which the complex of original Slavic hymnographic writings belongs, was created in the years between 893 and 916 in the Slavic ethnic eparchy of St. Clement of Ohrid in the western part of the First Bulgarian Empire (in the region of southern Albania, northwestern Greece, and southwestern Macedonia. The supplementary part of the CC, which contains the complex of the word-by-word translations of hymnographic writings, originated in the mid-10th century in Slavic territorial dioceses located at that time in the western part of the First Bulgarian Empire. This two-stage formation of the CC was due to the two-stage development of the Slavic church organizations, and it was thus neither linguistic nor literary in nature. Having special features characteristic of the western Byzantine liturgy, the CC differed from both its preceding and subsequent corpora of Slavic liturgical books in its liturgical, textological, and linguistic character. Every subsequent corpus of Slavic liturgical texts, however, built upon the preceding one, and this ensured the continuity of the Slavic liturgical and, consequently, linguistic

  17. The “Whirling Disk” in the Byzantine Iconography. Search for Meaning

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    Leshcheva Yana Igorevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Τhe article studies the plot of «whirling disk», as an example of light symbolics of the Byzantine iconography of the 11-14th centuries. The author brings up the existing hypotheses of interpretations of this phenomenon and analyzes theological sources which serve as the basis for conclusion about possible symbolic value of this iconographic plot. The author studies the specific iconographic monuments of Cappadocia, Sinai, Thessalonica, Serbia. The analysis of disks’ images allows to make the following supervision: disks were often represented in the most important places of temple space and significant iconographic plots; disks had various art execution and color scheme; the form of disk and idea of whirling were common for all examples. When the disk consists of three segments, it makes sense to assume this trinity, as a symbol of the Holy Trinity. The form of a rotating or shining disk, especially on the Sinai monuments where gold color is the main and form-building element of a luminescence suggests symbolical parallels with a solar disk especially as both in the Scriptus, and in theological works the sun is the image of God or sanctity and good fortune granted by Him. The following assumption of symbolics of rotating or shining disks is consolidated to understanding them as Divine energy. Considering all possible options, the most convincing assumption, from our point of view, is that understanding of rotating disks as Divine energy it has rather serious theological justification in the developed orthodox doctrine about Divine light and energies.

  18. Ekphrasis Earos. Le topos de la venue du printemps chez des auteurs byzantins

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    Marina Loukaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La description de la venue du printemps (ekphrasis earos, un topos aux composantes spécifiques dans la littérature de la seconde sophistique, devint l’ objet d’ enseignement reproduit de façon stéréotypée dans les écoles de Rhétorique protobyzantines. La symbolique de la renaissance de la nature s’ est révélée particulièrement favorable à la didascalie chrétienne comme image du Christ ressuscité ; ainsi, l’ekphrasis earos se retrouve dans plusieurs homélies sur Pâques, le Baptême, la Nativité du Christ, l’Annonciation de la Vierge, etc. La jonction de la tradition chrétienne avec la tradition païenne dans la composition des descriptions du printemps semble qu’ elle fut favorisée dans le milieu scolaire de l’ époque médio-byzantine. Les ekphraseis earos de Libanius (Progym. XII 7, de Grégoire de Nazianze (Or. 44 et de Pseudo-Méléagre (AP IX 363 furent des modèles. À partir du XIIe siècle, les nouvelles tendances de la littérature, qui ont remis à l’honneur le roman d’ amour, le monde naturel et les détails de la vie quotidienne, ont donné lieu à des compositions dépourvues de toute allusion chrétienne.

  19. The Byzantine Empress Zoe Porphyrogenita and the quest for eternal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, Marios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Kalfakis, Nicoalos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-09-01

    The diachronically continuous struggle for eternal youth as represented by the Byzantine Empress Zoe Porphyrogenita (978-1050). The presentation of a beautiful empress, trying to keep her youth appearance until a prolonged age, applying on herself cosmetic essences and fragrances made in her personal laboratory into the imperial palace. The review of the relevant literature and the historical evidence derived from the historians and chroniclers of her era, as well as the surviving images of Zoe. The eye-witness chroniclers of the era describe her as blonde, with bright white skin, lack of wrinkles, and a very young girl appearance, preserving her beauty even into her 60s. All the historical sources agree that her main occupation was the manufacture of cosmetic essences, and for this purpose, she had installed a laboratory (myrepseion) in her private quarters, where she prepared various drugs and perfumes, spending much of her time for these activities. It is noteworthy that her first two husbands died under circumstances that aroused suspicions of Zoe's involvement in their deaths, as she had parallel love affairs. The best known image of Zoe is the mosaic panel in Saint Sophia, the cathedral Church of Constantinople and her representation has been long discussed, as she was 64 years old at the time of the scene apparently depicted in the panel, and maybe she took the opportunity of adding a more pleasing portrait of herself. The preservation of beauty is a timeless quest and cosmetic dermatology has its origins in antiquity and medieval times. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Power of the Dramatic «Auctoritas»: Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla in front of the Byzantine Comedy

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    Julián González-Barrera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla was one of the poets most favoured by the Court, even more than Calderón de la Barca. That royal favour gave him a creative freedom that lead to experiment with new methods, genres and motifs. That was the case of Persiles and Sigismunda, not only a mere adaptation of the cervantine novel, but also an attempt to surpass the model that Lope de Vega had created for the byzantine comedy, adding new formulas to a genre considered closed.

  1. Antikos tradicijos ir naujos tendencijos Bizantijos rašytinėje kalboje | Traditions of Antiquity and New Tendencies in Written Greek of the Byzantine Period

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    Kristina Svarevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Byzantine period, the norms of written Greek were primarily rooted in the ancient Greek literary tradition and not in the native linguistic competence. The article touches upon the questions linked to the role of rhetorical theory and techniques reinforced by the Greek educational system and the Byzantine Atticism. Particular attention is paid to the different written registers – low, middle, and high –, different styles according to genre and period, and the lack of consistency in writing at all levels.

  2. New Sphragistic Finds from the Environs of Byzantine Cherson (to the iIssue of the Correspondence Addressees

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    Nikolay A. Alekseenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest to the sigillographic artifacts found over the large areas adjacent to the chief administrative and economic centers of medieval Crimea currently allows to expand greatly the geographical map of the molybdoboulloi finds in this region. The topography of the finds in the areas surrounding Cherson had recently expanded significantly as well. Seals originating apparently from the settlements adjacent immediately to the ancient city, as well as from the places very remote from it became known. New finds of Byzantine seals (for instance, the seals of kommerkiarios Theodore, the end of the 6th century, of patrikios and genikos logothetes Petronas, the first half of the 9th century, of anthypatos, patrikios, imperial protospatharios and genikos logothetes Elissios, the second half of the 10th century, of (protospatharios and strategos of Cefalonia, of imperial protospatharios ™pr toà Crusotriklßnou and strategos of Cherson Theodore, the 10th – 11th centuries, as well as of protospatharios and strategos Joseph, with a sufficiently accurate localization of their origin provide new information about this sigillographic artifacts themselves, as well as clarify the geography of the Byzantine presence in the southwestern Taurica, particularly showing places yet poorly highlighted by other types of sources.

  3. The Byzantine Narration of Our Father Agapius and Its Slavonic Translation

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    Daria S. Penskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the Greek original of the hagiographic text The Narration of Our Father Agapius (presumably from the 5th–6th centuries, which was widely known in Slavonic tradition but remains almost unknown neither to historians of Byzantine culture and to Slavists. The paper consists of two parts. Drawing upon the critical edition of the text, the first part discusses the peculiarities of the Greek tradition. The manuscript from Athens is much more accurate than the second of the two existing Greek manuscripts, from St. Petersburg. Nevertheless, in some cases the Athenian manuscript is defective. Thus, the first culmination of the narrative, the description of the theophany in the Garden of Paradise, is absent. The episode of the raising of the dead son of a widow is also reduced, probably due to its somewhat magical flavor. However, the manuscript from St. Petersburg in its second part is inferior to the Athenian manuscript reducing vast descriptions—prayers and various details of the rites. A comparison of the two Greek manuscripts reveals vivid folkloric and evangelic images of the Greek original that were concealed by various mistakes made by scribes. The second part of the article compares the Greek original of the Narration with the Slavonic translation. The text from the Uspenskij Sbornik is the main focus of the comparison, but other evidence from the South and East Slavonic traditions are also taken into account. The translation eliminated quite a few major traces of the Greek original. Thus, an intimate first-person narration and a striking detail in which the main character himself tells about his death are eliminated. The names of Paradise sites, theological discourses, exhortations, any vast descriptions disappear. The adjusted symbolic structure of the Narration that reveals the transformation of the character from myst to mystagogue is eliminated in the Slavonic tradition and the main idea of the Greek text

  4. Are the classical historical geography of the Byzantine world and Gis technology a contradiction? On the usage of contemporary technologies in the humanities

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    Popović St. Mihailo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the latest developments in the field of Digital Humanities. It indicates in which ways these technologies are already used in the historical and geographical science throughout the world and how they could be integrated systematically into Byzantine Studies. In the first part of the article international projects, which are based on GIS (Geographic Information Systems, and their links in the World Wide Web are presented. In the second part the author shows on the basis of his scholarly results on the historical geography of Byzantine Macedonia, how medieval written sources can be transferred into digital format in order to achieve a higher level of spatial data analysis. The neglect of this important and recent scholarly approach in the 21st century could lead to the marginalisation of Byzantine Studies in general, and of the historical geography of the Byzantine Empire in particular. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177015: Hrišćanska kultura na Balkanu u srednjem veku: Vizantijsko carstvo, Srbi i Bugari od 9. do 15. veka

  5. 'Our queen of hearts' - the glorification of Lady Diana Spencer: a critical appraisal of the glorification of celebrities and new pilgrimage

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    Céline Grünhagen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity and spirituality respectively have always been and will be subject to change. The emergence of the manifold forms of new religious and spiritual movements in the last century includes a variety of cult-like vener­ations of specific individuals, such as politicians (e.g. Mao, Lenin and modern idols (e.g. Elvis Presley, Princess Diana, Michael Jackson, who are glorified like saints. Devotees gather annually for memorials of their departed idols or travel­ long distances to visit the tomb, former home, etc. of a specific person to pay tribute to him or her. Due to the motivations of these devotees, the trouble they take, the practices and the tangible emotionality that are connected with this phenomenon, it can be considered a form of pilgrimage. This article presents some thoughts about the glorification of celebrities which leads to these considerable forms of cult and pilgrimage, using as an example the case of Lady Diana Frances Spencer (d. 1997.

  6. First Foreign-Policy Success of Kievan Commanding Elite in Europe: Byzantine Military Campaign of 860 and Askold's Christianization

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    Igor A. Melnichuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, using annalistic sources and Byzantine literary monuments of VIII–IX centuries, attempts to conduct historical and political analysis and estimate major successes of Rus under Askol'd’s reign: Rusichi march on Constantinople in 860 and as a result Christianization of prince and his druzhina. The article presents obvious success of Askold and military and political elite of Rus:- Breakthrough of Russia to the European political space and, consequently, access to economic space: extremely important markets of Byzantium and other states.- Launch of the irreversible process of Christianization of the state, which has become one of the key stages of its development and the important step towards equal access of Russia to the European family of nations.- Selection of Eastern (Orthodox version of Christian doctrine.

  7. Characterization of Byzantine pottery from Oltina (Constanţa County), Romania, using PIXE and Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugoi, Roxana; Talmaţchi, Cristina; Haitǎ, Constantin; Ceccato, Daniele

    2018-02-01

    An assemblage of 58 ceramic shards discovered in archaeological excavations at Oltina, Romania, dated to the 10th-11th century CE, was subjected to archaeometric investigations in order to reveal the raw materials and manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone during the Byzantine ruling. The initial grouping of the shards according to stylistic criteria was refined by the subsequent petrographic study. Optical Microscopy (OM) detailed the general mineralogy and the pottery fabric, i.e. the textural characteristics, porosity and microstructure, surface treatments and firing. The PIXE analyses of potteries performed at AN2000 accelerator of LNL, INFN, Italy led to the identification of the chemical composition of the ceramic shards. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the PIXE data evidenced several categories of shards with distinct compositional signatures, the main division being the one separating the ceramic fragments made of kaolinitic clays from the rest of the Oltina potteries.

  8. The impact of financial institutions on the development of the Byzantine economy (10th-12th centuries

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    Maniatis George C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to ascertain the nature of the financial institutions fashioned diachronically to ensure the orderly operation of the Byzantine economy, encompassing the currency in circulation, credit availability, and the nexus of financial services; to analyze their role and evolution over time; to examine their ability to make rational use of the available financial resources; and ultimately to assess their contribution in ensuring the effective functioning of the marketplace and the economy in the 10th-12th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the effectiveness of the monetary system in providing the requisite liquidity to meet the needs of the productive sectors of the economy; the determining factors of money supply and its sectorial penetration; the measures taken to prevent hoarding and alleviate the gold-dependence of the fiscus; the functional distinction between money-changing and moneylending and its rationale; the rules established for the orderly conduct of currency transactions to prevent unsavory practices; the participants involved in lending operations and the extent of market competition; the importance of credit (and hence debt financing in promoting agriculture, manufacturing, and trade; and the role of the state in safeguarding the soundness of the monetary system, banking services, deals in precious metals and valuables, and in the pricing of capital. Moreover, the paper addresses collateral issues in dispute providing more cogent answers, identifies misinterpreted sources and unsupported assertions, and fills in lacunae. It is hoped that the searching examination of the design and operation of the enacted financial institutional arrangements will provide valuable insights as to their genesis, adaptation over time, and likely performance in light of the Byzantine economic, social and political realities.

  9. Screening of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers working in Hajj pilgrimage area in Saudi Arabia, using interferon gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, Zakeya A; Amer, Soliman M; Emara, Magdy M; Abdalla, Mohammad E; Ali, Sahar A

    2018-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the preferred test in BCG-vaccinated individuals. The few studies that have screened health care workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using IGRA have varied in agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). Assess the prevalence of LTBI among HCWs working in the Hajj pilgrimage using IGRA and TST and measuring their agreement. Cross-sectional prospective. Multiple non-tertiary care hospitals. HCWs who worked during the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia in December 2015. Data was collected by standarized questionnaire. Samples were drawn and analyzed by standard methods. The prevalence of LTBI among HCW and the agreement by kappa statistic between QFT-GIT and TST. 520 subjects. Nurses accounted for 30.7% of the sample and physicians, 19.2%. The majority were BCG vaccinated (98.5%). There were a total of 56 positive by QFT-GIT and the LTBI rate was 10.8%. In 50 QFT positive/476 TST negative the LTBI rate was 10.5% in discordant tests, and in 6 QFT positive/44 TST positive it was 13.6% in concordant tests. The overall agreement between both tests was poor-83% and kappa was 0.02. LTBI prevalence was associated with longer employment (13.1 [9.2] years). The QFT-GIT positive test was significantly higher in physicians (P=.02) and in HCWs working in chest hospitals 16/76 (21.05%) (P=.001). Agreement between the tests was poor. QFT-GIT detected LTBI when TST was negative in HCWs who had a history of close contact with TB patients. A second step TST was not feasible within 2-3 weeks. None.

  10. The Slavs and Vlachs in the Byzantine system of provincial organization in the Southern Balkans until the XI century: Similarities and differencies

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    Cvetković Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to establishing the circumstances and manner under which the Slav tribes and Vlachs in the southern Balkans were being integrated into the Byzantine system of provincial administration. Constantinople militarily imposed sovereignty on the settled Slavs, which was the first step towards their integration into the Byzantine state and society. When it comes to Vlachs, there was no use of military force. Special methods were applied to fit their autonomous organization into the frames oh the empire. In this regard, the paper compares the patterns of the integration processes of the two mentioned ethnic groups. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  11. ANKARA’DA ERKEN BİZANS DÖNEMİ MEZAR ALANI KAZISI / EARLY BYZANTINE CEMETERY EXCAVATION IN ANKARA

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    Mahmut AYDIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roma Dönemi’nde Galatia Eyaleti’nin başkentliğini yapan Ankyra kentinin anıtsal yapıları ve diğer çarpıcı kalıntıları ile olası nekropol alanları genellikle Ankara’nın Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi imar faaliyetleri sırasında gerçekleşen hafriyat çalışmaları ile açığa çıkarılmıştır. Ankara Celal Bayar Bulvarı üzerindeki Gazi Üniversitesi Sıhhiye Kampüsünde inşa edilen Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesindeki yapılaşma faaliyetleri sırasında ortaya çıkarılan Maltepe Erken Bizans Dönemi Mezar Alanı olasılıkla Ankyra kentinin daha önce bir bölümü tespit edilen güney nekropolü’nün devamı niteliğindedir. Gerçekleştirilen kurtarma kazısı sonucunda bu alanda tahrip edilmiş olası bir kilisenin küçük bir kısmı ve kilise cemaatine ait olması muhtemel beşik tonozlu bir mezar yapısı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

  12. L’église Sainte Sophie de Trébizonde – un repère dans l’architecture religieuse byzantine

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    Vasile M. Demciuc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The historical monument presented in this study is considered by specialists a true landmark in the Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture.The Church of St. Sophia in Trabzon, restored in the mid-twentieth century by specialists from the UK, is now a real attraction not only for historians, but also for tourists because an unique historical, artistic, iconographic and theological message. Basically, this message is given by an iconography program from the 13th century.

  13. A debt in Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses: the vitality of the Byzantine model in Historias peregrinas y ejemplares

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    Julián González-Barrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The generic vagueness of Historias peregrinas y ejemplares (1623 would be a convincing evidence of the experimentation that characterizes the whole prose of Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses. Among the confluence of different genres, opposite tendencies and literary trends that make up Historias peregrinas y ejemplares, the vigour of the Greek model is specially outstanding, to such an extent that some of them may be even regarded as genuine short Byzantine novels.

  14. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  15. A novel painted monument. Byzantine Art between Aesthetic Redefining and Dogmatic Perennity. The church Saint John the Baptist of Bârnova

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    Mihail M. Gheaţău

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being remarkable through the monumentality and elegance of proportions, the architecture of the Church “Saint John the Baptist” from Bârnova derives from the so-called old Wallachian style, skillfully reshaping a structure which combines elements which are specific to Byzantine Balkanic ecclesiastical buildings. The unseen pictural work of Ștefan Constantinescu is characterized by the attempt to associate the results of experiencing freedom of interpretation and expression with the rules of the iconographic canon, inside the same ensemble. Its representations do not reproduce the traditional Byzantine manner, nor it is delivered as a form of quoting reality, but it is filtered and interpreted. From a theological point of view, the author respects the iconographic program, except for the topographic placement of some episodes, adapting the discourse according to the configuration and features of the liturgical space. We are in front of a case which places us in the position of managing the relationship between the value of artistic creation and the meticulosity of theological involvement. Neither Byzantine, nor realistic, the artistic solution of the mural painting from Bârnova is closer to the manner of iconic transfiguration than to the one of improvisation or artistic intermediation through which the daily tridimensional world is reflected.

  16. Il viaggio religioso come strumento geopolitico. Il pellegrinaggio sciita e l’emergere dell’alleanza regionale tra Iran e Siria - Religious travelling as geopolitical instrument. The Shia pilgrimage and the rise of the regional alliance between Iran and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Scaini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Religious pilgrimage is almost as old as the history of men. This phenomenon has often been instrumentalized for political ends, creating the premises for new colonization processes, exerting local hegemonies or reinforcing strategic alliances. This article examines the recent re-discovery, in Shia perspective, of the holy sites in Syria. This “re-discovery” which initially was intended as anti-Iraq and pro-Iran has developed social implications and regional significance which cannot be thoroughly assessed for the moment. Among these there is an interesting gender issue. Women offer themselves as cultural mediators and therefore manage to increase their autonomy and obtain an economic independence which they propagate at home. Pilgrimage thus reveals itself as a kind of travel with strong political connotations.

  17. Resource-aware system architecture model for implementation of quantum aided Byzantine agreement on quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Mohammand Amin; Navi, Keivan; Van Meter, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Quantum aided Byzantine agreement is an important distributed quantum algorithm with unique features in comparison to classical deterministic and randomized algorithms, requiring only a constant expected number of rounds in addition to giving a higher level of security. In this paper, we analyze details of the high level multi-party algorithm, and propose elements of the design for the quantum architecture and circuits required at each node to run the algorithm on a quantum repeater network (QRN). Our optimization techniques have reduced the quantum circuit depth by 44% and the number of qubits in each node by 20% for a minimum five-node setup compared to the design based on the standard arithmetic circuits. These improvements lead to a quantum system architecture with 160 qubits per node, space-time product (an estimate of the required fidelity) {KQ}≈ 1.3× {10}5 per node and error threshold 1.1× {10}-6 for the total nodes in the network. The evaluation of the designed architecture shows that to execute the algorithm once on the minimum setup, we need to successfully distribute a total of 648 Bell pairs across the network, spread evenly between all pairs of nodes. This framework can be considered a starting point for establishing a road-map for light-weight demonstration of a distributed quantum application on QRNs.

  18. Characterization of paint and varnish on a medieval Coptic-Byzantine icon: Novel usage of dammar resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, M.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Stern, B.; Janaway, R.

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken into a 13th century Coptic-Byzantine icon from the St. Mercurius Church, St. Mercurius monastery, Old Cairo, Egypt. The layered structure, pigment composition and varnish identification were revealed by means of optical and Raman microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the icon comprised six layers; wooden panel, canvas, white ground, two bole layers and a single paint layer. Azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2), cinnabar (mercuric (II) sulfide α-HgS), yellow ochre (Fe 2O 3·H 2O), hydromagnesite Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O and lamp black (carbon, C) are the pigments identified in the icon. The green paint area is of interest as it is applied neither with a green pigment nor with a mixture of a blue and yellow pigment. Instead, a yellow layer of dammar resin was applied on top of blue azurite to obtain the green colour. Pinaceae sp. resin mixed with drying oil was used as a protective varnish.

  19. Investigation of the gilding technique in two post-Byzantine wall paintings using micro-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsibiri, Olga; Boon, Jaap J.

    2004-01-01

    The main churches of two important monasteries in Thessalia, Central Greece, are decorated with wall paintings that hail from the post-Byzantine period. The mural decoration of the main church of the St. Byssarionas Monastery at Doussiko has been attributed to the iconographer Tzortzis. The same painter is believed to have also operated in the main church of the Transfiguration Monastery at the monastic community of Meteora. The light microscopic (LM) examination of the cross-sections of samples taken from the gilded areas of the wall paintings, together with the direct temperature resolved mass spectrometric (DTMS) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDX) analysis, revealed a further resemblance of the materials and the methodology employed. The gold leaf was applied to the paintings by means of a mordant, which contains linseed oil mixed with a lead-containing dryer and an earth pigment or clay. The present study can constitute additional evidence to reinforce the idea that the two churches may have been painted by the same painter or workshop

  20. Impact of earthquakes on agriculture during the Roman-Byzantine period from pollen records of the Dead Sea laminated sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Marco, Shmuel; Bookman, Revital; Miller, Charlotte S.

    2010-03-01

    The Dead Sea region holds the archives of a complex relationship between an ever-changing nature and ancient civilisations. Regional pollen diagrams show a Roman-Byzantine period standing out in the recent millennia by its wetter climate that allowed intensive arboriculture. During that period, the Dead Sea formed laminites that display mostly a seasonal character. A multidisciplinary study focused on two earthquakes, 31 BC and AD 363, recorded as seismites in the Ze'elim gully A unit III which has been well dated by radiocarbon in a previous study. The sampling of the sediment was done at an annual resolution starting from a few years before and finishing a decade after each earthquake. A clear drop in agricultural indicators (especially Olea and cereals) is shown. These pollen indicators mostly reflect human activities in the Judean Hills and coastal oases. Agriculture was disturbed in large part of the rift valley where earthquake damage affected irrigation and access to the fields. It took 4 to 5 yr to resume agriculture to previous conditions. Earthquakes must be seen as contributors to factors damaging societies. If combined with other factors such as climatic aridification, disease epidemics and political upheaval, they may lead to civilisation collapse.

  1. The Byzantine apocalyptic tradition a fourteenth-century Serbian version of the Apocalypse of Anastasia

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    Marjanović-Dušanić Smilja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early translations of the Apocalypse of Anastasia into Old Church Slavonic appear in several versions incorporated into miscellanies of the zbornik (collection type. These texts belong to various genres of religious prose and are usually assembled in apocryphal collections about journeys to the other world. The earliest known Serbian version of the Apocalypse of Anastasia is the fourteenth-century manuscript dated to about 1380 (MS 29. The present paper gives an analysis of this narrative.

  2. Byzantine Glazed Ceramics in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Golden Horde Period (Second Half of the 13th to the Late 14th Century

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    Bocharov Sergei G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glazed ceramics of Byzantine origin, which came has been found on town sites of the Northern Black Sea region referring to the Golden Horde period (second half of the 13th – late 14th cc., is characterized in the article. Materials from the urban centers of the Crimea (Solkhat, Sudak, Kaffa, Chersonese, Cembalo, the Azov Sea region (Azaq, and the lower reaches of the Don and Kuban rivers are discussed. The applied principles of ceramics classification have been formulated. On their basis, six major groups of Byzantine ceramic imports have been identified. For each group, a description of morphological and technological features, ornamentation methods and motifs has been provided; chronological framework of their arrival in the region has been specified. Conclusions have been offered as to the extent of distribution and the role played by diverse groups of Byzantine glazed ceramics in the cities of the Northern Black Sea region.

  3. The Pilgrimage to the Holy Face of Lucca in 1896: Documents and News from the Archive of the Congregation of the Holy Face

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    Tommaso Maria Rossi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 100 records and many other documentary testimonies regarding the Congregation of the Holy Face of Lucca are stored within the funds of the Historical Diocesan Archive of Lucca. The Chapters of the Society of the Holy Face are present within the same Archive; this document is dated back to 1306-1308 and it is brought up together with the minutes of the meetings in a paper register of 16th-17th century, the only one remained concerning the renewed Society of the Holy Sacrament and the Holy Face. The brotherhood recovered importance during the 19th century mostly thanks to some priests of Lucca, including the Abbot Pietro Pera (the future Archbishop between 1845 and 1846. Specifically, two important moments regarding the renewed interest for the relics of Lucca can be registered after the Napoleonic Era. First, a competition for the construction of a golden lamp for the chapel of the Holy Face was carried out between 1835 and 1836, and Abbot Pera was charged to supervise the enterprise. Related documentaries as well as the various drawings presented for the competition are stored in the Archives of the Congregation of the Holy Face. Moreover, a pilgrimage to the simulacrum of Lucca took place during 1896. This event was very successful: the City and the entire Diocese accurately organized the arrival of about 132,000 pilgrims by controlling pilgrims’ overnighting and daily meals, and developing a visiting route concerning the shrines of the City.

  4. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S Y

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  5. A study of gemstones of the I. D. Passa collection, hosted at the Byzantine and Christian Museum of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Eirini; Perraki, Maria; Katsaros, Thomas; Ganetsos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Eight sculptures, of the large gemstone art collection of Ioannis D. Passas hosted at the Byzantine and Christian Museum of Greece, were studied by means of portable Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Fluorescence to identify the type and, if possible, the origin of the gemstones they are made of. The application of portable Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray fluorescence have been proven to be rapid and successful analytical methods to study gemstones, with main advantage their non- destructive character. The eight sculptures of the I.D. Passa collection examined herein, based on their Raman features and XRF data, were confirmed to be nephrite, fluorite, lapis lazuli, rhodonite and turquoise. The Raman spectrum of specimen BXM 23989a is characterized by peaks at approximately 244, 378 and 685 cm-1 assigned to nephrite. In the XRF spectrum, the most intense emission lines were those of Ca and Fe at 3.69 and 6.36 keV, respectively. The Raman spectra of specimens BXM 24357-8a and BXM 24354 are characterized by peaks at 731, 1122, 1364, 1778 and 1880 cm-1attributed to fluorite. As for the XRF spectra, F and Ca have strong peaks at 0.60 keV and 3.69 keV, respectively. The Raman spectra of specimens BXM 24201a,b and BXM 24198 are characterized by strong peaks at 553 and 1319.1 cm-1 assigned to Lapis Lazuli, whereas the respective XRF spectra are characterized by strong peaks at 1.74 keV (Si) and 3.69 keV (Ca). A representative Raman spectrum of specimen BXM 24289 has given a strong peak at 633 cm-1, attributed to rhodonite. The respective XRF spectrum is characterized by strong peaks at 5.87 keV and 1.74 keV, pointing to the presence of Mn and Si, respectively. A typical Raman spectrum of specimens BXM 24142a and BXM 24139a exhibit strong peaks at 231, 417 and 1042 cm-1, characteristic of turquoise. In the XRF spectra, the most intense emission lines are those of Cu and Zn at 8.04 and 8.63 keV respectively. Regarding the origin of the above-mentioned gemstones, one could assume the

  6. Византийские (средиземноморские мечи с перекрестьями с муфтой IX—XI вв. / Byzantine (Mediterranian 9th — 11th century swords with sleeve cross-guards

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    Baranov G.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews such as a group of early medieval swords with cross-guards having three main elements: a collar, a quillon and a sleeve. A significant number of such swords as well as separate cross-guards were found in Eastern Europe and are dated from the 9th c. (possibly as early as the second half of the 8th c. to the 11th c. This design of cross-guards is typical of the Mediterranean region. Its wide spread across Eastern Europe should be linked to the influence of the Byzantine Empire, where comparable items can be found in art. The paper categorizes cross-guards of this kind into three main types and describes the principal trends in their evolution: reduction of collar and sleeve height and increasing quillon length. Two types of pommels in such swords are described, as well as remaining elements of scabbards.

  7. Byzantine Taurica in the Second Half of the 11th Century and New Seal of Leon Aliates from Cherson

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    Nikolay A. Alekseenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available he discovery of a valuable and important sphragistic source in Cherson – the seal of Strategos and Patrikios Leon Aliates, known by the inscription of 1059, brings us back to the old problems of the development of the administrative system of the Crimean region. Basing the research on the other data as well, today we can confidently state that the presence of the imperial administration in Taurica in the second half of the 11th century does not only decrease, but even expands and reinforces. This is associated, firstly, with Sougdea joining Cherson, and, secondly, with the creation of Cherson katepanate and making Sougdea an independent theme. The seal of vetarch Nicephorus Alan, catepan of Cherson and Khazaria, proves the existence of a new military administrative district in Taurica in the second half of the 11th – at the turn of the 11th / 12th centuries. This fact makes it necessary not only to look in a new way at the history of the region during the collapse of the feudal system, but also in a certain sense to reestimate the role and significance of Cherson in Byzantine politics and diplomacy of that time. The appearance of the katepanate in Taurica, which included not only the traditional regions around Cherson, but also the vast Khazar lands of the Steppe and Northeast Crimea in the sphere of its jurisdiction, was caused by the need to increase the military force of borderlands in the face of an ever-increasing threat from the nomads of the north. For the same reason, Sougdea becomes an independent theme, designed to control the East-Crimean region, the Azov Sea and the Caucasian coast of Ponta. It is possible that a similar situation could apply to Bosporus. The finds of the seals of Russian princes and governors of Tmutarakan in the very area of Bosporus and Sougdea serve as indirect evidence in favor of this fact.

  8. Digital surveying and new perspectives on the Byzantine Oratory of the Catacomb of Saint Lucia in Syracuse

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    Mariateresa Galizia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted Oratory Byzantine catacombs of Saint Lucia in Syracuse comes from the observation of the precarious condition of the underground funerary complex from the point of view of the static structures, which have undergone several alterations over the centuries due to landslides, blockages, collapses and subsequent excavations, conservation of the frescoes found that as a result of survey campaigns that have occurred intermittently on the monument. These difficulties have conditioned the public opening of only a part of the catacombs -la region A and the Oratory of the Forty Martiri- leaving hidden the community many significant spaces including the Oratory. The research will then, through the survey instrument with laser scanner, acquire a geometric-formal documentation of this important area through a 3D model on which to investigate aspects of a static nature, geological, material, historical, archaeological, necessary for a proper design of future interventions for the protection and consolidation of the catacomb. In fact, the 3D model obtained is a virtual copy of the recorded space through which it is possible to speculate on some design and physical environmental conditions of the sites, such as lighting and ventilation, and on some solutions distribution-functional, providing also a possible model for 3D navigation allows the virtual tour of the places underground. The location of the site, the distribution of the planimetric and static environmental conditions represented in research critical issues to be addressed in the survey phase of underground sites, providing for the research group of the fixed points on which to structure a possible protocol operating acquisition, integration, management and processing of the acquired data subject to change.

  9. Nicephorus Blemmydes on the Holy Trinity and the Paraconsistent Notion of Numbers: A Logical Analysis of a Byzantine Approach to the Filioque

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    Lourié Basil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most controversial - in the modern scholarly discussion - episode within the Byzantine polemics on the Filioque, Nicephorus Blemmydes‘ acknowledgement of proceeding of the Spirit through the Son providing that the Son be considered as generated through the Spirit. The logical intuition behind this theological idea is explicated in the terms of paraconsistent logic and especially of a kind of paraconsistent numbers called by the author “pseudo-natural numbers”. Such numbers could not be interpreted via the notion of ordered pair. Instead, they imply a known (first described by Emil Post in 1941 but still little studied logical connective ternary exclusive OR.

  10. Episodes in «Persiles and Sigismunda» shaped by ‘Byzantine tales’ from the «Gesta Romanorum»

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    Clark Andrews Colahan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Only recently has there been a recognition of the literary influence in Spain of the ‘examples’ found in the Gesta Romanorum, a collection of tales widely spread and fertile in adaptations throughout Medieval and Renaissance northern Europe. Just as other Hispanic writers did who were contemporaries of Cervantes, he would have been able to read them without difficulty in the original Latin, which is highly simplified for the use of preachers. The plot and images of two of the gesta written in the style of a Byzantine novel shape corresponding episodes in the Persiles, which is well known for Cervantes’ statement that in it he sought to compete with the Byzantine novel set in Ethiopia by Heliodorus. A whale swallowing Auristela’s ship in one of the tales, like her rescue and subsequent forced choice between suitors, provide situations and phrases used by Cervantes to portray the intense love between Persiles and his sweetheart/pretended sister, Sigismunda, as was done also in other Hispanic adaptations of the legend.

  11. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    , the presence of iron oxides (hematite and limonite) indicating the use of ochre for the yellow and red pigments, is identified. Finally, the surface of some samples was covered by a transparent and tensile material. This material was characterized by μs-FTIR spectroscopy as an organic substance, probably a natural resin that was used to protect the murals in the early ages.

  12. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Angelova, S.

    2010-01-01

    , the presence of iron oxides (hematite and limonite) indicating the use of ochre for the yellow and red pigments, is identified. Finally, the surface of some samples was covered by a transparent and tensile material. This material was characterized by μs-FTIR spectroscopy as an organic substance, probably a natural resin that was used to protect the murals in the early ages.

  13. Byzantine People’s Anthropology. The Force of the Foot And Its Reflection in the Life of St. Theodore Sikeot

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    Nikolay Dmitrievich Barabanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one aspect of Byzantine folk anthropology in its religious incarnation. We are speaking about human limbs, feet of the Saint, who showed specific ability of miracles using them. Among the many wonders which were committed by Holy Theodore Sikeot, who was Abbot of Sikeon monastery and former Bishop of Anastasiopol (date of death – April 22, 613, three of them deserve special attention. In the narration of life of the Saint it is told about healing the patients who suffered from paralysis of limbs and, consequently, were deprived of their ability to move. Saint Theodore saved them from illness not only by the power of prayer. In all cases he put his foot on the body of the patient, in particular, on chest and knees. This kind of touch makes us think about the meaning of committed ritual and about that complex of ideas which was connected with it. Presumably, the described action reflected not only the individual attitude of the hagiographer but also an attitude of the audience, to which it was addressed. For this reason, this phenomenon should be considered not as a hagiographic topos, but as an element of the mythological-ritual continuum, which is connected with religious contemplation of the specificity of the different parts of the human body, in particular, of the lower limbs. The tradition of honoring the legs and their prints are well known and are rooted in “deep antiquity”. In the pre-Christian world of the Graeco- Roman time there was the cult of the legs, the image of which was regarded as an amulet, which had an apotropaic power. The feet can be associated with different deities, however, most of all, the following cult was associated with Serapis, the God of fertility, underworld and healing. It was believed that the right foot of Serapis had healing force. However, the process of transferring of the properties of Serapis foot to the foot of Christian Saint raises some questions. First of all, about

  14. Droit déguisé : Quelques considérations sur le rôle du droit byzantin dans la genèse des codes en Europe orientale au XIXe siècle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penna, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine some first questions related to the use of Byzantine law in the codes that emerged during the 19th century in South-Eastern Europe. It focuses on the introductory acts to the codes of Moldavie (1817) and Valachie (1818) and an episode related to the involvement of

  15. Etude dynamique de l’environnement des villages romano-byzantins de Syrie du Nord ; localisation des structures parcellaires et cadastrales qui leurs sont liées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Tate

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available L’étude porte sur une région de 30.000 km2, allant de la frontière turque à Homs, et communément appelé "le Plateau Calcaire". Sept cents villages, d’époque romaine et byzantine y ont été recensés. Les objectifs Ils sont de deux types : comprendre l’histoire du peuplement, en particulier l’abondon progressif de très nombreux villages entre le 8éme et le 10ème siècle. A cette fin sont notamment indispensables les connaissances relatives, aux terroirs et aux terres arables effectivement disponi...

  16. Recherches sur l’apocalyptique syriaque et byzantine au viie siècle : la place de l’Empire romain dans une histoire du salut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ubierna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available L’occupation perse et la littérature apocalyptiqueLa perception des événements militaires du début du viie siècle – d’abord l’occupation perse et ensuite la guerre arabe – n’est pas écartée, chez les contemporains, de la vision d’un empire, l’empire byzantin, secoué par de fortes controverses religieuses.La préoccupation intellectuelle à propos de la situation de l’Empire fut extrêmement marquée au commencement du viie siècle. Une vie anonyme de l’empereur Maurice inclut un récit de sa mort d...

  17. A pilgrimage through superheavy valley

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gap p, average neutron pairing gap n, two-nucleon separation energy S2q and shell .... study has appeared as a powerful tool to study the shapes and collective properties of nuclei ... and identify the magic proton and neutron numbers in the superheavy region. ... pairing gap indicates the close shell structure of the nucleus.

  18. Women’s Costume of German Origin in the Funeral Context of Early Byzantine Cities of the Northern Black Sea (5th–6th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Mastykova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to burials containing elements of a female costume of East German origin, discovered in the urban necropolises of Chersonesus and Cimmerian Bosporus in the 5th–6th centuries. Burials with German objects are most often in the same collective tombs and in the same necropolises as the burial of the urban Hellenized population. The appearance and resettlement of the eastern Germans in the cities of the Northern Black Sea Coast is attested by written sources only for the Cimmerian Bosporus. About 400 Goths could even occupy a dominant position here. This explains their integration into the Bosporus ruling elite, as evidenced by the existence of rich graves with German implements in the tombs of the local nobility. Later, Cimmerian Bosporus is under the rule of the Huns, and in 534 the military expedition sent by Justinian returns the region to the power of the Empire. Written sources directly indicate the presence of Gothic federates from Minor Scythia as part of the Justinian assault. Therefore, the researchers explain the appearance of a new series of East German things in the Northern Black Sea region by the arrival here of the German soldiers with their families. On the other hand, the violent deportation of barbarians to the Crimea is also possible – a practice well known in the Justinian era. This is how you can explain the appearance here of Italo-Ostrogothic and Gepidic things. In Chersonese German things could fall and as a result of various contacts with the Goths from the country of Dori, in the South-Western Crimea. However, despite the various historical destinies and different statutes of the Germans, in the north-Pontic cities they sooner or later come to be absorbed by the local environment, which reflects the finds of the items of female clothing in urban necropolises.

  19. In vino veritas... Is there truth in wine? Drinking and intemperance in Great Moravian and Early Czech legislation (Antique traditions in the Byzantine and Slavonic world)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíková, Lubomíra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, 1-2 (2014), s. 98-121 ISSN 0007-7712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12SK161 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Great Moravia * Great- Moravian law * Slavonic law * Bohemia * Cyril * Methodius * Byzantium * antique traditions Subject RIV: AB - History

  20. APPLYING SATELLITE DATA SOURCES IN THE DOCUMENTATION AND LANDSCAPE MODELLING FOR GRAECO-ROMAN/BYZANTINE FORTIFIED SITES IN THE TŪR ABDIN AREA, EASTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Silver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey. FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  1. Byzantium and Armenia: Metamarphosis of Military Connections (The Readers’ Opinion About the Book: Ayvazyan, A. The Armenian Military in the Byzantine Empire. Conflict and Alliance Under Justinian and Maurice [Text] / A. Ayvazyan. – Alfortville : Editions Sigest, 2014. – 152 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay D. Barabanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a critical analysis of the monography of Armen Ayvazyan “The Armenian Military in the Byzantine Empire. Conflict and Alliance under Justinian and Maurice” (Alfortville, 2014. The conclusion of non-conformity of the title and its content is made. The structure and logic of the work are considered. Examples of unjustified unambiguous interpretation of controversial issues are given. The authors detected the narrative character of the work, which brought the relatively small contribution to the Armenian studies and military-historical science.

  2. Βιβλιοκρισία του: R. GOUNELLE (ed., Les recensions byzantines de l’Évangile de Nicodème [Corpus Christianorum. Series apocryphorum, Instrumenta 3], Turnhout, Brepols 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Στυλιανός ΛΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available  Βιβλιοκρισία του: R. Gounelle,     Les recensions byzantines de l’Évangile de Nicodème [Corpus Christianorum. Series apocryphorum, Instrumenta 3], Turnhout, Brepols 2008, σσ. 332, ΙSΒΝ 978-2-503-52813-7.

  3. The Birth of Hospital, Asclepius cult and Early Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Sok

    2017-04-01

    History of hospital is one of main fields of researches in medical history. Besides writing a history of an individual hospital, considerable efforts have been made to trace the origin of hospital. Those who quest for the origin of hospital are faced with an inevitable problem of defining hospital. As the different definition can lead to a different outcome, it is important to make a clear definition. In this article, the hospital was defined as an institution in which patients are housed and given medical treatments. According to the definition, the Great Basilius is regarded to have created the first hospital in 369 CE. The creation of hospital is considered to be closely related with Christian philantrophy. However, the question is raised against this explanation. As the religious philantrophy does not exclusively belong to the Christianity alone, more comprehensive and persuasive theory should be proposed to explain why the first hospital was created in the Christian World, not in the Buddhistic or other religious world. Furthermore, in spite of sharing the same Christian background, why the first hospital appeared in Byzantine Empire, not in Western Roman Empire, also should be explained. My argument is that Asclepius cult and the favorable attitude toward medicine in Greek world are responsible to the appearance of the first hospital in Byzantine Empire. The evangelic work of Jesus was heavily depended on healing activities. The healing activities of Jesus and his disciples were rivalled by Asclepius cult which had been widely spread and practiced in the Hellenistic world. The temples of Asclepius served as a model for hospital, for the temples were the institution exclusively reserved for the patients. The exclusive housing of patients alone in the temples of Asclepius is clearly contrasted with the other early forms of hospitals in which not only patients but also the poor, foreigners and pilgrims were housed altogether. Toward the healing god Asclepius

  4. Late Onset First Episode Psychosis Emerging as Delusional Misidentification of Familiar Sacred Places During a Holy Pilgrimage: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Mahmoud A; Moselhy, Hamdy F; Elnenaei, Manal O

    2017-11-07

    The delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) include a myriad of discrete but related syndromes, which have wide spectrum anomalies of familiarity. Several misidentification syndromes have been described in the psychiatric literature, the most common of these delusions are: the Capgras syndrome; the Fregoli syndrome; the syndrome of inter-metamorphosis; reduplicative paramnesia; and environmental reduplication. The reported case highlights the emergence of late onset first episode psychosis in a Middle Eastern 65-year-old female who has no previous psychiatric history. The nature of psychosis was mainly delusions of misidentification and persecution. DMS are relatively rare and occur predominantly in association with schizophrenia and affective psychosis. Between 25 and 40% are associated with organic conditions such as dementia, head injuries, brain tumors, and epilepsy. Only three cases of misidentification of sacred places have been reported previously in the literature. This case report is the first to present a DMS, emerging as a late onset first episode psychosis during the sacred journey of Hajj. The reported case highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of mental health conditions that may appear de novo during the Hajj sacred journey. Readily available psychiatric resources, psychotropic medications, and psycho-education may be pivotal in ensuring mental well-being of pilgrims, which is fundamental to maintain the mental capacity required for completing these journeys.

  5. La Graeca fides e la falsità moscovitanel discorso polacco premoderno. Storia di un topos ["Graeca fides and the Perfidy of the Muscovites in the Polish Early Modern Discourse. History of a Topos "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Krzywy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "The article discusses the usage of the classical topos Graeca fides to describe the citizens of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in early modern Polish literature (chronicles, diaries, journalistic writings, diplomatic reports etc.. This way of speaking was justified by the identification of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Greek Byzantine Rite. The formula was used to deprecate Russians and became part of a negative stereotype. The author demonstrates, with diverse examples, how this formula became a constant topos in statements about a country considered hostile in Poland since the 16th century, and in which contexts it was developed."

  6. Leo Sgouros – Tyrant and Patriot. The Ruler of the Northeastern Peloponnese in the Early 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor N. Chkhaidze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leo Sgouros is one of the Byzantine magnates who ruled in the northeastern Peloponnese in the late 12th – early 13th centuries. The paper discusses the separatist activity of the Leo Sgouros which allowed him in a short time to create ephemeral ‘state’ in the South of Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica, Corinth and the Argolid. In order to give legitimacy to his authority Leo Sgouros married the daughter of the deposed Emperor Alexios III. But his way from separatism to Imperial idea was interrupted by the clash with the knights of the Latin Empire who have predetermined his defeat. Among the reasons for the defeat we can name the enmity with the clergy and nonpossibility of joining with other governors in fighting the crusaders. According to later legend, Leo Sgouros died, throwing himself with his horse from the cliff of the Acrocorinth fortress, besieged by the crusaders. According to another version, Leo Sgouros died under the walls of his native city Nauplius. The study examined the seal of the Leo Sgouros with a rare title of sebastohypertatos (higher sebastos, and similar seal which was reused by John Branas. Data analysis suggests that such a contradictory personality as Leo Sgouros’ may be characterized not only as an ambitious tyrant and the defender of Byzantine Hellenism. The Annex contains information about the seven of Sgouros names that have become known in recent years by virtue of the monuments of sphragistics.

  7. Roman and Byzantine Motifs in Сказаниe о князьях владимирских (The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Picková

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasily III and to a greater extent Ivan the Terrible based their policies on a historical work known as Сказание о князьях владимирских (The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir. Its author attempted to find a connection between the House of Rurikids and the Byzantine and the ancient Roman Empire, although in a completely different context than monk Philotheus of Pskov who invented the idea of eternal Moscow as the third Rome. According to the concept of the author of Сказание, Rurik was a descendant of Prus, a relative of Roman Emperor Octavianus Augustus while Vladimir II Monomakh was said to obtain the insignia of imperial power from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomakhos.

  8. Bιβλιοκρισία: M. ALTRIPP (Ηrsg., Byzanz in Europa. Europas östliches Erbe. [BYZANTIOS. Studies in Byzantine History and Civilization 2], Turnhout 2011, ISBN 978-2-503-54153-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Στυλιανός ΛΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Βιβλιοκρισία: M. Altripp (Ηrsg., Byzanz in Europa. Europas östliches Erbe. Akten des Kolloquiums 'Byzanz in Europa' vom 11. bis 15. Dezember 2007 in Greifswald [BYZANTIOS. Studies in Byzantine History and Civilization 2], Turnhout 2011, σελ. X + 502, 79 πίν., ISBN 978-2-503-54153-2 (printed version- 978-2-503-54193-8 (online version.

  9. Life-giving springs and The Mother of God Zhivonosen Istochnik / Zoodochos Pege / Balikliyska. Byzantine-Greek-Ottoman intercultural influence and its aftereffects in iconography, religious writings and ritual practices in the region of Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lubańska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Life-giving springs and The Mother of God  Zhivonosen Istochnik / Zoodochos Pege / Balikliyska. Byzantine-Greek-Ottoman intercultural influence and its aftereffects in iconography, religious writings and ritual practices in the region of Plovdiv This article looks at veneration of healing springs (ayazma in Orthodox Christian churches and monasteries in the region of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad (Bulgaria to raise the problem of its connections to Byzantine, Greek and Ottoman religious cultures of Constantinople/Istanbul. My argument is based on the fieldwork and archival research I conducted in 2012–2014 to seek an answer to a research question that had kept me intrigued for over a decade: namely, what is the meaning, in practical terms, of the claim frequently made by Orthodox Christians that the various religious rituals they engaged in (with the exception of funerary ones were practiced “for health” (za zdrave.   Życiodajne źródła i Bogurodzica Żiwonosen Iztocznik / Zoodochos Pege / Baliklijska. Bizantyńsko-grecko-osmańskie oddziaływania międzykulturowe i ich reperkusje w ikonografii, piśmiennictwie i praktykach rytualnych w regionie Płowdiwu Niniejszy artykuł poświęcono problematyce kultu leczniczych wód (ajazma na terenie bułgarskich prawosławnych cerkwi i monasterów w regionie Płowdiwu i Asenowgradu oraz jego domniemanych związków z bizantyńską, grecką i osmańską kulturą religijną Konstantynopola/Stambułu. Swoje tezy autorka opiera na badaniach terenowych i kwerendach archiwalnych prowadzonych w latach 2012–2014. Badania miały na celu odnalezienie odpowiedzi na nękające autorkę od ponad dekady pytanie badawcze, co prawosławni wierni mają na myśli, gdy uzasadniają praktycznie wszystkie podejmowane przez siebie religijne rytuały (z wyjątkiem funeralnych tym, że wykonują je „dla zdrowia” (za zdrave.

  10. A contribution to the study of the medieval law: Manumissio testamentaria ('Eλεyθερια 'En Διαθηκη 'Eγγραφομενη in Byzantine wills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Wills and contracts are one of the main sources for the history of the Byzantine private law. In this article we have analyzed wills that are dated in the period of XI to XIV century. Manummision of the subordinate class of slaves, parikoi and serfs is an interesting and quite frequent phenomenon in wills. In a couple of different sources, testators gave freedom to the mentioned groups of people, most often being motivated by spiritual and holy causes. Testators usually provided the best care for a new freedman, involving family members to bear with his education and upkeeping. In this article we are also imposing many questions that are particulary significant for the legal analysis, such as the form of manumisson, the issue of slaves who become inheritors, value and the nature of legats, etc. Manumissons could have diverse nature. In some cases we can compare it with the testamentary manumission of the Roman private law, despite of the fact that slaves in the Byzantine law were never included in the inheritance mass. The relationship between testator/master and serf can explan better the nature of enslavement in Byzantium. That union is specific, known for life-important questions and needs of freedman, which master-testator resolves. It is a well-know fact that manumisson - elefteria is sometimes just another ambiguous term in the Byzantine sources. In exploring the legal institute of manumissio testamentaria one must be careful, because not every manumission is the real one, not every doulos and oikeios is a slave, and not every elefteros is a freedman. This part of Byzantine social and economic history is known to be very well studied and explored by scholars. Although this being a case, we must emphasize the shortage of legal studies in this field of Byzantine studies. We find this theme very important to the Studies of History of law, especially due to its complex relation to wills, codicils, legats and also caracteristics of

  11. An Adlerian View of the Publican's Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of Adlerian vocational psychology to conceive the career pattern described by the Publican in an article in this issue, to relate it to his vocational behavior, and select counseling topics that could aid his career development. Describes Adler's psychology as offering a process theory of vocational behavior that comprehends…

  12. A Pilgrimage to the Disneyland of Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Justin; McWilliams, Susan; Beienburg, Sean

    2010-01-01

    As part of a course considering "American Democracy in Theory and Practice," we took 36 students to Rick Warren's Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, California. During that visit, students observed a community that seeks self-sufficiency and yet proves to be simultaneously responsive to and reflective of American democracy more broadly.…

  13. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Store-Carry and Forward-Type M2M Communication Protocol Enabling Guide Robots to Work together and the Method of Identifying Malfunctioning Robots Using the Byzantine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Suga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a service in which multiple guide robots in an area display arrows to guide individual users to their destinations. It proposes a method of identifying malfunctioning robots and robots that give wrong directions to users. In this method, users’ mobile terminals and robots form a store-carry and forward-type M2M communication network, and a distributed cooperative protocol is used to enable robots to share information and identify malfunctioning robots using the Byzantine algorithm. The robots do not directly communicate with each other, but through users’ mobile terminals. We have introduced the concept of the quasi-synchronous number, so whether a certain robot is malfunctioning can be determined even when items of information held by all of the robots are not synchronized. Using simulation, we have evaluated the proposed method in terms of the rate of identifying malfunctioning robots, the rate of reaching the destination and the average length of time to reach the destination.

  15. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  16. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  17. Caracterización epidemiológica y factores de riesgo asociados a la peregrinación religiosa a Arabia Saudí: Resultados de una cohorte prospectiva 2008-2009 Epidemiology and risk factors associated with religious pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia: Results of a prospective cohort 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Valerio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La peregrinación religiosa a Arabia Saudí o Hajj es un precepto básico en la doctrina islámica. Anualmente millones de peregrinos (un 5% procedente de la Unión Europea se concentran en La Meca después del Ramadán, con los riesgos sanitarios que eso conlleva. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo de una cohorte de peregrinos atendidos en visita de actividades preventivas predesplazamiento en la Unidad de Salud Internacional Metropolitana Norte (Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Barcelona, España durante 2009-2010. Resultados: Se valoraron 193 peregrinos (135 hombres, 69,9%, con una edad media (DE de 37,1 (16,9 años. Eran inmigrantes 176 (91,2%, originarios de Pakistán (54,9%, Marruecos (29%, Bangladesh (4,1% y otros (7,2%. Se desplazaban a Arabia Saudí por una media (DE de 16,3 (9,2 días; optaban por la peregrinación larga (Hajj 80 (41,5% y por la corta (Umra 113 (58,5%. Presentaban antecedentes patológicos 29 (15%. Se obtuvo una cobertura vacunal superior al 75% para tétanos-difteria, antineumocócica y antimeningocócica tetravalente, y sólo de un 70,4% para la antigripal. Presentaron algún problema de salud 41 (13,5%, el 61% de ellos síntomas de vías respiratorias. Los factores de riesgo independientemente relacionados con presentar enfermedades fueron los días de estancia (odds ratio [OR]=1,06; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,01-1,11 y realizar el Hajj frente a la Umra (OR=1,08; IC95%: 1,07-1,12. Conclusiones: Los peregrinos a Arabia Saudí procedentes de España son un colectivo fundamentalmente joven y sano. Presentaron un mayor número de enfermedades aquellos con estancias más largas.Introduction: Religious pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia, or Hajj, is a basic tenet of the Islamic doctrine and, after Ramadan, annually represents the largest human concentration (with up to 5% of from the EU around the world. Such a gathering entails health risks. Methods: A prospective observational study was

  18. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  19. Young Adult Women and the Pilgrimage of Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperini, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Motherhood is a complex experience that can be transformative, offering women opportunities for personal enrichment and spiritual development. Because the largest incidence of births occurs to women in the Millennial or late Generation X generations, this complex, potentially transformative experience occurs at a critical time in young adult…

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Hajj pilgrimage

    KAUST Repository

    Padron Regalado, Eriko

    2014-05-01

    Hajj is the annual gathering of Islam practitioners in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. During the event, gastrointestinal infections are usually experienced and outbreaks have always been a concern; nevertheless, a deep and integrative study of the etiological agents has never been carried out. Here, I describe for the first time the epidemiology of pathogenic enteric viruses during Hajj 2011, 2012 and 2013. The focus of this study was the common enteric viruses Astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus and Adenovirus. An enzyme Immunoassay established their presence in 14.9%, 15.0% and 6.6% of the reported cases of acute diarrhea for 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. For the three years of study, Astrovirus accounted for the majority of the viral infections. To our knowledge, this is the first time an epidemiological study depicts Astrovirus as the main viral agent of gastroenteritis in a mass gathering event. Hajj is rich in strains of Astrovirus, Norovirus and Rotavirus. A first screening by RT-PCR resulted in ten different genotypes. Strains HAstV 2, HAstV 1 and HAstV 5 were identified for Astrovirus. GI.6, GII.3, GII.4 and GII.1 were described for Norovirus and G1P[8], G4P[8] and G3P[8] were found for Rotavirus. The majority of the Astrovirus isolates could not be genotyped suggesting the presence of a new variant(s). Cases like this encourage the use of metagenomics (and nextgeneration sequencing) as a state-of-the-art technology in clinical diagnosis. A sample containing Adenovirus particles is being used to standardize a process for detection directly from stool samples and results will be obtained in the near future. The overall findings of the present study support the concept of Hajj as a unique mass gathering event that potentiates the transmission of infectious diseases. The finding of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney, a variant originated from Australia, suggests that Hajj is a receptor of infectious diseases worldwide. This work is part of the Hajj project, a collaborative effort with the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in order to describe entirely the epidemiology of gastrointestinal diseases in Hajj. It is expected that the results of this study will serve in the refinement of public health policies.

  1. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  2. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  3. La Riḥla de Omar Patún: el viaje de peregrinación a la Meca de un musulmán de Ávila a finales del siglo XV (1491–1495 = Omar Patún’s Riḥla : The Journey of the Pilgrimage to Mecca of a Muslim from Ávila at the End of the Fifteenth Century (1491–1495

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Casassas Canals

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos la Riḥla de Omar Patún, un relato de viaje y de peregrinación desde Ávila a la Meca realizado por un musulmán castellano a finales del siglo XV. Se trata de un manuscrito inédito hallado en Calanda y conservado en la Biblioteca de Las Cortes de Aragón. Publicamos una selección de textos mostrando las principales etapas del viaje, las circunstancias del mismo y la descripción de algunas de las principales ciudades que visitó Omar Patún. A partir de algunas noticias y referencias, directas e indirectas, a acontecimientos históricos determinamos la fecha exacta del viaje de Omar Patún (1491–1495 y establecemos la cronología de las diferentes etapas y escalas. Ponemos así en conocimiento un documento fundamental para todos aquellos interesados en el estudio de la comunidad musulmana de época mudéjar, que aporta datos novedosos que habrá de tener en cuenta a partir de ahora cuando se hable de la religiosidad de los mudéjares castellanos y de los desplazamientos de éstos a Oriente y en especial a la Meca.This article presents Omar Patún’s Riḥla, an itinerary of the pilgrimage from Ávila to Mecca undertaken by a Castilian Muslim at the end of the fifteenth century. This is an unpublished manuscript found in Calanda and preserved in the Library of the Cortes de Aragón. The selection of texts offered here will identify the most important stages of the journey, its circumstances and the description of some of the cities visited by Patún. Certain news and references in the text to historical events, both direct and indirect, help to date Omar Patún’s journey between 1491–1495, and to establish the chronology of the different stages of the trip and stops on the way. We bring to light an outstanding source for those interested in the Islamic community in Mudejar times as it provides new insights into the religiosity of Castilian Mudejars and their journeys to the Middle

  4. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  5. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  6. Secure Network Coding against Wiretapping and Byzantine Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless networks, an attacker can tune a receiver and tap the communication between two nodes. Whether or not some meaningful information is obtained by tapping a wireless connection depends on the transmission scheme. In this paper, we design some secure network coding by combining information-theoretic approaches with cryptographic approaches. It ensures that the wiretapper cannot get any meaningful information no matter how many channels are wiretapped. In addition, if each source packet is augmented with a hash symbol which is computed from a simple nonlinear polynomial function of the data symbols, then the probability of detecting the modification is very high.

  7. Arab-Byzantine War, 629-644 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    ecclesiastical architecture until the arrival of the Gothic style 500 years later. Inevitably, the greatest expression of their greatest art was in their...manuals. More unusual primary sources were studied, including sermons, icons, mosaics, architecture and archeological findings when they seemed...

  8. The Diccionario Griego-Español and Byzantine Lexicography

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Somolinos, Juan; Rodríguez Adrados, Francisco

    1992-01-01

    Artículo traducido en F.R. Adrados - J. Rodríguez Somolinos (eds.), «El Diccionario Griego-Español y la lexicografía Bizantina», La lexicografía griega y el Diccionario Griego-Español, DGE. Anejo VI, Madrid, CSIC, 2005, pp.131-140

  9. Achieving Agreement in Three Rounds with Bounded-Byzantine Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar, R.

    2017-01-01

    A three-round algorithm is presented that guarantees agreement in a system of K greater than or equal to 3F+1 nodes provided each faulty node induces no more than F faults and each good node experiences no more than F faults, where, F is the maximum number of simultaneous faults in the network. The algorithm is based on the Oral Message algorithm of Lamport, Shostak, and Pease and is scalable with respect to the number of nodes in the system and applies equally to traditional node-fault model as well as the link-fault model. We also present a mechanical verification of the algorithm focusing on verifying the correctness of a bounded model of the algorithm as well as confirming claims of determinism.

  10. Florovsky at the crossroads: imagining Byzantine Renaissance from Morningside Heights

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkovic, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Georges Florovsky, an influential theologian, came to New York City in 1948 to be dean of the Russian St Vladimir Theological Seminary. At Morningside Heights, Florovsky taught about what went wrong in Russia in 1917 and what needed to be done about it. His ideas prefigure the critique of European Enlightenment and its Orientalism formulated by Edward Said. Florovsky argued that Russia, imitating Western Europe, gave up its own Hellenic heritage of the Church Fathers, and replaced it with the...

  11. Early Transcendental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, Simon; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In Early Transcendentals (The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 104, No 7) Steven Weintraub presents a rigorous justifcation of the "early transcendental" calculus textbook approach to the exponential and logarithmic functions. However, he uses tools such as term-by-term differentiation of infinite series. We present a rigorous treatment of the early transcendental approach suitable for a first course in analysis, using mainly the supremum property of the real numbers.

  12. Early Retirement Payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  13. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  14. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  15. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  16. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  17. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  18. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  19. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  20. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  1. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  2. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  3. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  4. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  5. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  6. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  7. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  8. Who Gets Early Tracheostomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of early tracheostomy in patients dependent on ventilators are well established, the reasons for variation in time from intubation to tracheostomy remain unclear. We identified clinical and demographic disparities in time to tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed a level 3 retrospective prognostic study by querying the University HealthSystem Consortium (2007-2010) for adult patients receiving a tracheostomy after initial intubation. Time to tracheostomy was designated early ( 10 days). Cohorts were stratified by time to tracheostomy and compared using univariate tests of association and multivariable adjusted models. RESULTS: A total of 49,191 patients underwent tracheostomy after initial intubation: 42% early (n = 21,029) and 58% late (n = 28,162). On both univariate and multivariable analyses, women, blacks, Hispanics, and patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to receive an early tracheostomy. Patients in the early group also experienced lower rates of mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy was associated with increased survival. Yet, there were still significant disparities in time to tracheostomy according to sex, race, and type of insurance. Application of evidence-based algorithms for tracheostomy may reduce unequal treatment and improve overall mortality rates. Additional research into this apparent bias in referral/rendering of tracheostomy is needed. PMID:26313324

  9. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  10. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  11. Early cosmology constrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  12. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  13. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  14. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  15. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  16. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  17. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and...

  18. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  19. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  20. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  1. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  2. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  3. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  4. Characteristics of early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, P.F.; Emck, C.; van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    There is little research on characteristics related to course and prognosis of early-onset psychosis. The present article aims to advance our knowledge of this disorder for the purpose of proper diagnosis and treatment. It focuses on premorbid and prodromal characteristics, treatment history,

  5. Early practice: neurotology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Joseph T; Vrabec, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Besides technical and surgical proficiency, some of the most important skills for a young Neurotologist to refine include communication and critical thinking abilities. This Early Practice article provides perspectives on common challenges and career development from a current Neurotology fellow and his mentor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  7. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  8. Early-Christian monuments on the eastern slopes of the Kopaonik mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Gordana

    2007-01-01

    reconditioned 68 fortresses out of 70 original ones, and only 8 were new-built. Celestial Chairs visually dominate the whole area. From this place, one can see as on his palm Early-Byzantine fortresses on Vojetin, Čučaica and in Gornje Leviće, as well as the mines in Zaplanina and Belo Brdo. Having in mind natural features of the terrain historical surrounding, and, first of all, archeological finding, we think that Celestial Chairs and Gornje Leviće could be the spot to look for spiritual and administrative center of the northern part of Roman province Dardania.

  9. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  10. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  11. Mapping the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe

  12. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  13. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  15. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  16. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  17. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  18. Mapping the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe.

  19. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  20. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...

  1. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  2. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  3. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  4. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  5. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  6. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  7. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  8. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  9. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... economic and social gradient for first-time teenage mothers. Teenagers who had experienced family separation or who were formerly in out-of-home care in particular had an increased risk of early childbearing. Results showed that teenage mothers were in every respect in a more disadvantaged position than...

  10. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  11. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  12. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  13. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  14. The Destination Marketing Tools For “Seven Sufi Saints of Noble Bukhara” Pilgrimage Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Navruz-Zoda, Bakhtiyor; Ibragimov, Nutfillo; Rakhmanov, Akmal

    2017-01-01

    As the one of religious doctrines in Islam, Sufism, has aimed to strive in perfection. Taking into consideration intensive connection of cultures through trade and communication in Middle Ages, the territory of Central Asia became crossroad of civilization. Considered as one of the primarily philosophies, Tasavvuf (mysticism) school, its material and non-material heritage had begun from the territory of current Uzbekistan, where esteem of educational ideas have been continuously used for inte...

  15. Walking the Spiritual Ways – West of Ireland experience of modern pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Power

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the modern phenomenon of pilgrim walking along routes in the west of Ireland county of Clare. It relates it to possible medieval practice; to traditional practices by local people on one hand and the reconstruction of the international medieval pilgrim routes to places like Compostela. It suggests the reasons why people may walk in search of spiritual growth and experience, the resources they may wish for, the ways in which the contemporary search functions in a largely post-Catholic manner, and the position of those from other Christina, or religious traditions

  16. 75. King Abdulla Medical City – Makkah (KAMC echocardiography service experience & challenges during hajj season (pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2–4 million Muslims attend Hajj each year over last 4–5 years. Umra visitors are seen all along most the year. This creates high demand on all services provided specially the medical. The majority of Hajjes are elderly with co morbidities. They are subject to intense emotional, spiritual & physical endurance during the short period of Hajj season. For the last 4 years King Abdulla Medical City (KAMC is the centre of care for almost all cardiac services provided in Makkah. Echocardiography is a pivotal & integral part of any cardiology service, providing important information about morphology, function & possible etiology in many cases. There is an increasing demand on echo service in KAMC especially during Hajj season. Our service model is unique to meet this increasing demand during Hajj season. To report: we report the service set up. The volume of cases done our experience & challenges met during last four years. The service is provided between first & 15th of Dhul Haja each year. The service is 24 h divided into 12 h shifts. The two shifts are adequately covered by well trained echocardiographers & experienced non-invasive consultant cardiologists. This staff is distributed within the various cardiology clinical areas, to insure rapid response. The studies are done Philips (i30, Epic7 machines. Data acquired is transmitted by special ports/WiFi to our echo lab (Xcelera system where the data is stored & available for viewing & reporting. Reports are created by the responsible consultants using a number of dedicated stations. Viewing stations are well distributed over the whole hospital. The results of this abstract are analyzed using simple Microsoft office tools. Between years 2011 and 2015 there is exponential increase of echo studies done in KAMC, with similar increase in the number of studies done among Hajjes. There was an increase in the number of echo machines, echocardiographers & consultants (See Tables and Graphs attached. Between the years 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 there was a significant jump in the number of echo studies done in KAMC & during Hajj season. Between the years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 the incremental rate slowed down. (See Table 2. Some of challenges noted during Hajj season: locum staff needed to cover the Hajj period High volume of echo studies needed done & reported within short time. Language barrier causing lack of important medical information & causing delay/failure to consent when special studies are needed eg TEE. The infrequent lack of clinical data in the request forms to guide the study & reporting. There is occasional complex cases. Hajj season is unique & challenging experience to most Hajjes & service providers. Our service set up is demanding but quite adequate to meet the expectations. The data gathered over last 4 years showed clear & exponential increase in the number of echo studies. Service providers need to plan & accommodate this expected increase.

  17. Between Fan Pilgrimage and Dark Tourism: Competing Agendas in Overseas Field Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Chris

    2015-01-01

    An overseas field learning itinerary can be a powerful pedagogical tool for both directing student attention and complicating preexisting spatial narratives. However, one must beware of using the itinerary to replace one narrative with another. This paper examines the itinerary negotiation for a 15-day overseas field module conducted three…

  18. Moved by Mary: the power of pilgrimage in the modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.; Jansen, W.H.M.; Notermans, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Virgin Mary continues to attract devotees to her images and shrines. In Moved by Mary, anthropologists, geographers and historians explore how people and groups around the world identify and join with Mary in their struggle against social injustice, and how others mobilize Mary to impose ideas

  19. On the trail of 007: media pilgrimages into the world of James Bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractVisiting the settings of popular films and TV series has become a growing niche in the tourist market; however, little is known about what makes these visits so appealing. The present research used the case of James Bond ‘pilgrims’ to explore this issue. Twenty-three interviews were

  20. On the trail of 007: media pilgrimages into the world of James Bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, S.

    2010-01-01

    Visiting the settings of popular films and TV series has become a growing niche in the tourist market; however, little is known about what makes these visits so appealing. The present research used the case of James Bond ‘pilgrims’ to explore this issue. Twenty-three interviews were conducted with

  1. Changing features of the concept of pilgrimage: the example of the Mevlana's museum in Konya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Hosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi was a philosopher who influenced our era with his ‘humanist’ thoughts, his invitation towards everybody to friendship and brotherhood and his ideas about love and humanism. The museum, opened in his name in 1926 in Konya, Turkey, has been converted into a special place, describing Mevlevi’s way of life, telling the history of the Mevlana Dervish lodge and exhibiting related works with religious historical values. This important Museum, attracting many visitors from all over the world, including Turkey, represents unique examples both in architecture and genuine works of arts from Seljuk and the Ottoman period.Today faith tourism, emerging as a business sector, due to the increasing number of travelling people everyday, fulfils the space of the religious obligations related to travelling and also shows itself in religious aspects, not only pertaining to the major dimensions of a religion, but also by affecting all other religion-related rituals. The Mevlana Museum has become one of the places affected by the faith tourism. It has turned into an economic resource and become an important place for advertising Turkey, having visitors any time of year.

  2. Battered women venerating a vicious Virgin: reconsidering marianismo at a Bolivian pilgrimage shrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, S.W.; Heessels, M.

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly literature on domestic violence in Latin America often relates it to machismo and marianismo. Within this gender paradigm, women are understood to embrace the values of the Virgin Mary as a passive submissive role model. However, these studies omit facts relating to the actual role of the

  3. Medieval Architectures for Religious Tourism and Hospitality along the Pilgrimage Routes of Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Beltramo

    2015-01-01

    Sacred spaces are, and have always been, places of reception: hospitality is in fact a precept of God. Many biblical passages remind us of this, such as the one (Gen 18, 4-5) in which Abraham welcomes three guests, washes their feet and offers them a piece of bread and a place to rest under a tree. Saint Benedict too, in chapter 53 of the Rule, insisted on the need to honour pilgrims and travellers, who should be welcomed with a charitable service ready for devotion and stated that all guests...

  4. [The long pilgrimage of Spanish biomedical journals toward excellence. Who helps? Quality, impact and research merit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Biomedical journals must adhere to strict standards of editorial quality. In a globalized academic scenario, biomedical journals must compete firstly to publish the most relevant original research and secondly to obtain the broadest possible visibility and the widest dissemination of their scientific contents. The cornerstone of the scientific process is still the peer-review system but additional quality criteria should be met. Recently access to medical information has been revolutionized by electronic editions. Bibliometric databases such as MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science and Scopus offer comprehensive online information on medical literature. Classically, the prestige of biomedical journals has been measured by their impact factor but, recently, other indicators such as SCImago SJR or the Eigenfactor are emerging as alternative indices of a journal's quality. Assessing the scholarly impact of research and the merits of individual scientists remains a major challenge. Allocation of authorship credit also remains controversial. Furthermore, in our Kafkaesque world, we prefer to count rather than read the articles we judge. Quantitative publication metrics (research output) and citations analyses (scientific influence) are key determinants of the scientific success of individual investigators. However, academia is embracing new objective indicators (such as the "h" index) to evaluate scholarly merit. The present review discusses some editorial issues affecting biomedical journals, currently available bibliometric databases, bibliometric indices of journal quality and, finally, indicators of research performance and scientific success. Copyright 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Sickness as cultural performance: drama, trajectory, and pilgrimage root metaphors and the making social of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, R

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the use of root metaphors in the description of social activity and especially the performance of sickness. It starts with a critical account of Susan Sontag's examination of the use of illness as metaphor in literature. There then follows a brief analysis of another account of society based on the discussion of creative literature-Kenneth Burke's "Dramatism," itself acknowledged as a source by Erving Goffman. Goffman's own expressed reservations about his supposed use of a dramatic metaphor are then extended to suggest that Goffman was more concerned with "performance" in a broader sense. The discussion of performative metaphors is then shifted by a critical consideration of Anselm Strauss and colleagues' view of sickness as manifold performances of work rather than drama, expressed in their metaphor of "trajectory." Sickness as a process compounded of many performances is further explored using ideas developed by the anthropologist Victor Turner toward the end of his life, in collaboration with his wife, Edith Turner. It is finally suggested that sickness as cultural performance enables us to understand the dialectical relationships between expressive and instrumental activities surrounding sickness. This in turn leaves room for the nonreductionist understanding, within a sociological framework, of individual idiosyncrasy, biological accident, and the discourse of healing.

  6. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention for Hajj and Umra pilgrimage/travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibl, A; Tufenkeji, H; Khalil, M; Memish, Z

    2013-04-01

    The Islamic Hajj to Makkah (Mecca) has been associated with outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease and the global spread of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For Hajj pilgrims the quadrivalent vaccination against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y is a mandatory requirement. Novel conjugate vaccines may provide benefits for the community by reduction of carriage. With the introduction of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo, Menactra, and others pending license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries in the Middle East region met at a Meningococcal Leadership Forum (MLF), in Dubai in May 2010 to exchange opinions on meningococcal disease and prevention strategies. These experts discussed the importance of introducing conjugate vaccines for pilgrims and travellers, and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision-makers.

  7. Mary Poppins and the Soviet Pilgrimage: P.L.Travers's Moscow Excursion (1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McNair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like the journey it chronicles, Moscow Excursion, P.L.Travers’s account of her 1932 visit to Russia, was in part inspired by the genre it effectively parodies: the ‘Soviet pilgrimage’ ‘truth about Russia’ narrative characteristic of the Stalin decades and exemplified (in the Australian context by Katharine Susannah Prichard’s The Real Russia, also published in 1934. The paper examines the ways in which Travers’s book is written against this genre to produce an avowedly ‘un-political’ record whose narrator rejects the restrictions of organized travel, and whose idiosyncratic and critical observations on Soviet reality contrast with the admiration of her more orthodox fellow-travellers for the usual showcase institutions on the official itinerary. At the same time, it is argued that in its blend of self-deprecating irony, whimsy and disillusioned idealism Moscow Excursion suggests parallels with Travers’s personal quest for ‘the truth’ and even with Mary Poppins, published only two months later.

  8. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  9. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  11. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  12. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  14. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  15. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  16. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  17. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  18. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  19. Cell Analysis and Early Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramaniam, Vinod; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    In an era of aging populations and rising health-care costs, the shift of medical paradigms towards rapid, accurate, early diagnoses of diseases is inevitable. In addition to further development of ultrasensitive in vitro tests, the focus of attention in both diagnostics and the early drug discovery

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  1. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  2. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  3. Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, this paper estimates the relationship between maternal time inputs and early child development. We find that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. There is evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on later outcomes, especially in the case of cognitive skill development. In the case of non-cognitive development, the evide...

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  5. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  6. FAA Loran early implementation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  7. Hypertension presenting early in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Audrey; Kinsley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an exceedingly rare and potentially life?threatening diagnosis. It is important that the clinicians consider secondary causes when women present with hypertension in early pregnancy.

  8. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  9. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  10. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  11. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  13. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  14. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  15. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  16. Early presentation of primary glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguer, R; Tanguy, J-Y; Rousseau, A; Clavreul, A; Menei, P

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and neuroimaging findings of glioblastomas (GBM) at an early stage have rarely been described and those tumors are most probably under-diagnosed. Furthermore, their genetic alterations, to our knowledge, have never been previously reported. We report the clinical as well as neuroimaging findings of four early cases of patients with GBM. In our series, early stage GBM occurred at a mean age of 57 years. All patients had seizures as their first symptom. In all early stages, MRI showed a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted sequences and an enhancement on GdE-T1WI sequences. A hyperintense signal on diffusion sequences with a low ADC value was also found. These early observed occurrences of GBM developed rapidly and presented the MRI characteristics of classic GBM within a few weeks. The GBM size was multiplied by 32 in one month. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the de novo nature of these tumors, i.e. absence of mutant IDH1 R132H protein expression, which is a diagnostic marker of low-grade diffuse glioma and secondary GBM. A better knowledge of early GBM presentation would allow a more suitable management of the patients and may improve their prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational.

  19. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  20. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  1. Στρατός και κοινωνία στο ύστερο Βυζάντιο: το μεταρρυθμιστικό πρόγραμμα του Γεωργίου Πλήθωνα Γεμιστού

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eυστρατία ΣΥΓΚΕΛΛΟΥ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Army and Society in Late Byzantium: the reform program of George Plethon Gemistos     In the early 15th century the Byzantine state was surrounded by the Ottomans, whereas the Peloponnese was the last defensive stronghold of the Byzantines in the Greek area. There, the need of defense became a major social issue and provided matter for discussion about the institutional and social function of the army. Plethon’ s proposals for the establishment of local professional army, as formulated in his  texts addressed to the emperor Manuel II Palaeologus and the despot Theodore are associated with the social and economic reformation of the region and reflect the general need for the political reorganization of the Byzantine Empire. This paper examines Gemistos’ reform program regarding the military and political-economic conditions of the era. The thoughts of the philosopher of Mystras on the Byzantine army, which have occupied scientific research from time to time, re-evaluated in order to emphasize the role of the army in the society of the late Byzantine period. The latter remains as powerful as necessary in the contest of a revived Byzantine state.    

  2. Routine Early Angioplasty after Fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Liang, Bo; Mei, Qibing

    2009-01-01

    patients in the group that underwent routine early PCI than in the group that received standard treatment received clopidogrel (Ppatients who undergo PCI, as well as in those who do not, is well established,1...... with early beta-blocker therapy is taken into consideration.3 The overall benefit of clopidogrel and beta-blocker therapy could have influenced the outcome in patients who underwent early PCI. These facts leave the conclusion of the TRANSFER-AMI trial still highly uncertain.......To the Editor: Cantor et al. report that there is a significantly reduced rate of ischemic complications among patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation who are transferred for PCI within 6 hours after fibrinolysis. However, Table 2 of the article shows that significantly more...

  3. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  4. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  5. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  6. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  7. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  8. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  9. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  10. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  11. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  12. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  14. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  15. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  16. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  17. Internationalism in Early Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Explores the nature and scope of internationalism in early 19th century adult education, using as a context the lyceums and mechanics' institutes of Britain and North America. The contacts involved newspaper and journal accounts, the personal advocacy of former members, written advice from promoters and administrators, and the contributions of…

  18. Management of early pregnancy loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, G. C. M.; Mol, B. W.; Ankum, W. M.; Bruinse, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In order to assess the available evidence on the management of early pregnancy loss, we performed a meta-analysis on the subject. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized studies reporting on the effectiveness of expectant management, misoprostol treatment or curettage.

  19. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  20. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  1. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  2. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  3. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  4. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  5. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  6. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  8. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  10. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  11. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  12. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  13. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  14. Natural course of early COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee CK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chin Kook Rhee,1 Kyungjoo Kim,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Jee-Ae Kim,3 Sang Hyun Kim,4 Sang Haak Lee,5 Yong Bum Park,6 Ki-Suck Jung,7 Kwang Ha Yoo,8 Yong Il Hwang7 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Pharmaceutical Policy Evaluation Research Team, Research Institution, 4Big Data Division, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Wonju, 5Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background and objective: Few studies have examined the natural course of early COPD. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of early COPD patients. We also aimed to analyze medical utilization and costs for early COPD during a 6-year period. Methods: Patients with early COPD were selected from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. We linked the KNHANES data of patients with early COPD to National Health Insurance data. Results: A total of 2,397 patients were enrolled between 2007 and 2012. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 was 78.6%, and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D index value was 0.9. In total, 110 patients utilized health

  15. Реставрация и атрибуция иконы «Богоматерь Умиление» (Новое приобретение византийского собрания Эрмитажа / Restoration and attribution of The Virgin of Tenderness(a new acquisition of the Byzantine collection of the Hermitage Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Krupnenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the history of post-Byzantine icon painting from the second half of the 15th century until the 21st , the period of the mid second half of the 19th century is among those that did not attract much attention of art historians. For fine art connoisseurs, icons of this period were works of practically contemporary painters, and, as a result, the Hermitage Museum, whose icons collection has been formed solely out of acquisitions of private, museum, and state collections, possessed only a few works of Greek and Balkan workshops. During the last decade, the purchase of icons from private persons, this lacuna became filled with interesting works made at Mount Athos, Palestine, the Balkans, and Ionian islands. One of these icons, The Virgin of Tenderness, was acquired in 2013. The icon depicts the waist-high Virgin Mary holding the Child cuddled up with the cheek to the Virgin's face. Two life-size figures of Archangels Michael and Gavriil are placed in the upper corners; they crown the Virgin with one hand and hold the gold medallions with black monograms of Her name in the other, "МР ӨY". White letters "M" and "G" are visible over the gold halos of archangels. On the background, to the right from the figure of the Child, there are white monograms "IC XC".

  16. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  17. Pompe Disease: Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  18. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  19. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  1. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme ....... Wider dissemination of EI services will probably benefit from better integration of potential funders, promotion of joint targets and shared financial or budgetary incentives....... overcome these difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Funding for mental health in general and for EI services appears low relative to need. One key argument for better funding for EI can be found in its favourable cost-effectiveness, but not all stakeholders beyond mental health administrators are aware of this...

  2. Cosmology and the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.

  3. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  4. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  5. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  6. How Love for the Image Cast out Fear of It in Early Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Carnes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Iconoclastic and iconophilic impulses have long vied for pre-eminence in Christianity, coming to one particularly fraught crisis point in the Byzantine Iconomachy of the eighth and ninth centuries. Funding both impulses, this paper argues, is a profound Platonic ambivalence about the image. For Plato, the image not only deceives and enslaves; it also reveals and inspires. Plotinus, Gregory of Nyssa, Augustine, John of Damascus, and Theodore of Stoudios articulate their own iterations of Plato’s hopes and fears about the image as they attempt different strategies for resolving these dueling inclinations. This paper traces the evolution of image theory across these thinkers to illumine how Theodore of Stoudios’ approach magnifies Platonic image hopes and quells fears in a way that prepares for the ongoing resolution of image anxiety in the iconographic tradition. More than a purely historical interest, this arc of image thought have continuing relevance for image theory today.

  7. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  8. Protecting Against Child-Killing Demons: Uterus Amulets in the Late Antique and Byzantine Magical World

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Heta

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation examines medicinal-magical amulets pertaining to the uterus and the protection of women and children, the accompanying tradition of magical texts, and the mythology and folktales of demons believed to kill children and parturient women. The amulets and the folktales of the demons they were believed to protect against are intertwined. The amulets cannot be studied merely as archaeological or art historical objects, but must be taken together with folktales and narrat...

  9. The Title of Samoderzhets (Autokrator in Serbia and Russia: Two Ways of Byzantine Heritage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kršljanin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title of autokrator first appeared in the Rhomaian Empire (Byzantium. Translated as samoderzhets, it was taken up by Slavic countries that followed Rhomaian tradition. Taking as her starting point the indispensable 1935 work by George Ostrogorsky Autokrator and Samoderzhets, the author has analysed similarities and differences in the development of the title of samoderzhets in Serbia and Russia. Three phases have been analysed, of which the first two in more detail: the beginning of the use of this title; the development of the title and its significance; the diverging of the ways of Serbia and Russia. The first phase shows that the adoption of the title in both countries is preceded by both an increase of the country’s actual power and the improvement of its position among other Christian (Orthodox countries. A significant difference appears in the second phase: Serbian kings have used the title of samoderzhets, but it was no longer in use after Stefan Dušan’s coronation as Emperor; after the fall of the Empire, Serbian rulers began to use it again. In Russia it was the other way around: the use of the title was more frequent after Ivan IV’s coronation. It seems that the title was mainly used in Serbia to underline independence where there was no obvious proof for it, and thus was not needed during the Serbian Empire, while Russian rulers, on the contrary, used it only when they had earned it through the actual power of their country. In the third phase both countries abandoned the Rhomaian model. Russia turned to Western models from the time of Peter I, while the development of Serbia was interrupted by its fall under Ottoman rule.

  10. The Fulcum, the Late Roman and Byzantine Testudo: the Germanization of Roman Infantry Tactics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rance

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The tactic of forming a shield-wall, although called by the Germanic name fulcum first in Maurice’s Strategicon in the sixth century, has a long history of use by the Roman legions, and is not an instance of Germanic influence on Roman tactics.

  11. Byzantine Hymns in Churches of Constantinople - An Archaeological Soundscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2010-01-01

    Ved hjælp af digitale 3D-modeller genskabes de gamle kirkerums akustik. Under det EU-støttede projekt CAHRISMA (2000-2003), hvori Ørsted-DTU deltog, blev opbygget modeller af de tre justinianske kirker, Hagia Sophia, Hagia Irene, og Sergios og Bacchos. De stilles her til rådighed af firmaet ODEON...

  12. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  13. Early Identification of Psychosis: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia

    2000-01-01

    This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.  

  14. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENTS IN EARLY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Alexandra; CONSTANTINESCU Adrian; TACHE Ileana

    2012-01-01

    The early education is analyzed as being the most profitable investment in education (R. Cuhna). early education supports later learning opportunities. The economic dimension of early education takes into account the fact that the necessary investment for a child to benefit from early education services is rather low when looking at the cost (both economic and social) generated by a child who misses this education level, not necessarily because of the late education start but because of the l...

  16. Early diagnosis of the Spondyloarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Naranjo, Luis Alonso; Londono, John D; Valle, Rafael Raul

    2005-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies are a cluster of chronic inflammatory diseases that primarily include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis; arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies. The most common subgroups of spondyloarthropathies are ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is mainly based on unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis of at least grade 2 bilaterally or grade 3 unilaterally. How ever, in the early phase of disease, conventional radiographs are often too insensitive to show sacroiliitis and it usually takes several years for definite radiographic sacroiliitis to evolve. Thus, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is a commonly delayed by 8 to 11 years after the onset of symptoms. As a result, diagnosing axial spondyloarthropathy in the absence of radiographic sacroiliitis is very difficult to rheumatologists. In the early phase of disease, HLA B27 test and magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joints may be helpful to the early diagnosis. In the presence of chronic low back pain the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy is about 5% and is about 14% if the back pain is inflammatory. The presence of = 3 features of spondyloarthropathy (heel pain, uveitis, dactylitis, positive family history, alternating buttock pain, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, asymmetrical arthritis, positive response to anti-inflammatory drugs) increase the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy to 90%. Both, the positive HLA B27 and magnetic resonance imaging with signs of sacroiliitis increase the probability of spondyloarthropathy, particularly in patients without spondyloarthropathies features or with only 1 or 2 features. Since ankylosing spondylitis in association with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease is often HLA B27 negative, this test is of limited value under theses circumstances. Is important to consider that

  17. Observations of Early Optical Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Mason, Keith O.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) has performed extensive follow-up on 71 Swift Burst Alert Telescope triggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first ten months of operations. In this paper, we discuss some of the UV and optical properties of UVOT detected afterglows such as XRF 050406, the bright GRB 050525A, the high redshift GRB 050730, the early flaring GRB 050801, and others. We also discuss some of the implications of why 75% of GRB afterglows observed by UVOT in less than ...

  18. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  19. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  20. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  1. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  2. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  3. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  4. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  5. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  6. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  7. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  8. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  9. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  10. Cerebrovascular Diseases and Early Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Gündüz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease is one of the important causes of seizures and epilepsy among the advanced age group. Seziures are found to be associated with lesion localization and size in previous studies. METHODS: Here, we aimed to detect prevelance of seizure, relation of seizure and lesion localization, and observed seizure types. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease or intraparenchymal hemorrhage who were followed in Cerrahpasa IVIedical School clinic were studied retrospectively and probability of seizure occurence within 1 month after stroke was evaluated. CONCLUSION: Among 378 patients hospitalized by acute stroke, 339 were diagnosed as ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 39 (10.3% had primary intraparenchymal hematoma. Seizures were observed in 16 patients (4.2%, 2 (%5.1 in intraparenchymal hematoma group and 14 (%4.1 in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Early seizures were detected in 33% of patients with anterior cerebral artery, in 6.8% of posterior cerebral artery and in 3.3% of middle cerebral artery infarcts and in three patients out of 12 who were known to have epilepsy. Seizure types were secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizure in nine cases (57%. Among whole group status epilepticus was observed in four patients (1.1%. Conclusion: Early seizure rates are found to be high among patients with anterior cerebral artery infarct and known epilepsy

  11. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  12. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  13. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  15. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences......The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...... tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four...

  16. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  17. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  18. How early and how long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Løvgren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Day care centres have become a normal part of Norwegian childhood, even among quite small children. In 1970 less than 3 per cent of Norwegian children of pre-school were enrolled. At the end of 2009 as much as 70 per cent of children aged 12 to 24 months were enrolled and for 90 per cent of them a full day stay had been arranged. Norwegian children with small children opt for an early start at a day care centre. However, the day care centre employees do not share the same views as the users of the services they provide. Only one third of them express the opinion that children may start at the age of one and have a full day stay at this age. The article discusses this discrepancy between the users and providers of public financed day care.

  19. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  20. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  1. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Koranne

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  2. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  3. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    When studying the evolution of the very early universe it is necessary to use a description of matter which is appropriate at very high energies, namely in terms of quantum fields. In such models there may be a period during which the ratio of pressure and energy density is - 1, an equation of state which leads to an exponential expansion of the universe (inflation). There may also arise stable topological defects similar to vortex lines in condensed matter physics. These defects (cosmic strings) form seeds about which gas can accrete to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The author reviews inflation and cosmic strings, emphasizing their role in generating the energy density perturbations which are required in order to explain the existence of structures in the universe

  4. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  5. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  6. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  7. International Voluntourism as Secular Pilgrimage: A Case Study of Hosts and Guests in a Small Panamanian Town

    OpenAIRE

    Edles, Laura Desfor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the social dynamics of international ‘voluntourism’ in Santa Catalina, a small town on the Pacific coast of Panama that has become a tourist mecca in the last two decades. Through my collection of documentary, interview, and ethnographic data, I contribute to on-going debates about the appropriateness and impact of volunteer tourism in developing countries (McGehee 2009, 2012; Palacios 2010; Tomazos and Butler 2012). While existing research tends to focus on the volun...

  8. Religious Tourism in the South-Moravian and Zlín Regions: Proposal for Three New Pilgrimage Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Miroslav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tento článek obsahuje výsledky výzkumu náboženského turismu v Jihomoravském a Zlínském kraji. Cílem výzkumu bylo identifikovat nové poutní trasy. Metodologie výzkumu byla založena na terénním dotazníkovém šetření a zpracování koncepční strategie náboženského a kulturního turismu. Terénního dotazníkového šetření se zúčastnilo 1222 respondentů. Výsledky ukazují, že 58 % respondentů si pod pojmem „poutní turistika“ představuje návštěvu poutních míst, nejen věřícími. Přitom 43 % respondentů se nikdy žádné pouti nezúčastnilo. V koncepci zaměřené na zhodnocení turistického potenciálu vytipovaných lokalit jsou navrženy 3 nové poutní trasy: 1 Vranov - Křtiny - Velehrad; 2 Mikulov - Břeclav - Mikulčice (propojení Svatojakubské cesty a Evropské kulturní stezky sv. Cyrila a Metoděje a 3 Radhošť - Rajnochovice - Svatý Hostýn.

  9. Pilgrimages of Teachers and Students of Ecclesiastical Academies to the Holy Land and the Holy Mt. Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhova Nataliia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with pilgrim trips to the Holy Places — the Holy Land and the Holy Mt. Athos, — which were undertaken by teachers and students of Russian orthodox ecclesiastical academies in 1870-1910. The article covers the cases of these pilgrim trips. The author analyzes the motivation of concrete pilgrims and the significance of trips for a Russian ecclesiastical school. Besides, the author pays attention to efforts of spiritually-educational community to find the importance of the Holy Places for theological and ecclesiastical-historical sciences.

  10. Uniting Christian Students� Association�s pilgrimage to overcome colonial racism: A southern African postcolonial missiological dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.W. (Reggie Nel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available World Christianity has been enriched by Christian student movements such as the Uniting Christian Students� Association (UCSA from South Africa. This article, based on my recent doctoral research, starts with the affirmation of the ambiguous relations of these movements with colonial racism. However, faced with new challenges in a postcolonial context, there are key impulses to be gained by an inter-subjective, but also interdisciplinary dialogue with these movements as they negotiate their calling. By focussing on one movement within the southern African context, UCSA, in particular its formation and development since the demise of apartheid in South Africa, the article aims to present an attempt to understand the missionary praxis of UCSA through a postcolonial missiological matrix. The article draws on the theological disciplines of missiology, systematic theology, church history, contextual theology, as well as the methodologies in non-theologic disciplines like sociology, in particular social movement studies, and history. The findings show, amongst others, a growing complexity in relation to its agency, how it frames its world and also how it used its authoritative sources to discern its calling. The article closes with some key insights and pointers relevant for faith communities in their mission to overcome colonial racism.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The teaching and research in missiology and systematic theology in how the challenge of colonial racism is addressed, methodologically.

  11. Pilgrimages to the museums of the new age: appropriating European industrial museums in New York City (1927–1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jaume Sastre-Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How did industrial museums cross the Atlantic? When the first American museums of science and industry were created in the 1920s, they looked to Europe in order to import what was seen at that time as a burgeoning cultural institution. In this article, I look at this process of appropriation through an analysis of the changing perceptions of European industrial museums as expressed in the reports, surveys and books written by the curators, directors and trustees of the New York Museum of Science and Industry. I will pay particular attention to the 1927 film Museums of the New Age, documenting the main national industrial museums in Europe, and to a 1937 report on the techniques of display at the Palais de la Découverte. I will argue that their contrasting assessment of European industrial museums, which in only ten years ceased to be seen as cathedrals of a new age to become old-fashioned storehouses, is symptomatic of the significant transformation of museums of science and industry as cultural institutions during the 1930s in the United States.

  12. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis

    2016-01-01

    To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947. It is transmitted mainly through bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Sexual, perinatal and blood-borne transmissions are implicated. ZIKV is incriminated to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The spiky spread of ZIKV and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries which host big MGs with endogenous ZIKV circulation. This put millions of international travelers and local inhabitants at risk of acquiring ZIKV, especially in absence of vaccine until now. Brazil Olympic and Paralympics Games, and Muslims Hajj in Saudi Arabia are important upcoming MGs. Regarding Brazil, swiftly epidemic of ZIKV causes phobia and provokes claims and counter-claims about possible postponing or cancellation of such events. Intensifying ZIKV epidemiological surveillance (sentinel, syndromic, environmental, laboratory and electronic), and conduction of educational programs are required. Controlling Aedes vector (chemically & biologically) is essential. Multidisciplinary cooperation is required to win the war against ZIKV.

  13. The Savage Pilgrimage: D.H. Lawrence’s Dialogic Journeys upon Monte Verità, the Mountain of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Barsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Al centro dell’enorme corpus di poesie, racconti, romanzi e critica letteraria di Lawrence c’è Lady Chatterley’s Lover, il primo della lunga serie di classici censurati descritti in un recente lavoro come “Dirt for Art Sake”. A dispetto della popolarità della scrittura di Lawrence, comunque, e della notorietà che guadagnò dai procedimenti legali avviati contro di lui in nome della censura, pochi critici hanno messo in rapporto la sua ricerca letteraria e culturale con il suo intenso impegno intellettuale verso la contro-cultura contemporanea in Germania e in Svizzera e molti, forse come conseguenza, deridono o ignorano i suoi lavori più scabrosi. In questo saggio discuterò come esempi di contro-cultura contemporanea – e in particolare l’adesione di Lawrence alle idee derivanti da anarchici, bohémiens, nudisti, adoratori del sole, vegetariani, e le colonie artistiche di Monte Verità – furono catalizzatori per le qualità dialogiche e carnevalesche di lavori come Sun e Lady Chatterley’ Lover. Questa relazione traccerà i tentacoli storici e ideologici che connettono il lavoro di Lawrence alla contro-cultura contemporanea, e si concluderà poi collegando il suo approccio alla scrittura di M.M. Bakhtin, il cui corpus appare come un manuale per quei lettori che volessero affrontare la scrittura dialogica più impudica e diretta di Lawrence.

  14. Pilgrimage to Wellness: An Exploratory Report of Rural African American Clergy Perceptions of Church Health Promotion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A.; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl LeMay; Ellison, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Churches serve a vital role in African American communities and may be effective vehicles for health promotion in rural areas where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited than other communities. Endorsement by church leadership is often necessary for the approval of programs and activities within churches; however, little is known about how church leaders perceive their respective churches as health promotion organizations. The purpose of this exploratory pilot was to report perceptions of church capacity to promote health among African American clergy leaders of predominantly African American rural churches. The analysis sample included 27 pastors of churches in Eastern NC who completed a survey on church health promotion capacity and perceived impact on their own health. Capacities assessed included perceived need and impact of health promotion activities, church preparedness to promote health, health promotion actions to take, and the existence and importance of health ministry attributes. The results from this pilot study indicated a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Conducting health programs, displaying health information, collaborations within the church (i.e., kitchen committee working with the health ministry), partnerships outside of the church, and funding were most commonly reported needed capacities. Findings from this exploratory work lay the foundation for the development of future, larger observational studies that can specify some of the key factors associated with organizational change and ultimately health promotion in these rural church settings. PMID:22694157

  15. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Mager

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy (RCE is associated with a considerable number of early postoperative complications as before. Based on 10 years’ experience, this paper demonstrates the frequency (33.9 % and types of early complications following RCE, as well as postoperative mortality (5.5 % and its resulting causes. Although postoperative mortality is relatively low today, the frequency of early postoperative complications remains high as before.

  16. Early rehabilitation and participation in focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge; Roenn-Smidt, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Early neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field. Thus, in order to eliminate unnecessary barriers for individuals with severe acquired brain injury in early rehabilitation, we need rehabilitation science that supports both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Participation can...... be studied directly and indirectly. This commentary proposes that active participation and the ‘‘lived body’’ are essential terms in early rehabilitation of severe ABI patients, and a description of how these terms are interpreted and handled in the practice is needed....

  17. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  18. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  19. Scientific spirit in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Samacá Bohórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.

  20. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  1. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  2. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  3. Cosmology and the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  4. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author)

  5. On a chaotic early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kenji.

    1974-11-01

    The theories regarding the origin of galaxies and elements are reviewed in this paper, and the assumptions made for these theories are discussed. It has been assumed that the universe has always been isotropic and homogeneous from the beginning of cosmic expansion. At the stage of very high density that any local irregularities such as galaxies cannot exist, the admissible deviation in this case from the mean value is only the statistical or quantum fluctuation of matter density, spatial curvature or their growth. It should be considered that the chemical composition of matters at the earliest stage consisted of most fundamental particles. However, if the fluctuation of matter density is statistical, the present values are too small. As for the origin of elements, it depends strongly on the period when cosmic radiation appeared. The final mass ratios of elements are given from the present baryon mass density, and are in agreement with observed values. The assumption of hot universe seems good. However, the time-independent ratio of photon number to baryon number is hardly understood. It is reasonable to assume for the early universe an inhomogeneous model whose space-time curvature is of turbulent character, according to weak cosmological principle. The inhomogeneous models to be considered are weakly non-linear perturbation theory, anti-Newtonian approximation and post anti-Newtonian approximation. Smoothing-out process, the origin of cosmic microwave radiation, the origin of galaxies and the origin of chemical elements are discussed. (Kato, T.)

  6. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  7. Near Heterophoria in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983

  8. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  9. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy. AOK Johnson. Abstract. Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia exists when the conjugated serum bilirubin level is more than 2 mg/dl or more than 20 per cent of the total serum bilirubin. It is always pathological in early infancy. The causes are many and diverse ...

  11. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  12. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  13. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  14. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  15. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published...

  16. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  17. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  18. Early Care in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Meza, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the importance of early care in child development, guiding a neuropsychological perspective of development. The early care model seeks to refer to the set of interventions aimed at children and their work in conjunction with a multidisciplinary team. It presents recommendations for the implementation of programs that allow…

  19. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  20. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  1. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  2. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  3. Legitimacy and the Value of Early Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Tang; Song, Michael; Zhao, Y. Lisa

    2014-01-01

    To overcome resource constraints and achieve exponential growth, a new venture must rely on early customers of its products to communicate value and commitment to others. For this reason, founders of new ventures focus more on early customers as a key element of their founding strategy than on other

  4. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  5. Early Childhood Math: Make It Manipulative!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet I.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that early childhood teachers should provide young children with creative, stimulating, and manipulative (hands-on) experiences rather than workbook pages in early mathematics programs. Presents reasons and corresponding counterpositions for using workbooks and suggests sample activities which teachers can use to make mathematics more…

  6. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  7. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...

  8. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  9. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  10. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  11. Challenges and limitations in early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at

  12. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  13. Transforming the Early Care and Education Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiotti, Sara

    2018-01-01

    There is ample opportunity for state boards to improve outcomes for children by strengthening the early care and education workforce and thereby improving the quality of early care and education. Ensuring that ECE professionals have the knowledge, supports, and resources they need to support children's learning is one avenue to improving the…

  14. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  15. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  16. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  17. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  18. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-01-01

    model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...

  19. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  20. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  1. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  2. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  3. Diastolic and autonomic dysfunction in early cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Møller, Søren; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Presence of cardiac dysfunction in patients with advanced cirrhosis is widely accepted, but data in early stages of cirrhosis are limited. Systolic and diastolic functions, dynamics of QT-interval, and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) are investigated in patients with early stage...... cirrhosis during maximal β-adrenergic drive. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Nineteen patients with Child A (n = 12) and Child B cirrhosis (n = 7) and seven matched controls were studied during cardiac stress induced by increasing dosages of dobutamine and atropine. RESULTS. Pharmacological responsiveness was similar...... indicate that patients with early stage cirrhosis exhibit early diastolic and autonomic dysfunction as well as elevated pro-ANP. However, the cardiac chronotropic and inotropic responses to dobutamine stress were normal. The dynamics of ventricular repolarization appears normal in patients with early stage...

  4. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  5. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  6. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Byzantium: A review of the evidence on climatic fluctuations, economic performance and societal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoplaki, Elena; Fleitmann, Dominik; Luterbacher, Juerg; Wagner, Sebastian; Haldon, John F.; Zorita, Eduardo; Telelis, Ioannis; Toreti, Andrea; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, in the ninth and tenth century, the medieval eastern Roman empire, more usually known as Byzantium, was recovering from its early medieval crisis and experiencing favourable climatic conditions for the agricultural and demographic growth. Although in the Balkans and Anatolia such favourable climate conditions were prevalent during the eleventh century, parts of the imperial territories were facing significant challenges as a result of external political/military pressure. The apogee of medieval Byzantine socio-economic development, around AD 1150, coincides with a period of adverse climatic conditions for its economy, so it becomes obvious that the winter dryness and high climate variability at this time did not hinder Byzantine society and economy from achieving that level of expansion. Soon after this peak, towards the end of the twelfth century, the populations of the Byzantine world were experiencing unusual climatic conditions with marked dryness and cooler phases. The weakened Byzantine socio-political system must have contributed to the events leading to the fall of Constantinople in AD 1204 and the sack of the city. The final collapse of the Byzantine political control over western Anatolia took place half century later, thus contemporaneous with the strong cooling effect after a tropical volcanic eruption in AD 1257. We suggest that, regardless of a range of other influential factors, climate change was also an important contributing factor to the socio-economic changes that took place in Byzantium during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Crucially, therefore, while the relatively sophisticated and complex Byzantine society was certainly influenced by climatic conditions, and while it nevertheless displayed a significant degree of resilience, external pressures as well as tensions within the Byzantine society more broadly contributed to an increasing vulnerability in respect of climate impacts. Our

  7. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  8. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the early addition of prophylactic chemotherapy improves survival. Arguments in favour of early chemotherapy are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing...... a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...

  9. The determinants of early retirement in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, David; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, Switzerland has experienced a large increase in the number of individuals going into early retirement. This paper examines the determinants of such early retirement using data from the newly implemented social-security module of the 2002 Swiss Labor Force Survey. In the sixteen-month period from January 2001 to April 2002, more than 36,000 older individuals, representing 8% of all workers within nine years of legal retirement age, became early retirees. One of the most imp...

  10. Diagnosis of early stomach cancer (Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Problems concerning diagnosis of early stomach cancer using X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are stated. Classification of early stomach cancer suggested by the Japan Endoscopy Society and division system of early stomach cancer into two main foms: depth (erosive-ulcerous) one and elevated (polypoid) one-is presented X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are shown to be high efficiency concerning revealingation of stomach mucous variations using biopsy, which allow to determine for certain whother the process is benign or malignant one

  11. Selective phosphorylation during early macrophage differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    -regulated phosphoproteins in the early stages of differentiation. Further analysis of the PMA-regulated phosphoproteins revealed that transcriptional suppression, cytoskeletal reorganization and cell adhesion were among the most significantly activated pathways. Some key

  12. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Early ontogeny of Labeo capensis (pisces: Cyprinidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the early development of Indian Labeo species (e.g. Khan. 1925; Ahmad 1944 ...... ber, size or intensity, was helpful in grouping North American cyprinid larvae. .... impregnated eggs of common freshwater fishes of Bengal. Curro Sci. 26: 125 ...

  14. PREVALENCE OF EARLY WARNINNG SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Mental illness is a psychological, emotional and mental health problems that affects .... review of the field of child psychiatric epidemiology ... occurs at early adolescent and mood disorders tend .... types of hospitals, and primary health clinics.

  15. Diagnosis and early management of acute hyperammonaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Žerjav Tanšek

    2010-02-01

    Elevated ammonia concentration is neurotoxic and causes irreversible glial and neuronal damage resulting in cerebral oedema with poor outcome. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial and may considerably improve the clinical course.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  18. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  19. Exploring Equity in Early Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Heather L.; Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines how postsecondary practitioners are encouraged to work collaboratively with child welfare agencies and other community-based organizations to identify and implement culturally responsive supports for former foster youth to promote early academic achievement.

  20. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...