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Sample records for early botanical medical

  1. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combinatorial epigenetic mechanisms and efficacy of early breast cancer inhibition by nutritive botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Buckhaults, Phillip; Cui, Xiangqin; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2016-08-01

    Aberrant epigenetic events are important contributors to the pathogenesis of different types of cancers and dietary botanicals with epigenetic properties can influence early cancer development leading to cancer prevention effects. We sought to investigate potential combinatorial effects of bioactive dietary components including green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and broccoli sprouts (BSp) on neutralizing epigenetic aberrations during breast tumorigenesis. The combinatorial effects were evaluated in a breast cancer transformation cellular system and breast cancer mouse xenografts. Combined treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate in GTPs and sulforaphane in BSp resulted in a synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cellular growth. Further studies revealed this combination led to genome-wide epigenetic alterations. Combinatorial diets significantly inhibited tumor growth in breast cancer mouse xenografts. Collectively, these studies indicate that combined GTPs and BSp are highly effective in inhibiting early breast cancer development by, at least in part, regulating epigenetic mechanisms.

  3. Combinatorial epigenetic mechanisms and efficacy of early breast cancer inhibition by nutritive botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Buckhaults, Phillip; Cui, Xiangqin; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aberrant epigenetic events are important contributors to the pathogenesis of different types of cancers and dietary botanicals with epigenetic properties can influence early cancer development leading to cancer prevention effects. We sought to investigate potential combinatorial effects of bioactive dietary components including green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and broccoli sprouts (BSp) on neutralizing epigenetic aberrations during breast tumorigenesis. Materials & methods: The combinatorial effects were evaluated in a breast cancer transformation cellular system and breast cancer mouse xenografts. Results & conclusion: Combined treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate in GTPs and sulforaphane in BSp resulted in a synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cellular growth. Further studies revealed this combination led to genome-wide epigenetic alterations. Combinatorial diets significantly inhibited tumor growth in breast cancer mouse xenografts. Collectively, these studies indicate that combined GTPs and BSp are highly effective in inhibiting early breast cancer development by, at least in part, regulating epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27478970

  4. Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems--Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong

    2015-11-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A history of shaker nurse-herbalists, health reform, and the american botanical medical movement (1830-1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Martha M

    2009-12-01

    During the mid 19th century, herbal remedies were the platform for a major health reform movement in America known as the Botanical Medical Movement (BMM). A number of histories have been written on the BMM from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. This article describes the history of nurse-herbalism during the period and the impact that Shaker nurses, in particular, had on the BMM. The article traces the history and findings of a triangulated case study. Shaker nurses used herbs extensively in their caring and curing practices. They applied the botanical remedies recommended by BMM leaders. The nurses were also expert herbal medicine makers who used their own remedies in patient care. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' behind-the-scenes research and development laboratory for the Shaker herbal cottage industry, which ultimately developed into an international, entrepreneurial endeavor. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' organized proving ground for the implementation of the botanical health reforms of the mid 19th century. The nurse-herbalists' contribution to the promotion and production of herbal remedies had a significant impact on the success of botanical health reform in America.

  6. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...... detailed description of literature and better information about collections and collectors. These improvements were initially made available as publications on paper, whereas now the information has become available on the Internet, at least in part. The changed procedures for handling botanical...

  7. Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum: early 18th century botanical drawings of medicinal plants from colonial Ceylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Andel, Tinde; Scholman, Ariane; Beumer, Mieke

    2018-04-26

    From 1640 to 1796, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occupied the island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Several VOC officers had a keen interest in the medicinal application of the local flora. The Leiden University Library holds a two-piece codex entitled: Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum, adscriptis nominibus et viribus, Vol. I. & II. (Illustrations of Plants from the Malabar, assigned names and strength). This manuscript contains 262 watercolour drawings of medicinal plants from Sri Lanka, with handwritten descriptions of local names, habitus, medicinal properties and therapeutic applications. This anonymous document had never been studied previously. To identify all depicted plant specimens, decipher the text, trace the author, and analyse the scientific relevance of this manuscript as well as its importance for Sri Lankan ethnobotany. We digitised the entire manuscript, transcribed and translated the handwritten Dutch texts and identified the depicted species using historic and modern literature, herbarium vouchers, online databases on Sri Lankan herbal medicine and 41 botanical drawings by the same artist in the Artis library, Amsterdam. We traced the origin of the manuscript by means of watermark analysis and historical literature. We compared the historic Sinhalese and Tamil names in the manuscript to recent plant names in ethnobotanical references from Sri Lanka and southern India. We published the entire manuscript online with translations and identifications. The watermarks indicate that the paper was made between 1694 and 1718. The handwriting is of a VOC scribe. In total, ca. 252 taxa are depicted, of which we could identify 221 to species level. The drawings represent mainly native species, including Sri Lankan endemics, but also introduced medicinal and ornamental plants. Lamiaceae, Zingiberaceae and Leguminosae were the best-represented families. Frequently mentioned applications were to purify the blood and to treat gastro-intestinal problems, fever and

  8. ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF ROSEMARY SHOOTS (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L., INTRODUCED IN THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF PYATIGORSK MEDICAL-PHARMACEUTICAL INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikitina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays studying plant objects in the framework of environmental monitoring to improve the quality of herbal remedies is a very important area of research.The aim of the work is to determine the elemental composition and assessment of environmental cleanliness of rosemary shoots (Rosmarinus offi cinalis L., introduced in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk medical-pharmaceutical Institute (PMPI, Pyatigorsk (Russia.Materials and methods. An experimental study was performed at the Central research laboratories spectral analysis (“Kavkazgeolsyemka” on diffraction spectrograph DFS-8-1 by evaporation from a crater of the carbon electrode. Photometric measurement of spectrograms was performed using the Atlas of spectral lines and spectra of standards with an accuracy of not more than 2% in terms of ash.Results and discussion. For the fi rst time there were 25 elements identifi ed in rosemary shoots introduced in the North Caucasus. The prevailing macro elements were K, Ca, Mg, Na, P and the trace elements were Al, Si and Fe. The toxic elements As, Cd, Hg, Bi, Sb were not detected in the rosemary shoots. Rosemary does not accumulate heavy metals or they are present in trace amounts.Conclusion. The absence of heavy metals or their low content in rosemary shoots can be explained prosperous environmental conditions of Pyatigorsk Botanical garden. The use of rosemary shoots as a source of natural compounds of primary and secondary synthesis and minerals, are involved in the regulation of life processes. This underlines the therapeutic importance of the raw materials and the possibility of creating drugs of combined action on the basis of rosemary for the treatment and prevention of pathologies associated with disorders of mineral metabolism.

  9. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Health Professional Other Resources Botanical Dietary Supplements Background Information Have a question? Ask ... on botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part ...

  10. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications

  11. Early medical abortion: legal and medical developments in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kerry A

    2010-07-05

    Mifepristone is a safe, effective and relatively cheap drug that plays an important role in women's health care and is widely used for early medical abortion in many countries. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) can authorise mifepristone to be imported into and marketed in Australia. To date, no pharmaceutical company has applied to register mifepristone in Australia. The TGA can also permit medical practitioners to prescribe medicine that is not approved for marketing in Australia under the Authorised Prescribers scheme. The number of approvals for mifepristone has gradually increased, in spite of a complicated and protracted application process. Approval under the Authorised Prescribers scheme requires medical practitioners to comply with state or territory legislation. Abortion laws in Australia vary between jurisdictions, and in some states the law is unclear and confusing. The decriminalisation of abortion in all Australian jurisdictions would protect medical practitioners from criminal liability, promote the health interests of Australian women, and discourage the illegal importation of abortifacients that are being used without quality controls or medical supervision. The Victorian Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 is one legislative model for this.

  12. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  13. Medical specialty preferences in early medical school training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Anthony; McLean, Laurie; McInnes, Matthew D F

    2017-11-14

    To understand what medical students consider when choosing their specialty, prior to significant clinical exposure to develop strategies to provide adequate career counseling. A cross-sectional study was performed by distributing optional questionnaires to 165 first-year medical students at the University of Ottawa in their first month of training with a sample yield of 54.5% (n=90).  Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure, and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the anonymized results. "Job satisfaction", "lifestyle following training" and, "impact on the patient" were the three highest rated considerations when choosing a specialty.  Fifty-two and seventeen percent (n=24) and 57.89% (n=22) of males and females ranked non-surgical specialties as their top choice. Student confidence in their specialty preferences was moderate, meaning their preference could likely change (mean=2.40/5.00, SD=1.23). ANOVA showed no significant differences between confidence and population size (F(2,86)=0.290, p=0.75) or marital status (F(2,85)=0.354, p=0.70) in both genders combined. Five underlying factors that explained 44.32% of the total variance were identified. Five themes were identified to enhance career counseling. Medical students in their first month of training have already considered their specialty preferences, despite limited exposure. However, students are not fixed in their specialty preference. Our findings further support previous results but expand what students consider when choosing their specialty early in their training. Medical educators and administrators who recognize and understand the importance of these considerations may further enhance career counseling and medical education curricula.

  14. Development of special medical foods and botanical drugs using HemoHIM for cancer patients during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran

    2010-02-15

    In vivo evaluation on the reductive effects of HemoHIM on the side-effects of radiation and anticancer drug treatment. - Evaluation on the promoting effects of HemoHIM on the tumor growth inhibitory activities of radiation and anticancer drug(cisplatin) in tumor-bearing mice. - Evaluation of the reductive effects of HemoHIM on the immune suppressive side-effects of radiation and anticancer drug(cisplatin) in tumor-bearing mice. - Evaluation of reductive effects of HemoHIM on the self-renewal tissue(intestine) damage of radiation and anticancer drug(5-FU) in mice. {center_dot} Assessment of toxicological safety of HemoHIM (GLP) and establishment of analytical methods for active/index components of HemoHIM - Assurance of toxicological safety in single-dose and 3 month repeat-dose toxicity test in rats - Establishment of analytical methods for active/index compounds and content analysis result in various production lots. {center_dot} Production of Special Medical Food pilot products for cancer patients and development of dosage forms for the natural new drugs. - Establishment of optimal formulations including HemoHIM for the Special Medical Food - Production of Special Medical Food pilot products for clinical test, analysis of nutrients, and official declaration of food production - Establishment of production process of HemoHIM for natural drug and production of pilot products for toxicity tests - Development of drug dosage forms of HemoHIM (tablet, granule, capsule) {center_dot} Clinical evaluation of HemoHIM on reduction of side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients - Subjects: breast cancer patients who completed surgical operation and chemotherapy, HemoHIM administration during and after the radiation therapy (HemoHIM group: 15, placebo group 13) - Administration period: 3 months from few days before RT commencement - Results - Improvement of immunological biomarkers (immune cell subpopulations, cytokine production) - Reduction of and enhanced

  15. Development of special medical foods and botanical drugs using HemoHIM for cancer patients during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran

    2010-02-01

    In vivo evaluation on the reductive effects of HemoHIM on the side-effects of radiation and anticancer drug treatment. - Evaluation on the promoting effects of HemoHIM on the tumor growth inhibitory activities of radiation and anticancer drug(cisplatin) in tumor-bearing mice. - Evaluation of the reductive effects of HemoHIM on the immune suppressive side-effects of radiation and anticancer drug(cisplatin) in tumor-bearing mice. - Evaluation of reductive effects of HemoHIM on the self-renewal tissue(intestine) damage of radiation and anticancer drug(5-FU) in mice. · Assessment of toxicological safety of HemoHIM (GLP) and establishment of analytical methods for active/index components of HemoHIM - Assurance of toxicological safety in single-dose and 3 month repeat-dose toxicity test in rats - Establishment of analytical methods for active/index compounds and content analysis result in various production lots. · Production of Special Medical Food pilot products for cancer patients and development of dosage forms for the natural new drugs. - Establishment of optimal formulations including HemoHIM for the Special Medical Food - Production of Special Medical Food pilot products for clinical test, analysis of nutrients, and official declaration of food production - Establishment of production process of HemoHIM for natural drug and production of pilot products for toxicity tests - Development of drug dosage forms of HemoHIM (tablet, granule, capsule) · Clinical evaluation of HemoHIM on reduction of side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients - Subjects: breast cancer patients who completed surgical operation and chemotherapy, HemoHIM administration during and after the radiation therapy (HemoHIM group: 15, placebo group 13) - Administration period: 3 months from few days before RT commencement - Results - Improvement of immunological biomarkers (immune cell subpopulations, cytokine production) - Reduction of and enhanced recovery from radiation skin

  16. Education Function of Botanical Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhugül Özge Ocak; Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan

    2015-01-01

    Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and o...

  17. Estrogenicity of Medicinal Botanicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eagon, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Medicinal botanicals PLANT EXTRACTS have been used for centuries to relieve various gynecological symptoms, and are of increasing interest to those seeking alternative health care and self-treatment...

  18. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    Objectives The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  19. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  20. Medical students' attitudes towards early clinical exposure in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz Mafinejad, Mahboobeh; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Peiman, Soheil; Khajavirad, Nasim; Mirabdolhagh Hazaveh, Mojgan; Edalatifard, Maryam; Allameh, Seyed-Farshad; Naderi, Neda; Foroumandi, Morteza; Afshari, Ali; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-06-19

    This study was carried out to investigate the medical students' attitudes towards early clinical exposure at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2015. A convenience sample of 298 first- and second-year students, enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum, participated in an early clinical exposure program. To collect data from medical students, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions and structured questions, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was used to investigate students' attitudes toward early clinical exposure. Of the 298 medical students, 216 (72%) completed the questionnaires. The results demonstrated that medical students had a positive attitude toward early clinical exposure. Most students (80.1%) stated that early clinical exposure could familiarize them with the role of basic sciences knowledge in medicine and how to apply this knowledge in clinical settings. Moreover, 84.5% of them believed that early clinical exposure increased their interest in medicine and encouraged them to read more. Furthermore, content analysis of the students' responses uncovered three main themes of early clinical exposure, were considered helpful to improve learning: "integration of theory and practice", "interaction with others and professional development" and "desire and motivation for learning medicine". Medical students found their first experience with clinical setting valuable. Providing clinical exposure in the initial years of medical curricula and teaching the application of basic sciences knowledge in clinical practice can enhance students' understanding of the role they will play in the future as a physician.

  1. A model on how to obtain data from botanical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Siegward M

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenge on how to obtain information from practitioners with experience in using medicinal plants. Collecting information on medicinal uses of plants is very challenging; since botanical remedies are used within the context of multiple differing medical systems, practitioners differ in training from Western physicians and scientists, and active ingredients of botanicals vary with preparation method, growth, and harvest conditions. A model on how useful data on safety and efficacy can be obtained from botanical practitioners is presented, based on methods developed by the association of anthroposophic physicians in Europe, a system of integrative medicine which includes the use of botanicals and is practiced mostly by medical doctors. Decades of experience by hundreds of practitioners are summarized and made accessible in a manual, which alphabetically lists the most commonly used botanicals and describes the most successful therapeutic experiences which could be confirmed by several of the contributing practitioners. This approach of continuous, multilingual systematic collection of successful therapeutic experiences within a community of practitioners with similar goals and a common therapeutic framework can be used not only for the training of successful future botanical practitioners, but also for helping to identify promising botanicals for scientific research and to further their development, and could support their official registration with governing bodies in countries of their use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Miscellaneous botanical Notes X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1960-01-01

    Through the kind assistance of Prof. Dr D. K. Zerov large photographs were obtained of type specimens of two dozen Verbenaceae which have been described by Turczaninow and are preserved in his Herbarium of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. at Kiew. These have

  3. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  4. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  5. Review of early assessment models of innovative medical technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Krahn, Murray D; Kidholm, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospitals increasingly make decisions regarding the early development of and investment in technologies, but a formal evaluation model for assisting hospitals early on in assessing the potential of innovative medical technologies is lacking. This article provides an overview of models...... methods assessing cost-effectiveness are most prevalent in early assessment, but seems ill-suited for early assessment in hospitals. Four models provided some usable elements for the development of a hospital-based model....

  6. Strategies for incorporating radiology into early medical school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, David M; Webb, Emily M; Zimmerman, Leslie; Elicker, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    Clinically oriented material is being incorporated increasingly early into medical school curricula. Traditional models of incorporating radiology early on, mainly as an adjunct to pathology or anatomy instruction, are not focused on learning important aspects of clinical radiology. Medical students can be better served by an integrated curriculum that focuses on appropriate ordering of radiology studies, an intuitive understanding of imaging modalities, and understanding the patient experience. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies for incorporating radiology into early medical school curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Naeger, DM; Webb, EM; Zimmerman, L; Elicker, BM

    2014-01-01

    Clinically oriented material is being incorporated increasingly early into medical school curricula. Traditional models of incorporating radiology early on, mainly as an adjunct to pathology or anatomy instruction, are not focused on learning important aspects of clinical radiology. Medical students can be better served by an integrated curriculum that focuses on appropriate ordering of radiology studies, an intuitive understanding of imaging modalities, and understanding the patient experien...

  8. The relation between antihistamine medication during early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... Abstract Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2). H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines. (H1 antagonists) ...

  9. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests th...

  10. Botany in Edinburgh's Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    In the early 18th century, at the founding of Edinburgh University Medical School, the study of botany was regarded as an essential component of medical training. Botanical teaching began as basic instruction in the recognition of medical plants, considered a vital aspect of a physician's Materia Medica studies. Over the next hundred years growing importance was given to the study of botany as a science, its popularity peaking under John Hutton Balfour's tenure as Professor (1845-1879). The relevance of botanical study later declined in the undergraduate medical curriculum until its cessation in 1961 .This paper considers the history of botanical studies in Edinburgh, including the reasons for its introduction and its changing importance over time.

  11. The National Institutes of Health Investment in Research on Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Paul M.; Meyers, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) were both established by Congress in the 1990’s. ODS aims to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements (DS). NCCAM promotes exploration of complementary and alternative medicine in the context of rigorous science. Together, they developed the Botanical Research Centers Program to promote interdisciplinary study of botanicals, particularly those found in DS, by supporting research activities ranging from plant and characterization to preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. These Centers are part of the coordinated efforts of ODS and NCCAM to enhance botanical research. PMID:21075178

  12. Early use of simulation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Harry

    2012-04-01

    An oft-cited belief that, until recently, simulators used in education of health care professionals were simple models is wrong. Hundreds of years ago and, in one instance, thousands of years ago, intricate models were used to help teach anatomy and physiology and in training in obstetrics and many surgical disciplines. Simulators were used to learn skills before performing them on patients and in high-stakes assessment.The newest technologies were often used in simulators to improve fidelity. In the 18th century, obstetric simulators could leak amniotic fluid, and blood were used to train midwives and obstetricians to recognize and manage complications of childbirth. Italy was the major source of simulators early in the 18th century, but in the 19th century, dominance in clinical simulation moved to France, Britain, and then Germany. In comparison, much of the 20th century was a "dark age" for simulation.

  13. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Practical Uses of Botanicals in Skin Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, Alison F.; Lupo, Mary P.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medic...

  15. Space botanic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Se.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic results of investigations in the field of space botanics are considered, starting with the effect of cosmic radiation on quiet spores and seeds and ending with the modern stage of complex study of lower plants, growing and developing within various periods of time under conditions of a real space flight in special chambers and growing systems. The possibility of using different investigation methods such as luminooptic, electronomicroscopic, biochemical, biophysical, physiological and others to estimate the effect of factors of an orbital flight on plants, are discussed [ru

  16. Our botanical heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Stafleu, Frans A.

    1985-01-01

    On 31 May 1938 our predecessor professor Pulle delivered an address on the ”stocktaking of the heritage of our forefathers” on the occasion of the opening of the enlarged and reorganized Laboratory of special Botany and Plant Geography” of the University of Utrecht. The ”renewal” had been radical: a totally new herbarium building had been built in the southern-most part of the old Botanical Garden at the Lange Nieuwstraat in Utrecht. Pulle’s address still merits reading. The printed version, ...

  17. Early detection of influenza like illness through medication sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, Maja; Erculj, Vanja; Lajovic, Jaro

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring sales of medications is a potential candidate for an early signal of a seasonal influenza epidemic. To test this theory, the data from a traditional, consultation-oriented influenza surveillance system were compared to medication sales and a predictive model was developed. Weekly influenza-like incidence rates from the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System were compared to sales of seven groups of medications (nasal decongestants, medicines for sore throat (MST), antitussives, mucolytics, analgo-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), betalactam antibiotics, and macrolide antibiotics) to determine the correlation of medication sales with the sentinel surveillance system - and therefore their predictive power. Poisson regression and regression tree approaches were used in the statistical analyses. The fact that NSAIDs do not exhibit any seasonality and that prescription of antibiotics requires a visit to the doctor's office makes the two medication groups inappropriate for predictive purposes. The influenza-like illness (ILI) curve is the best matched by the mucolytics and antitussives sales curves. Distinct seasonality is also observed with MST and decongestants. The model including these four medication groups performed best in prediction of ILI incidence rate using the Poisson regression model. Sales of antitussives proved to be the best single predictive variable for regression tree model. Sales of medication groups included in the model were demonstrated to have a predictive potential for early detection of influenza season. The quantitative information on medication sales proves to be a useful supplementary system, complementing the traditional consultation-oriented surveillance system.

  18. The early medical response to the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, N.J.; Oliveira, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Goiania accident was the most severe radiological one that ever happened in the western hemisphere. The response to its human, social, environmental, economical and psychological burdens represented a huge challenge. Thanks to a multi-institutional intervention the consequences of the accident were greatly minimised. The medical response followed the same pattern and was based on a three-level system of progressive assistance. The early medical response encompassed medical and 'radiological' triage, admission to a specially prepared ward of a local hospital and treatment at a reference center in Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  19. EPA Helps Botanic Garden Blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the keys to the continued transformation of abandoned mine lands into a world-class botanic garden near Pittsburgh is an innovative rainwater system financed by EPA’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  20. The Early Homosexual Self Between Autobiography and Medical Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Tilmann Walter

    2005-01-01

    The history of the "early homosexual self" can be divided into three phases: the time of "latent" autobiographies (until ca 1865), then the time of the activation of "homosexual knowledge" by medical experts and (since ca 1895) the time of silencing homosexual voices within experts' discourse. Around 1900 homosexual behavior was already bound to the "script" of the "homosexual" self and considered thereby a "disease" by most experts, what was not often confirmed by the people concerned. Withi...

  1. Medical Connections and Exchanges in the Early Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naylor Pearson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For most of human history there have been extensive exchanges of medical information all over Eurasia. Some diseases were considered to be geographically determined, and hence had to be cured using local knowledge. Other ailments were found in many places, but cures could differ according to location. Most healers, whether book based or experiential, took a non-judgemental approach to different healing methods, as seen especially in India in the early colonial period.

  2. Medical students' preparedness for professional activities in early clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Josefin; Maaz, Asja; Hitzblech, Tanja; Holzhausen, Ylva; Peters, Harm

    2017-08-22

    Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level. Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Preparedness was operationalized by the three dimensions of confidence to carry out clerkship activities, being prepared through university teaching and coping with failure by seeking support. Factors influencing preparedness and perceived stress as outcomes were analysed through step-wise regression. Professional activities carried out by the students (n = 147; 19.0%) and their supervision levels varied. While most students reported high confidence to perform the tasks, the activity-specific analysis revealed important gaps in preparation through university teaching. Students regularly searched for support in case of difficulty. One quarter of the variance of each preparedness dimension was explained by self-efficacy, supervision quality, amount of prior clerkship experience and nature of professional activities. Preparedness contributed to predicting perceived stress. The applied three-dimensional concept of preparedness and the task-specific approach provided a detailed and meaningful view on medical students' workplace participation and experiences in early clerkships.

  3. Predictive patterns of early medication adherence in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Thomas E; Robiner, William N; Thomas, William

    2014-10-27

    Patients' adherence with posttransplant immunosuppression is known to affect renal transplant outcomes. Prospectively, individual medication adherence patterns in 195 kidney transplant recipients were quantified with electronic medication monitors. Monitored drugs were mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, or azathioprine. Monitoring began at hospital discharge and continued an average of 15±8 months. Patient follow-up for clinical outcomes averaged 8±3 years. Each month's adherence percentage was calculated as the sum of daily adherence percents, divided by the number of evaluable days. During the first 3 months after transplantation, patients (n=44) with declining medication adherence, defined as dropping by 7% or higher (equal to missing 2 days) between months 1 and 2, later experienced lower mean medication adherence for months 6 to 12, 73% versus 92% respectively (Padherence, they also had more frequent (P=0.034) and earlier (P=0.065) acute rejection episodes. This was additionally associated with more frequent (P=0.017) and earlier (P=0.046) death-censored graft loss.In addition, daily medication adherence, expressed as the percentage of doses taken, decreased as the number of prescribed daily doses increased. During the first 3 months after transplantation, adherence with four doses per day averaged 84%, compared to 91% for patients on twice-daily dosing (P=0.024) and 93.5% for patients on once-daily dosing (P=0.008). Early declining medication nonadherence is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This pattern is detectable during the first 2 months after transplantation. Early detection of nonadherence provides opportunities to target interventions toward patients at the highest risk for adverse behaviors and events.

  4. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    2010-07-01

    The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an assistant nurse while training to be a doctor may offer valuable learning experiences, but may also present the student with difficulties with respect to identity and identification issues. The aim of the present study was to describe first-year medical students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors before and after a nursing attachment. A questionnaire containing open questions concerning students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n=347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes. We carried out two confirmatory focus group interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 316 students (response rate 91%). Before starting the attachment students regarded nurses as empathic, communicative and responsible. After the attachment students reported nurses had more competencies and responsibilities than they had expected. Students' views of doctors were ambivalent. Before and after the attachment, doctors were seen as interested and reliable, but also as arrogant, detached and insensible. However, students maintained positive views of their own future roles as doctors. Students' perceptions were influenced by age, gender and place of attachment. An early nursing attachment engenders more respect for the nursing profession. The ambivalent view of doctors needs to be explored further in relation to students' professional development. It would seem relevant to attune supervision to the age and gender differences revealed in this study.

  5. Predictors of early faculty attrition at one Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Brenda A; Valley, Morgan; Welch, Cheryl; Tran, Zung Vu; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2014-02-10

    Faculty turnover threatens the research, teaching and clinical missions of medical schools. We measured early attrition among newly-hired medical school faculty and identified personal and institutional factors associated with early attrition. This retrospective cohort study identified faculty hired during the 2005-2006 academic year at one school. Three-year attrition rates were measured. A 40-question electronic survey measured demographics, career satisfaction, faculty responsibilities, institutional/departmental support, and reasons for resignation. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CI) identified variables associated with early attrition. Of 139 faculty, 34% (95% CI = 26-42%) resigned within three years of hire. Attrition was associated with: perceived failure of the Department Chair to foster a climate of teaching, research, and service (OR = 6.03; 95% CI: 1.84, 19.69), inclusiveness, respect, and open communication (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 9.98). Lack of professional development of the faculty member (OR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.25, 11.81); institutional recognition and support for excellence in teaching (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 0.78, 11.19) and clinical care (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.04, 14.41); and >50% of professional time devoted to patient care (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.29, 11.93) predicted attrition. Gender, race, ethnicity, academic degree, department type and tenure status did not predict early attrition. Of still-active faculty, an additional 27 (48.2%, 95% CI: 35.8, 61.0) reported considering resignation within the 5 years. In this pilot study, one-third of new faculty resigned within 3 years of hire. Greater awareness of predictors of early attrition may help schools identify threats to faculty career satisfaction and retention.

  6. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. Botanical indices of ploidy levels in some African accessions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-nine accessions of Oryza punctata Kotschy ex Steud, from local and other African habitats were studied to establish the attributes that can delineate the two ploidy levels based on agro-botanical, foliar epidermal and nodal anatomical characteristics. The diploid plants of O. punctata are early-maturing annuals with a ...

  8. Credentialing of practitioners of botanical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric; Abascal, Kathy; Greenfield, Russell Howard; Romm, Aviva; Sudberg, Sidney

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how practitioners, regardless of other professional licenses they may hold, could be credentialed in botanical medicine. The article reviews the field of clinical botanical medicine and the history and modern status of botanical medicine, as well as organizations currently involved in botanical medicine credentialing. Many different types of professionals prescribe botanical medicines, and the potential for collaboration among them is great. The current trend treats botanical medicine as a narrow subdivision of allopathic medicine and does not acknowledge the breadth, depth, and diversity of botanical medicine and ultimately will not provide maximum benefits for patients. An alternative approach that instead credentials practitioners skilled in the use of a wide variety of botanical medicines in a responsible, scientific fashion is presented.

  9. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  10. Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown.

  11. Botanical-drug interactions: a scientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2012-09-01

    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. A general lack of knowledge of the interaction potential together with an under-reporting of botanical use poses a challenge for the health care providers and a safety concern for patients. Botanical-drug interactions increase the patient risk, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., warfarin, cyclosporine, and digoxin). Examples of case reports and clinical studies evaluating botanical-drug interactions of commonly used botanicals in the US are presented. The potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bases of such interactions are discussed, as well as the challenges associated with the interpretation of the available data and prediction of botanical-drug interactions. Recent FDA experiences with botanical products and interactions including labeling implications as a risk management strategy are highlighted. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  13. Sub-Saharan Botanical Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Beentje, Henk; Cheek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Many historical specimens from sub-Saharan Africa are only found in European herbaria, but a higher number of newer specimens than widely assumed are kept in African herbaria, with a concentration in eastern and southern parts of the continent. Many of these herbaria were initiated in connection ...... in collaboration between African and European herbaria, and the increasing digitization of herbaria and the general development of relevant services on the Internet, which provides new possibilities for botanical studies in Africa....

  14. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Grdiša, Martina; Gršić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems....

  15. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  16. Medical specialty considerations by medical students early in their clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissman Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialty selection by medical students determines the future composition of the physician workforce. Selection of career specialties begins in earnest during the clinical rotations with exposure to the clinical and intellectual environments of various specialties. Career specialty selection is followed by choosing a residency program. This is the period where insight into the decision process might help healthcare leaders ascertain whether, when, and how to intervene and attempt to influence students' decisions. The criteria students consider important in selecting a specialty and a residency program during the early phases of their clinical rotations were examined. Methods Questionnaires distributed to fifth-year medical students at two Israeli medical schools. Results 229 of 275 (83% questionnaires were returned. 80% of the students had considered specialties; 62% considered one specialty, 25% two, the remainder 3-5 specialties. Students took a long-range view; 55% considered working conditions after residency more important than those during residency, another 42% considered both equally important. More than two-thirds wanted an interesting and challenging bedside specialty affording control over lifestyle and providing a reasonable relationship between salary and lifestyle. Men were more interested in well-remunerated procedure-oriented specialties that allowed for private practice. Most students rated as important selecting a challenging and interesting residency program characterized by good relationships between staff members, with positive treatment by the institution, and that provided much teaching. More women wanted short residencies with few on-calls and limited hours. More men rated as important residencies affording much responsibility for making clinical decisions and providing research opportunities. More than 50% of the students considered it important that their residency be in a leading department, and in

  17. Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, May Fern

    2010-01-01

    The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines. PMID:20837111

  18. Botanical Literature in India 1973-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswarappa, B. S.; Nagaraju, A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that used bibliometrics to examine botanical research activity in India. The findings discussed include the growth of botanical literature, authorship patterns and collaborative research, important research centers and their rankings, journals preferred by Indian botanists, subfields of research, and the applicability of…

  19. The Early History of Blacks at Harvard Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Ronald T.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the history of the admission of African Americans at the Harvard Medical School and the racial prejudice that followed. The author reveals how Harvard medical students of the time believed that blacks were intellectually inferior and that having black students at the school would devalue the school and their diplomas. (GR)

  20. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  1. Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development.

  2. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation May Reduce Medication Costs in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mallory L; Currie, Amanda D; Molinari, Anna L; Turchan, Maxim; Millan, Sarah M; Heusinkveld, Lauren E; Roach, Jonathon; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Neimat, Joseph S; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Byrne, Daniel W; Charles, David

    2016-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is well-known to reduce medication burden in advanced stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Preliminary data from a prospective, single blind, controlled pilot trial demonstrated that early stage PD subjects treated with STN-DBS also required less medication than those treated with optimal drug therapy (ODT). The purpose of this study was to analyze medication cost and utilization from the pilot trial of DBS in early stage PD and to project 10 year medication costs. Medication data collected at each visit were used to calculate medication costs. Medications were converted to levodopa equivalent daily dose, categorized by medication class, and compared. Medication costs were projected to advanced stage PD, the time when a typical patient may be offered DBS. Medication costs increased 72% in the ODT group and decreased 16% in the DBS+ODT group from baseline to 24 months. This cost difference translates into a cumulative savings for the DBS+ODT group of $7,150 over the study period. Projected medication cost savings over 10 years reach $64,590. Additionally, DBS+ODT subjects were 80% less likely to require polypharmacy compared with ODT subjects at 24 months (p early PD reduced medication cost over the two-year study period. DBS may offer substantial long-term reduction in medication cost by maintaining a simplified, low dose medication regimen. Further study is needed to confirm these findings, and the FDA has approved a pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating STN-DBS in early PD.

  3. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  4. Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience : a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

    Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others.

  5. The Early Years of the University of the Witwatersrand Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-20

    Jan 20, 1973 ... E. P. Stibbe was appointed to the Chair of Anatomy, and. Professor E. H. Cluver to the Chair of Physiology. Thirteen students enrolled for the second year. Anatomy was taught in a wood and iron converted stable in the north-east corner of the grounds of the. South African Institute for Medical Research, ...

  6. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  7. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest botanical products... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products § 223.277 Forest botanical products definition. As used in this subpart, the following term shall mean: Forest botanical...

  8. The changing role of botanic gardens and the experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is trying to establish botanic gardens with the first one in place being the recently inaugurated Gullele Botanic Garden in Addis Abeba. In order to develop this newly established garden as well as any other future botanic garden, Ethiopia needs to gather information from the experience of other botanic gardens that ...

  9. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  10. Early versus late misoprostol administration after mifepristone for medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, Rene; Bornstein, Jacob; Kais, Mohamad; Masri, Irina; Odeh, Marwan

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the successful medical termination of pregnancy comparing two regimens: misoprostol 2 or 48 h after mifepristone administration. Prospective randomized study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. One hundred pregnant women admitted for medical termination of pregnancy were enrolled; no pregnancies were over 55 days gestational age. All subjects were randomly assigned for misoprostol administration either 2 or 48 h after mifepristone. All participants underwent transvaginal ultrasound examination for uterine contents 48 h and 3 weeks after mifepristone. Procedure failure, defined as the presence of fetal heart activity, presence of a gestational sac, or a need for uterine curettage after misoprostol administration. Each group consisted of 50 women. Fetal heart activity was significantly more frequent after 48 h in the 2-h interval group (10/50) than in the 48-h interval group (0/50) (p = 0.002). Three weeks after misoprostol administration, fetal heart activity was present in 4/50 (8 %) in the 2-h interval group (p = 0.118) and none of the 48-h interval group. At 48 h residual tissue was present in 13/50 (26 %) and 5/50 (10 %) in the 2 and 48-h interval groups, respectively (p = 0.031); this was reduced to 12/50 (24 %) compared to 5/50 (10 %) in the two groups, respectively (p = 0.054) after 3 weeks. Successful medical termination of pregnancy can be achieved using misoprostol administration 2 h after mifepristone in 76 % of cases. However, this regimen is not recommended as it is significantly inferior to the traditional 48-h interval regimen.

  11. Multimedia medical communication with ISDN technologies: early experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensch, Peter F.; Niemann, Heino

    1990-08-01

    ISDN provides the end user with a large number of services and the flexibility to easily modify the services they receive as their communications needs grow and change. It is our goal to use the advantages of the ISDNtechnology for a medical end user by supporting him with integrated image/voice/data information. We focus our developments to medical scenarios where general PACS concepts are not acceptable, currently or in the near future. An image/voice/data management and communications system using ISDN technology has been designed. First applications are developed - to acquire multiple image modalities such as CT, Angio and NI from several hospital departments, - to communicate with a remote image processing group (Computer Science Department), - to complement visual results wIth voice and data yielding integrated multimedia information, and - to distribute integrated multimedia information to medical end users such as surgeons and therapists. The integrated multimedia information is finally available at a specially configured PC-workstation in complete digital form. An interactive replay of this information complies with a video-standard (either NTSC or PAL) and may discard specific media-modality on demand. At any time a video copy of the complete or constituent integrated information can be saved on VHS-cassettes for further distribution. The image processing group currently creates standardized video clips for frequent surgical scenarios. This paper describes the network model for the in-house and remote ISDN communication of integrated multimedia information, traffic, and performance requirements. The flexibility and acceptance of this approach will be addressed by reviewing several surgical cases.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Botanical Drugs and Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez More, Gina Paola; Cardenas, Paola Andrea; Costa, Geison M; Simoes, Claudia M O; Aragon, Diana Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Botanical drugs contain plant extracts, which are complex mixtures of compounds. As with conventional drugs, it is necessary to validate their efficacy and safety through preclinical and clinical studies. However, pharmacokinetic studies for active constituents or characteristic markers in botanical drugs are rare. The objective of this review was to investigate the global state of the art in pharmacokinetic studies of active ingredients present in plant extracts and botanical drugs. A review of pharmacokinetics studies of chemical constituents of plant extracts and botanical drugs was performed, with a total of 135 studies published between January 2004 and February 2015 available in recognized scientific databases. Botanical preparations were mainly found in the form of aqueous extracts of roots and rhizomes. The most widely studied species was Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the compound most frequently used as a pharmacokinetic marker was berberine. Most studies were performed using the Sprague Dawley rat model, and the preparations were mainly administered orally in a single dose. Quantification of plasma concentrations of pharmacokinetic markers was performed mainly by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector. In conclusion, in recent years there has been an increasing interest among researchers worldwide in the study of pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs and plant extracts, especially those from the Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. The origins of scientific cinematography and early medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboi, Alexandru C; Goetz, Christopher G; Musetoiu, Radu

    2004-06-08

    To examine the neurologic cinematographic contributions of Gheorghe Marinescu. Near the end of the 19th century, cinematography developed and was immediately recognized as a new technique applicable to medical documentation. After studying with several prominent European neurologists and deeply influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot, Marinescu returned to Bucharest in 1897 and applied moving picture techniques to the study of neurologic patients. The Romanian State Archives were researched for original Marinescu films, and related publications were translated from Romanian and French. Between 1899 and 1902, Marinescu perfected the use of cinematography as a research method in neurosciences and published five articles based on cinematographic documents. He focused his studies particularly on organic gait disorders, locomotor ataxia, and hysteria. He adapted Charcot's method of lining up several patients with the same disorder and showing them together to permit appreciation of archetypes and formes frustes. He decomposed the moving pictures into sequential tracings for publication. He documented treatment results with cases filmed before and after therapy. Processed and digitized excerpts of these films accompany this manuscript. Marinescu's cinematographic studies led to several original contributions in clinical neurology. Remaining film archives include examples of many neurologic diseases, his examination techniques, and the working medical environment of the young founder of the Romanian school of neurology.

  14. Early awareness and alert systems for medical technologies in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Orna; Hakak, Nina

    2012-07-01

    Throughout the world, decision makers face the need to plan on the basis of uncertainty. Prospective updates on future trends of medical technology usage are tools to improve national health status. In Israel, this challenge is met by several steps taken to promote insight into the realm of emerging technologies. Israel's unique horizon strategy refers to three time spans: the immediate to short-term (for the coming year) updating the National List of Health Services (NLHS) and quarterly scanning; the medium-term (3 years to a decade) revitalizing hospital devices and infrastructure; and long-term planning (over a decade), such as the "Health Israel 2020 Project". A description of the Israeli setup of different time spans and tiers. The matrix of players, loci, interests, population groups, and incentives creates a complex situation and the Ministry of Health has to regulate the different suppliers and tiers of insurance (obligatory, supplementary, and private), balancing need, equity, and cost containment in preparing for future health care. However, preparedness is not a sterile laboratory and is pervaded by numerous dilemmas and the search for adequate evidence for new less mature technologies is an on-going challenge. Bridging the forecasting chasm for the future requires analyzing needs, reinforcing evidence and seeing "around the corner" when synergizing between all the "actors" in the national arena. Expert consultation and international cooperation with similar horizon organizations can assist in paving the way for more successful planning efforts for future medical technology implementation.

  15. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: Early Outcome following Medical or Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Salehi Omran

    2008-12-01

    Results: Thirteen patients with PVE were diagnosed and treated at our center during the study period. In all the cases, mechanical prostheses were utilized. The patients' mean age was 46.9±12.8 years. Women made up 53.8% of all the cases.  Early PVE was detected in 6 (46.2% patients, and late PVE occurred in 7 (53.8 %. Eleven (84.6% patients were treated with intravenous antimicrobial therapy, and the other two (15.4% required surgical removal and replacement of the infected prosthesis in addition to antibiotic therapy. Blood cultures became positive in 46.2% of the patients. Mortality rate was 15.4% (2 patients. Conclusion: It seems that in selected cases with PVE, i.e. in those who remain clinically stable and respond well to antimicrobial therapy, a cure could be achieved by antimicrobial treatment alone with acceptable morbidity and mortality risk.

  16. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: Early Outcome following Medical or Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Alinejad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with heart valve replacement surgery. The aim of the present study was to describe the early outcome of treatment in patients with PVE in a single center. Methods: The data of all the episodes of PVE registered at our institution between 2002 and 2007 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients were assessed using clinical criteria defined by Durack and colleagues (Duke criteria. The analysis included a detailed study of hospital records. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the discrete variables were presented as percentages.Results: Thirteen patients with PVE were diagnosed and treated at our center during the study period. In all the cases, mechanical prostheses were utilized. The patients' mean age was 46.9±12.8 years. Women made up 53.8% of all the cases. Early PVE was detected in 6 (46.2% patients, and late PVE occurred in 7 (53.8 %. Eleven (84.6% patients were treated with intravenous antimicrobial therapy, and the other two (15.4% required surgical removal and replacement of the infected prosthesis in addition to antibiotic therapy. Blood cultures became positive in 46.2% of the patients. Mortality rate was 15.4% (2 patients. Conclusion: It seems that in selected cases with PVE, i.e. in those who remain clinically stable and respond well to antimicrobial therapy, a cure could be achieved by antimicrobial treatment alone with acceptable morbidity and mortality risk.

  17. Early versus delayed insertion of intrauterine contraception after medical abortion - a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sääv

    Full Text Available Today, a large proportion of early abortions are medical terminations, in accordance to the woman's choice. Intrauterine contraceptives (IUC provide highly effective, reversible, long-acting contraception. However, the effects of timing of IUC insertion after medical abortion are not known.Women undergoing medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol up to 63 days gestation and opting for IUC were randomised to early insertion (day 5-9 after mifepristone or delayed (routine insertion (at 3-4 weeks after mifepristone. The primary outcome was the rate of IUC expulsion at six months after IUC insertion.A total of 129 women were randomized, and 116 women had a successful IUC insertion. There was no difference in expulsion rate between early (9.7% vs. delayed (7.4% IUC insertion (risk difference -9.2-13.4. Furthermore, 1.5% of women randomized to early and 11.5% to delayed insertion did not attend the follow up (proportion difference 10.0%, 95% CI: 1.8-20.6%, p = 0.015, and a higher proportion of women (41% had had unprotected intercourse prior to returning for insertion in the delayed group compared with the early group (16% (p = 0.015. Adverse events were rare and did not differ between the groups.Early insertion of IUC after medical abortion was safe and well tolerated with no increased incidence for expulsions or complications. Women were more likely to return for the IUC insertion if scheduled early after the abortion, and less likely to have had an unprotected intercourse prior to the IUC insertion. Early insertion should be offered as a routine for women undergoing first trimester medical abortion.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01537562.

  18. A mixed methods analysis of experiences and expectations among early-career medical oncologists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W K Tim; Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David; Francis, Kay; Karapetis, Christos S; Karikios, Deme; Harrup, Rosemary; Lwin, Zarnie

    2018-01-26

    A viable and sustainable medical oncology profession is integral for meeting the increasing demand for quality cancer care. The aim of this study was to explore the workforce-related experiences, perceptions and career expectations of early-career medical oncologists in Australia. A mixed-methods design, including a survey (n  =  170) and nested qualitative semistructured interviews (n  =  14) with early-career medical oncologists. Recruitment was through the Medical Oncology Group of Australia. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed and for the survey results, logistic regression modeling was conducted. Early-career medical oncologists experienced uncertainty regarding their future employment opportunities. The competitive job market has made them cautious about securing a preferred job leading to a perceived need to improve their qualifications through higher degree training and research activities. The following themes and trends were identified from the qualitative and quantitative analyses: age, career stage and associated early-career uncertainty; locale, professional competition and training preferences; participation in research and evolving professional expectations; and workload and career development opportunities as linked to career uncertainty. Perceived diminished employment opportunities in the medical oncology profession, and shifting expectations to be "more qualified," have increased uncertainty among junior medical oncologists in terms of their future career prospects. Structural factors relating to adequate funding of medical oncology positions may facilitate or inhibit progressive change in the workforce and its sustainability. Workforce planning and strategies informed by findings from this study will be necessary in ensuring that both the needs of cancer patients and of medical oncologists are met. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Modeling determinants of medication attitudes and poor adherence in early nonaffective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drake, Richard J; Nordentoft, Merete; Haddock, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    medication attitudes, self-esteem, and insight in an early psychosis cohort better to understand their relationships. Existing longitudinal data from 309 patients with early Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nonaffective psychosis (83% first episode) were analyzed to test...... the hypothesis that medication attitudes, while meaningfully different from "insight," correlated with insight and self-esteem, and change in each influenced the others. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale insight were assessed at presentation, after 6...... five latent constructs best fitted the data: medication attitudes, self-esteem, accepting need for treatment, self-rated insight, and objective insight. All were related and each affected the others as it changed, except self-esteem and medication attitudes. Low self-reported insight at presentation...

  20. Gestational Medication Use, Birth Conditions, and Early Postnatal Exposures for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ching Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.

  1. John Locke's seed lists: a case study in botanical exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen A; Anstey, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives a detailed analysis of four seed lists in the journals of John Locke. These lists provide a window into a fascinating open network of botanical exchange in the early 1680s which included two of the leading botanists of the day, Pierre Magnol of Montpellier and Jacob Bobart the Younger of Oxford. The provenance and significance of the lists are assessed in relation to the relevant extant herbaria and plant catalogues from the period. The lists and associated correspondence provide the main evidence for Locke's own important, though modest contribution to early modern botany, a contribution which he would have regarded as a small part of the broader project of constructing a natural history of plants. They also provide a detailed case study of the sort of open and informal network of knowledge exchange in the early modern period that is widely recognised by historians of science, but all too rarely illustrated.

  2. Motivation and satisfaction with early medical vs. surgical abortion in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Olga E

    2010-05-01

    In the Netherlands, most abortions of early pregnancies have been with electric vacuum aspiration (VA). A study was conducted on women's motivations for choosing surgical (VA) or medical abortion and extent of satisfaction with the method chosen. Information was also collected about the proportion of medical abortions to total abortions in the Netherlands and, for comparison, in some other European countries. Of 501 women with early abortions surveyed in 2008/09, 71% opted for VA. Except for "previous experience", women had different motivations for preferring one or other method. At the post-abortion check-up, satisfaction with the medical method was lower compared to VA. Nevertheless, 80% of those who chose medical abortion would do so again. Nineteen out of 20 doctors questioned at a meeting on abortion offered surgical and medical abortion. Seven of the 11 who gave an opinion found medical abortion an excellent alternative and four thought having the choice was important. The proportion of medical abortions per clinic ranged from abortions in all the countries looked at is influenced by provider attitudes and service-related factors. The use of medical abortion in the Netherlands might increase over time but is unlikely to rise as high as in some other European countries. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early rehospitalization after initial chronic kidney disease educational hospitalization relates with a multidisciplinary medical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Eiji; An, Taesong; Kikkawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    It is well-documented that chronic kidney disease (CKD) often results in end-stage renal failure and puts patients at extremely high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Educational hospitalization at medical institutions in Japan is important for patients with CKD because it facilitates treatment in earlier stages of CKD when subjective symptoms are not apparent. However, some patients who have achieved their educational targets tend to have poor compliance at home after discharge from the hospital, resulting in rehospitalization shortly. In this study, we examined the factors for early rehospitalization of patients after initial CKD educational hospitalization compared with non-rehospitalized patients. One hundred thirty-seven patients after discharge from CKD educational hospitalization in Japan between March 2011 and December 2012 were included in the analyses. The subjects were classified into two groups: the early rehospitalization group and control group. We adjusted for confounding variables and performed multiple logistic regression analysis with the presence or absence of early rehospitalization as a dependent variable to investigate the association of early rehospitalization with patient background features, laboratory data, vital signs, instruction-related items, and home environment. Study subjects included 22 patients in the early hospitalization group and 115 patients in control group. Multivariable analysis for early rehospitalization indicated that insufficient instruction by physician, pharmacist, and dietitians was independent explanatory variable. Analyzing by Kaplan-Meier method, the probability of non-rehospitalization in the instruction group was significantly higher than that in the non-instruction group. Therefore, we believe it is necessary to involve a competent, multidisciplinary medical team (consisting of physicians, pharmacists, and dietitians) in addressing the early rehospitalization issue in patients with CKD. These findings

  4. The Interplay Between Early Father Involvement and Neonatal Medical Risk in the Prediction of Infant Neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the association between early father involvement and infant neurodevelopment, and whether neonatal medical risk moderates this association. Data from approximately 6000 fathers and their children were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical regression was employed to analyze the data. The findings reveal that the association between early father involvement and infant neurodevelopment is contingent on both the timing of involvement (i.e., prenatal/perinatal or infancy) and offspring medical status at birth. The neurodevelopment of medically at-risk neonates was enhanced when fathers were involved during the gestational period and at the time of their birth. This relationship was not detected, however, in the case of infants who did not experience medical risks as neonates. Neonatal medical risk appears to be an important moderating factor in the link between father involvement during pregnancy and childbirth and infant neurodevelopment. Practitioners should continue to make efforts to involve fathers during gestation and childbirth. The findings of the present study suggest that doing so may protect against neurodevelopmental delays in neonates with medical risks.

  5. Conversations with French medical geneticists. A personal perspective on the origins and early years of medical genetics in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, P S

    2017-11-03

    The history of the beginnings of medical genetics in France is discussed, based on the personal perspective provided by recorded interviews with 16 early French workers in the field. The weakness of French genetics overall up to the beginning of the Second World War meant that post-war medical genetics had to start from new, with its origins largely derived from the medical fields of child health and the prevention of genetic disorders, rather than from basic science. The key people responsible for initiating these developments were Robert Debré and Maurice Lamy at Hôpital Necker in Paris and those interviewed included a number of their colleagues and successors, including Jean Frézal, Pierre Maroteaux, Josué Feingold, André and Joelle Boué, and Jean-Claude Kaplan. A separate group of paediatricians, originally at Hôpital Trousseau under Raymond Turpin, including Jérôme Lejeune, Marthe Gautier and Roland Berger, was responsible for major advances in human cytogenetics. Outside Paris, workers were interviewed from Marseille, Strasbourg and Nancy, although not from Lyon, where Jacques-Michel Robert was an early pioneer, particularly of genetic counselling. Challenges in the development of medical genetics in France included the advent of prenatal diagnosis with its ethical issues, the emergence of medical genetics as a distinct specialty from paediatrics, and its spread from Paris across France. These and other aspects are described by those interviewed from their own experiences, given in Appendix S1, while the fully edited transcripts for most interviews are accessible on the Web: www.genmedhist.org/interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973, b...

  7. Increased knowledge of thalassemia promotes early carrier status examination among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Broto Dewanto

    2016-04-01

    A higher thalassemia knowledge score causes medical students to be willing to undergo thalassemia carrier status examination at an earlier point in timing. A well-organized educational program focusing on thalassemia and early screening in young adults may enhance the thalassemia prevention program.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Medications in Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Huang, Cecilia; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Bobo, William V.; Crystal, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Scant information exists to guide pharmacological treatment of early-onset schizophrenia. We examine variation across commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotic medications in medication discontinuation and psychiatric hospital admission among children and adolescents clinically diagnosed with schizophrenia. A 45-state Medicaid claims file (2001–2005) was analyzed focusing on outpatients, aged 6–17 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder prior to starting a new episode of antipsychotic monotherapy with risperidone (n = 805), olanzapine (n = 382), quetiapine (n = 260), aripiprazole (n = 173), or ziprasidone (n = 125). Cox proportional hazard regressions estimated adjusted hazard ratios of 180-day antipsychotic medication discontinuation and 180-day psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with each medication. During the first 180 days following antipsychotic initiation, most youth treated with quetiapine (70.7%), ziprasidone (73.3%), olanzapine (73.7%), risperidone (74.7%), and aripirazole (76.5%) discontinued their medication (χ2 = 1.69, df = 4, P = .79). Compared with risperidone, the adjusted hazards of antipsychotic discontinuation did not significantly differ for any of the 4-comparator medications. The percentages of youth receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment while receiving their initial antipsychotic medication ranged from 7.19% (aripiprazole) to 9.89% (quetiapine) (χ2 = 0.79, df = 4, P = .94). As compared with risperidone, the adjusted hazard ratio of psychiatric hospital admission was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.57–1.61) for olanzapine, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.59–1.81) for quetiapine, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.43–1.70) for aripiprazole, and 1.22 (95% CI: 0.60–2.51) for ziprasidone. The results suggest that rapid antipsychotic medication discontinuation and psychiatric hospital admission are common in the community treatment of early-onset schizophrenia. No significant differences were detected in risk of either adverse outcome

  9. Mood and anxiety disorders as early manifestations of medical illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Affective disturbances involving alterations of mood, anxiety and irritability may be early symptoms of medical illnesses. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature with qualitative data synthesis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from inception to February 2014. Search terms were 'prodrome/early symptom', combined using the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'anxiety/depression/mania/hypomania/irritability/irritable mood/hostility', combined with the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'medical illness/medical disorder'. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Depression was found to be the most common affective prodrome of medical disorders and was consistently reported in Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, Wilson's disease, and AIDS. Mania, anxiety and irritability were less frequent. Physicians may not pursue medical workup of cases that appear to be psychiatric in nature. They should be alerted that disturbances in mood, anxiety and irritability may antedate the appearance of a medical disorder.

  10. Organisation of the Botanical Survey of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1963-01-01

    From the new (quarto 2-column) journal ”Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India”, initiated to supplement the ’Records’ and ’Annual Reports’ and to e cited as Bull. Bot. Surv. India, we are now informed about the shape of the studies of the Indian flora, since the reorganisation in 1954-55. Three

  11. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant exctracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  12. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant extracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  13. Botanic gardens, herbaria and research: The UK experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution of botanic gardens in the United Kingdom is outlined, with special regard to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The modern role of such gardens is discussed and particular attention is given to Kew‟s Breathing Planet Programme. Key words/phrases: Botanic gardens, Breathing Planet Programme, Kew, United ...

  14. Scientific Opinion on a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    The Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach, initially developed for the assessment of microorganisms referred to EFSA and added to the food chain is equally applicable to the assessment of botanicals or botanical preparations. Using the principles to establish the suitability of a botanical...... preparation for QPS status, it has been possible to develop a structured assessment scheme that provides a practical method for assessing botanicals and botanical preparations for which an adequate body of knowledge exists and therefore without the need for further testing. Reiterative applications...... of the assessment scheme to related botanicals or different botanical preparations obtained from the same plant variety can allow a QPS status to be derived for specific groupings. However, the particularity of botanicals that may be presented in a wide variety of forms or whose morphology and chemical composition...

  15. [The evolutionist fallacy of early visitors. Analogies between 'primitive peoples' and prehistoric man in medical historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Accounts of 'prehistoric medicine' and 'ethnomedicine' have sometimes led to conclusions by analogy in medical historiography that are seen as highly problematic in modern cultural anthropology. However, this review of medical historical writings of the last three centuries shows that evolutionist identifications of early with foreign medicine were not a permanent trait of medical historiography. This approach flourished mainly in the climate of certain movements or periods that were characterised by fanatical belief in progress and by social utopias: the French Revolution, Darwinism and the period of industrial expansion in Germany, and National Socialism. Medical historiography shared this problematic approach with contemporary (social and cultural) anthropology, and - despite this methodological misuse - both acknowledged the legitimacy or even requirement of studying also similarities in the development of different periods and cultures.

  16. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  17. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  18. [Research of medical equipment risk early warning system based on EAI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianping; Li, Jing

    2014-05-01

    After signs of risk have been happened in risk management of medical equipment at present, reports are taken step by step. So there is a report not timely, incomplete information, it is difficult to monitor, and many other problems. With the improvement of risk management requirements; the development of the information technology s apply, and increasing sources of information used for risk early warning analysis. This paper analyzes the requirement of risk management, and proposes a total solution of enterprise risk early warning based on EAI. It will make managers accurately and fully grasp the risks, find risk signs timely, speed up the response to risk.

  19. Early Modern “Citation Index”? Medical Authorities in Academic Treatises on Plague (1480–1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of early modern scientific citations. It attempts to establish a measure of scientific popularity in a specific area of the academic medicine in a way which resembles a modern evaluation of scientific activity (citation index. For this purpose an analysis of a series of plague treatises written between 1480 and 1725 in Europe was conducted. Citations for various historical medical authorities (Hippocrates, Galen, etc. are given in Tables which reflect a long time development of popularity. The authorities from various groups (Ancient, Medieval, Arabic, Early Modern are linked together, and “generic authorities” are explained and discussed.

  20. The use of botanical products and vitamins in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Gabriela; Leo, Micheal; Ma, Brian; Johal, Ritika S; Ma, Thomas; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-11-18

    The use of botanical products and vitamins in skin care creams and sunscreens is prevalent. Herein we conduct an evaluation of sunscreens to quantitatively assess how often sunscreens incorporate botanically derived products and vitamins. The most commonly used botanicals products and vitamins are identified and stratified based on the sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF). The overall prevalence for the use of botanical agents and vitamins was 62% and 79%, respectively. Aloe vera and licorice root extracts were the most common botanical agents used in sunscreens. Retinyl palmitate was the most common vitamin derivative utilized in sunscreens. The prices of sunscreens significantly increased when more than one botanical product was added. Botanical products and vitamins are widely utilized in sunscreens and more research is needed to assess how their inclusion may enhance or alter the function of sunscreens.

  1. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstein, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2018-04-01

    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions and labeling implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Modeling determinants of medication attitudes and poor adherence in early nonaffective psychosis: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard J; Nordentoft, Merete; Haddock, Gillian; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leboyer, Marion; Leucht, Stefan; Leweke, Markus; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Sommer, Iris E; Kahn, René S; Lewis, Shon W

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to design a multimodal intervention to improve adherence following first episode psychosis, consistent with current evidence. Existing literature identified medication attitudes, insight, and characteristics of support as important determinants of adherence to medication: we examined medication attitudes, self-esteem, and insight in an early psychosis cohort better to understand their relationships. Existing longitudinal data from 309 patients with early Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nonaffective psychosis (83% first episode) were analyzed to test the hypothesis that medication attitudes, while meaningfully different from "insight," correlated with insight and self-esteem, and change in each influenced the others. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale insight were assessed at presentation, after 6 weeks and 3 and 18 months. Drug Attitudes Inventory (DAI) and treatment satisfaction were rated from 6 weeks onward. Structural equation models of their relationships were compared. Insight measures' and DAI's predictive validity were compared against relapse, readmission, and remission. Analysis found five latent constructs best fitted the data: medication attitudes, self-esteem, accepting need for treatment, self-rated insight, and objective insight. All were related and each affected the others as it changed, except self-esteem and medication attitudes. Low self-reported insight at presentation predicted readmission. Good 6-week insight (unlike drug attitudes) predicted remission. Literature review and data modeling indicated that a multimodal intervention using motivational interviewing, online psychoeducation, and SMS text medication reminders to enhance adherence without damaging self-concept was feasible and appropriate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For

  3. The Early Tech Development Course: Experiential Commercialization Education for the Medical Academician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoss, Jonathan; Chang, Connie; Fay, Jonathan; Ward, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Research produced by medical academicians holds promise for developing into biomedical innovations in therapeutics, devices, diagnostics, and health care information technology; however, the road to biomedical innovation is fraught with risk, including the challenge of moving from basic research insight onto a viable commercialization path. Compounding this challenge is the growing demand on medical academicians to be more productive in their clinical, teaching, and research duties within a resource-constrained environment. In 2014, the University of Michigan (UM) Medical School and College of Engineering codesigned and implemented an accelerated, biomedical-focused version of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Innovation Corps (I-Corps) program. The UM Early Tech Development (ETD) Course, designed for medical academicians exploring the commercial potential of early-stage ideas, covers the NSF I-Corps concept; supports the formation of teams of faculty, graduate, and medical students; and accommodates medical academicians' schedules. From 2014 to 2015, the ETD Course graduated 39 project teams from UM and other institutions. One-third of the teams have continued to pursue their projects, receiving additional funding, engaging industry partners, or enrolling in the NSF I-Corps program. The ETD Course, a potential pipeline to the NSF I-Corps program, captures a target audience of medical academicians and others in academic medicine. To better understand the long-term effects of the course and its relationship to the NSF I-Corps program, the authors will conduct a study on the careers of all ETD Course graduates, including those who have enrolled in NSF I-Corps versus those who have not.

  4. Early introduction of clinical skills teaching in a medical curriculum--factors affecting students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T P; Irwin, M; Chow, L W C; Chan, P

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of the early introduction of clinical skills teaching on students' learning following an overhaul of the curriculum of a traditional Asian medical school. Randomly selected medical students in Year I and II were invited to participate in 30 focus group interviews while all students were asked to assist with the questionnaire survey. Most students were contacted personally to help them understand the objectives of the study. Confidentiality was emphasised and a non-faculty interviewer was recruited for the interviews. Two hundred and eight of Year I/Year II students attended the lunchtime focus group interviews (response rate=86.7%) while 252 (73.5%) students returned the questionnaire. The majority of them (87%) agreed or strongly agreed that it was good to introduce clinical skills in the early years of the curriculum. They reflected that the course enhanced their learning interest and made them feel like doctors. They also made many constructive suggestions on how the course could be improved during the interactive focus group interviews so that the negative effects could be minimised. It is useful to introduce clinical skills in the early years of a medical curriculum. A comprehensive course evaluation, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, helps to collect useful information on how the course can be improved.

  5. Differences and similarities in the regulation of medical practice between early modern Vienna and Osijek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    This paper evaluates the regulation of medical practice from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in two Habsburg cities, Vienna and Osijek, in the light of the spread of medical knowledge and practice from the centre to the periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy. Although both cities were part of the Habsburg Monarchy for much of the early modern period, there were more differences than similarities between them. This may be explained by appealing to a variety of factors, including geographical position, population structure, religion, government type, and professional organisations, all of which contributed to making medical practice very different in the two cities. The divergence occurred in spite of a central agenda for ensuring uniformity of medical practice throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. Although the legislation governing medical practice was the same in both cities, it was more strictly implemented in Vienna than in Osijek. In consequence, Osijek was the setting for some unique patterns of medical practice not to be found in the Habsburg capital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimizing weight gain for patients taking antipsychotic medications: The potential role for early use of metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Victoria; Dasher, Robert; Gitlin, Michael; Parsi, Mehrban

    2017-05-01

    Patients taking antipsychotic medications are at high risk for weight gain, which in turn leads to poor health outcomes, nonadherence with treatment, and low self-esteem. We reviewed published studies of pharmacologic interventions aimed at minimizing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Treatments initiated prior to onset of weight gain were compared with those that started once weight gain already had occurred. Although data are limited, adjunctive medications for weight management appear to be more effective when initiated at or near the time when patients are first exposed to antipsychotic medications. Interventions initiated later in the course of treatment-typically after weight gain already has occurred-rarely help patients return to their pretreatment weight. The most commonly used adjunctive intervention has been metformin. Certain patients benefit from initiating metformin early in their exposure to second-generation antipsychotic agents. In particular, young, healthy patients beginning olanzapine or clozapine probably will experience less weight gain if they concomitantly initiate metformin.

  7. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  8. Urban exterior graphical design in botanical garden

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska

    2013-01-01

    Botanical Garden as an art picture and all the content is a strong source of inspiration for the creation of advertising graphics, which is an important segment for the garden, attracting tourists and description of contents. Graphic design is an activity in which a quantity of information gives a comfortable and aesthetic form. This often involves the use of typography, images, colors, and others. Graphic design incorporates in-depth knowledge of the composition and shape, color, color...

  9. The effect of early in-hospital medication review on health outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Corinne M; Wickham, Maeve E; Sobolev, Boris; Perry, Jeff J; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Garrison, Scott; Lang, Eddy; Brasher, Penny; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Brar, Baljeet; Rowe, Brian H; Lexchin, Joel; Holland, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Adverse drug events are an important cause of emergency department visits, unplanned admissions and prolonged hospital stays. Our objective was to synthesize the evidence on the effect of early in-hospital pharmacist-led medication review on patient-oriented outcomes based on observed data. We systematically searched eight bibliographic reference databases, electronic grey literature, medical journals, conference proceedings, trial registries and bibliographies of relevant papers. We included studies that employed random or quasi-random methods to allocate subjects to pharmacist-led medication review or control. Medication review had to include, at a minimum, obtaining a best possible medication history and reviewing medications for appropriateness and adverse drug events. The intervention had to be initiated within 24 h of emergency department presentation or 72 h of admission. We extracted data in duplicate and pooled outcomes from clinically homogeneous studies of the same design using random effects meta-analysis. We retrieved 4549 titles of which seven were included, reporting the outcomes of 3292 patients. We pooled data from studies of the same design, and found no significant differences in length of hospital admission (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.04 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.63, 1.55), mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.69, 1.72), readmissions (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81, 1.63) or emergency department revisits at 3 months (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27, 1.32). Two large studies reporting reductions in readmissions could not be included in our pooled estimates due to differences in study design. Wide confidence intervals suggest that additional research is likely to influence the effect size estimates and clarify the effect of medication review on patient-oriented outcomes. This systematic review failed to identify an effect of pharmacist-led medication review on health outcomes. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Preventability of early vs. late readmissions in an academic medical center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Graham

    Full Text Available It is unclear if the 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rate is a plausible accountability metric.Compare preventability of hospital readmissions, between an early period [0-7 days post-discharge] and a late period [8-30 days post-discharge]. Compare causes of readmission, and frequency of markers of clinical instability 24h prior to discharge between early and late readmissions.120 patient readmissions in an academic medical center between 1/1/2009-12/31/2010.Sum-score based on a standard algorithm that assesses preventability of each readmission based on blinded hospitalist review; average causation score for seven types of adverse events; rates of markers of clinical instability within 24h prior to discharge.Readmissions were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [median preventability sum score 8.5 vs. 8.0, p = 0.03]. There were significantly more management errors as causative events for the readmission in the early compared to the late period [mean causation score [scale 1-6, 6 most causal] 2.0 vs. 1.5, p = 0.04], and these errors were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [mean preventability score 1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.03]. Patients readmitted in the early period were significantly more likely to have mental status changes documented 24h prior to hospital discharge than patients readmitted in the late period [12% vs. 0%, p = 0.01].Readmissions occurring in the early period were significantly more preventable. Early readmissions were associated with more management errors, and mental status changes 24h prior to discharge. Seven-day readmissions may be a better accountability measure.

  11. Impact of early in-hospital medication review by clinical pharmacists on health services utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne M Hohl

    Full Text Available Adverse drug events are a leading cause of emergency department visits and unplanned admissions, and prolong hospital stays. Medication review interventions aim to identify adverse drug events and optimize medication use. Previous evaluations of in-hospital medication reviews have focused on interventions at discharge, with an unclear effect on health outcomes. We assessed the effect of early in-hospital pharmacist-led medication review on the health outcomes of high-risk patients.We used a quasi-randomized design to evaluate a quality improvement project in three hospitals in British Columbia, Canada. We incorporated a clinical decision rule into emergency department triage pathways, allowing nurses to identify patients at high-risk for adverse drug events. After randomly selecting the first eligible patient for participation, clinical pharmacists systematically allocated subsequent high-risk patients to medication review or usual care. Medication review included obtaining a best possible medication history and reviewing the patient's medications for appropriateness and adverse drug events. The primary outcome was the number of days spent in-hospital over 30 days, and was ascertained using administrative data. We used median and inverse propensity score weighted logistic regression modeling to determine the effect of pharmacist-led medication review on downstream health services use.Of 10,807 high-risk patients, 6,416 received early pharmacist-led medication review and 4,391 usual care. Their baseline characteristics were balanced. The median number of hospital days was reduced by 0.48 days (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.00 to 0.96; p = 0.058 in the medication review group compared to usual care, representing an 8% reduction in the median length of stay. Among patients under 80 years of age, the median number of hospital days was reduced by 0.60 days (95% CI = 0.06 to 1.17; p = 0.03, representing 11% reduction in the median length of stay

  12. Teaching professionalism in the early years of a medical curriculum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John; Dowie, Al; Cotton, Phil; Morrison, Jillian

    2007-06-01

    Despite the growing literature on professionalism in undergraduate medical curricula, few studies have examined its delivery. This study investigated tutors' and students' perspectives of the delivery of professionalism in the early years of Glasgow's learner-centred, problem-based learning (PBL), integrated medical curriculum. A qualitative approach was adopted involving semistructured interviews, on a 1 in 6 sample of tutors involved in teaching in the early curricular years, and 3 student focus groups. The findings were subjected to between-method triangulation. Involvement in teaching raised students' and tutors' awareness of their professionalism. Learning activities promoting critical reflection were most effective. The integration of professionalism across the domains of Vocational Studies (VS) was important for learning; however, it was not well integrated with the PBL core. Integration was promoted by having the same tutor present throughout all VS sessions. Early patient contact experiences were found to be particularly important. The hidden curriculum provided both opportunities for, and threats to, learning. The small-group format provided a suitable environment for the examination of pre-existing perspectives. The portfolio was an effective learning tool, although its assessment should be formalised. Reflection is integral to professional development. Early clinical contact is an important part of the process of socialisation, as it allows students to enter the community of practice that is the medical profession. Role models can contribute powerfully to students' learning and identity formation. As students move towards fuller participation, the clinical milieu should be controlled to maximise the influence of role models, and opportunities for guided reflection should be sustained.

  13. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-03-26

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. “When That Wounds Are Evil Healed”: Revisiting Pleonastic That in Early English Medical Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Javier Calle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin of pleonastic that can be traced back to Old English, where it could appear in syntactic constructions consisting of a preposition + a demonstrative pronoun (i.e., for py pat, for pæm pe or a subordinator (i.e., op pat. The diffusion of this pleonastic form is an Early Middle English development as a result of the standardization of that as the general subordinator in the period, which motivated its use as a pleonastic word in combination with many kinds of conjunctions (i.e., now that, if that, when that, etc. and prepositions (i.e., before that, save that, in that (Fischer 1992: 295. The phenomenon increased considerably in Late Middle English, declining rapidly in the 17th century to such an extent that it became virtually obliterated towards the end of that same century (Rissanen 1999: 303-304. The list of subordinating elements includes relativizers (i.e., this that, adverbial relatives (i.e., there that, and a number of subordinators (i.e., after, as, because, before, beside, for, if, since, sith, though, until, when, while, etc.. The present paper examines the status of pleonastic that in the history of English pursuing the following objectives: (a to analyse its use and distribution in a corpus of early English medical writing (in the period 1375-1700; (b to classify the construction in terms of genre, i.e., treatises and recipes; and (c to assess its decline with the different conjunctive words. The data used as source of evidence come from The Corpus of Early English Medical Writing, i.e., Middle English Medical Texts (MEMT for the period 1375-1500 and Early Modern English Medical Texts (EMEMT for the period 1500-1700. The use of pleonastic that in medical writing allows us to reconsider the history of the construction in English, becoming in itself a Late Middle English phenomenon with its progressive decline throughout the 16th and 17th centuries.

  15. Early serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trends after medication abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, Katherine D; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B; Bartz, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Despite increased reliance on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for early pregnancy monitoring, there is limited information about hCG trends soon after medication abortion. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a predictable decline in serum hCG values shortly after medication abortion. This is a retrospective study of women with early intrauterine pregnancies who underwent medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol and had a serum hCG level on Day 1 (day of mifepristone) and a repeat value on Day 2 to 6. The percent hCG decline was calculated from baseline to repeat measure, with repeat values from the same patient accounted for through repeated measure analysis of variance. Eighty-eight women with a mean gestational age of 5.5 weeks and median baseline hCG of 5220 IU met study criteria over a 3-year period. The mean decline (±SD) in hCG from the Day 1 baseline value was 56.9%±29.5% on Day 3, 73.5%±38.6% on Day 4, 86.1%±8.8% on Day 5, and 92.9%±3.4% on Day 6. Eighty-two women (93% of the cohort) had a complete abortion without further intervention. The least square means hCG decline among these women was 57.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 50.3-64.9%] on Day 3, 78.9% (95% CI: 75.0-82.8%) on Day 4 and 86.2% (95% CI: 81.3-91.1%) on Day 5. There is a rapid decline in serum hCG within the first few days after early medication abortion. Further research is needed to delineate how soon after medication abortion this decline may be specific enough to confirm abortion completion. This study provides the largest cohort of patients followed with serial hCG values in the first few days after medication abortion. Our findings demonstrate the trend in hCG decline in this population, which may be predictable by Day 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytochemical and Botanical Therapies for Rosacea: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-10-01

    Botanical and cosmeceutical therapies are commonly used to treat symptoms of rosacea such as facial erythema, papules/pustule counts, and telangiectasia. These products may contain plant extracts, phytochemicals, and herbal formulations. The objective of this study was to review clinical studies evaluating the use of botanical agents for the treatment of rosacea. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for clinical studies evaluating botanical therapies for rosacea. Major results were summarized, and study methodology was analyzed. Several botanical therapies may be promising for rosacea symptoms, but few studies are methodologically rigorous. Several plant extract and phytochemicals effectively improved facial erythema and papule/pustule counts caused by rosacea. Many studies are not methodologically rigorous. Further research is critical, as many botanicals have been evaluated in only one study. Botanical agents may reduce facial erythema and effectively improve papule/pustule counts associated with rosacea. Although promising, further research in the area is imperative. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  18. The centenary of the School Botanical Garden from Blaj

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1982-01-01

    The development of the first school-botanical garden from Blaj is strongly connected with the development of botanical research at the University and Agronomy Insitute from Cluj-Napoca. The first curators of the garden A. Uilacan, A. Cheteanu, Al. Borza and I. Popu-Cimpeanu studied in Cluj. Prof. Al. Borza developed the medicinal and crop plant collections in collaboration with B. Pater, former head of our agrobotanical garden. Later the botanical garden of the University, became famous under...

  19. [Development of modern medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, OckJoo; Takuya, Miyagawa

    2011-12-31

    Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and early Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following

  20. Scent and synaesthesia: The medical use of spice bags in early China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Di; Lo, Vivienne

    2015-06-05

    The history of Chinese spices has received increasing attention in recent years, but little research been carried out on where they fit on the food-medicine continuum for early China, during the formation of the classical medical system. This paper describes how the synaesthetic qualities of spices attracted a particular analysis in that emerging system which serves to mark them as different to other medical materials and foodstuffs. We aim to clarify the special role created for spices to accommodate their boundary-crossing synaesthetic action on the body. This paper analyses the contents of several spice bags excavated in 1972 from a tomb that was closed in the second century BCE. It uses archaeological reports of material culture together with the early Chinese textual record, extant in both manuscripts and received texts, to bring out the role of spices in ritual, food and medicine. Noting that the flavours and aromas of early China were assigned physiological potency in the first centuries BCE, we argue that by medieval times the unique synaesthetic role that spices played in mediating the senses was systematically medicalised. While being deployed for the purpose of curing disease in medicine, they also remained within the realm of everyday healthcare, and religious practice, deployed both as aromatics to perfume the environment, attracting benign spirits, but also to ward off the agents of disease, as well as for enhancing health through their use in cookery. While foodstuffs entered the digestive system spices were all considered 'pungent' in the emerging clasical medical system. They acted on the body through the nose and lungs, making them neither food nor drug. This implicit categorisation medicalised spices which, like music, could affect the passions and lighten the spirit, codifying observations about the impact on the body of the ritual environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. How learning analytics can early predict under-achieving students in a blended medical education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqr, Mohammed; Fors, Uno; Tedre, Matti

    2017-07-01

    Learning analytics (LA) is an emerging discipline that aims at analyzing students' online data in order to improve the learning process and optimize learning environments. It has yet un-explored potential in the field of medical education, which can be particularly helpful in the early prediction and identification of under-achieving students. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative markers collected from students' online activities that may correlate with students' final performance and to investigate the possibility of predicting the potential risk of a student failing or dropping out of a course. This study included 133 students enrolled in a blended medical course where they were free to use the learning management system at their will. We extracted their online activity data using database queries and Moodle plugins. Data included logins, views, forums, time, formative assessment, and communications at different points of time. Five engagement indicators were also calculated which would reflect self-regulation and engagement. Students who scored below 5% over the passing mark were considered to be potentially at risk of under-achieving. At the end of the course, we were able to predict the final grade with 63.5% accuracy, and identify 53.9% of at-risk students. Using a binary logistic model improved prediction to 80.8%. Using data recorded until the mid-course, prediction accuracy was 42.3%. The most important predictors were factors reflecting engagement of the students and the consistency of using the online resources. The analysis of students' online activities in a blended medical education course by means of LA techniques can help early predict underachieving students, and can be used as an early warning sign for timely intervention.

  2. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload in adult, medical emergency patients with perspectives on early warning practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosmann, Fanny; Nørgaard, Astrid; Rasmussen, Maj-Britt

    2018-01-01

    to the haemovigilance system. The clinical implications are discussed within the frame of the Early Warning Score. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective audit of electronic hospital medical records of patients receiving blood transfusion in a single medical emergency unit. Patients were admitted during a 6-month period......BACKGROUND: Transfusion-associated circulatory overload is characterised by acute respiratory distress, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, acute pulmonary oedema and/or evidence of positive fluid balance occurring within 6 hours after transfusion. Transfusion-associated circulatory overload...... and data on symptoms and vital signs were extracted from the records. RESULTS: Of 4,353 consecutively admitted patients, 156 patients were transfused with a total of 411 blood components. The audit identified five cases of transfusion-associated circulatory overload (incidence 3.2%) and four cases...

  3. The Study of Bogor Botanical Garden Ecotourism Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Yusri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study were : 1 to improve development of Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, 2 to recommend strategies of development for Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, and 3 to formulate programs that increase value added for Bogor Botanical Garden value chain, especially for involved SME’s. Data collected from survey, in depth interview, and literature was analyzed using descriptive analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis. The results of SWOT analysis indicated that the strength of The Bogor Botanical Garden value chain was the well known Bogor Botanical Garden, the weakness was lack of investment to improve the Bogor Botanical Garden, the opportunity was the support of government, and the threat was the growing of ecotourism competitor. Recommended strategies were : 1 relying on the strenghts of Bogor Botanical Garden as a focal point of the plus ecoedutourism programs, 2 improving quality of human resources at each value chain, 3 increasing investment for the development of value chain, and 4 marketing Bogor Botanical Garden as past of various integrated packages with other tourism objective in Indonesia.Keywords: Bogor Botanical Garden, Ecotourism Value Chain, SWOT Analysis

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Seyedin, Hesam

    2017-04-01

    The number of requests for emergency medical services (EMSs) has increased during the past decade. However, most of the transports are not essential. Therefore, it seems crucial to develop an instrument to help EMS staff accurately identify patients who need pre-hospital care and transportation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale (Pre-MEWS). This mixed-method study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qualitative content analysis study was conducted to identify the predictors of medical patients' need for pre-hospital EMS and transportation. In the second phase, the face and the content validity as well as the internal consistency of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the items of the scale were scored and scoring system was presented. The final version of the scale contained 22 items and its total score ranged from 0 to 54. Pre-MEWS helps EMS staffs properly understand medical patients' conditions in pre-hospital environments and accurately identify their need for EMS and transportation.

  5. Diagnosis and authority in the early-twentieth-century medical practice of Richard C. Cabot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenner, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines diagnostic practices using the early twentieth-century medical literature and the patient correspondence and records from the clinic of Richard Cabot. What shaped medicine's rapidly growing persuasive authority in the twentieth century? Diagnostic expertise demonstrated the doctor's control over disease but offered a service of ambiguous value to patients. Cabot and his peers offered differing views on how new diagnostic techniques would influence their relationships to their patients. In his busy private clinic Cabot put into effect an exacting diagnostic process, modeled on his innovative Clinicopathological Conferences. The people who came to the clinic often sought his technical expertise but accepted his diagnostic practices and opinions sometimes only provisionally.

  6. Enough is not enough: Medical students’ knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ann Geel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reported incidence of childhood cancer in upper-middle-income South Africa (SA is much lower than in high-income countries, partly due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Documented survival rates are disturbingly low, prompting an analysis of potential factors that may be responsible. Objectives. To determine final-year medical students’ level of knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer and whether a correlation existed between test scores and participants’ age, gender and previous exposure to a person with cancer. Methods. A two-part questionnaire based on the Saint Siluan mnemonic, testing both recall and recognition of early warning signs of childhood cancer, was administered. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences in continuous and count variables between demographic data, experience and responses, and Fisher’s exact test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used to determine correlations between demographic data, previous contact with persons with cancer and test scores. A novel equality ratio was calculated to compare the recall and recognition sections and allowed analysis of recall v. recognition. Results. The 84 participants recalled a median of six signs each (interquartile range 4 - 7 and correctly recognised a median of 70% in the recognition section, considered a pass mark. There was no correlation between participants’ age, gender, previous contact with a person with cancer and recognition scores. Students with previous exposure to a person with cancer had higher scores in the recall section, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Students were able to recognise more signs of haematological malignancies than central nervous system (CNS malignancies. Conclusion. The study demonstrated a marked inconsistency between recall and recognition of signs of childhood cancer, with signs of CNS malignancies being least recognised. However, the majority

  7. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  8. Drug-botanical interactions: a review of the laboratory, animal, and human data for 8 common botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shord, Stacy S; Shah, Kanan; Lukose, Alvina

    2009-09-01

    Many Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent or alleviate common illnesses, and these medicines are commonly used by individuals with cancer.These medicines or botanicals share the same metabolic and transport proteins, including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), with over-the-counter and prescription medicines increasing the likelihood of drug-botanical interactions.This review provides a brief description of the different proteins, such as CYPs, UGTs, and Pgp.The potential effects of drug-botanical interactions on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug or botanical and a summary of the more common models used to study drug metabolism are described.The remaining portion of this review summarizes the data extracted from several laboratory, animal, and clinical studies that describe the metabolism, transport, and potential interactions of 8 selected botanicals. The 8 botanicals include black cohosh, Echinacea, garlic, Gingko biloba, green tea, kava, milk thistle, and St John's wort; these botanicals are among some of the more common botanicals taken by individuals with cancer.These examples are included to demonstrate how to interpret the different studies and how to use these data to predict the likelihood of a clinically significant drug-botanical interaction.

  9. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  10. Early Mentoring of Medical Students and Junior Doctors on a Path to Academic Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Tyson A; Lee, Melissa G Y; Brink, Johann; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2018-01-01

    In 2005 the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at The Royal Children's Hospital started an early academic mentoring program for medical students and junior doctors with the aim of fostering an interest in academic surgery. Between 2005 and 2015, 37 medical students and junior doctors participated in research in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at The Royal Children's Hospital. Each was given an initial project on which to obtain ethics approval, perform a literature review, data collection, statistical analysis, and prepare a manuscript for publication. A search of the names of these former students and doctors was conducted on PubMed to identify publications. A total of 113 journal articles were published in peer-reviewed journals with an average impact factor of 4.1 (range, 1.1 to 19.9). Thirty (30 of 37, 81%) published at least one article. A mean of 4.3 journal articles was published per student or junior doctor (range, 0 to 29). Eleven (11 of 37, 30%) received scholarships for their research. Nine (9 of 37, 24%) have completed or are enrolled in higher research degrees with a cardiothoracic surgery focus. Of these 9, 2 have completed doctoral degrees while in cardiothoracic surgery training. Five will complete their cardiothoracic surgery training with a doctoral degree and the other 2 are pursuing training in cardiology. A successful early academic mentoring program in a busy cardiothoracic surgery unit is feasible. Mentoring of motivated individuals in academic surgery benefits not only their medical career, but also helps maintain high academic output of the unit. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Medical Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Gender Dysphoria: An Empirical Ethical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrouenraets, Lieke Josephina Jeanne Johanna; Fredriks, A Miranda; Hannema, Sabine E; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; de Vries, Martine C

    2015-10-01

    The Endocrine Society and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health published guidelines for the treatment of adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD). The guidelines recommend the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in adolescence to suppress puberty. However, in actual practice, no consensus exists whether to use these early medical interventions. The aim of this study was to explicate the considerations of proponents and opponents of puberty suppression in GD to move forward the ethical debate. Qualitative study (semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires) to identify considerations of proponents and opponents of early treatment (pediatric endocrinologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, ethicists) of 17 treatment teams worldwide. Seven themes give rise to different, and even opposing, views on treatment: (1) the (non-)availability of an explanatory model for GD; (2) the nature of GD (normal variation, social construct or [mental] illness); (3) the role of physiological puberty in developing gender identity; (4) the role of comorbidity; (5) possible physical or psychological effects of (refraining from) early medical interventions; (6) child competence and decision making authority; and (7) the role of social context how GD is perceived. Strikingly, the guidelines are debated both for being too liberal and for being too limiting. Nevertheless, many treatment teams using the guidelines are exploring the possibility of lowering the current age limits. As long as debate remains on these seven themes and only limited long-term data are available, there will be no consensus on treatment. Therefore, more systematic interdisciplinary and (worldwide) multicenter research is required. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Navigating social distance in foundational clinical encounters: Understanding medical students' early experiences with diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-MacDonald, Miesha; Razack, Saleem

    2018-01-15

    Social distance between patients and physicians has been shown to affect the quality of care that patients receive. Little is known about how social distance between students and patients is experienced by learners during early clinical exposures in medical school. This study aims to explore students' stories of experiencing social distance with patients with concordant and discordant social characteristics as themselves, respectively, as well as students' needs from medical curricula regarding developing social competence. Semi-structured interviews of medical students [n = 16] were performed, and a post-interview survey and a visual analog scale were completed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The written transcripts were coded using the constant comparison method and analyzed for emerging themes. Students experience social distance with patients; yet, they are not taught explicitly by their preceptors how to manage these experiences. Students identified their needs for the curriculum in regard to developing social competence and proposed various strategies and curriculum recommendations. Our results support that students believe that social competence training is important for their professional development to improve relationship-building with diverse patients. As such, it would be valuable to incorporate student recommendations in the formation of a social competence curriculum.

  13. Chronic Disease Management Strategies of Early Childhood Caries: Support from the Medical and Dental Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine report places chronic disease management (CDM) as an intervention on a treatment spectrum between prevention and acute care. CDM commonly focuses on conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant. Framing early childhood caries (ECC) as such a chronic condition invites dentistry to reconsider its approach to caries management and shift gears from a strictly surgical approach to one that also incorporates a medical approach. This paper's purpose was to explore the definition of and concepts inherent in CDM. An explanatory model is introduced to describe the multiple factors that influence ECC-CDM strategies. Reviewed literature suggests that early evidence from ECC-CDM interventions, along with results of pediatric asthma and diabetes CDM, supports CDM of ECC as a valid approach that is independent of both prevention and repair. Early results of ECC-CDM endeavors have demonstrated a reduction in rates of new cavitation, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared to baseline rates. ECC-CDM strategies hold strong promise to curtail caries activity while complementing dental repair when needed, thereby reducing disease progression and cavity recurrence. Institutionalizing ECC-CDM will both require and benefit from evolving health care delivery and financing systems that reward positive health outcomes.

  14. Fertilization of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal: effects on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen, phosphate and lime on change in botanical composition and utilisation under grazing of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are presented. Nitrogen, phosphate, lime and type of nitrogen affected botanical composition significantly. Generally, fertilisation had the same effect on species ...

  15. Visualization of DNA in highly processed botanical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengfei; Rubinsky, Maria; Babajanian, Silva; Zhang, Yanjun; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary

    2018-04-15

    DNA-based methods have been gaining recognition as a tool for botanical authentication in herbal medicine; however, their application in processed botanical materials is challenging due to the low quality and quantity of DNA left after extensive manufacturing processes. The low amount of DNA recovered from processed materials, especially extracts, is "invisible" by current technology, which has casted doubt on the presence of amplifiable botanical DNA. A method using adapter-ligation and PCR amplification was successfully applied to visualize the "invisible" DNA in botanical extracts. The size of the "invisible" DNA fragments in botanical extracts was around 20-220 bp compared to fragments of around 600 bp for the more easily visualized DNA in botanical powders. This technique is the first to allow characterization and visualization of small fragments of DNA in processed botanical materials and will provide key information to guide the development of appropriate DNA-based botanical authentication methods in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mr Napite's botanical knowledge: bridging farmers' and scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though his broad and detailed botanical knowledge is recognised by other local experts, this does not provide him any particular social status. Although he received extensive formal training, his botanical knowledge draws largely on personal and traditional concepts. Clear morphological characteristics, other than the ...

  17. A pilot study investigating the efficacy of botanical anti-inflammatory agents in an OTC eczema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2016-06-01

    Eczema is a frequently encountered dermatologic condition characterized by inflammation resulting in erythema, scaling, induration, and lichenification. The objective of this research was to examine the roll of botanical anti-inflammatories in alleviating the signs and symptoms of mild-to-moderate eczema. A total of 25 subjects 18+ years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema were asked to leave all oral medications and cleansers unchanged substituting the botanical study moisturizer for all topical treatment three times daily for 2 weeks. Investigator, subject, and noninvasive assessments were obtained at baseline and week 2. There was a highly statistically significant (P shea butter oil; the humectant ingredients of glycerin, vitamin B, sodium PCA, and sodium hyaluronate; the barrier repair ingredients of ceramide 3, cholesterol, phytosphingosine, ceramide 6 II, and ceramide 1; and the botanical anti-inflammatories allantoin and bisabolol were helpful in reducing the signs and symptoms of mild-to-moderate eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  20. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  1. Medication management capacity in highly functioning community-living older adults: detection of early deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelberg, H K; Shallenberger, E; Wei, J Y

    1999-05-01

    The Drug Regimen Unassisted Grading Scale (DRUGS) was developed and employed in testing the hypothesis that the inability to take medication independently may correlate with the presence of cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study. Two continuing care retirement facilities in the Greater Boston area. The study population included outpatients > or = 70 years old. We developed a novel performance-based measure, the DRUGS tool, involving a step-wise progression of four tasks: (1) identification; (2) access; (3) dosage; and (4) timing. Fifty-nine participants aged 84.2 +/- 5.1 years (mean +/- SD) completed the study. The DRUGS tool score was inversely related to age (r = -.41, P = .001). Compared with independent-living, residence in assisted-living was associated with lower DRUGS tool scores (82.0% vs 93.8%, P = .009). The DRUGS tool score was associated with self-reported Medication Management capacity (94.8% able vs 86.2% unable to take medications independently by self-report, P = .047). Both DRUGS tool score and self-reported Medication Management capacity were associated with MMSE (P = .0008 and P = .044, respectively). The multivariate model, with DRUGS tool Summary Score as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and sex, included MMSE (P = .023) and self-reported IADL (P = .038). There is an association between performance on the DRUGS tool and level of cognitive function. The DRUGS tool represents a unique individualized, yet standardized, assessment of the ability to function independently for ambulatory older persons. It may be useful for identifying those highly functioning older persons, at an early phase of cognitive decline, in whom targeted intervention would likely be most effective and efficient.

  2. Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). RESULTS: Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines\\/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.

  3. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  4. Constipation and Botanical Medicines: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Carla; Capasso, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    Constipation affects 14% of the adult population globally, mainly women, and significantly impacts on health-related quality of life. The causes of constipation are mainly three: lifestyle related (functional constipation), disease related, and drug induced. Constipation can generate considerable suffering, including abdominal pain and distension, anorexia, and nausea. The value of some therapeutic measures such as increased fluid intake, physical activity, diet rich in fiber, and nutritional supplements recommended for the relief of constipation is still questionable. The treatment of constipation can be carried out not only with traditional drugs but also with herbal medicines or with nutraceuticals, which are used to prevent or treat the disorder. We have reviewed the most common botanical laxatives such as senna, cascara, frangula, aloe, and rhubarb and their use in the treatment of constipation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sören

    2017-11-22

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical attributes that drive the kinetic behavior of a plant and the exothermic reaction of the combustion. Coupled with realistic physics for rods, the particles enable dynamic branch motions. We model material properties, such as moisture and charring behavior, and associate them with individual particles. The combustion is efficiently processed in the surface domain of the tree model on a polygonal mesh. A user can dynamically interact with the model by initiating fires and by inducing stress on branches. The flames realistically propagate through the tree model by consuming the available resources. Our method runs at interactive rates and supports multiple tree instances in parallel. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerous examples and evaluate its plausibility against the combustion of real wood samples.

  6. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  7. Botanical Extracts as Medical Countermeasures for Radiation Induced DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    TR 2012-05 35 [39] Owen, P.L., Johns, T. (1999) Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of northeastern North American plant remedies used for...3A4) A member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics

  8. Intrauterine contraception after medical abortion: factors affecting success of early insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoranta, Elina; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2017-03-01

    To assess the success and factors affecting early intrauterine device (IUD) provision after first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). Subgroup analysis of a randomized contraceptive trial assessing the long-term effects of early provision of intrauterine contraception following abortion. Altogether, 606 women undergoing MTOP were included and followed for 3 months. The intervention group (n=307) was offered an IUD (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-IUD) at a follow-up visit 1-4 weeks after MTOP. The control group (n=299) contacted primary health care for follow-up and contraceptive provision. Adverse events (infections, bleeding, residual tissue and incomplete abortion) were analyzed on intention-to-treat basis and IUD expulsions on per-protocol (PP) basis. In the intervention group, 234 women (76.2%) received the IUD as scheduled, 46 later (altogether 91.2%). In the control group, the corresponding figures were 8 (2.7%) and 64 [altogether 24.1%, Odds ratio (OR) (95% Confidence interval (CI))=32.7 (20.3-52.6)]. Eighty-five (27.7%) women in the intervention group and 38 (12.7%) in the control group received treatment (administration of antibiotics, misoprostol or surgical evacuation) because of presumed adverse event [2.63 (1.72-4.01)], mainly residual tissue. In the control group, 23 (60.5%) of these occurred during the first 2 weeks. IUD expulsion occurred in 12 (5.4%) of the 222 women in the intervention group (PP basis). When provided as part of abortion service, most early insertions following MTOP were performed as planned. The main reason for postponement was overdiagnosis of adverse events suspected at follow-up. The rate of IUD expulsion was similar to that reported previously. Early insertion following MTOP is safe, and the rate of IUD expulsion is low. Most adverse events possibly delaying IUD insertion occur early. Based on timing of adverse events in the control group, IUD insertion at approximately 2 weeks

  9. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jacques

    2009-07-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions.

  10. Teamlet structure and early experiences of medical home implementation for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; Giannitrapani, Karleen F; Stockdale, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2014-07-01

    High functioning interdisciplinary primary care teams are a critical component of the patient-centered medical home. In 2010, the Veterans Administration (VA) implemented a medical home model termed the Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT), with reorganization of staff into small teams ("teamlets") as a core feature. To examine the early experiences of primary care personnel as they assumed new roles through reorganization into teamlets. Convergent mixed methods study design involving semi-structured interviews and a survey; data were collected in 2011 and 2012. We interviewed 41 frontline teamlet members (i.e., primary care physicians and staff) from three practices that were part of a PACT demonstration laboratory and examined clinician and staff survey data from 22 practices. Semi-structured interview guide and clinician and staff survey questions covering the following domains: teamlet formation and structure, within-teamlet communication, cross-coverage, role changes, teamlet training, impact on Veterans, and leadership facilitation and support. Respondents had limited input into teamlet structure and indicated limited training on the PACT initiative. Guidelines delineating each teamlet member's roles and responsibilities were emphasized as important needs. Chronic understaffing also contributed to implementation challenges and territorial attitudes surfaced when cross-coverage was not clear. In addition, several core features of VA's medical home transformation were not fully implemented by teamlet members. Most also reported limited guidance and feedback from leadership. Despite these challenges, teamlet-based care was perceived to have a positive impact on Veterans' experiences of primary care and also resulted in improved communication among staff. The PACT teamlet model holds much promise for improving primary care at the VA. However, more comprehensive training, improving the stability of teamlets, developing clear cross-coverage policies, and better

  11. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  12. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Graham, James G; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2017-11-22

    This article reviews and develops a perspective for the meaning of authenticity in the context of quality assessment of botanical materials and the challenges associated with discerning adulterations vs. contaminations vs. impurities. Authentic botanicals are by definition non-adulterated, a mutually exclusive relationship that is confirmed through the application of a multilayered set of analytical methods designed to validate the (chemo)taxonomic identity of a botanical and certify that it is devoid of any adulteration. In practice, the ever-increasing sophistication in the process of intentional adulteration, as well as the growing number of botanicals entering the market, altogether necessitate a constant adaptation and reinforcement of authentication methods with new approaches, especially new technologies. This article summarizes the set of analytical methods - classical and contemporary - that can be employed in the authentication of botanicals. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. An NMR-based untargeted metabolomic model is proposed as a rapid, systematic, and complementary screening for the discrimination of authentic vs. potentially adulterated botanicals. Such analytical model can help advance the evaluation of botanical integrity in natural product research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Entwisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  15. Early rehospitalizations of frail elderly patients – the role of medications: a clinical, prospective, observational trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekerstad N

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Niklas Ekerstad,1,2 Kristoffer Bylin,3 Björn W Karlson3,4 1Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla Hospital Group, Trollhättan, 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Acute and Internal Medicine, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla Hospital Group, Trollhättan, 4Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Background and objective: Early readmissions of frail elderly patients after an episode of hospital care are common and constitute a crucial patient safety outcome. Our purpose was to study the impact of medications on such early rehospitalizations. Patients and methods: This is a clinical, prospective, observational study on rehospitalizations within 30 days after an acute hospital episode for frail patients over the age of 75 years. To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs, underuse of evidence-based treatment and avoidability of rehospitalizations, the Naranjo score, the Hallas criteria and clinical judgment were used. Results: Of 390 evaluable patients, 96 (24.6% were rehospitalized. The most frequent symptoms and conditions were dyspnea (n = 25 and worsened general condition (n = 18. The most frequent diagnoses were heart failure (n = 17 and pneumonia/acute bronchitis (n = 13. By logistic regression analysis, independent risk predictors for rehospitalization were heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1–3.1 and anemia (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–4.0. The number of rehospitalizations due to probable ADRs was 13, of which two were assessed as avoidable. The number of rehospitalizations probably due to underuse of evidence-based drug treatment was 19, all of which were assessed as avoidable. The number of rehospitalizations not due to ADRs or underuse of evidence-based drug treatment was 64, of which none was assessed as avoidable. Conclusion: One out of four

  16. Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England,c.1580-1720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.

  17. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  18. The world's longest surviving paediatric practices: some themes of Aboriginal medical ethnobotany in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary paediatric practices of Australian Aboriginal men and women, in more than 100 Aboriginal Language Groups, comprise a living discipline whose origins predate Western medicine by tens of millennia. The history of paediatrics acknowledges this surviving continuum of the world's oldest child-care practices. Because of the inextricable nexus between Aboriginal men and women and the land in which they live, medical ethnobotany forms a major part of the medical aspects of Aboriginal child care. Traditional tribal healers, called 'Nungungi' in some language groups of Central Australia, are identified as such whilst still young children and are given special education in the healing arts, especially that of medical ethnobotany, by older healers. Distinct from this specialized role, all Aboriginal men and women (and in particular grandmothers) in traditional communities use a sophisticated botanical materia medica in the treatment of sick and injured children. In cultures in transition, medical ethnobotanical practices may persist long after the local use of flora as sources of traditional food, weaponry, totemic identity and religious rites have disappeared. Some selected botanical 'cures' were adopted by early European settlers and a number of such relict uses have become part of mainstream Western life today, particularly as this applies to self-medication. Drugs and medicaments used in the treatment of children are obtained from leaves, bark, roots and flowers, usually as fresh preparations. They are prepared as infusions, decoctions and macerations and may be enjoined with emollients such as emu or kangaroo fat for topical application. Botanical drugs and medicaments are usually prepared fresh for each administration and are rarely stored. Contemporary Australian ethnobotany exploits the medicinal properties of more than 100 genera - using such extracts as antiseptics, analgesics, astringents, antipyretics, sedatives, hypnotics, expectorants and

  19. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  20. Ghrelin, food intake, and botanical extracts: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Peyman; Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 -2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach. Plasma ghrelin concentration alters throughout the day. Ghrelin has been suggested to act as a meal initiator because of its appetite-stimulating influences in free feeding rats in short period. In addition to ghrelin's function as a meal motivator, it seems to contribute in long-term energy balance and nutritional status. In addition, many studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of natural and medicinal plants and botanical extracts on appetite, food intake, energy hemostasis, and the level of related hormones including ghrelin. Due to the importance of ghrelin in nutritional and medical sciences, this review was performed to understand new aspects of this hormone's function.

  1. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany. More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from exotic places, new geographical areas, whether eastwards or westwards. The general aim of this survey is to investigate the representation of the botanical science in 18th-century universal and specialized encyclopaedias, starting from prefaces and going on with the micro-texts of the single entries s.v. Botany. The starting point is thus theoretical botany. A further point in the analysis focuses on applied botany and discusses those plants such as Camellia Sinensis, Coffea Arabica, Theobroma Cacao, Saccharum Officinarum and Cinchona Officinalis which were mostly exploited for commercial and/or medical reasons. The individual entries include the most tiny details on the single headwords-topics and also display an acceptable plurality of beliefs, viewpoints and perspectives, focussing on botanical descriptions, historical information, socio-cultural issues, legal, political and commercial considerations.

  2. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  3. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a

  4. How do early emotional experiences in the operating theatre influence medical student learning in this environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowrey, David J; Kidd, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    The emotions experienced by medical students on first exposure to the operating theatre are unknown. It is also unclear what influence these emotions have on the learning process. To understand the emotions experienced by students when in the operating theatre for the first time and the impact of these emotions on learning. Nine 3rd-year medical students participated in semistructured interviews to explore these themes. A qualitative approach was used; interviews were transcribed and coded thematically. All participants reported initial negative emotions (apprehension, anxiety, fear, shame, overwhelmed), with excitement being reported by 3. Six participants considered that their anxiety was so overwhelming that it was detrimental to their learning. Participants described a period of familiarization to the environment, after which learning was facilitated. Early learning experiences centered around adjustment to the physical environment of the operating theatre. Factors driving initial negative feelings were loss of familiarity, organizational issues, concerns about violating protocol, and a fear of syncope. Participants considered that it took a median of 1 week (range = 1 day-3 weeks) or 5 visits to the operating theatre (range = 1-10) before feeling comfortable in the new setting. Emotions experienced on subsequent visits to the operating theatre were predominantly positive (enjoyment, happiness, confident, involved, pride). Two participants reported negative feelings related to social exclusion. Being included in the team was a powerful determinant of enjoyment. These findings indicate that for learning in the operating theatre to be effective, addressing the negative emotions of the students might be beneficial. This could be achieved by a formal orientation program for both learners and tutors in advance of attendance in the operating theatre. For learning to be optimized, students must feel a sense of inclusion in the theatre community of practice.

  5. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: early diagnostics and effects of medication and brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabenec, L; Mekyska, J; Galaz, Z; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation. A systematic literature search of articles written in English before March 2016 was conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, and IEEE Xplore databases using and combining specific relevant keywords. Articles were categorized into three groups: (1) articles focused on neural correlates of HD in PD using functional imaging (n = 13); (2) articles dealing with the acoustic analysis of HD in PD (n = 52); and (3) articles concerning specifically dopaminergic and brain stimulation-related effects as assessed by acoustic analysis (n = 31); the groups were then reviewed. We identified 14 combinations of speech tasks and acoustic features that can be recommended for use in describing the main features of HD in PD. While only a few acoustic parameters correlate with limb motor symptoms and can be partially relieved by dopaminergic medication, HD in PD seems to be mainly related to non-dopaminergic deficits and associated particularly with non-motor symptoms. Future studies should combine non-invasive brain stimulation with voice behavior approaches to achieve the best treatment effects by enhancing auditory-motor integration.

  6. Early career retention of Malawian medical graduates: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Ulaya, Godwin; Lagarde, Mylene; Gwesele, Lyson; Dzowela, Titha; Hanson, Kara; Muula, Adamson S

    2015-01-01

    There have been longstanding concerns over Malawian doctors migrating to high-income countries. Early career is a particularly vulnerable period. After significant policy changes, we examined the retention of recent medical graduates within Malawi and the public sector. We obtained data on graduates between 2006 and 2012 from the University of Malawi College of Medicine and Malawi Ministry of Health. We utilised the alumni network to triangulate official data and contacted graduates directly for missing or uncertain data. Odds ratios and chi-squared tests were employed to investigate relationships by graduation year and gender. We traced 256 graduates, with complete information for more than 90%. Nearly 80% of registered doctors were in Malawi (141/178, 79.2%), although the odds of emigration doubled with each year after graduation (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.54-2.56, P < 0.0001). Of the 37 graduates outside Malawi (14.5%), 23 (62.2%) were training in South Africa under a College of Medicine sandwich programme. More than 80% of graduates were working in the public sector (185/218, 82.6%), with the odds declining by 27% for each year after graduation (odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.86, P < 0.0001). While most doctors remain in Malawi and the public sector during their early careers, the odds of leaving both increase with time. The majority of graduates outside Malawi are training in South Africa under visa restrictions, reflecting the positive impact of postgraduate training in Malawi. Concerns over attrition from the public sector are valid and require further exploratory work. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Botanical Garden Data Base Implemented in SAS Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward A.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    1985-01-01

    A database had been developed for the Phoenix Desert Botanical Garden's Living Plant Collection using Statistical Analysis System software. Implementation procedures, data dictionary maintenance, data entry, updating, and reporting are described. (JN)

  8. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  9. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...... interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12...

  10. Efficacy of Nigeria-Derived Diatomaceous Earth, Botanicals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Bularafa diatomaceous earth (DE), Riverbed Sand, and combinations of the two botanicals with Bularafa DE and Riverbed Sand were evaluated as protectants of wheat seed against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.).

  11. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  12. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja D. Gupta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25–50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived. Crude extracts of medicinal plants could serve as an alternate source of resistance modifying agents owing to the wide variety of secondary metabolites. These metabolites (alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols etc. could act as potentials for antimicrobials and resistance modifiers. Plant extracts have the ability to bind to protein domains leading to modification or inhibition protein–protein interactions. This enables the herbals to also present themselves as effective modulators of host related cellular processes viz immune response, mitosis, apoptosis and signal transduction. Thus they may exert their activity not only by killing the microorganism but by affecting key events in the pathogenic process, thereby, the bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to develop resistance to botanicals. The article is meant to stimulate research wherein the cidal activity of the extract is not the only parameter considered but other mechanism of action by which plants can combat drug resistant microbes are investigated. The present article emphasizes on mechanisms involved in countering multi drug resistance.

  13. Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Solomon; Thomas, Nihal; Tharion, Elizabeth; Neelakantan, Nithya; Vyas, Rashmi

    2007-09-05

    Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE) to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alternative approach. Various methods have been used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology such as case-stimulated learning, problem-based learning, patient-centred learning and multiple-format sessions. We devised a teaching-learning intervention in endocrine physiology, which comprised of traditional didactic lectures, supplemented with an ECE program consisting of case based lectures and a hospital visit to see patients. A focus group discussion was conducted with the medical students and, based on the themes that emerged from it, a questionnaire was developed and administered to further enquire into the attitude of all the students towards ECE in learning endocrine physiology. The students in their feedback commented that ECE increased their interest for the subject and motivated them to read more. They also felt that ECE enhanced their understanding of endocrine physiology, enabled them to remember the subject better, contributed to their knowledge of the subject and also helped them to integrate their knowledge. Many students said that ECE increased their sensitivity toward patient problems and needs. They expressed a desire and a need for ECE to be continued in teaching endocrine physiology for future groups of students and also be extended for teaching other systems as well. The majority of the students (96.4%) in their feedback gave an overall rating of the program as good to excellent on a 5 point Likert scale. The ECE program was introduced as an alternative approach to

  14. Women physicians are early adopters of on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B

    2003-01-01

    On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet, they clearly are the innovators and early adopters who will facilitate the growth of this educational technology. It would be useful to instructional designers and CME developers to better understand the characteristics of this influential group. We studied the actual use of several different on-line CME programs within three different groups of physicians. The on-line programs were developed as part of research studies funded by the National Institutes of Health, with no relationship to commercial interests. They were presented to physicians using mass mailouts (two physician groups) or personal contact and were accompanied by incentives to reduce resistance to the new technology. We compared the characteristics of physicians who chose to use these on-line programs with demographic data from larger populations representing the groups from which these users originated. We found that physicians who used these on-line CME programs were younger than average and, importantly, more likely to be female than expected. This finding was consistent across different types of physician populations and different types of CME programs. Based on data reflecting actual use of on-line CME, younger physicians appear to be adopting on-line CME more rapidly than others, and women physicians appear to be adopting on-line CME at a faster rate than their male counterparts. This latter finding conflicts with the impression provided by some survey-based studies that male physicians are more likely than female physicians to use on-line CME. The data suggest that the growth of on-line CME is most likely occurring in diffusion networks dominated by relatively new

  15. Benefits of Early Active Mobility in the Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuh, Ogochukwu; Gammon, Harriet; Burmeister, Charlotte; Frega, Donald; Nerenz, David; DiGiovine, Bruno; Siddiqui, Aamir

    2016-08-01

    Pressure ulcer formation continues to be problematic in acute care settings, especially intensive care units (ICUs). Our institution developed a program for early mobility in the ICU using specially trained nursing aides. The goal was to impact hospital-acquired pressure ulcers incidence as well as factors associated with ICU deconditioning by using specially trained personnel to perform the acute early mobility interventions. A 5-point mobility scale was developed and used to establish a patients' highest level of activity achievable during evaluation. A mobility team was created consisting of skin-care prevention/mobility nurses and a new category of worker called a patient mobility assistant. Each level has a corresponding plan of care (intervention) that was followed and adjusted according to the patient's progress and nursing evaluation. Data collection included the type of interventions at each encounter, mobility and skin assessments, new hospital-acquired pressure ulcer, the current mobility level, Braden score, rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, ICU length of stay, and hospital readmission. Staff was also surveyed about their attitudes toward mobilization and perception of mobility barriers; a prepilot and a postpilot survey were planned. During the 1-year study interval, 3233 patients were enrolled from the medical intensive care unit (MICU). The 2011 preimplementation MICU hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rate was 9.2%. After 1 year of employing the mobility team, there was a statistically significant decrease in the MICU hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rate to 6.1% (P = .0405). Hospital readmission of MICU patients also significantly decreased from 17.1% to 11.5% (P = .0010). The mean MICU length of stay decreased by 1 day. There were no safety issues directly or indirectly associated with these interventions. Use of this mobility program resulted in a 3% decrease in the most recalcitrant patients in the MICU. This corresponds to a decrease of

  16. Probability Elicitation to Inform Early Health Economic Evaluations of New Medical Technologies : A Case Study in Heart Failure Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L.; Buskens, Erik

    Objectives: Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining

  17. Authentic Early Experience in Medical Education: A Socio-Cultural Analysis Identifying Important Variables in Learning Interactions within Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question "what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?" AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually…

  18. Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cefalu, William T; Chilton, Floyd H; Farnsworth, Norman R; Raskin, Ilya; van Breemen, Richard B; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several of the centers specialize in fractionation and high-throughput evaluation to identify the individual bioactive agent or a combination of agents. Some centers are using DNA microarray analyses to determine the effects of botanicals on gene transcription with the goal of uncovering the important biochemical pathways they regulate. Other centers focus on bioavailability and uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the phytochemicals as for all xenobiotics. Because phytochemicals are often complex molecules, synthesis of isotopically labeled forms is carried out by plant cells in culture, followed by careful fractionation. These labeled phytochemicals allow the use of accelerator mass spectrometry to trace the tissue distribution of 14C-labeled proanthocyanidins in animal models of disease. State-of-the-art proteomics and mass spectrometry are also used to identify proteins in selected tissues whose expression and posttranslational modification are influenced by botanicals and dietary supplements. In summary, the skills needed to carry out botanical centers’ research are extensive and may exceed those practiced by most NIH investigators. PMID:18258642

  19. Management of Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis: Comparing Outcomes Using Early Appendectomy Versus Solely Medical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, William; Rebillot, Katie; Ukwuoma, Onyinyechi; Saracino, Christine; Iskhakov, Arthur

    2017-10-01

    There is controversy regarding whether children with perforated appendicitis should receive early appendectomy (EA) versus medical management (MM) with antibiotics and delayed interval appendectomy. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes of children with perforated appendicitis who receive EA versus MM. Case review of consecutive children appendicitis who received either EA or MM during an 8-year period. Criteria for hospital discharge included patient being afebrile for at least 24 hours, pain-free and able to tolerate oral intake. Of 203 patients diagnosed with perforated appendicitis, 122 received EA and 81 received MM. All received parenteral antibiotic therapy initiated in the emergency department and continued during hospitalization. There were no significant differences between groups in mean patient age, mean complete blood count total white blood cells count, gender distribution, rates of emergency department fever or rates of intra-abdominal infection (abscess or phlegmon) identified on admission. Compared with patients receiving MM, those receiving EA experienced significantly fewer (1) days of hospitalization, parenteral antibiotic therapy and in-hospital fever; (2) radiographic studies, percutaneous drainage procedures and placement of central venous catheters performed; (3) post admission intra-abdominal complications and (4) unscheduled repeat hospitalizations after hospital discharge. Only 1 EA-managed patient developed a postoperative wound infection. Children with perforated appendicitis who receive EA experience significantly less morbidity and complications versus those receiving MM. The theoretical concern for enhanced morbidity associated with EA management of perforated appendicitis is not supported by our analysis.

  20. Evolution and acceptability of medical applications of RFID implants among early users of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    RFID as a wireless identification technology that may be combined with microchip implants have tremendous potential in today's market. Although these implants have their advantages and disadvantages, recent improvements how allowed for implants designed for humans. Focus was given to the use of RFID tags and its effects on technology and CRM through a case study on VeriChip, the only corporation to hold the rights and the patent to the implantable chip for humans, and an empirically based study on working professionals to measure perceptions by early adopters of such technology. Through hypotheses-testing procedures, it was found that although some resistance to accept microchip implants was found in several applications, especially among gender, it was totally expected that healthcare and medical record keeping activities would be universally treated in a positive light and the use of authorities (namely governmental agencies) would be equally treated in a negative light by both sexes. Future trends and recommendations are presented along with statistical results collected through personal interviews.

  1. Team functioning as a predictor of patient outcomes in early medical home implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frances M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Yoon, Jean

    2018-03-12

    New models of patient-centered primary care such as the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) depend on high levels of interdisciplinary primary care team functioning to achieve improved outcomes. A few studies have qualitatively assessed barriers and facilitators to optimal team functioning; however, we know of no prior study that assesses PCMH team functioning in relationship to patient health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between primary care team functioning, patients' use of acute care, and mortality. Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of patient outcomes measured at two time points (2012 and 2013) after PCMH implementation began in Veterans Health Administration practices. Multilevel models examined practice-level measures of team functioning in relationship to patient outcomes (all-cause and ambulatory care-sensitive condition-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and mortality). We controlled for practice-level factors likely to affect team functioning, including leadership support, provider and staff burnout, and staffing sufficiency, as well as for individual patient characteristics. We also tested the model among a subgroup of vulnerable patients (homeless, mentally ill, or with dementia). In adjusted analyses, higher team functioning was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.92, p = .04) among all patients and with fewer all-cause admissions (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.90, p team functioning within PCMH models for achieving improved patient outcomes. A focus on team functioning is important especially in the early implementation of team-based primary care models.

  2. Effects of leonurine hydrochloride on medically induced incomplete abortion in early pregnancy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Yi-Qing; Chen, Fei-Hu; Lu, Wei-Guo; Li, Cheng-Wan; Li, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    To determine the effect of leonurine hydrochloride (LH) on abnormal bleeding induced by medical abortion. Rats had incomplete abortions induced in early pregnancy using mifepristone in combination with misoprostol. After abortion, rats were treated with LH for 7 days, and the duration and volume of uterine bleeding were observed. Approximately 30min after the last treatment, the animals were killed and the uterine shape was observed. The sinistro-uteri were suspended in organ baths to record the contraction curves, including the frequency and tension for 10min; the dextro-uteri were fixed with formaldehyde for pathologic evaluation. In addition, blood samples were collected from the femoral artery for the measurement of estradiol (E₂) and progesterone (P) levels by radioimmunoassay. In in vivo experiments, compared with the model group, LH treatment markedly reduced the volume of bleeding and intrauterine residual, and significantly shortened the duration of bleeding. From the contraction curve, LH notably reinforced the frequency and tension of uterine contractions. LH remarkably elevated the serum estradiol level in rats, but had no obvious effect on progesterone level. LH has an inhibitory effect on bleeding caused by incomplete abortion; the mechanism may be related to up-regulation of the E₂ level, leading to an increase in uterine contractions and evacuation of intrauterine residuum. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. [Becoming medical doctors in colonial Korea: focusing on the faculty of medical colleges in early north Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun Bae

    2014-12-01

    This paper traces how Koreans of north area became medical doctors in colonial Korea. Most of the past research have focused only on the well-known medical doctors, or even when they discussed a great number of doctors, many research tended to only pay attention to the explicit final results of those doctors. This research, on the other hand, includes ordinary medical doctors as well as the renowed ones, and adjusts the focus to the lifetime period of their growth and activities. As a result, the misunderstanding and obscurity about the Korean medical doctors of north area during this period have been cleared. The new characteristics of the Korean medical doctors of this period have been found, along with their embodiment of historical significance. At the time, Koreans had to get through a number of qualifications in order to become doctors. First is the unique background of origin in which the family held interest in the modern education and was capable of supporting it financially. Second is the long-term status of education that the education from elementary to high school was completed without interruption. Third is the academic qualification that among various institutions of higher education, medical science was chosen as a major. Fourth is the condition of career in which as the career as a doctor had consistently continued. Thus, in oder to become a modern medical doctor, Koreans had to properly complete these multiple steps of process. The group of Korean medical doctors in north area, which was formed after getting through these series of process, possessed a number of characteristics. Firstly, as the upper-middle classes constituted the majority of medical doctors in Korea, the societal status of doctors rose and the foundation for the career as a doctor to be persisted as the family occupation settled. Secondly, the research career and academic degree became the principal method to escape from the discrimination and hierarchy existed between doctors. A

  4. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  5. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  6. Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā for the treatment of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Niteen Ramdas; Mishra, Debendranath

    2016-01-01

    Mādhava is regarded as a 7(th) century Indian Physician who composed two treatises (in Sanskrit) on Ayurveda, the Mādhava Nidāna and Mādhava Cikitsā. The former treatise deals with the diagnosis of diseases while the latter with the treatment using medicinal plants and other recipes. In Mādhava Cikitsā, a common Sanskrit name is found to describe two or more totally different botanical plant species (thus leading to ambiguity) and a distinct botanical species is also found to represent two or more Sanskrit names at several instances. The present paper deals with the correct botanical identification (most probable) of Sanskrit named plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā for the treatment of Diarrhoea (Atisāra Cikitsā). The authentic manuscripts of 'Mādhava Cikitsā' were critically studied for the present research outcome. A detailed literature survey is carried out from various references and texts. The list of Sanskrit named plants contains 103 names, while after the critical study and assigning the most probable botanical identification as per ICBN, the list of plant species described in the text for the treatment of Diarrhoea is found to contain 73 names. The present study will certainly benefit Ayurvedic medical practitioners and pharmaceutical companies in selection of proper plant species avoiding substitutions for drug formulation.

  7. Visualizing reproduction: a cultural history of early-modern and modern medical illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Written as a response to a conference exhibition of medical illustrations of reproduction, this article considers the gains of an interdisciplinary study of medical illustration to both historians and medics. The article insists that we should not only be attuned to the cultural work that such representations perform but also that such illustrations are the product of material medical practices and the often humane impulses that drive them.

  8. Early perception of medication benefit predicts subsequent antipsychotic response in schizophrenia: "the consumer has a point" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Weiden, Peter; Nyhuis, Allen W; Faries, Douglas E; Stauffer, Virginia; Kollack-Walker, Sara; Kinon, Bruce J

    2014-07-01

    An easy-to-administer tool for predicting response to antipsychotic treatment could improve the acute management of patients with schizophrenia. We assessed whether a patient's perception of medication benefit early in treatment could predict subsequent response or nonresponse to continued use of the same treatment. This post hoc analysis used data from a randomized, open-label trial of antipsychotics for treatment of schizophrenia in which attitudes about medication adherence were assessed after two weeks of antipsychotic treatment using the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) scale. The analysis included 439 patients who had Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and ROMI scale data at Weeks 2 and 8. Scores on the ROMI subscale Perceived Medication Benefit factor were used to predict subsequent antipsychotic response at Week 8, defined as a .20% reduction from baseline on the PANSS. Logistic regression was used to identify a cut-off score for the Perceived Medication Benefit factor that could accurately identify antipsychotic responders vs. nonresponders at Week 8. A score of .2.75 (equal to a mean subscale score of .11.00) on the ROMI scale Perceived Medication Benefit factor at Week 2 predicted response at Week 8 with high specificity (72%) and negative predictive value (70%), moderate sensitivity (44%) and positive predictive value (47%), and with a 38% misclassification rate. A brief assessment of the patient's perception of medication benefit at two weeks into treatment appears to be a good predictor of subsequent response and nonresponse after eight weeks of treatment with the same antipsychotic.

  9. Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Denzler

    Full Text Available Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics, this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica, the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses.

  10. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification

  11. Botanical and phytochemical therapy of acne: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-08-01

    Acne is prevalent among adolescents and adults with significant psychological effects. Standard oral and topical therapies can have significant side effects including skin irritation, gastrointestinal upset, and the development of drug-resistant bacteria. The use of botanicals and phytochemicals in dermatological products is increasingly popular, and many patients are turning to these alternative therapies for treatment of acne. This study aimed to systematically review clinical studies that have investigated the use of botanical agents in the treatment of acne. PubMed and Embase databases were searched in March 2013 for trials assessing botanical therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Data from these trials are presented, and methodology of each study is assessed. Twenty-three trials met inclusion criteria. Interventions included plant extracts, herbal formulations, and phytochemicals. All studies reported favorable results, and several showed equal or superior treatment to standard therapies. No serious adverse events were reported. Few studies were methodologically rigorous. Each botanical was studied in only one or two trials. Botanicals are promising therapies for acne vulgaris although further research is warranted, especially with regard to severe acne and acne resistant to conventional therapy. There is a need for standardized methods for grading acne and assessing therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. In chemico skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-03-24

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients is necessary for consumers' protection and occupational hazard identification. There are currently very few available alternative methods that can assist in the evaluation of complex mixtures. Chemical methods can provide essential information in a timely manner and thus help to reduce the need for in vivo testing, and they can complement and facilitate targeted in vitro assays. In the present work, the applicability of the high-throughput screening with dansyl cysteamine (DCYA) method for the systematic evaluation of skin sensitization of complex botanicals was explored. Botanical ingredients of four unrelated plant species were obtained and tested with the high-throughput fluorescence method at three concentrations. To illustrate the minimal matrix effects of the tested extracts on the developed method, the least DCYA-reactive extract (Rosa canina) was spiked with known sensitizers at different concentrations. The data obtained from the four plant extracts and the spiking experiments with known sensitizers, suggest that the high-throughput screening-DCYA method can be successfully applied for estimating the skin sensitization potential of complex botanical matrices. This is the first report of an attempt to develop a versatile in chemico method for the rapid detection of reactive skin sensitizers in complex botanical extracts, which could complement the battery of existing validated, non-animal methods. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Botanicals as Modulators of Neuroplasticity: Focus on BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sangiovanni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in different central nervous system (CNS diseases suggests that this neurotrophin may represent an interesting and reliable therapeutic target. Accordingly, the search for new compounds, also from natural sources, able to modulate BDNF has been increasingly explored. The present review considers the literature on the effects of botanicals on BDNF. Botanicals considered were Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell, Coffea arabica L., Crocus sativus L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea, Ginkgo biloba L., Hypericum perforatum L., Olea europaea L. (olive oil, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Rhodiola rosea L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Vitis vinifera L., Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, and Perilla frutescens (L. Britton. The effect of the active principles responsible for the efficacy of the extracts is reviewed and discussed as well. The high number of articles published (more than one hundred manuscripts for 14 botanicals supports the growing interest in the use of natural products as BDNF modulators. The studies reported strengthen the hypothesis that botanicals may be considered useful modulators of BDNF in CNS diseases, without high side effects. Further clinical studies are mandatory to confirm botanicals as preventive agents or as useful adjuvant to the pharmacological treatment.

  15. Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, Erik

    2018-04-27

    To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health. These midstream risk factors, particularly stress and emotional turmoil, create a more or less perfect foil for calorie-dense junk food self-medication and subtle addiction, to alleviate uncomfortable psychological and emotional states. Disturbances in the social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity, through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food self-medication and subtle addiction.

  16. Recommendations for Development of Botanical Polyphenols as "Natural Drugs" for Promotion of Resilience Against Stress-Induced Depression and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-09-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that psychological stress has detrimental effects on psychological health, cognitive function, and ultimately well-being. While stressful events are a significant cause of psychopathology, most individuals exposed to adversity maintain normal psychological functioning. The mechanisms underlying such resilience are poorly understood, and there is an urgent need to identify and target these mechanisms to promote resilience under stressful events. Botanicals have been used throughout history to treat various medical conditions; however, the development of botanical compounds into potential preventative and therapeutic agents in studies promoting brain health is hindered by the fact that most orally consumed botanicals are extensively metabolized during absorption and/or by post-absorptive xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, the primary objective of this review article is to provide recommendations for developing natural compounds as novel therapeutic strategies to promote resilience in susceptible subjects. The development of botanical polyphenols to ultimately attenuate mood disorders and cognitive impairment will rely on understanding (1) the absorption and bioavailability of botanical polyphenols with emphasis on flavan-3-ols, (2) the characterization of tissue-specific accumulation of biologically available polyphenols and their mechanisms of action in the brain, and eventually (3) the characterization of biologically available polyphenol metabolites in mechanisms associated with the promotion of resilience against mood disorders and cognitive impairment in response to stress. We also summarize exciting new lines of investigation about the role of botanicals such as polyphenols in the promotion of cognitive and psychological resilience. This information will provide a strategical framework for the future development of botanicals as therapeutic agents to promote resilience, ultimately preventing and/or therapeutically treating

  17. Recommendations for Development of Botanical Polyphenols as “Natural Drugs” for Promotion of Resilience Against Stress-Induced Depression and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that psychological stress has detrimental effects on psychological health, cognitive function, and ultimately well-being. While stressful events are a significant cause of psychopathology, most individuals exposed to adversity maintain normal psychological functioning. The mechanisms underlying such resilience are poorly understood, and there is an urgent need to identify and target these mechanisms to promote resilience under stressful events. Botanicals have been used throughout history to treat various medical conditions; however, the development of botanical compounds into potential preventative and therapeutic agents in studies promoting brain health is hindered by the fact that most orally consumed botanicals are extensively metabolized during absorption and/or by post-absorptive xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, the primary objective of this review article is to provide recommendations for developing natural compounds as novel therapeutic strategies to promote resilience in susceptible subjects. The development of botanical polyphenols to ultimately attenuate mood disorders and cognitive impairment will rely on understanding (1) the absorption and bioavailability of botanical polyphenols with emphasis on flavan-3-ols, (2) the characterization of tissue specific accumulation of biologically available polyphenols and their mechanisms of action in the brain, and eventually (3) the characterization of biologically available polyphenol metabolites in mechanisms associated with the promotion of resilience against mood disorders and cognitive impairment in response to stress. We also summarize exciting new lines of investigation about the role of botanicals such as polyphenols in the promotion of cognitive and psychological resilience. This information will provide a strategical framework for the future development of botanicals as therapeutic agents to promote resilience, ultimately preventing and/or therapeutically treating

  18. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Botanical Composition in Maribaya Pasture, Brebes, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, N.; Ngadiyono, N.; Panjono; Agus, F. N.; Shirothul, H. M.; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Hendrawati, Y.; Subroto, I.

    2018-02-01

    The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures. The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement. The botani sampling was performed using square with size of 1×1 m2. The observation was performed before the pasture made (at 2015) and after the pasture made (at 2017). Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at 2015 and at 2017. It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed.

  20. Botanical environmental monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Botanical samples were used as monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic. Euphorbia terracina and Calotropis procera were the botanical monitors used in this work. Zinc concentrations were reported alongside a motorway stretch of 50 km. Variations in concentration with respect to the perpendicular distance from the roadside were also reported. The effect of wind turbulence and the wind direction on the concentrations is discussed. In addition, differences between open areas and confined areas with respect to the elemental uptake were also discussed. INAA, using reactor neutrons, was employed for the determination of Zn concentrations in the samples. (author)

  1. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  2. Nutraceuticals and botanicals: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    The discovery, development and marketing of food supplements, nutraceuticals and related products are currently the fastest growing segments of the food industry. Functional foods can be considered part or borderline to these products and may be defined as foods or food ingredients that have additional health or physiological benefits over and above the normal nutritional value they provide. This trend is driven by several factors, mainly due to the current consumer perceptions: the first and dominant being 'Natural is good', and other secondary, such as the increasing cost of many pharmaceuticals and their negative secondary effects, the insistent marketing campaign, the increasing perception of the need of a healthy diet and its importance in the health and homeostasis organism conditions. However, the central point is that nutraceuticals, botanicals and other herbal remedies, including the entry of new functional foods, are important because of their acceptance as the novel and modern forms to benefit of natural substances. Due to the rapid expansion in this area, the development of several aspects is considered as it could influence the future of the market of these products negatively: an imbalance existing between the increasing number of claims and products on the one hand, the development of policies to regulate their application and safety on the other, rapid and valuable controls to check the composition, including the plant extracts or adulteration to improve efficacy, like the presence of synthetic drugs. It is interesting to see that, from the negative factors reported by the market analysts, a change in consumers preferences is absent. The functional properties of many plant extracts, in particular, are being investigated for potential use as novel nutraceuticals and functional foods. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly improving, the central aspect concerns the validation of these products. The first step of this crucial aspect is

  3. Radiotherapy in medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Kyoung; Park, Charn II [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    For early stage non-small-cell lung cancer, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. But when the patients are not able to tolerate it because of medical problem and when refuse surgery, radiation therapy is considered an acceptable alternative. We report on the treatment results and the effect of achieving local control of primary tumors on survival end points and analyze factors that may influence survival and local control. We reviewed the medical records of 32 patients with medically inoperable non--small cell lung cancer treated at our institution from June, 1987 through June, 1997. All patients had a pathologic diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer and were not. candidate for surgical resection because of either patients refusal (4), old age (2), lung problem (21), chest wall invasion (3) and heart problems (3). In 8 patients, there were more than 2 problems. The median age of the patients was 68 years (ranging from 60 to 86 years). Histologic cell type included squamous (24), adenocarcinoma (6) and unclassified squamous cell (2). The clinical stages of the patients were T1 in 5. T2 in 25, T3 in 2 patients. Initial tumor size was {<=}3.0 cm in 11, between 3.0 cm and 5.0 cm in 13 and more than 5.0 em in 8 patients. All patients had taken chest x-rays, chest CT, abdomen USG and bone scan. Radiotherapy was delivered using 6 MV or 10 MV linear accelerators. The doses of primary tumor were the ranging from 54.0 Gy to 68.8 Gy (median; 61.2 Gy). The duration of treatment was from 37 days through 64 days (median; 48.5 days) and there was no treatment interruption except 1 patient due to poor general status. In 12 patients, concomitant boost technique was used. There were no neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy. The period of follow-up was ranging from 2 months through 93 months (median; 23 months). Survival was measured from the date radiation therapy was initiated. The overall survival rate was 44.6% at 2 years and 24.5% at 5

  4. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  5. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Althoug...

  6. Promoting Medication Adherence in Older Adults Through Early Diagnosis of Neurocognitive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    George, Nika R.; Steffen, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Community-dwelling older adults with neurocognitive disorders experience high risk of and often suffer severe consequences from medication nonadherence. Due to the important role of informal caregivers in the care of patients with neurocognitive disorders, medication management involves both patients and families. A formal diagnosis of a neurocognitive disorder may improve both provider-patient and provider-family communications and resulting regimen adherence, yet many with signs ...

  7. Dental and medical students' perspectives on early exposure to PBL in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ming-Gene; Yu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Li, Tsai-Chung; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum adopted in 2002 for medical students at China Medical University, Taiwan, was extended to dental students in 2007. Before that, PBL workshops were conducted for all students. Two PBL cases on basic biomedical issues were used for second-year medical students and second-year dental students to explore the feasibility of adopting PBL as part of the dental curriculum. This study compared the medical and dental students' attitudes toward the PBL tutorials and PBL curricula. Upon completion of the PBL component, an eighteen-item questionnaire asked students to assess (on a ten-point scale with 10 as the most positive response) their perceptions of the learning process in the PBL tutorials. Forty-six dental students from a cohort of fifty (92 percent) and 107 medical students from a cohort of 119 (90 percent) completed the questionnaires (fifty-three females and 100 males). The importance of all items was rated above 6.00. The medical students' mean score (7.29) was higher than the dental students' mean score (7.10). Of the eighteen attributes of the PBL process, the students indicated being generally comfortable with fourteen. No statistical significance was found between the dental and medical students' scores, but there was a significant difference (p=0.006) in their perception of PBL curricula. Overall, the medical students expressed a more positive outlook toward the PBL learning process than the dental students and were more willing to accept PBL as a pedagogy.

  8. Early Integration of Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: Results of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagonel, Vittorina; Torta, Riccardo; Franciosi, Vittorio; Brunello, Antonella; Biasco, Guido; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cavanna, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico; Farina, Gabriella; Fioretto, Luisa; Gamucci, Teresa; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Magarotto, Roberto; Maltoni, Marco; Mastromauro, Cataldo; Melotti, Barbara; Meriggi, Fausto; Pavese, Ida; Piva, Erico; Sacco, Cosimo; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trentin, Leonardo; Ermacora, Paola; Varetto, Antonella; Merlin, Federica; Gori, Stefania; Cascinu, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Early integration of palliative care in oncology practice ("simultaneous care", SC) has been shown to provide better care resulting in improved quality-of-life and also survival. We evaluated the opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. A 37-item questionnaire was delivered to 1119 AIOM members. Main areas covered were: social, ethical, relational aspects of disease and communication, training, research, organizational and management models in SC. Three open questions explored the definition of Quality of Life, Medical Oncologist and Palliative Care. Four hundred and forty-nine (40.1%) medical oncologists returned the questionnaires. Forty-nine percent stated they address non-curability when giving a diagnosis of metastatic tumor, and 43% give the information only to patients who clearly ask for it. Fifty-five percent say the main formative activity in palliative medicine came from attending meetings and 90% agree that specific palliative care training should be part of the core curriculum in oncology. Twenty-two percent stated they consulted guidelines for symptom management, 45% relied upon personal experience and 26% make a referral to a palliative care specialist. Seventy-four percent were in favor of more research in palliative medicine. An integration between Units of Oncology and Palliative Care Services early in the course of advanced disease was advocated by 86%. Diverse and multifaceted definitions were given for the concepts of Quality of Life, Palliative Care and Medical Oncologist. SC is felt as an important task, as well as training of medical oncologists in symptom management and research in this field.

  9. Designing of Genow Botanical Garden with Sustainable Architecture Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hassan Doost Asl Barkoosaraei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, botanical gardens are considered as the most important and influential public green spaces in most countries of the world. These complexes on one hand have scientific and research applications in the fields of botany, gardening, conservation and plant ecology, and on the other hand they play an important role in public education and tourism. So it can be said that botanical gardens have been converted from merely research environments to multi-functional green spaces. The purpose of this study is designing the Botanical Gardens in Genow ecotourism region, located in of north of Bandar Abbas as a research-tourism complex that has been welcomed by citizens and tourists and respond to the various of their users. Selecting Genow region was due to its vicinity to the Protected Area and Reserve Biosphere of Genow (in terms of life value of diverse plants of protected area. In the process of designing the relevance of botanical garden with Genow echo tourist area, in performance dimension have been considered by the use of Persian garden pattern, and in terms of relationship with nature, with the benefit of recreational spaces and enjoyment of sustainable architecture components (green roofs, living walls the biological filter in the interior parts, that due to having these features will be considered by non-researcher tourists in Genow ecotourism region.

  10. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  11. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  12. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  13. Botanical seed technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on botanical seed technology have potential payoffs for genebank in-house operations as well as promoting efficient use of the germplasm by cooperators. When we tested the effects of soil fertilization, mother plants with extra fertilizer produced more fruit and seeds, but those extra seeds ...

  14. Botanical composition of feed of camels and nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the feeding of camel herds was carried in the pastoral area of Agadez in Niger. The aim of the study was to describe the botanical composition of daily feed of camels on rangeland during three seasons (hot dry season, cold dry season and rainy season) and to assess the chemical composition and nutritional ...

  15. Tanzanian Botanical Derivatives in the Control of Malaria Vectors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper report on assessment of the chemicals derived from Tanzanian botanical resource as a viable source of safe, environmentally friendly and low cost mosquitocidal agents, but has yet to be developed into simple blends and formulations to be used in malaria control campaigns. Selection of bioactive plant species ...

  16. Effect of integration of cultural, botanical, and chemical methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2013 to evaluate the effects of botanical, cultural, and chemical methods on termite colony survival, crop and wooden damage, and other biological activities in Ghimbi district of western Ethiopia. The termite mounds were dug and the following treatments were ...

  17. A survey of ethnoveterinary botanical remedies in Ogun State and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four villages were visited during a cross sectional survey of ethno veterinary botanical remedies used for the management of animal diseases in four local government areas randomly selected cutting across the four geopolitical zones in Ogun State. A total of 323 households were purposively selected and ...

  18. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  19. Botanical composition, yield and nutritional quality of grassland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production contributes to the livelihoods of the Ethiopian people; however, the productivity of the livestock subsector in the highlands is low due to malnutrition. Therefore, this study assessed the botanical composition, dry matter (DM) yield, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the ...

  20. The nutritive value, yield and botanical composition of irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of grass and grass/legume swards at three levels of nitrogen were compared under irrigation over a three-year period. The swards were grazed by dairy cows and the influence of nitrogen on dry matter yield, protein content, protein yield and botanical composition was measured. Keywords: ...

  1. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa | Demissew | Bulletin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa.

  2. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. INTRODUCTION. There is a very long history of use of botanical extracts for human and veterinary medicine, as well as for the protection of field and stored crops (Berger, 1994). In the recent decades, however, due to the introduction of.

  3. Evaluating the effect of some botanical insecticides on the citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of tondexir (pepper extract) and palizin (eucalyptus extract) using five doses (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 ppm) and sirinol (garlic extract) with five doses (1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3500 ppm) on citrus mealybug was investigated. The effect of barter (a botanical synergist) using a single dose (1000 ppm) ...

  4. Efficacy of botanical powders and cooking oils against Angoumois ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of botanical powders and cooking oils against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela O. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored maize. ... Thus, the two cooking oils were found to be most potent bio-insecticides against maize grain moth on par with standard check, Malathion. Keywords: Angomois grain moth, ...

  5. A technique for collecting botanical specimens in rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyland, B.P.M.

    1972-01-01

    I. Introduction — The need for a simple method of collecting botanical material from rain-forest trees became evident during the construction of a field key to the rain-forest trees of North Queensland. Many collecting techniques have been developed, e.g. throwing sticks and stones, severing

  6. Botanical and molecular evidences of landraces from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Botanical descriptors, total seed proteins, isozymes and RAPD markers were applied to identify landraces from indigenous lentil germplasm exclusively collected from the province of Baluchistan,. Pakistan. The Germplasm revealed the prevalence of landraces, especially on the basis of isozymes.

  7. Efficacy of botanical extracts and entomopathogens on control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 92% weight reduction over control on H. armigera, while for S. litura, 54 and 72% larval mortality and 44 and 79% weight reduction over control was reported. The results of the compatibility studies (entomopathogenic potential biowash of the botanicals with PGP bacteria and fungus) indicate that there was no definite ...

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals against Four Insect Pests of Honey Bees ( Apis mellifera L.) ... Test of contact toxicity of the extracts was conducted by topical application of 2 ml of treatments at 10% w/v on five insects using standard method. Repellency study of the extracts was conducted ...

  9. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products § 223.278 Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. The responsible Forest Officer shall...

  10. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MyPhuong T Le

    Full Text Available In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive's fructose's adverse effects. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems.Extracts from 406 botanicals and 1200 purified phytochemicals were screened (initial concentration of 50 μg/mL and 50 μM, respectively for their inhibitory activity using a cell free, recombinant human ketohexokinase-C assay. Dose response evaluations were conducted on botanical extracts and phytochemicals that inhibited ketohexokinase-C by > 30% and > 40%, respectively. Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production.Among the botanical extracts, phloretin (Malus domestica extracts were the most potent (IC50: 8.9-9.2 μg/mL followed by extracts of Angelica archangelica (IC50: 22.6 μg/mL-57.3 μg/mL. Among the purified phytochemicals, methoxy-isobavachalcone (Psoralea corylifolia, IC50 = 0.2 μM exhibited the highest potency against ketohexokinase isoform C activity followed by osthole (Angelica archangelica, IC50 = 0.7 μM, cratoxyarborenone E (Cratoxylum prunifolium, IC50 = 1.0 μM, and

  11. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Brandi L.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Randolph, R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objective In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive’s fructose's adverse effects. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems. Methods Extracts from 406 botanicals and 1200 purified phytochemicals were screened (initial concentration of 50 μg/mL and 50 μM, respectively) for their inhibitory activity using a cell free, recombinant human ketohexokinase-C assay. Dose response evaluations were conducted on botanical extracts and phytochemicals that inhibited ketohexokinase-C by > 30% and > 40%, respectively. Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production. Results Among the botanical extracts, phloretin (Malus domestica) extracts were the most potent (IC50: 8.9–9.2 μg/mL) followed by extracts of Angelica archangelica (IC50: 22.6 μg/mL—57.3 μg/mL). Among the purified phytochemicals, methoxy-isobavachalcone (Psoralea corylifolia, IC50 = 0.2 μM) exhibited the highest potency against ketohexokinase isoform C activity followed by osthole (Angelica archangelica, IC50 = 0.7 μM), cratoxyarborenone E (Cratoxylum prunifolium, IC

  12. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MyPhuong T; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Cicerchi, Christina M; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Hunter, Brandi L; Rivard, Christopher J; Randolph, R Keith; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive's fructose's adverse effects. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems. Extracts from 406 botanicals and 1200 purified phytochemicals were screened (initial concentration of 50 μg/mL and 50 μM, respectively) for their inhibitory activity using a cell free, recombinant human ketohexokinase-C assay. Dose response evaluations were conducted on botanical extracts and phytochemicals that inhibited ketohexokinase-C by > 30% and > 40%, respectively. Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production. Among the botanical extracts, phloretin (Malus domestica) extracts were the most potent (IC50: 8.9-9.2 μg/mL) followed by extracts of Angelica archangelica (IC50: 22.6 μg/mL-57.3 μg/mL). Among the purified phytochemicals, methoxy-isobavachalcone (Psoralea corylifolia, IC50 = 0.2 μM) exhibited the highest potency against ketohexokinase isoform C activity followed by osthole (Angelica archangelica, IC50 = 0.7 μM), cratoxyarborenone E (Cratoxylum prunifolium, IC50 = 1.0 μM), and

  13. A novel botanical formula prevents diabetes by improving insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Juntao; Velliquette, Rodney A; Grann, Kerry; Burns, Charlie R; Scholten, Jeff; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Gui, Min

    2017-07-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades to epidemic proportions in China. Individually, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed, mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) root can improve glycemia in various animal models and humans with impaired glucose metabolism and T2DM. The aim of this study was to design an optimized botanical formula containing these herbal extracts as a nutritional strategy for the prevention of insulin resistance and T2DM. Cell-free α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme assays were used to determine inhibitory potential of extracts. Glucose uptake was examined in differentiated human adipocytes using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided and glycemia balanced into 5 groups: two controls (naïve and model) and three doses of the botanical test formula containing standardized fenugreek seed, mulberry leaf and American ginseng extracts (42.33, 84.66 and 169.33 mg/kg BW). Insulin resistance and T2DM was induced by feeding animals a high fat diet and with an alloxan injection. Glucose tolerance was examined by measuring serum glucose levels following an oral glucose load. Fenugreek seed and mulberry leaf dose dependently inhibited α-amylase (IC50 = 73.2 μg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 111.8 ng/mL), respectively. All three botanical extracts improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in human adipocytes, which lead to the design of an optimized botanical test formula. In a rat model of insulin resistance and T2DM, the optimized botanical test formula improved fasting serum glucose levels, fasting insulin resistance and the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The reduction in epididymal adipose tissue GLUT4 and PDK1 expression induced by high fat diet and alloxan was blunted by the botanical test formula. A novel botanical formula containing standardized

  14. Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S.; Funk, Vicki A.; Wagner, Warren L.; Barrie, Fred; Hoch, Peter C.; Herendeen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International Code of Nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of “one fungus, one name.” Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of “morphotaxa” from the Code. PMID:22171188

  15. Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Miller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International code for nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of “one fungus, one name.” Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of “morphotaxa” from the Code.

  16. Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Funk, Vicki A; Wagner, Warren L; Barrie, Fred; Hoch, Peter C; Herendeen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Nomenclature Section held just before the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia in July 2011 saw sweeping changes to the way scientists name new plants, algae, and fungi. The changes begin on the cover: the title was broadened to make explicit that the Code applies not only to plants, but also to algae and fungi. The new title will now be the International Code of Nomenclature of algae, fungi, and plants. For the first time in history the Code will allow for the electronic publication of names of new taxa. In an effort to make the publication of new names more accurate and efficient, the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. Both of these latter changes will take effect on 1 January 2012. The nomenclatural rules for fungi will see several important changes, the most important of which is probably the adoption of the principle of "one fungus, one name." Paleobotanists will also see changes with the elimination of the concept of "morphotaxa" from the Code.

  17. Demodex as a Delivery Vector for Topical Targeted Medications in the Skin for Early Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Stephen L

    2017-09-01

    The potential utilization of Demodex mites as delivery vectors for cytotoxic medications directed to early skin cancer is proposed. Potential benefits, proof of concept, and limitations are discussed. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  18. The validity of student tutors' judgments in early detection of struggling in medical school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Morcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2016-01-01

    validity for both outcomes when controlling for grades obtained in preceeding exams. Lack of participation, lack of commitment, poor academic performance, poor social interactions and general signs of distress were the main indicators of struggling identified. Teachers’ informal judgements of in...... to identify medical students, who they reckoned would fail the anatomy course or drop out, based on their everyday experiences with students in a large group educational setting. In addition, they were asked to describe the indicators of struggling they observed. Sixteen student tutors evaluated 429 medical...

  19. Ethno-botanical studies of economically important plants from mountainous region of gilgit-baltistan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.R.; Khan, A.; Jamal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ethno botanical studies of economically important plants from Gilgit-Baltistan were conducted during 2003-2006. Extensive field trips were conducted for collection of plants according to their flowering and fruiting period and ethno-botanical data obtained during field trips. This area has many ecological zones, lies between 3000ft to 29000ft above sea level. Due to difference in soil, climate, moisture contents, latitude, longitude, altitude and topography, great diversity of plants of economic importance were found in these areas. Locals belonging to different ethnic groups, like, sayed, Gujjar, Mughal, Sheen, Yaskuin, Wakhi, Tajik, Khowar, etc., are settled there. They have distinct life styles, beliefs, traditions, life style and culture. There is a great shortage medical treatment therefore locals use indigenous plants for treatment of various diseases at local level. Folklore treatment is considered the cheapest source of curing diseases at local level. Information regarding ethno-medicinal importance was obtained from local inhabitants of old age. These plants have been utilised over many generations by various ethnic groups. It was found that indigenous medicinal flora of the area is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. It is expected that this paper will be beneficial for locals, students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public alike. (author)

  20. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Satele, Daniel; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Sloan, Jeff; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of burnout and other forms of distress across career stages and the experiences of trainees and early career (EC) physicians versus those of similarly aged college graduates pursuing other careers. In 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted a national survey of medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians (≤ 5 years in practice) and of a probability-based sample of the general U.S. population. All surveys assessed burnout, symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, quality of life, and fatigue. Response rates were 35.2% (4,402/12,500) for medical students, 22.5% (1,701/7,560) for residents/fellows, and 26.7% (7,288/27,276) for EC physicians. In multivariate models that controlled for relationship status, sex, age, and career stage, being a resident/fellow was associated with increased odds of burnout and being a medical student with increased odds of depressive symptoms, whereas EC physicians had the lowest odds of high fatigue. Compared with the population control samples, medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians were more likely to be burned out (all P students and residents/fellows were more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression than the population control samples (both P burnout, depressive symptoms, and recent suicidal ideation are relatively small. At each stage, burnout is more prevalent among physicians than among their peers in the U.S. population.

  1. An analysis of reflective writing early in the medical curriculum: The relationship between reflective capacity and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenberg, Abigale L; Pasalic, Dario; Bui, Gloria T; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    To examine the relationship between reflection, gender, residency choice, word count, and academic achievement among medical students. A modified version of the Reflection Evaluation for Learners' Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT) was developed and used for this study (Cronbach's alpha of 0.86 with an intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.68). This was applied to writing samples about professionalism in gross anatomy from first-year medical students between 2005 and 2011. Four analysts reviewed and scored written reflections independently. Composite reflection scores were compared with gender, residency choice, length of written reflection, NBME® Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examination scores, and final gross anatomy course. Total of 319 written reflections were evaluated. Female students who pursued medicine specialties had the highest composite reflection scores (87 [27.2%]). Word count frequently correlated with reflection score (p performed well on the NBME® Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Examination tended to achieve high anatomy course grades (p performance on tests of medical knowledge administered early in the medical curriculum.

  2. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Bart Johnston

    Full Text Available To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit.Diagnostic accuracy study.Ethiopia, India and South Africa.Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam.Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio <0.1 at all three sites when used by clinician assessors. Positive likelihood ratios were 4.3 in Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa.The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability.

  3. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Heidi Bart; Ganatra, Bela; Nguyen, My Huong; Habib, Ndema; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Harries, Jane; Iyengar, Kirti; Moodley, Jennifer; Lema, Hailu Yeneneh; Constant, Deborah; Sen, Swapnaleen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit. Diagnostic accuracy study. Ethiopia, India and South Africa. Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam. Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa. The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability.

  4. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  5. Value of multi-criteria decision analysis in early assessment of medical diagnostic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hummel, J. Marjan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multicriteria decision analytic (MCDA) techniques are a powerful tool in evaluating health care interventions where multiple, often competing, factors need to be considered. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is one such technique. We have applied AHP to evaluate medical diagnostic

  6. The Medical Education Pathway: description and early outcomes of a student-as-teacher program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Celeste; Davis, Barbara J; Lambert, David R

    2015-04-01

    Although senior medical students at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (URSMD) have a long history of teaching junior peers, no formal educational training existed for students until 2007. The Medical Education Pathway (MEP) at the URSMD is a longitudinal student-as-teacher program that addresses both the local precedent of medical student teaching and the ongoing need to prepare students for teaching in residency and beyond. In 2007, administrative faculty spearheaded efforts to create the MEP Committee, whose members then designed and implemented an elective curriculum. The curriculum balances didactics and experiential learning. A rigorous two-step application process precedes acceptance into the MEP. Participating students receive mentoring, assessment, and formative feedback on lecture delivery and leadership of various small-group formats. Since 2007, 89 students have enrolled in the MEP: 49 have successfully completed it, and 40 are currently enrolled. MEP students teach in basic science and clinical courses, and they regularly make novel contributions to the medical school curriculum. Student learner peers demonstrate an ability to give constructive feedback to MEP students. Exit survey comments demonstrate that the MEP influences participating students' career plans. Lessons learned from implementing the MEP include the importance of institutional support, dedicated faculty who value student teaching, and flexibility in scheduling. Future improvements to the MEP include enhancing the assessment process and tracking the careers of graduates as outcome data. The MEP serves as a model for a successful student-as-teacher program in other institutions and settings.

  7. Early Medical and Behavioral Characteristics of NICU Infants Later Classified With ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.; Meade, Lauren Swensen; Cohen, Ira L.; London, Eric; Flory, Michael J.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Rabinowitz, Simon; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony; Harin, Anantham

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent evidence suggests higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in NICU graduates. This aim of this study was to identify retrospectively early behaviors found more frequently in NICU infants who went on to develop ASD. METHODS Twenty-eight NICU graduates who later received a diagnosis of ASD were compared with 2169 other NICU graduates recruited from 1994 to 2005. They differed in gender, gestational age, and birth cohort. These characteristics were used to draw a matched control sample (n = 112) to determine which, if any, early behaviors discriminated subsequent ASD diagnosis. Behavioral testing at targeted ages (adjusted for gestation) included the Rapid Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment (hospital discharge, 1 month), Arousal-Modulated Attention (hospital discharge, 1 and 4 months), and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (multiple times, 4–25 months). RESULTS At 1 month, children with ASD but not control children had persistent neurobehavioral abnormalities and higher incidences of asymmetric visual tracking and arm tone deficits. At 4 months, children with ASD had continued visual preference for higher amounts of stimulation than did control children, behaving more like newborns. Unlike control children, children with ASD had declining mental and motor performance by 7 to 10 months, resembling infants with severe central nervous system involvement. CONCLUSIONS Differences in specific behavior domains between NICU graduates who later receive a diagnosis of ASD and matched NICU control children may be identified in early infancy. Studies with this cohort may provide insights to help understand and detect early disabilities, including ASD. PMID:20679296

  8. Medical Complications of the Critically Ill Newborn: A Review for Early Intervention Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Theresa C.; Blackman, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides early-intervention professionals with a basic familiarity and understanding of some of the newest technologies employed in the neonatal intensive care units for neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. Early…

  9. Phytotherapeutics: The Emerging Role of Intestinal and Hepatocellular Transporters in Drug Interactions with Botanical Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Ullah, Naveed; Mukhtar, Farah; Nawazish, Shamyla; Muneer, Saiqa

    2017-10-21

    In herbalism, botanical supplements are commonly believed to be safe remedies, however, botanical supplements and dietary ingredients interact with transport and metabolic processes, affecting drug disposition. Although a large number of studies have described that botanical supplements interfere with drug metabolism, the mode of their interaction with drug transport processes is not well described. Such interactions may result in serious undesired effects and changed drug efficacy, therefore, some studies on interaction between botanical supplement ingredients and drug transporters such as P-gp and OATPs are described here, suggesting that the interaction between botanical supplements and the drug transporters is clinically significant.

  10. Contacto precoz con la realidad asistencial: una experiencia piloto en medicina Early contact with medical practice: a pilot experience in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Baños

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Varios estudios han sugerido que el contacto precoz del estudiante de medicina con la realidad asistencial puede tener unos efectos beneficiosos sobre su motivación, el conocimiento de la relación médico-paciente y la aceptación de la importancia de las materias médicas básicas. En el nuevo grado conjunto de Medicina de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona y la Universitat Pompeu Fabra se ha incorporado una asignatura denominada 'Prácticas de Grado' que se imparte durante los tres primeros años, destinada a permitir el contacto de los estudiantes con la asistencia primaria, los equipos de enfermería y los centros sociosanitarios. El presente artículo describe la experiencia y la opinión de los estudiantes que la cursaron durante el primer año. Materiales y métodos: El artículo describe las características académicas de la asignatura. Se realizó una encuesta a los estudiantes al finalizar la asignatura para evaluar su grado de satisfacción y su percepción sobre el cumplimiento de los objetivos y las competencias que debían alcanzarse. Resultados: Existió una elevada satisfacción con la nueva actividad y una percepción entre los estudiantes de que las competencias preestablecidas se habían alcanzado en su mayor parte. Conclusión: El contacto precoz con la realidad asistencial es un elemento esencial para la comprensión de la actividad médica por los estudiantes de medicina de primer año.Introduction: Several studies have suggested that early contact of medical students with medical care may have beneficial effects on their motivation, knowledge of doctor-patient relationship and acceptance of the interest of biomedical sciences. In the new joint degree of Medicine of Autonomous University of Barcelona and Pompeu Fabra University we have incorporated the subject 'Prácticas de Grado' during the first three years. It is devoted to permit the early contact of medical students with primary care, nursing

  11. Predictors of uterine evacuation following early medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew F; Monmaney, Jessica A; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2016-02-01

    We sought to determine predictors of uterine evacuation for women undergoing medical abortion using mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol through 63 days' gestation. We pooled data from two prospective multicenter medical abortion trials. In one study, women received mifepristone 200 mg followed either 6-8 or 23-25 h later by misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally. In the second study, women received mifepristone 200 mg followed either misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally. We examined the absolute risk (AR) of uterine evacuation using Fisher's Exact Tests for categorical variables and Student t test and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of uterine evacuation. Uterine evacuation was performed for 75 (3.5%) of 2160 women. In multivariable analysis, 5 or more prior deliveries (AR 11.9%, OR 4.6) and gestational age of 8 weeks or more (AR 4.1%, OR 2.1) were significantly associated with uterine evacuation, while age of 20 years or younger (AR 1.4%, OR 0.4) was significantly and inversely associated with uterine evacuation. Prior cesarean delivery, multiple gestations, smoking, weight, body surface area and body mass index were not predictive of uterine evacuation in univariate or multivariable analysis. Uterine evacuation is an uncommon outcome in medical abortion with mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol. Five or more deliveries are the only significant predictor that identifies a group with an AR of uterine evacuation of more than 6%. Uterine evacuation is uncommon in medical abortion with mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol. Parity of five or more is the only significant predictor of uterine evacuation exceeding 6%. Until additional research is completed, medical abortion should not be withheld from women with five or more deliveries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early-career researchers in medical applications @ CERN | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Discover how technological advances for high-energy physics have become essential tools for modern medicine. CERN seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, and this mission naturally contributes to advancing the frontiers of technology. State-of-the-art techniques developed for particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing have applications beyond the high-energy physics community in the medical field. These applications now have an essential role in clinical practices and medical research centres: from imaging devices, accelerator-technology dedicated to cancer therapy, to simulations and data science tools. This knowledge transfer from the high energy physics community to innovation in other fields is an inherent component of CERN’s mission and culture. It fuels scientific collaboration and technological advances, and drives innovation. In addition, it motivates future generations of scientists, and contributes to the public awareness of the impact of fu...

  13. Between Galen, Geddes, and the Gael: Arthur Brock, modernity, and medical humanism in early-twentieth-century Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, David

    2005-01-01

    Arthur Brock (1879-1947) is generally remembered as the physician who treated poet Wilfred Owen for shell shock and as the translator of Galen and other ancient physicians. He was also a key figure in the early-twentieth-century humanist revival within medicine. Brock's interest in humanism, I argue, was inspired by a broader concern about modernity and by a desire to return medicine and society to the more harmonious, organic existence that he believed was characteristic of ancient Greece and could still be found among "primitive" peoples, such as the Scottish Gaels. This article explores Brock's anxieties about modernity and its relations to his interests in ancient and "primitive" peoples; to his medical thought and practice; to his interests in history, sociology, language, and translation; and to his involvement in the social and political life of Edinburgh and North Queensferry, where he moved in 1925. Crucially, it shows how all these interests and activities were influenced by Brock's mentor, Edinburgh polymath Patrick Geddes. The article concludes with a discussion of Brock's place in early-twentieth-century medical humanism.

  14. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-07-14

    Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Home use of misoprostol for early medical abortion in a low resource setting: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Kirti; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Iyengar, Sharad D; Paul, Mandira; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Although home use of misoprostol for early medical abortion is considered to be safe, effective and feasible, it has not become standard service delivery practice. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of home use of misoprostol with clinic misoprostol in a low-resource setting. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted in six primary care clinics in India. Women seeking medical abortion within up to nine gestational weeks (n = 731) received mifepristone in the clinic and were allocated either to home or clinic administration of misoprostol. Follow-up contact was after 10-15 days. Of 731 participants, 73% were from rural areas and 55% had no formal education. Complete abortion rates in the home and clinic misoprostol groups were 94.2 and 94.4%, respectively. The rate of adverse events was similar in both groups (0.3%). A greater proportion of home users (90.2%) said that they would opt for misoprostol at home in the event of a future abortion compared with clinic users (79.7%) who would opt for misoprostol at the clinic in a similar situation (p = 0.0002). Ninety-six percent women using misoprostol at home or in the clinic were satisfied with their abortion experience. Home-use of misoprostol for early medical abortion is as effective and acceptable as clinic use, in low resource settings. Women should be offered a choice of this option regardless of distance of their residence from the clinic and communication facilities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Probability elicitation to inform early health economic evaluations of new medical technologies: a case study in heart failure disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2013-06-01

    Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining probability elicitation with early health economic modeling. The technology considered was a novel point-of-care testing device in heart failure disease management. First, we developed a continuous-time Markov model to represent the patients' disease progression under the current care setting. Next, we identified the model parameters that are likely to change after the introduction of the new device and interviewed three cardiologists to capture the probability distributions of these parameters. Finally, we obtained the probability distribution of the commercial headroom available per measurement by propagating the uncertainty in the model inputs to uncertainty in modeled outcomes. For a willingness-to-pay value of €10,000 per life-year, the median headroom available per measurement was €1.64 (interquartile range €0.05-€3.16) when the measurement frequency was assumed to be daily. In the subsequently conducted sensitivity analysis, this median value increased to a maximum of €57.70 for different combinations of the willingness-to-pay threshold and the measurement frequency. Probability elicitation can successfully be combined with early health economic modeling to obtain the probability distribution of the headroom available to a new medical technology. Subsequently feeding this distribution into a product investment evaluation method enables stakeholders to make more informed decisions regarding to which markets a currently available product prototype should be targeted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  18. Repellent and acaricidal effects of botanical extracts on Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Gende, Liesel B; Maggi, Matías D; Palacios, Sara; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2011-01-01

    Extracts of indigenous plants from South America have shown a broad spectrum of bioactivities. No-contaminant and natural substances have recently resurged as control treatment options for varroosis in honey bee colonies from Argentina. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological activity of botanical extracts from Baccharis flabellata and Minthostachys verticillata on Varroa destructor and Apis mellifera. The acaricidal and insecticidal activities were assessed by the spraying application method. Both ethanolic extracts showed high levels of toxicity against the mites and were harmless to their host, A. mellifera. During the attractive-repellent test, the olfactory stimulus evoked for the extract from B. flabellata resulted as a repellent for mites. The aromatic stimulus of these extracts would be strong enough to cause disturbance on the behavior of V. destructor. Thus, the repellent effect of these substances plus the toxicity on mites postulate these botanical extracts like promising natural compound to be incorporated for the control of varroosis.

  19. Botanical drugs in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2016-12-24

    China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  20. Early diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome based on a medical history and physical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yutaka; Wada, Mikio; Kawashima, Atsushi; Kagawa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with fever and rigor after experiencing respiratory symptoms the previous week that had resolved within a few days. On presentation, her neck was swollen along the right sternocleidomastoid muscle, and chest CT showed pulmonary septic embolisms. Lemierre's syndrome was strongly suspected based on the patient's medical history and physical findings. Further examination revealed venous thrombus, and Fusobacterium necrophorum was later isolated from blood cultures. Antibiotics for anaerobes were administered before a final diagnosis was made, and the patient's symptoms thereafter improved. A rapid diagnosis is essential, since Lemierre's syndrome can be fatal with a diagnostic delay.

  1. The Future of Medical Imaging in the Detection of Early Markers of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Y. Croft

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are a combination of a contrast mechanism, exogenous or endogenous, and an instrument to exploit that contrast. This final chapter of these two special issues of this journal points to possible ways to improve the ability of imaging systems to exploit markers of cancer in the early detection of that disease. The aim not only is to find cancer at an earlier, more treatable stage, but to determine whether the disease discovered is dangerous and to indicate the possibilities for successful treatment. These topics are explored for each imaging system, with an emphasis on directions for future improvements.

  2. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suluh Normasiwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an institute for ex situ plant conservation of high mountains, Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG, has more than 1652 species and 8140 specimens of plant collections. An inventory of potential fruit crop in CBG which will support the conservation program had never been done before. The aim of this activity is to determine its potential collections as fruit crop. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze all the data achieved from registration unit and catalogue of (CBG. The results showed that 422 numbers of collections from 31 family, 56 genus and 114 species have high potential as a fruit crop. Moreover, Cibodas Botanical Garden has 74% collection of indigenous fruit (included 85 species and 61% collection of underutilize fruit (included 68 species from the total number of fruit plant collections. Most of potential plant collections are able to be developed as an edible fruit crop in Indonesia in order to enhance local food security through diversification of fruit crop.How to CiteNormasiwi, S., & Surya, M. I. (2016. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 206-213.

  3. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on 1H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements. PMID:26244884

  4. Polyphenols as Possible Markers of Botanical Origin of Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašić, Uroš M; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the botanical and geographical origin of food has become an important topic in the context of food quality and safety, as well as consumer protection, in accordance with international standards. Finding chemical markers, especially phytochemicals, characteristic for some kind of food is the subject of interest of a significant number of researchers in the world. This paper is focused on the use of polyphenols as potential markers for the determination of botanical origin of honey. It includes a review of the polyphenols present in various honey samples and the methods for their separation and identification. Special emphasis in this paper is placed on the identification of honey polyphenols using advanced LC-MS techniques in order to find specific markers of botanical origin of honey. In this regard, this study gives an overview of the literature that describes the use of LC-MS techniques for the isolation and determination of honey polyphenols. This review focuses on the research performed in the past two decades.

  5. Multitarget botanical pharmacotherapy in major depression: a toxic brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siu W; Tang, Wayne H; Leonard, Brain E

    2017-11-01

    A significant number of patients with major depression do not respond optimally to current antidepressant drugs. As depression is likely to be a heterogeneous disorder, it is possible that existing neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs do not fully address other pathologies that may exist in certain cases. Biological pathologies related to depression that have been proposed and studied extensively include inflammation and immunology, hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, and impaired angiogenesis. Such pathologies may induce neurodegeneration, which in turn causes cognitive impairment, a symptom increasingly being recognized in depression. A neurotoxic brain hypothesis unifying all these factors may explain the heterogeneity of depression as well as cognitive decline and antidepressant drug resistance in some patients. Compared with neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs, many botanical compounds in traditional medicine used for the treatment of depression and its related symptoms have been discovered to be anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-infection, antioxidative, and proangiogenic. Some botanical compounds also exert actions on neurotransmission. This multitarget nature of botanical medicine may act through the amelioration of the neurotoxic brain environment in some patients resistant to neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs. A multitarget multidimensional approach may be a reasonable solution for patients resistant to neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs.

  6. Dermocosmetics for dry skin: a new role for botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti, F; Wölfle, U; Gehring, W; Schempp, C M

    2011-01-01

    Dry skin is associated with a disturbed skin barrier and reduced formation of epidermal proteins and lipids. During recent years, skin-barrier-reinforcing properties of some botanical compounds have been described. Searching the PubMed database revealed 9 botanical extracts that specifically improve skin barrier and/or promote keratinocyte differentiation in vivo after topical application. The topical application of Aloe vera (leaf gel), Betula alba (birch bark extract), Helianthus annuus (sunflower oleodistillate), Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort extract), Lithospermum erythrorhizon (root extract), Piptadenia colubrina (angico-branco extract) and Simarouba amara (bitter wood extract) increased skin hydration, reduced the transepidermal water loss, or promoted keratinocyte differentiation in humans in vivo. The topical application of Rubia cordifolia root extract and rose oil obtained from Rosa spp. flowers stimulated keratinocyte differentiation in mouse models. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are discussed. It is concluded that some botanical compounds display skin-barrier-reinforcing properties that may be used in dermocosmetics for dry skin. However, more investigations on the mode of action and more vehicle-controlled studies are required. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Wound emergencies: the importance of assessment, documentation, and early treatment using a wound electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinko, Michael S; Clark, Sunday; Rennert, Robert; Flattau, Anna; Boulton, Andrew J M; Brem, Harold

    2009-05-01

    Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers are a major source of morbidity and mortality. To describe wound characteristics associated with a wound emergency, the Wound Electronic Medical Records (WEMR) of 200 consecutive admissions (139 patients, average number of admissions 1.4) to a dedicated inpatient wound healing unit over a period of 5 months were retrospectively reviewed. Patient mean age was 62 +/- 16 years, 59% were men, 27% had a foot ulcer and diabetes mellitus, and 29% had venous ulcers. Presenting signs and symptoms included wound pain, cellulitis, nonpurulent drainage, and undermining, but few presented with classic local clinical signs of infection. Treatment consisted of sharp debridement with deep tissue culture and pathology from the wound base and/or systemic antibiotics. Twenty-percent (20%) of patients had pathology-confirmed and 38% had pathology- or radiology-confirmed osteomyelitis on admission, supporting that new or increasing wound pain, cellulitis, and/or nonpurulent drainage or presence of significant undermining may be indicative of an invasive infection and that patients presenting with these signs and symptoms require an immediate treatment plan and consideration of hospital admission. Use of an objective documentation system such as the WEMR may help alert clinicians to subtle wound changes that require aggressive treatment; thereby, avoiding emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Future research is needed utilizing the WEMR across multiple medical centers to further define criteria for a chronic wound emergency.

  9. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  10. Best practices in early phase medical device development: Engineering, prototyping, and the beginnings of a quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearis, Kristy; Petrie, Aidan

    2017-03-01

    Kristy Fearis is the founder and president of KPConsulting. She has held various positions in the medical device and research industry. She has led programs for medical industry leaders Medtronic, Edward Lifesciences, and Kimberly-Clark Healthcare to develop and commercialize Class II and III devices. Although a true quality management systems specialist at heart, Kristy has a passion for effectively and efficiently applying quality systems principles to early stage development to maximize benefit while minimizing impact on resources and time to market. Kristy works with both precommercial and commercial companies to build and implement quality systems that are "right sized" and support both an effective business model and high product quality. Aidan Petrie is the cofounder and chief innovation officer of Ximedica. Aidan drives innovation in Ximedica's core markets of medical device development and consumer healthcare. With a focus on human-centered design, usability, technical innovation and industrial design, Aidan has helped bring hundreds of products to market. Ranging from simple drug compliance aids to wearable therapeutics, home monitoring products, and complex surgical systems, Aidan challenges his teams to rethink the role design plays in the success of each product. Covering topics around usability, sensor and wearable technology, and current trends in medical design and development, Aidan is a sought-after industry speaker and widely published author. In addition to his role at Ximedica, Aidan advises multiple startups in the healthcare space and has interests in a number of related companies. He sits on the Board of MassArt and teaches and lectures at the Rhode Island School of Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Harvard iLab, and others. Aidan holds an undergraduate degree from Central St Martins in product design/engineering and a Masters in industrial design from the Rhode Island School of Design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Motus Tonicus: Georg Ernst Stahl's formulation of tonic motion and early modern medical thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This paper places in multiple contexts Stahl's formulation of tonic motion, a contractive and relaxative movement of body tissues that was thought to moderate the circulatory blood flowing through their porous structure. The paper analyzes Stahl's theory, elucidates its role in connecting his physiology and pathology, and situates its formulation in his conceptual development as well as the intellectual history of early modern medicine. The theory was at first a post-Harveyan attempt to explain occasional uneven blood flows; it was then expanded to account for the mechanism of blood circulation and metabolism, and formed a fundamental part of Stahl's effort to present a theory of animal heat and fever that would replace the traditional Galenic and fermentational theories. Tonic motion constituted the most important device that counteracted the ineluctable, unceasing corruption of the body, as dictated by its chemical nature; it thus qualified as the preeminent form of what Stahl considered vital motions.

  12. Medical decision support using machine learning for early detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Subramani; Ozdas, Asli; Aliferis, Constantin; Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Chen, Qingxia; Carnevale, Randy; Chen, Yukun; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Nian, Hui; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to develop non-invasive predictive models for late-onset neonatal sepsis from off-the-shelf medical data and electronic medical records (EMR). The data used in this study are from 299 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in the Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt and evaluated for late-onset sepsis. Gold standard diagnostic labels (sepsis negative, culture positive sepsis, culture negative/clinical sepsis) were assigned based on all the laboratory, clinical and microbiology data available in EMR. Only data that were available up to 12 h after phlebotomy for blood culture testing were used to build predictive models using machine learning (ML) algorithms. We compared sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sepsis treatment of physicians with the predictions of models generated by ML algorithms. The treatment sensitivity of all the nine ML algorithms and specificity of eight out of the nine ML algorithms tested exceeded that of the physician when culture-negative sepsis was included. When culture-negative sepsis was excluded both sensitivity and specificity exceeded that of the physician for all the ML algorithms. The top three predictive variables were the hematocrit or packed cell volume, chorioamnionitis and respiratory rate. Predictive models developed from off-the-shelf and EMR data using ML algorithms exceeded the treatment sensitivity and treatment specificity of clinicians. A prospective study is warranted to assess the clinical utility of the ML algorithms in improving the accuracy of antibiotic use in the management of neonatal sepsis.

  13. Text mining approach to predict hospital admissions using early medical records from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Filipe R; S Fogliatto, Flavio; C da Silveira, Giovani J; L Neyeloff, Jeruza; Anzanello, Michel J; de S Kuchenbecker, Ricardo; D Schaan, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a serious issue for hospitals. Early information on short-term inward bed demand from patients receiving care at the ED may reduce the overcrowding problem, and optimize the use of hospital resources. In this study, we use text mining methods to process data from early ED patient records using the SOAP framework, and predict future hospitalizations and discharges. We try different approaches for pre-processing of text records and to predict hospitalization. Sets-of-words are obtained via binary representation, term frequency, and term frequency-inverse document frequency. Unigrams, bigrams and trigrams are tested for feature formation. Feature selection is based on χ 2 and F-score metrics. In the prediction module, eight text mining methods are tested: Decision Tree, Random Forest, Extremely Randomized Tree, AdaBoost, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear) and Nu-Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear). Prediction performance is evaluated by F1-scores. Precision and Recall values are also informed for all text mining methods tested. Nu-Support Vector Machine was the text mining method with the best overall performance. Its average F1-score in predicting hospitalization was 77.70%, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.66%. The method could be used to manage daily routines in EDs such as capacity planning and resource allocation. Text mining could provide valuable information and facilitate decision-making by inward bed management teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early assessment of medical technologies to inform product development and market access: a review of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijzerman, Maarten J; Steuten, Lotte M G

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, billions of dollars are invested in medical product development and there is an increasing pressure to maximize the revenues of these investments. That is, governments need to be informed about the benefits of spending public resources, companies need more information to manage their product development portfolios and even universities may need to direct their research programmes in order to maximize societal benefits. Assuming that all medical products need to be adopted by the heavily regulated healthcare market at one point in time, it is worthwhile to look at the logic behind healthcare decision making, specifically, decisions on the coverage of medical products and decisions on the use of these products under competing and uncertain conditions. With the growing tension between leveraging economic growth through R&D spending on the one hand and stricter control of healthcare budgets on the other, several attempts have been made to apply the health technology assessment (HTA) methodology to earlier stages of technology development and implementation. For instance, horizon scanning was introduced to systematically assess emerging technologies in order to inform health policy. Others have introduced iterative economic evaluation, e.g. economic evaluations in earlier stages of clinical research. However, most of these methods are primarily intended to support governments in making decisions regarding potentially expensive new medical products. They do not really inform biomedical product developers on the probability of return on investment, nor do they inform about the market needs and specific requirements of technologies in development. It is precisely this aspect that increasingly receives attention, i.e. is it possible to use HTA tools and methods to inform biomedical product development and to anticipate further development and market access. Several methods have been used in previous decades, but have never been compiled in a comprehensive review

  15. Is community-based electrocardiography education feasible in the early phase of an undergraduate medical curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol O. Larson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB electrocardiography (ECG instruction in semesters 4and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (þqual research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL and 21strongly supported task-based (TB CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.

  16. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.

  17. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Lynn S.; Seeram, Navindra P.; Hardy, Mary L.; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David

    2006-01-01

    Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa re...

  18. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyungseop

    2017-03-01

    Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness. Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively. Korea started to show visible results with botanical drugs, and asthma/COPD treatment made out of speedwell is one example. Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 111-116].

  19. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marcela Meneghetti; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coelho-de-Souza, Gabriela; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2013-07-30

    This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district's insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

  20. Botanical forest products in British Columbia: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geus, N.

    1994-12-31

    This report gives an overview of the botanical forest products harvest in British Columbia; discusses the issues of sustainability, multiple forest resource use, revenue to government, social and economic factors, health and safety, and interagency coordination; and gives recommendations for managing the industry. The report describes the industry and the harvest in British Columbia and other jurisdictions of wild edible mushrooms; floral and greenery products such cedar foliage and white pine boughs; medicinal and pharmaceutical products such as Cascara bark and Western yew bark; wild berries and fruit; herb and vegetable products; native landscaping plants; craft products; and such miscellaneous products as honey and by-products, syrup, and smoke woods.

  1. „A. FATU” BOTANICAL GARDEN IASSY – THE GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU GEORGETA

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In Iassy, „A. Fatu” Botanical garden’s Greenhouse complex (20 buildings with a total area of 3800 sq.m hosts a remarcable fund of exotic plants (2700 taxa, native especially in subtropical, tropical and ecuatorial areas, on every continent.This paper presents some of the plant collections grown in this space. It comes out that, by number, diversity and value (scientific/decorative of the taxa, many collections – azaleas and camelias, carnivorous plant, palm trees, bromelias, orchids, cicads, crotons, ficuses – have a unicum value in the country.

  2. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  3. Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae at Peter the Great Botanical Garden in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadiy Afanasyevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. was the first exotic species of this genus to be cultivated at Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS in Saint Petersburg – it was mentioned at M.M. Terekhovsky’s Catalogue in 1796. Firstly it was cultivated indoors. It was tested by E.L. Regel as early as in 1871 but unsuccessfully. It has been cultivated trustworthy outdoors since 1914. It was seriously frost damaging during the 20th century in cold winters with temperature below -25 oC, such as in 1955/56, 1968/69, 1978/79, аnd 1984/85. The winter of 1986/87 with absolute minimum temperature -34,7oC was very unfavourable, and many trees died after it. At present, the winter hardiness has increased with the warming of the climate. There are no frost damages at all or they are small and insignificant. The largest trees now reach 19 m high and 31 cm of trunk diameter in the age of 67 years old. The majority of trees produce fruits. Twenty trees of modern collection represent the five generations. The visible increasing of adaptation abilities is observed starting with the fifth generation. The trees of the fifth generation are good looking single-trunked trees without frost damages. Since 2014 they have been producing fruits, and subsequently this is possible to obtain plants of the sixth generation. Apparently the specimens of the fifth and the next generations are of special value to test at areas outside of the city to promote the distribution of the walnut in cultivation.

  4. Heterogeneous models for an early discrimination between sepsis and non-infective SIRS in medical ward patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearelli, Filippo; Fiotti, Nicola; Altamura, Nicola; Zanetti, Michela; Fernandes, Giovanni; Burekovic, Ismet; Occhipinti, Alessandro; Orso, Daniele; Giansante, Carlo; Casarsa, Chiara; Biolo, Gianni

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the accuracy of phospholipase A2 group II (PLA2-II), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and procalcitonin (PCT) plasma levels in early ruling in/out of sepsis among systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients. Biomarker levels were determined in 80 SIRS patients during the first 4 h of admission to the medical ward. The final diagnosis of sepsis or non-infective SIRS was issued according to good clinical practice. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for sepsis diagnosis were assessed. The optimal biomarker combinations with clinical variables were investigated by logistic regression and decision tree (CART). PLA2-II, IP-10 and PCT, but not Ang-2, were significantly higher in septic (n = 60) than in non-infective SIRS (n = 20) patients (P ≤ 0.001, 0.027, and 0.002, respectively). PLA2-II PPV and NPV were 88 and 86%, respectively. The corresponding figures were 100 and 31% for IP-10, and 93 and 35% for PCT. Binary logistic regression model had 100% PPV and NPV, while manual and software-generated CART reached an overall accuracy of 95 and 98%, respectively, both with 100% NPV. PLA2-II and IP-10 associated with clinical variables in regression or decision tree heterogeneous models may be valuable biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis in SIRS patients admitted to medical ward (MW). Further studies are needed to introduce them into clinical practice.

  5. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Daugsch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea, but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L Taub. (Leguminosae to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  6. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neural networks applied to discriminate botanical origin of honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ofélia; Iglesias, Carla; Peres, Fátima; Martínez, Javier; García, Ángela; Taboada, Javier

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work is develop a tool based on neural networks to predict the botanical origin of honeys using physical and chemical parameters. The managed database consists of 49 honey samples of 2 different classes: monofloral (almond, holm oak, sweet chestnut, eucalyptus, orange, rosemary, lavender, strawberry trees, thyme, heather, sunflower) and multifloral. The moisture content, electrical conductivity, water activity, ashes content, pH, free acidity, colorimetric coordinates in CIELAB space (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)) and total phenols content of the honey samples were evaluated. Those properties were considered as input variables of the predictive model. The neural network is optimised through several tests with different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and also with different input variables. The reduced error rates (5%) allow us to conclude that the botanical origin of honey can be reliably and quickly known from the colorimetric information and the electrical conductivity of honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose requirements for microbial decontamination of botanical materials by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, D.; Katusin-Razem, Branka

    2002-01-01

    Microbial contamination levels and corresponding resistivities to irradiation (expressed as dose required for the first 90% reduction, D first 9 0% r ed ) were analyzed in a number of various botanical materials. The following generalizations could be made: total aerobic plate count is the most informative measure of contamination; the probability of contamination depends on available surface of the material and processing history: flowers and leaves usually contain more contamination than fruits and seeds, while crude herbs contain more than extracts; liquid extracts are more contaminated than dry ones. At the same time, resistivity to irradiation increases approximately in the reverse order of contamination level on going from flowers and leaves, to fruits and seeds, to liquid and dry extracts. The two quantities, probability of contamination and D first 9 0% r ed being inversely related, the treatment dose needed to reduce initial contamination to tolerable level amounts to between 4 and 30 kGy under a typical scenario, and between 8 and 40 kGy under the worst-case scenario for the whole range of raw materials and botanical products

  9. APEP-Anesthesiology Preceptorship Enrichment Program: A Curriculum for First and Second Year Medical Students…An Early Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Amy; Kileny, Joel; LeVan, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this educational innovation was to create a program for first and second year medical students (MS1s and MS2s) that would: (1) Provide students with early clinical exposure to the subspecialty field of anesthesiology, (2) Expose MS1s and MS2s to dedicated anesthesiologists serving as preceptors, (3) Enrich the students' basic science knowledge in a practical way using an integrated curriculum with clinical correlates and (4) Convey an accurate depiction of anesthesiology as a possible career choice. The Anesthesiology Preceptorship Enrichment Program (APEP) was designed for MS1s and MS2s as a seven month curriculum for each level, integrated with basic science course content. APEP students shadowed faculty from the Department of Anesthesiology (APEP preceptors). Guided by handouts, preceptors reviewed basic science concepts with clinical correlates. APEP encounters from October 2006-April 2007, October 2007-April 2008, and October 2008-April 2009 were documented and students completed a questionnaire about their experience. After three years, APEP has become a successful program, as evidenced by the increasing numbers of interested incoming students, active students and returning students. According to the end of program questionnaire, 38-68% of the APEP students used the APEP handouts to guide discussions with their preceptor, enhance intra-operative teaching, and/or refer to while studying for basic science course exams. According to the questionnaire, 71-80% of the APEP students were more interested in the field of anesthesiology after participating in APEP, 10-16% were neither more or less interested, and 4-19% were less interested. Early clinical exposure to anesthesiology with APEP was viewed as a very positive experience, increasing interest in anesthesiology at the MS1 and MS2 level. The APEP handouts were deemed a useful aid for discussion and created opportunities for teaching clinical correlates of basic science knowledge.

  10. The Hidden History of a Famous Drug : Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in Early Modern Western Europe (c. 1650-1720)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine

    2016-01-01

    The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established

  11. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  12. A Content Analysis of U.S. Botanical and Horticultural Library Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michele M.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an introductory analysis of the content of the Web sites of botanical and horticultural libraries in the United States to determine what types of resources and information is included, whether or not information is organized and accessible, and to what extent botanical and horticultural libraries are using…

  13. Gastrointestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njåstad, K. M.; Adler, S. A.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4. ×. 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short...

  14. Topical Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnik, Benjamin; Sharma, Divya; Alban, Joseph; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psoriasis often enquire about the use of numerous botanical therapeutics. It is important for dermatologists to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents. We conducted a systematic literature search using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials that assessed the use of topical botanical therapeutics for psoriasis. The search included the following keywords: 'psoriasis' and 'plant' or 'herbal' or 'botanical'. We also reviewed citations within articles to identify additional relevant sources. We then further refined the results by route of administration and the topical botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 27 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of topical botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. We found that the most highly studied and most efficacious topical botanical therapeutics were Mahonia aquifolium, indigo naturalis, aloe vera, and, to a lesser degree, capsaicin. The most commonly reported adverse effects were local skin irritation, erythema, pruritus, burning, and pain. However, the overall evidence for these therapeutics remains limited in quantity and quality. The literature addresses a large number of studies in regard to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary before topical botanical agents can be consistently recommended to patients.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  16. Research Notes Use of the dry-weight-rank method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When used in combination with the double sampling (or comparative yield) method of yield estimation, the dry-weight-rank method of botanical analysis provides a rapid non-destructive means of estimating botanical composition. The composition is expressed in terms of the contribution of individual species to total herbage ...

  17. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  18. Expanding the role of botanical gardens in the future of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, the world’s more than 3,000 botanical gardens cultivate approximately one-third of known plant species in living collections, and contribute valuable information on plant identification, geographic distributions, morphology, reproduction, and traditional uses. Further, each year botan...

  19. Level of use and safety of botanical products for itching vulvar dermatoses. Are patch tests useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Toni, Giulia; Minghetti, Sara; Tiengo, Silvia; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Topical remedies based on botanical ingredients are popular. To assess: (i) the usage of botanical substances in subjects affected with itching and chronic vulvar complaints; (ii) the incidence of side-effects associated with their use and the frequency of contact allergy; (iii) the diagnostic usefulness of patch testing. Sixty-six patients were provided with a questionnaire to assess the prevalence and type of topical botanical preparations used and the occurrence of adverse reactions. Patients were patch tested with (i) the Italian baseline series, (ii) a topical medicament series, and (iii) a botanical series. Forty-two patients (63.6%) reported the use of natural topical products on the vulva. Seven (16.7%) noted adverse reactions; 27 showed positive reactions with the baseline series; 14 (21.2%) had at least one relevant reaction, mainly to allergens in topical products and cosmetics; and 2 (3%) showed positive reactions to the botanical series. Of the 7 patients complaining of adverse effects of botanical products, 3 (42.8%) showed relevant sensitization. The use of natural topical products is widespread among women affected with itching vulvar diseases. Contact dermatitis is a possible adverse effect. Botanical series are of questionable usefulness, owing to the wide variety of botanical ingredients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Use of the dry-weight-rank method of botanical analysis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry-weight-rank method of botanical analysis was tested in the highveld of the Eastern Transvaal and was found to be an efficient and accurate means of determining the botanical composition of veld herbage. Accuracy was increased by weighting ranks on the basis of quadrat yield, and by allocation of equal ranks to ...

  1. XVII International Botanical Congress. 100 years after the II IBC in Vienna 1905. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.; Hesse, M.; Stuessy, T.; Greimler, J.; Bohar-Nodenkampf, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The program of XVII IBC 2005 includes all aspects of basic and applied botanical research. Progress in the different sub-disciplines is revealed through plenary talks, general lectures, symposia, and poster sessions. This conference emphasizes the newest developments in the botanical sciences worldwide. (botek)

  2. Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Almeida, de R.P.; Boer, de P.W.M.; Jeong, G.S.; Kossou, D.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant

  3. Computer simulation in conjunction with medical thermography as an adjunct tool for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsan NM

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modelling and analysis is now accepted in the engineering design on par with experimental approaches. Computer simulations enable one to perform several 'what-if' analyses cost effectively. High speed computers and low cost of memory has helped in simulating large-scale models in a relatively shorter time frame. The possibility of extending numerical modelling in the area of breast cancer detection in conjunction with medical thermography is considered in this work. Methods Thermography enables one to see the temperature pattern and look for abnormality. In a thermogram there is no radiation risk as it only captures the infrared radiation from the skin and is totally painless. But, a thermogram is only a test of physiology, whereas a mammogram is a test of anatomy. It is hoped that a thermogram along with numerical modelling will serve as an adjunct tool. Presently mammogram is the 'gold-standard' in breast cancer detection. But the interpretation of a mammogram is largely dependent on the radiologist. Therefore, a thermogram that looks into the physiological changes in combination with numerical simulation performing 'what-if' analysis could act as an adjunct tool to mammography. Results The proposed framework suggested that it could reduce the occurrence of false-negative/positive cases. Conclusion A numerical bioheat model of a female breast is developed and simulated. The results are compared with experimental results. The possibility of this method as an early detection tool is discussed.

  4. Efficacy and safety of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for early medical abortion in an Australian clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Philip; Walker, Clara; Hawtin, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, a composite pack containing mifepristone-buccal misoprostol, indicated for use to 63 days gestation replaced the existing regimen for early medical abortion (EMA) in Australia. To provide updated efficacy and safety information for the use of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for EMA in Australia, and assess the effect of patient age and gestational age on efficacy. Observational cohort study of 15 008 women attending one of 16 Marie Stopes International clinics in Australia for an EMA (gestational age ≤ 63 days) between 1 March 2013 and 30 September 2015. Administration of 200 mg oral mifepristone in-clinic was followed 24-48 h later by 800 μg buccal misoprostol self-administered at home. Method success was defined as complete abortion not requiring surgical intervention. Follow-up information was available for 87.14% (13 078/15 008) of women. Likelihood of follow-up was significantly lower for women from rural or remote locations (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; P misoprostol is an effective and safe alternative to surgical termination of pregnancy up to 63 days gestation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Computer simulation in conjunction with medical thermography as an adjunct tool for early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Eddie Y-K; Sudharsan, NM

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical modelling and analysis is now accepted in the engineering design on par with experimental approaches. Computer simulations enable one to perform several 'what-if' analyses cost effectively. High speed computers and low cost of memory has helped in simulating large-scale models in a relatively shorter time frame. The possibility of extending numerical modelling in the area of breast cancer detection in conjunction with medical thermography is considered in this work. Thermography enables one to see the temperature pattern and look for abnormality. In a thermogram there is no radiation risk as it only captures the infrared radiation from the skin and is totally painless. But, a thermogram is only a test of physiology, whereas a mammogram is a test of anatomy. It is hoped that a thermogram along with numerical modelling will serve as an adjunct tool. Presently mammogram is the 'gold-standard' in breast cancer detection. But the interpretation of a mammogram is largely dependent on the radiologist. Therefore, a thermogram that looks into the physiological changes in combination with numerical simulation performing 'what-if' analysis could act as an adjunct tool to mammography. The proposed framework suggested that it could reduce the occurrence of false-negative/positive cases. A numerical bioheat model of a female breast is developed and simulated. The results are compared with experimental results. The possibility of this method as an early detection tool is discussed

  6. Suppressive effects of ethanolic extracts from propolis and its main botanical origin on dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong K; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Daugsch, Andreas; Sato, Helia H; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2005-12-28

    Suppressive effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from propolis group 12 and its main botanical origin (leaf bud of Baccharis dracunculifolia) on transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the initial action of dioxin toxicity, were investigated. It was found that suppressive effects of propolis on AhR transformation were relatively higher than those of resins of its botanical origin in cell-free system and in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. When the composition of chemical ingredients was measured, propolis contained slightly higher amounts of flavonoid aglycones as compared with its botanical origin with the same characteristics. Moreover, antiradical activity, one of the typical biological activities of flavonoids, in propolis was also slightly higher than that in its botanical origin. These results indicate that not only propolis but also its botanical origin contains high amounts of flavonoid aglycones and that both of them are useful dietary sources for flavonoids with a potency to prevent dioxin toxicity.

  7. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors. Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area. They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels. Therefore, a person’s ability to correctly identify a large number of species is not a safeguard against the generation of false-positive errors. There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate. Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey. Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify

  8. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  9. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutic in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ronald L; Levenson, Corey

    2017-10-01

    Many skin conditions and diseases are characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. Safe and effective topical treatment options that can be used long-term are needed. Traditional botanical medicines, which are often complex mixtures that exert their biological activities via multiple mechanisms of action, are being studied as potential new active ingredients in dermatology. Sandalwood album oil (SAO), also known as East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO), is an essential oil distilled from the Santalum album tree and has demonstrated biological activity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative agent. Sandalwood album oil has also shown promise in clinical trials for treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum. The favorable safety profile, ease of topical use, and recent availability of pharmaceutical-grade sandalwood album oil support its broader use as the basis of novel therapies in dermatology.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of new botanical reference materials. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L.

    1993-01-01

    The certified, information, and other values of elemental contents were compared with results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the new Czechoslovak botanical reference materials (RMs) Green Algae 12-02-02, Lucerne 12-02-03, Wheat Bread Fluor 12-02-04, and Rye Bread Flour 12-02-05. These were prepared by the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, and statistically evaluated after interlaboratory comparisons. For the majority of elements, a very good agreement was found between the IRANT values and the results of NAA. In several cases, however, significant differences were detected; possible analytical reasons for the differences and the suitability of a purely statistical evaluation of intercomparison results without analytical considerations for RM certification are discussed. (orig.)

  12. "They increase in beauty and elegance": transforming cadavers and the epistemology of dissection in early nineteenth-century American medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Rachel N

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the origins of the practice of dissection in American medical education in order to both understand the function of dissection in medical education and challenge conventional wisdom about that function. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, American medical schools increasingly made human dissection a crucial part of their curricula, privileging use of the human cadaver over any other anatomical model. In this paper, I break apart the claims that American physicians made at that time regarding the unique pedagogic usefulness of the cadaver, and I juxtapose those claims against the realities of the dissection process. In doing so, I show how the realities of dissection differed sharply from the depictions given by physicians. In the conclusion, I argue that the cadaver still remained epistemologically and ontologically useful to the medical profession, although not necessarily for the reasons physicians explicitly stated.

  13. Integrated standardization concept for Angelica botanicals using quantitative NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Tanja; Yao, Ping; Napolitano, José G.; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Lankin, David C.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous in vitro/vivo and phytochemical studies, the active constituents of Angelica sinensis (AS) have not been conclusively identified for the standardization to bioactive markers. Phytochemical analyses of AS extracts and fractions that demonstrate activity in a panel of in vitro bioassays, have repeatedly pointed to ligustilide as being (associated with) the active principle(s). Due to the chemical instability of ligustilide and related issues in GC/LC analyses, new methods capable of quantifying ligustilide in mixtures that do not rely on an identical reference standard are in high demand. This study demonstrates how NMR can satisfy the requirement for simultaneous, multi-target quantification and qualitative identification. First, the AS activity was concentrated into a single fraction by RP-solid-phase extraction, as confirmed by an (anti-)estrogenicity and cytotoxicity assay. Next, a quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) method was established and validated using standard compounds and comparing processing methods. Subsequent 1D/2D NMR and qHNMR analysis led to the identification and quantification of ligustilide and other minor components in the active fraction, and to the development of quality criteria for authentic AS preparations. The absolute and relative quantities of ligustilide, six minor alkyl phthalides, and groups of phenylpropanoids, polyynes, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids were measured by a combination of qHNMR and 2D COSY. The qNMR approach enables multi-target quality control of the bioactive fraction, and enables the integrated biological and chemical standardization of AS botanicals. This methodology can potentially be transferred to other botanicals with active principles that act synergistically, or that contain closely related and/or constituents, which have not been conclusively identified as the active principles. PMID:21907766

  14. Behavioural outcomes of subthalamic stimulation and medical therapy versus medical therapy alone for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications (EARLYSTIM trial): secondary analysis of an open-label randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhommée, Eugénie; Wojtecki, Lars; Czernecki, Virginie; Witt, Karsten; Maier, Franziska; Tonder, Lisa; Timmermann, Lars; Hälbig, Thomas D; Pineau, Fanny; Durif, Franck; Witjas, Tatiana; Pinsker, Marcus; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Kupsch, Andreas; Krüger, Rejko; Elben, Saskia; Chabardès, Stephan; Thobois, Stéphane; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Regis, Jean-Marie; Maltête, David; Sauvaget, Anne; Rau, Jörn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Schüpbach, Michael; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Deuschl, Gunther; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Krack, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Although subthalamic stimulation is a recognised treatment for motor complications in Parkinson's disease, reports on behavioural outcomes are controversial, which represents a major challenge when counselling candidates for subthalamic stimulation. We aimed to assess changes in behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving combined treatment with subthalamic stimulation and medical therapy over a 2-year follow-up period as compared with the behavioural evolution under medical therapy alone. We did a parallel, open-label study (EARLYSTIM) at 17 surgical centres in France (n=8) and Germany (n=9). We recruited patients with Parkinson's disease who were disabled by early motor complications. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to either medical therapy alone or bilateral subthalamic stimulation plus medical therapy. The primary outcome was mean change in quality of life from baseline to 2 years. A secondary analysis was also done to assess behavioural outcomes. We used the Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease to assess changes in behaviour between baseline and 2-year follow-up. Apathy was also measured using the Starkstein Apathy Scale, and depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The secondary analysis was done in all patients recruited. We used a generalised estimating equations (GEE) regression model for individual items and mixed model regression for subscores of the Ardouin scale and the apathy and depression scales. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00354133. The primary analysis has been reported elsewhere; this report presents the secondary analysis only. Between July, 2006, and November, 2009, 251 participants were recruited, of whom 127 were allocated medical therapy alone and 124 were assigned bilateral subthalamic stimulation plus medical therapy. At 2-year follow-up, the levodopa-equivalent dose was reduced by 39% (-363·3 mg/day [SE 41·8]) in individuals allocated bilateral

  15. Risk factors and direct medical cost of early versus late unplanned readmissions among diabetes patients at a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne; Chen, Cynthia; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Khoo, Eric Y H; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2018-02-20

    To examine the risk factors and direct medical costs associated with early (≤30 days) versus late (31-180 days) unplanned readmissions among patients with type 2 diabetes in Singapore. Risk factors and associated costs among diabetes patients were investigated using electronic medical records from a local tertiary care hospital from 2010 to 2012. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with early and late unplanned readmissions while a generalized linear model was used to estimate the direct medical cost. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. A total of 1729 diabetes patients had unplanned readmissions within 180 days of an index discharge. Length of index stay (a marker of acute illness burden) was one of the risk factors associated with early unplanned readmission while patient behavior-related factors, like diabetes-related medication adherence, were associated with late unplanned readmission. Adjusted mean cost of index admission was higher among patients with unplanned readmission. Sensitivity analysis yielded similar results. Existing routinely captured data can be used to develop prediction models that flag high risk patients during their index admission, potentially helping to support clinical decisions and prevent such readmissions.

  16. Providing experiential information on early medical abortion: a qualitative evaluation of an animated personal account,Lara's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sarah; Harden, Jeni; Cattanach, Dawn; Cameron, Sharon T

    2017-10-01

    An animated film has been created to provide information to women requesting early medical abortion (EMA). The 9 min film, Lara's Story , was created using one woman's personal account of her experience. This study evaluated the views of women who had recently undergone EMA on the film and its potential usefulness in providing experiential information to women requesting EMA. Women who had undergone EMA within the past month were recruited. They were shown the film and interviewed in a semi-structured style. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. They were analysed using cross-sectional indexing and thematic analysis with an inductive approach. 13 women were interviewed. All reported that the film gave a realistic account of EMA and most agreed that they would have wanted to watch it before EMA had it been available. Some said that it might help women who were struggling with decision-making with regard to EMA and all said that there should be unrestricted access to the film from the website of the abortion service. The women commented that the animated style of the film allowed all groups of women to relate to the story. Some commented that Lara's experience of pain, bleeding and side effects such as nausea differed from their own and therefore felt that it would be useful to make more than one woman's account available. The availability of animated audiovisual films recounting women's experiences of EMA might be a valuable adjunct to clinical information for women seeking EMA. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  18. Process Philosophy and the Text-Image Interface: A Study of Three Western Australian Botanical Illustrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical illustration combines scientific knowledge and artistic technique. However, whereas illustrated botanical images record static visual qualities, such as form and color, written botanical narratives supply crucial sensory, ecological, historical, and cultural contexts that complement visual representation. Understanding the text-image interface—where images and words intersect—contributes to humanities-based analyses of botanical illustration and illustrators. More specifically, a process philosophy perspective reveals the extent to which botanical representations engage the temporality, cyclicality, and contextuality of the living plants being illustrated. This article takes up these themes through a comparative theoretical study of three female Western Australian botanical illustrators, Georgiana Leake (1812–1869, Emily Pelloe (1877–1941, and Philippa Nikulinsky (born 1942, whose lives together span the 183 year history of the Swan River Colony and the state of Western Australia. I apply a processist framework to examine the text-image interface of their works. All three illustrators use some form of textuality: marginalia, annotations, written accompaniments, introductory statements, and other narrative materials. In examining their written commentaries and traces, I identify the emergence of a process mode of botanical illustration that represents plants as ecological, historical, cultural, and temporal organisms.

  19. The study of penetration of energetic ions in botanic samples with transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.G.; Chen, Q.Z.; Xue, J.M.; Du, G.H.; Qin, H.L; Zhang, W.M.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Botanic samples (onion endocuticles, kidney bean slices) were exposed to energetic ions. By recording transmission spectra, we studied the energy loss in such samples. Individual protrusion-like damage produced in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate allowed us to analyze the mass density of the samples by scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The experimental results showed that the botanic sample is inhomogeneous in mass density, some incident ions lose only a small part of their energy after being stopped by a layer of botanic sample. Additionally, about 10 -7 of the incident ions with energy of tens of keV can penetrate through the botanic slice with a thickness of 50 μm. The dynamic change of the transmission spectrum of MeV heavy ions through a layer of botanic slice showed that the penetration ability of the incident ions increases with increasing ion fluence. These experimental results indicate that the inhomogeneousity of mass density of botanic samples and irradiation damage are the main reasons of the ultra-depth penetration of low-energy ions in such kind of botanic samples

  20. Selection and authentication of botanical materials for the development of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S

    2013-05-01

    Herbal products, for example botanical dietary supplements, are widely used. Analytical methods are needed to ensure that botanical ingredients used in commercial products are correctly identified and that research materials are of adequate quality and are sufficiently characterized to enable research to be interpreted and replicated. Adulteration of botanical material in commerce is common for some species. The development of analytical methods for specific botanicals, and accurate reporting of research results, depend critically on correct identification of test materials. Conscious efforts must therefore be made to ensure that the botanical identity of test materials is rigorously confirmed and documented through preservation of vouchers, and that their geographic origin and handling are appropriate. Use of material with an associated herbarium voucher that can be botanically identified is always ideal. Indirect methods of authenticating bulk material in commerce, for example use of organoleptic, anatomical, chemical, or molecular characteristics, are not always acceptable for the chemist's purposes. Familiarity with botanical and pharmacognostic literature is necessary to determine what potential adulterants exist and how they may be distinguished.

  1. Oral (Systemic) Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnik, Benjamin; Sharma, Divya; Alban, Joseph; Sivamani, Raja

    2017-06-01

    Patients with psoriasis often use botanical therapies as part of their treatment. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents as they treat patients. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE database for randomized clinical trials assessing the use of botanical therapeutics for psoriasis. The search included the following keywords: "psoriasis" and "plant" or "herbal" or "botanical." Citations within articles were also reviewed to identify relevant sources. The results were then further refined by route of administration, and the oral (systemic) botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 12 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of oral, systemic botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. While overall evidence is limited in quantity and quality, HESA-A, curcumin, neem extract, and, to a lesser degree, Traditional Chinese Medicine seem to be the most efficacious agents. The literature addresses a large amount of studies in regards to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary for evidence-based recommendation of oral botanical agents to psoriasis patients.

  2. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  3. In silico approach to safety of botanical dietary supplement ingredients utilizing constituent-level characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jason G; Marsman, Daniel S; Baker, Timothy R; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Botanicals used in dietary supplements industry can have toxicology concerns related to endpoint gaps that cannot be fully resolved by a history of use, or existence of conflicting safety data. However, traditional toxicological studies on botanicals are scientifically and pragmatically challenging due to testing of complex mixtures of constituents, cost, time, and animal usage. Alternatively, we developed an in silico decision-tree approach to address data gaps and inform need for further studies by toxicologically evaluating the chemical composition of botanicals. Following advanced multi-detector analytical characterization of a botanical, each chemical constituent is: (a.) quantitatively benchmarked against similar constituents in commonly consumed foods or botanicals with well-established safety profiles, (b.) systematically evaluated for toxicity data utilizing structure-activity relationships, and, (c.) compared to established thresholds of toxicological concern in absence of safety data or structural analogs. Finally, where safety endpoint gaps are identified which cannot be resolved without additional in vitro or in vivo studies, the botanical compositional data are critical to inform on study design. Results with three herbal preparations demonstrate the utility of this novel approach to identify potential hazards and establish safe human use levels for botanicals in a cost efficient and informative manner that minimizes animal use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Scientific basis of botanical medicine as alternative remedies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cindy L H; Or, Terry C T; Ho, Marco H K; Lau, Allan S Y

    2013-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that causes permanent disability and mortality to approximately 1 to 100 people in the world. Patients with RA not only suffer from pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in their joints, but also have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and lymphoma. Typically prescribed medications, including pain-relieving drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, can help to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and slow the course of disease progression in RA patients. However, the general effectiveness of the drugs has been far from satisfactory. Other therapeutic modalities like TNF-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists targeting precise pathways within the immune system are expensive and may be associated with serious side effects. Recently, botanical medicines have become popular as alternative remedies as they are believed to be efficacious, safe and have over a thousand years experience in treating patients. In this review, we will summarize recent evidence for pharmacological effects of herbs including Black cohosh, Angelica sinensis, Licorice, Tripterygium wilfordii, Centella asiatica, and Urtica dioica. Scientific research has demonstrated that these herbs have strong anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects. A wide range of phytochemicals including phenolic acids, phenylpropanoid ester, triterpene glycosides, phthalide, flavonoids, triterpenoid saponin, diterpene and triterpene have been isolated and demonstrated to be responsible for the biological effects of the herbs. Understanding the mechanisms of action of the herbs may provide new treatment opportunities for RA patients.

  5. User Satisfaction Assessment To Edu-Eco Tourism Services Of Cibodas Botanical Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, I. W.; Winarni

    2017-10-01

    Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG) is a government institution which has principal duties and functions as area of conservation ex situ of wet highland plants, research, education and tourism, it very closely related to aspect of the services to user. Good services will support the sustainability and existence of CBG as a world class edu-eco tourism destination. The purpose of this study was to measure the quality of services which delivered and improvement which necessary at the future. Assessments were made based on 14 criteria of services aspect for user which need research-education services and regular tourism services activities. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to users of these services. Questionnaires distribution was conducted in early August 2015 and August 2016, the respondents were 124 and 207. The results were showed the user satisfaction at good level, there were 77.685 in 2015 and 72.08 in 2016. Although still at a good level, there were a decline in satisfaction levels based on the value. In the future, the managerial needs to continuously to improve it, in order to get a good or very good valuation.

  6. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Pieroni, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20-75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under

  7. The Hidden History of a Famous Drug: Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in Early Modern Western Europe (c. 1650-1720).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine

    2016-10-01

    The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established in pharmaceutical practice. This article argues that the history of Peruvian bark can only be understood as the interplay of its trajectories in science, commerce, and society. Modern research has mostly focused on the first of these, largely due to the abundance of medico-historical data. While appreciating these findings, this article proposes to integrate the medical trajectory in a richer narrative, by drawing particular attention to the acculturation of the bark in commerce and society. Although the evidence we have for these two trajectories is still sketchy and disproportionate, it can nevertheless help us to make sense of sources that have not yet been an obvious focus of research. Starting from an apparently isolated occurrence of the drug in a letter, this article focuses on Paris as the location where medical and public appreciation of the bark took shape, by exploring several contexts of knowledge circulation and medical practice there. These contexts provide a new window on the early circulation of knowledge of the bark, at a time when its eventual acceptance was by no means certain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Limited effect of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning in early to moderate Parkinson’s disease during single and dual tasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad eElshehabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD, the effects of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning were mainly investigated under single tasking (ST conditions. However, multitasking situations are considered more daily relevant.Methods: Thirty-nine early to moderate PD patients performed the following standarized ST and dual tasks (DT as fast as possible for one minute during On- and Off-medication while wearing inertial sensors: straight walking and turning, checking boxes, and subtracting serial 7s. Quantitative gait parameters, as well as velocity of the secondary tasks were analyzed.Results: The following parameters improved significantly in On-medication during ST: gait velocity during straight walking (p=0.03; step duration (p=0.048 and peak velocity (p=0.04 during turning; velocity of checking boxes during ST (p=0.04 and DT (p=0.04. Velocity of checking boxes was the only parameter that also improved during DT.Conclusion: These results suggest that dopaminergic medication does not relevantly influence straight walking and turning in early to moderate PD during DT.

  9. Early bedside care during preclinical medical education: can technology-enhanced patient simulation advance the Flexnerian ideal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James A; Hayden, Emily M; Ahmed, Rami A; Pawlowski, John B; Khoury, Kimberly N; Oriol, Nancy E

    2010-02-01

    Flexner wanted medical students to study at the patient bedside-a remarkable innovation in his time-so that they could apply science to clinical care under the watchful eye of senior physicians. Ever since his report, medical schools have reserved the latter years of their curricula for such an "advanced" apprenticeship, providing clinical clerkship experiences only after an initial period of instruction in basic medical sciences. Although Flexner codified the segregation of preclinical and clinical instruction, he was committed to ensuring that both domains were integrated into a modern medical education. The aspiration to fully integrate preclinical and clinical instruction continues to drive medical education reform even to this day. In this article, the authors revisit the original justification for sequential preclinical-clinical instruction and argue that modern, technology-enhanced patient simulation platforms are uniquely powerful for fostering simultaneous integration of preclinical-clinical content in a way that Flexner would have applauded. To date, medical educators tend to focus on using technology-enhanced medical simulation in clinical and postgraduate medical education; few have devoted significant attention to using immersive clinical simulation among preclinical students. The authors present an argument for the use of dynamic robot-mannequins in teaching basic medical science, and describe their experience with simulator-based preclinical instruction at Harvard Medical School. They discuss common misconceptions and barriers to the approach, describe their curricular responses to the technique, and articulate a unifying theory of cognitive and emotional learning that broadens the view of what is possible, feasible, and desirable with simulator-based medical education.

  10. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of early interventions for non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled study investigating medical yoga, exercise therapy and self-care advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of medical yoga as an early intervention compared with evidence-based exercise therapy and self-care advice for non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial with a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 159 participants randomized into the medical yoga group (n = 52), the exercise therapy group (n = 52) and the self-care advice group (n = 55). The health outcome measure EQ-5D was applied to measure quality of life data combined with cost data collected from treatment groups from baseline to 12 months follow-up. Outcome measure was health-related quality of life (HRQL). Incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was also calculated. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted primarily from the societal and employer perspectives. Medical yoga is cost-effective compared with self-care advice if an employer considers the significant improvement in the HRQL of an employee with low back pain justifies the additional cost of treatment (i.e. in this study EUR 150). From a societal perspective, medical yoga is a cost-effective treatment compared with exercise therapy and self-care advice if an additional QALY is worth EUR 11,500. Sensitivity analysis suggests that medical yoga is more cost-effective than its alternatives. Six weeks of uninterrupted medical yoga thera-py is a cost-effective early intervention for non-specific low back pain, when treatment recommendations are adhered to.

  12. Cyclic polyalcohols: fingerprints to identify the botanical origin of natural woods used in wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alañón, M Elena; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto, Ignacio J; Vila-Lameiro, Pablo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-02-23

    Cyclic polyalcohol composition of 80 natural wood samples from different botanical species, with the majority of them used in the oenology industry for aging purposes, has been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after its conversion into their trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. Each botanical species showed a different and specific cyclic polyalcohol profile. Oak wood samples were characterized by the richness in deoxyinositols, especially proto-quercitol. Meanwhile, other botanical species showed a very low content of cyclic polyalcohols. The qualitative and quantitative study of cyclic polyalcohols was a useful tool to characterize and differentiate woods of different botanical origin to guarantee the authenticity of chips used in the wine-aging process. Monosaccharide composition was also analyzed, showing some quantitative differences among species, but cyclic polyalcohols were the compounds that revealed the main differentiation power.

  13. Verifying the botanical authenticity of commercial tannins through sugars and simple phenols profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Mario; Nardin, Tiziana; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Commercial tannins from several botanical sources and with different chemical and technological characteristics are used in the food and winemaking industries. Different ways to check their botanical authenticity have been studied in the last few years, through investigation of different analytical parameters. This work proposes a new, effective approach based on the quantification of 6 carbohydrates, 7 polyalcohols, and 55 phenols. 87 tannins from 12 different botanical sources were analysed following a very simple sample preparation procedure. Using Forward Stepwise Discriminant Analysis, 3 statistical models were created based on sugars content, phenols concentration and combination of the two classes of compounds for the 8 most abundant categories (i.e. oak, grape seed, grape skin, gall, chestnut, quebracho, tea and acacia). The last approach provided good results in attributing tannins to the correct botanical origin. Validation, repeated 3 times on subsets of 10% of samples, confirmed the reliability of this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NBS/NIST Botanical SRMs-Thirty-Two Years of Production and Analysis: 1968 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald A. Becker; Robert R. Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    This report surveys the work of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology that began in the 1960s on botanical standard reference materials (SRMs) for neutron activation analysis

  15. Application of nanotechnology for the encapsulation of botanical insecticides for sustainable agriculture: prospects and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Bakshi, Mansi; Abhilash, P C; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    This review article discusses the use of nanotechnology in combination with botanical insecticides in order to develop systems for pest control in agriculture. The main types of botanical insecticides are described, together with different carrier systems and their potential uses. The botanical insecticides include those based on active principles isolated from plant extracts, as well as essential oils derived from certain plants. The advantages offered by the systems are highlighted, together with the main technological challenges that must be resolved prior to future implementation of the systems for agricultural pest control. The use of botanical insecticides associated with nanotechnology offers considerable potential for increasing agricultural productivity, while at the same time reducing impacts on the environment and human health.

  16. [Study on botanical pesticides and its application in production of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Dong, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The issues including excessive pesticide residues and heavy metal contamination have become the bottle-neck in the development of Chinese herbal medicines. Compared with traditional chemical pesticides, biological pesticides, especially botanical pesticides, are more safe and environment-friendly, which were beneficial to the quality improvement Chinese medicinal materials. Though there exists a weak basic research and it is hard for promotion and regulation, the policy of good and the desire for botanical pesticides will accelerate its development, and replace traditional chemical pesticides gradually. This paper reviews the current situation of botanical pesticides, and gives some pertinence suggestions according to the existing problems and challenges. Research on botanical pesticides will become the key point to solve the problem of excessive pesticides residues and heavy metal contamination, and promote the healthy development of Chinese materia medica. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  18. Photoprotective effect of botanicals and vitamins: A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, William; Kuo, Sandy; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to solar radiation is a major contributor to skin cancer development and premature skin aging. Botanical extracts and vitamins may represent novel photoprotective agents. We sought to systemically review clinical evidence for the use of botanically derived agents and vitamins as photoprotective agents. We systematically searched Embase and PubMed databases. Two independent reviewers reviewed abstracts for inclusion. Additional relevant studies were identified by a manual review of reference lists. Data from eligible studies were extracted independently and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. A total of 51 studies met inclusion criteria. Limited available evidence indicates that several botanical agents and vitamins in topical or oral forms may have promising photoprotective effects. However, generalizability of results is limited by small sample sizes. Botanical extracts and vitamins may add to the armamentarium of sun-protective agents. Additional high-quality trials are needed to strengthen support for their use.

  19. The potential of using botanical insecticides for the control of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of using botanical insecticides for the control of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). W Tinzaara, W Tushemereirwe, CK Nankinga, CS Gold, I Kashaija ...

  20. Early Innovative Immersion: A Course for Pre-Medical Professions Students Using Point-of-Care Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Courtney M; Browne, Vaughn; Kaplan, Bonnie; Russ, Brian; Wilson, Juliana; Lewiss, Resa E

    2016-12-01

    In preparing for medical school admissions, premedical students seek opportunities to expand their medical knowledge. Knowing what students seek and what point-of-care ultrasound offers, we created a novel educational experience using point-of-care ultrasound. The innovation has 3 goals: (1) to use point-of-care ultrasound to highlight educational concepts such as the flipped classroom, simulation, hands-on interaction, and medical exposure; (2) to work collaboratively with peers; and (3) to expose premedical students to mentoring for the medical school application process. We believe that this course could be used to encourage immersive innovation with point-of-care ultrasound, progressive education concepts, and preparation for medical admissions. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Follow-up after early medical abortion: Comparing clinical assessment with self-assessment in a rural hospital in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählck, Carl-Gustav; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2017-06-01

    A follow-up study was performed on women who had requested medical abortions in a rural hospital in northern Norway to compare clinical assessment with self-assessment of early medical abortion in terms of safety. During the three-year study period, 392 women requested termination of pregnancy. After excluding those who changed their mind, those who had a spontaneous miscarriage, those who were referred to a central hospital for a two-stage abortion, and those who had the abortion performed surgically, 242 cases remained, and all the medical files were reviewed. Five cases (2%) were lost to follow-up, so the study group consists of 237 cases. Out of the 237 cases, in which a medical abortion was performed, 106 were performed at home with a self-assessment (44.7%), and 131 (55.3%) were performed at the department of Gynecology. The percentage of cases with self-assessment did not noticeably change during the three-year study period. The registered complications were infection, incomplete abortion requiring a surgical procedure and hospitalization due to severe pain. No significant difference in registered complications was found between medical abortions with self-assessment (n=9, 8.5% out of 106 cases) and medical abortions at the gynecological out-patient department (n=6, 4.6% out of 131 cases). According to this investigation, it is equally safe to perform a medical abortion at home with a self-assessment as it is to have a medical abortion at an outpatient clinic. These results could be useful for health care provision in rural areas where access to hospitals is impeded by logistical difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Rehabilitation in the Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units for Patients With and Without Mechanical Ventilation: An Interprofessional Performance Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, John R; Herbsman, Jodi M; Bushnik, Tamara; Van Lew, Steve; Stolfi, Angela; Parkin, Kate; McKenzie, Alison; Hall, Geoffrey W; Joseph, Waveney; Whiteson, Jonathan; Flanagan, Steven R

    2017-02-01

    Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation and the role of physical and occupational therapy. This Performance Improvement Project (PIP) project examined early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with and without mechanical ventilation. In addition, speech-language pathology rehabilitation was added to the early mobilization program. We sought to assess the efficacy of early mobilization of patients with and without mechanical ventilation in the ICU on length of stay (LOS) and patient outcomes and to determine the financial viability of the program. PIP. Prospective data collection in 2014 (PIP) compared with a historical patient population in 2012 (pre-PIP). Medical and surgical ICUs of a Level 2 trauma hospital. There were 160 patients in the PIP and 123 in the pre-PIP. Interprofessional training to improve collaboration and increase intensity of rehabilitation therapy services in the medical and surgical intensive care units for medically appropriate patients. Demographics; intensity of service; ICU and hospital LOS; medications; pain; discharge disposition; functional mobility; and average cost per day were examined. Rehabilitation therapy services increased from 2012 to 2014 by approximately 60 minutes per patient. The average ICU LOS decreased by almost 20% from 4.6 days (pre-PIP) to 3.7 days (PIP) (P = .05). A decrease of over 40% was observed in the floor bed average LOS from 6.0 days (pre-PIP) to 3.4 days (PIP) (P services compared with 18.2% in the pre-PIP phase (P services in the ICU is clinically feasible, results in improved patient outcomes, and is fiscally sound. Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation. The results of this PIP project demonstrate that there are significant benefits to early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on ICU patients with and without mechanical ventilation. Benefits include reduced

  3. Learning in botanical gardens: Investigating educational methods during an instruction about plants and water

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch (geb. Wiegand), Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of botanical gardens to out-of-school education should be larger than it is currently in Germany. In the curricula of all school types botany plays only a minor role, although plants form the base for all animal life on earth. To increase the attractiveness of botanical gardens for teachers, offers and programs should be created and conducted in didactically sensible manners and allow students an emotional approach towards the topics through trial and experiments. Therefore i...

  4. Resolving whether botanic gardens are on the road to conservation or a pathway for plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2015-06-01

    A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world's worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3). As a result, a botanic garden could, on average, cultivate four times as many invasive non-native species (20) as red-listed threatened species (5). Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future

  5. [Discussion about traditional Chinese medicine pharmacokinetics study based on first botanical drug approved by FDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fanghua

    2010-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics study is one of main components of pharmaceuticals development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Veregen as the first botanical drug in 2006. This article introduced FDA's requirement on pharmacokinetics study of botanical drug and pharmacokinetics studies of Veregen, summarized current requirement and status quo of pharmacokinetics study on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural medicine in China, and discussed about pharmacokinetics study strategy for TCM and natural medicine.

  6. New Botanical Anxiolytics for Use in Companion Animals and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Ahmed, Fida; Cayer, Christian; Mullally, Martha; Carballo, Ana Francis; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Garcia, Mario; Baker, John; Masic, Aleksandar; Sanchez, Pablo E; Poveda, Luis; Merali, Zul; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

    2017-11-01

    As part of our ongoing research into botanical therapies for anxiety disorders, the neotropical vine Souroubea sympetala was chosen for study as a phytochemical discovery strategy focusing on rare Central American plant families. When orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, the crude plant extract, its ethyl acetate fraction, supercritical carbon dioxide fraction, or its isolated triterpenes reduced anxiety and/or fear-related behavior in standardized behavioral models. Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts acted at the benzodiazepine GABA A receptor and reduced corticosterone levels. A preparation containing Souroubea fortified with a second triterpene containing plant, Platanus occidentalis, was shown to be safe in a 28-day feeding trial with beagles at 5 times the intended dose. Subsequent trials with beagles in a thunderstorm model of noise aversion showed that the material reduced anxiety behaviors and cortisol levels in dogs. The formulation has been released for the companion animal market in Canada and the USA under the Trademark "Zentrol." Ongoing research is exploring the use of the material in treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress in humans.

  7. Botanicals and anti-inflammatories: natural ingredients for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi; Berson, Diane

    2011-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by cutaneous hypersensitivity. There are many therapeutic options available for the treatment of rosacea, but none are curative. Since the pathogenesis of rosacea remains elusive, it is not surprising that no single treatment is paramount and that many patients find therapies unsatisfactory or even exacerbating. Treatments are prescribed to work in concert with each other in order to ameliorate the common clinical manifestations, which include: papules and pustules, telangiectasias, erythema, gland hypertrophy, and ocular disease. The most validated topical therapies include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Many other topical therapies, such as calcineurin inhibitors, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical corticosteroids, and permethrin have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Due to the inconsistent results of the aforementioned therapies patients are increasingly turning to alternative products containing natural ingredients or botanicals to ease inflammation and remit disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the management of rosacea, but some important considerations regarding the natural ingredients with clinical data will be discussed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of Traditional Botanical Medicines During Pregnancy in Rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Jason; Asanti, Daniel; Nsabimana, Damien; Anastos, Kathryn; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin; Sirotin, Nicole; Nathan, Lisa M

    To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare and traditional medicine providers regarding the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of traditional medicine use amongst pregnant women in a rural Rwandan population. Six focus groups with physicians, nurses, and community health workers and four individual in-depth interviews with traditional medicine providers were held. Qualitative data was gathered using a structured questionnaire querying perceptions of the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of use of traditional medicines in pregnancy. The healthcare provider groups perceived a high prevalence of traditional botanical medicine use by pregnant women (50-80%). All three groups reported similar indications for use of the medicines and the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women who use them. The traditional medicine providers and the healthcare providers both perceived that the most commonly used medicine is a mixture of many plants, called Inkuri. The most serious side effect reported was abnormally bright green meconium with a poor neonatal respiratory drive. Thirty-five traditional medicines were identified that are used during pregnancy. Perceptions of high prevalence of use of traditional medicines during pregnancy with possible negative perinatal outcomes exist in areas of rural Rwanda.

  9. Assembly Ants Tropical Dry Forest, Cali Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Gallego Ropero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ant assemblages of a fragment of secondary tropical dry forest located in the Botanical Garden of Cali are presented. Two habitats were chosen: a fragment of forest and a pasture matrix. Samples were taken monthly for six months, using a linear transect of 100 m, with 10 stations spaced 10 m. At each station pitfall traps, epigeal bait and arboreal, sifting and removal of 1 m2 of litter and manual capture survey techniques were applied. Richness, abundance and diversity of ant habitats were determined. Correlation coefficients and regression between temperature, relative humidity and richness of ants were calculated. A total of 13 170 ants representing 55 species, 35 genera and six subfamilies were collected. The forest had the highest species richness with 90.9%. This wealth of diversity indicates the conservation value of the Valle del Cauca myrmecofauna. Although the forest is in the process of regeneration, strongly disturbed by constant fire and human intervention, the ant species richness shows that it remains an invaluable source of biological resources for the conservation of species.

  10. Botanical name changes – nuisance or a quest for precision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the need for the seemingly regular changes to plant names applied to many tropical forage species, it is necessary to be aware of the rules that govern botanical nomenclature.  The binomial naming system, first proposed in 1753, is governed by rules defined in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN.  These rules have been strengthened as necessary over the years in the interest of providing practitioners with plant names that are unique for each species, and presented in an hierarchical format that shows the evolutionary relationships between plants.  This paper includes a table of name changes accepted by the USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN for species used in tropical forage research and development over the last half century.  The need to use legitimate plant names is emphasized and suggestions are made on how practitioners might best deal with the changes.Keywords: Taxonomy, nomenclature, tropical forages.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(334-40

  11. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Some observations on two early Cape florilegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of early Cape florilegia and codices exist in libraries in Europe and South Africa. Four of these florilegia are closely related and are housed in the Brenthurst Library, Johannesburg, the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria, the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the Rijksherbarium, Leiden. The first two are compared and discussed in detail in this article. Arising from this comparison, a new interpretation of the interrelationship and origins of the four florilegia is proposed. The key volume is the florilegium in the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria.

  13. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

  15. Chemical composition, characterization, and differentiation of honey botanical and geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Qing X

    2011-01-01

    Botanical and biographical origins of honey are an important issue in food quality and safety. This chapter focuses on use of chemical components to determine botanical and geographical origins of honey. The botanical and geographical origins of the nectar are related with the chemical composition of honey. Honey can originate from single and multiplant species. In general, the prices of honey from single plant species are much higher than those of common polyfloral honey because of consumer preferences. Single and multiple chemicals and components can well indicate the botanical and geographical origins of the honey. Marker chemicals and components include flavonoids, pollen, aroma compounds, oligosaccharides, trace elements, amino acids, and proteins. If multiple chemicals are used as markers, patterns of the chemicals are often used to detect the botanical and geographical origins of honey. Modern statistical software in combination with advanced analytical instrumentation provides high potential for the differentiation of the botanical and geographical origins of the honey. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview.

  17. Repeated monitoring as an effective early detection means: first records of naturalised Solidago gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae) in southern Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalwij, Jesse; Steyn, C.; le Roux, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 93, Jul 2014 (2014), s. 204-206 ISSN 0254-6299 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Solidago * early detection * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2014

  18. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed

  19. Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cawich SO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shamir O Cawich, Patrick Harnarayan, Shariful Islam, Steve Budhooram, Shivaa Ramsewak, Vijay Naraynsingh Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies Background: The aim of conventional medical therapy in diabetic foot infections is to control infection, thereby reducing amputation rates, infectious morbidity, and death. Any delay incurred during a trial of home remedies could allow an infection to progress unchecked, increasing the risk of these adverse outcomes. This study sought to determine the effects of delayed operative interventions and amputations in these patients. Methods: A questionnaire study targeting all consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infection was carried out over 1 year. Two groups were defined, ie, a medical therapy group comprising patients who sought medical attention after detecting their infection and a home remedy group comprising those who voluntarily chose to delay medical therapy in favor of home remedies. The patients were followed throughout their hospital admissions. We recorded the duration of hospitalization and number of operative debridements and amputations performed. Results: There were 695 patients with diabetic foot infections, comprising 382 in the medical therapy group and 313 in the home remedy group. Many were previously hospitalized for foot infections in the medical therapy (78% and home remedy (74.8% groups. The trial of home remedies lasted for a mean duration of 8.9 days. The home remedy group had a longer duration of hospitalization (16.3 versus 8.5 days; P<0.001, more operative debridements (99.7% versus 94.5%; P<0.001, and more debridements per patient (2.85 versus 2.45; P<0.001. Additionally, in the home remedy group, there was an estimated increase in expenditure of US $10,821.72 US per patient and a trend toward more major amputations (9.3% versus 5.2%; P=0.073. Conclusion: There are negative

  20. Integrating professionalism in early medical education: the theory and application of reflective practice in the anatomy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2006-07-01

    Renewed emphases on teaching professionalism require physicians to develop the ability to critically reflect upon their own decisions. Innovative programs that address teaching professionalism within medical curricula have been implemented in almost all medical schools. The foundation for many of these programs is "reflection," which is regarded as a core skill in professional competence. In order to achieve the desired outcomes and meet the demands of a required curriculum, an understanding of educational concepts in the designing of medical curricula is essential. Educators recognize that, for most medical students, professional growth is initiated during the first year of the medical curriculum and, therefore, traditionally pure content delivery courses such as first year anatomy course are being utilized now in order to explore issues related to critical thinking and professionalism. As a result, learning strategies such as "reflective practice" are beginning to play an important role in curriculum design. This article provides an overview of the theory of reflective practice, and demonstrates how reflective practice may be integrated into the anatomy curriculum. In order to incorporate reflective exercises into a curriculum, the basic elements of a reflective process are defined, strategies to implement reflective exercises within the course are described, and the benefits of reflective practice are highlighted. Therefore, in creating an environment that fosters reflective learning, the gap between theory and practice may be consolidated, which in the context of anatomy promotes the issue of teaching for relevance and clinical application. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. An emergency medical communications system by low altitude platform at the early stages of a natural disaster in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiantori, Andri; Sutiono, Agung Budi; Hariyanto, Hadi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi

    2012-02-01

    A natural disaster is a consequence of a natural hazard, such as a tsunami, earthquake or volcanic eruption, affecting humans. In order to support emergency medical communication services in natural disaster areas where the telecommunications facility has been seriously damaged, an ad hoc communication network backbone should be build to support emergency medical services. Combinations of requirements need to be considered before deciding on the best option. In the present study we have proposed a Low Altitude Platform consisting of tethered balloons combined with Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) 802.11 technology. To confirm that the suggested network would satisfy the emergency medical service requirements, a communications experiment, including performance service measurement, was carried out.

  2. Predictors of medical student remediation and their underlying causes: early lessons from a curriculum change in the University of Auckland Medical Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Brian; Yielder, Jill; Reid, Papaarangi; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of remediation in a medical programme and assess the underlying causes and the quality of remediation provided within the context of a recent curriculum change. A mixed methods study incorporating a retrospective cohort analysis of demographic predictors of remediation during 2013 and 2014, combined with thematic qualitative analysis of educator perspectives derived by interview on factors underlying remediation and the quality of that currently provided by the faculty. 17.7% of all students required some form of remedial assistance and 93% of all students offered remediation passed their year of study. Multivariate analysis showed international students (OR 4.59 95% CI 2.62-7.98) and students admitted via the Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (OR 3.43 2.29-5.15) were significantly more likely to require remediation. Male students were also slightly more likely than their female classmates to require assistance. No effect was observed for rural origin students, completion of a prior degree or completion of clinical placement in a peripheral hospital. Knowledge application and information synthesis were the most frequently identified underlying problems. Most faculty believed remediation was successful, however, flexibility in the programme structure, improved diagnostics and improved access to dedicated teaching staff were cited as areas for improvement. Remediation is required by nearly a fifth of University of Auckland medical students, with MAPAS and international students being particularly vulnerable groups. Remediation is largely successful, however, interventions addressing reasoning and knowledge application may improve its effectiveness.

  3. Dosimetric feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy as an alternative to brachytherapy for definitive treatment of medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Ryan; Chen, Quan; Best, Ryan; Libby, Bruce; Crandley, Edwin F; Showalter, Timothy N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the dosimetric feasibility of definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer. CT simulation scans from 10 medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer patients previously treated with high dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy were used to generate Helical Tomotherapy (HT) plans using the IMRT mode with clinical target volumes (CTVs) that included the uterus plus cervix. A prescription dose of 34 Gy in 4 fractions was used. The SBRT dosimetry was compared to the 10 prior intracavitary brachytherapy plans normalized to a standard dose. Organs at risk (OARs) evaluated were the bladder, rectum, sigmoid, femoral heads, and other bowel, including both large and small bowel. The simulation CT and daily image guidance for 4 patients treated with this technique were evaluated to assess for interfraction variation in the uterine position and effects on dosimetry. Compared to intracavitary brachytherapy, HT SBRT produced significantly greater overall target coverage to the uterus, boost CTV, and PTV, with exception of the V150% of the uterus. HT SBRT significantly increased dose to the rectum, bowel, and femoral heads compared to intracavitary brachytherapy, though not outside of dose tolerance limits. Review of daily image guidance for patients treated with this technique demonstrated good reproducibility with a mean overlap index of 0.87 (range, 0.74 – 0.99). Definitive SBRT for medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer appears to be a feasible treatment option. Future studies are warranted to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes with this technique, compared to HDR intracavitary brachytherapy

  4. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Girard, T.D.; Ely, E.W.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Morandi, A.; Hughes, C.G.; Graves, A.J.; Shintani, A.K.; Murphy, E.; Work, B.; Pun, B.T.; Boehm, L.; Gill, T.M.; Dittus, R.S.; Jackson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. METHODS We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3-months, we also assessed cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). RESULTS Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% [92–100%] of study days beginning 1.0 [1.0–1.0] day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% [10–26%], 67% [46–87%] and 75% [59–88%] of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed. PMID:24257969

  5. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  6. The Process of Change in Cognitive Therapy for Depression when Combined with Antidepressant Medication: Predictors of Early Intersession Symptom Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Cooper, Andrew A.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Hollon, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression have examined therapist adherence and the therapeutic alliance as predictors of subsequent symptom change. However, little is known about these CT process variables when CT is delivered in combination with antidepressant medication. Method: In a sample of 176 depressed…

  7. The Impact of Interactive Whiteboard Technology on Medical Students' Achievement in ESL Essay Writing: An Early Study in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaaly, Emad; Higgins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the interactive whiteboard on Egyptian medical students' achievement in essay writing in English as a second language (ESL). First, the writing micro-skills judged essential to help these students improve their essay writing were identified, using a questionnaire which investigated experts' views. This gave…

  8. Early assessment of medical technologies to inform product development and market access: A review of methods and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, billions of dollars are invested in medical product development and there is an increasing pressure to maximize the revenues of these investments. That is, governments need to be informed about the benefits of spending public resources, companies need more information to manage their

  9. A qualitative study of women's decision to view or not view an ultrasound image before early medication abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Joyce; Merrell, Joy; Rentschler, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasounds are commonly performed for gestational dating of pregnancy before a medication abortion. This paper presents findings regarding women's perspectives on viewing the gestational dating ultrasound image, which arose from a study exploring women's medication abortion experience. By providing women the opportunity to talk about their medication abortion experience through open-ended interviews, women reported their experience of viewing or not viewing the ultrasound in detail, which to date has been underexplored. A constructivist, grounded theory approach was used. The purposive sample consisted of 18 women in the United States who experienced a medication abortion in the preceding 4 months. Not all women wanted to view the ultrasound; however, they all wanted a choice. Women wanted to view the image to confirm health and fertility, satisfy curiosity, and process their decision regarding the pregnancy. None of the women stated that they wanted to view the image as a prerequisite to making their decision to terminate the pregnancy; rather, viewing was a way to process their decision. Women wanted a choice of whether to view the ultrasound image because they felt it was their right to decide whether to access this aspect of their personal health information. They wanted providers to engage in a dialogue about viewing the image or not and to respect their decision. Providers need to be appropriately prepared to offer women the choice to view and to support women in their decision. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieqiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu; Agarwal, Rajiv; Moore, Christine M V; Chen, Shaw T; Tong, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  11. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  12. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  13. Research and development for botanical products in medicinals and food supplements market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Mancari, Ferdinando; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  14. Mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Wang Sixue; Du Guanghua; Yan Sha; Zhao Weijiang

    2002-01-01

    The authors present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100 keV Ar + ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60 μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 x 10 -5 . The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He + ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

  15. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , NH 4 + , Cl − , Br − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , PO 4 3− ) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. -- Highlights: •Analysis by IC of honeys from two areas with different environmental pollution (Italy and Balkans). •Chemometric techniques such as PCA and HCA used. •In Balkans area higher Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− due to industrial and agricultural activities. •Discrimination of honey botanical origin and authenticity on the base of IC data. •Honey ionic profiles as indicators of environmental pollution and botanical origin. -- Capsule: Ionic profiles of honey could be potential indicators of environmental pollution (industrial and agricultural), botanical origin and authenticity

  17. Zein Nanoparticles as Eco-Friendly Carrier Systems for Botanical Repellents Aiming Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jhones L de; Campos, Estefânia V R; Pereira, Anderson E S; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Grillo, Renato; Andrade, Daniel Junior de; Santos, Fabiano Aparecido Dos; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2018-02-14

    Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinder their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal). The phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and insect activity of the nanoparticles toward target and nontarget organisms were also evaluated. The botanical formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) in the nanoparticles, good physicochemical stability, and effective protection of the repellents against UV degradation. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the botanical repellents decreased their toxicity. Repellent activity tests showed that nanoparticles containing the botanical repellents were highly repellent against the Tetranychus urticae Koch mite. This nanotechnological formulation offers a new option for the effective use of botanical repellents in agriculture, reducing toxicity, protecting against premature degradation, and providing effective pest control.

  18. The impact of interactive whiteboard technology on medical students' achievement in ESL essay writing : an early study in Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Albaaly, E.; Higgins, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the interactive whiteboard on Egyptian medical students' achievement in essay writing in English as a second language (ESL). First, the writing micro-skills judged essential to help these students improve their essay writing were identified, using a questionnaire which investigated experts' views. This gave rise to a taxonomy of 29 writing micro-skills, which then provided the basis for the design of a teaching module. This module was subsequently taught ...

  19. Horizontal integration of OMIM across the medical school preclinical curriculum for early reinforcement of clinical genetics principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Adam C; Reader, Lauren; Hamosh, Ada; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2015-02-01

    With the relentless expansion of genetics into every field of medicine, stronger preclinical and clinical medical student education in genetics is needed. The explosion of genetic information cannot be addressed by simply adding content hours. We proposed that students be provided a tool to access accurate clinical information on genetic conditions and, through this tool, build life-long learning habits to carry them through their medical careers. Surveys conducted at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine revealed that medical students in all years lacked confidence when approaching genetic conditions and lacked a reliable resource for accurate genetic information. In response, the school created a horizontal thread that stretches across the first-year curriculum and is devoted to teaching students how to use Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) (http://omim.org) and the databases to which it links as a starting point for approaching genetic conditions. The thread improved the first-year students' confidence in clinical genetics concepts and encouraged use of OMIM as a primary source for genetic information. Most students showed confidence in OMIM as a learning tool and wanted to see the thread repeated in subsequent years. Incorporating OMIM into the preclinical curriculum improved students' confidence in clinical genetics concepts.

  20. The Vasodilatory Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Herb Medications: A Comparison Study of Four Botanical Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong Ping; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Ke, Yan; Bian, Ka

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, in which, the endothelium dysfunction has been a key element. The current study was designed to explore the vasodilatory effect of anti-inflammatory herbs which have been traditionally used in different clinical applications. The total saponins from Actinidia arguta radix (SAA), total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma (FGR), total coumarins from Peucedani radix (CPR), and total flavonoids from Spatholobi caulis (FSC) were extracted. The isometric measurement of vasoactivity was used to observe the effects of herbal elements on the isolated aortic rings with or without endothelium. To understand endothelium-independent vasodilation, the effects of herb elements on agonists-induced vasocontractility and on the contraction of endothelium-free aortic rings exposed to a Ca 2+ -free medium were examined. Furthermore, the role of nitric oxide signaling in endothelium-dependent vasodilation was also evaluated. In summary, FGR and FSC exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to CPR and SAA. FGR exerts the strongest vasodilatory effect, while CPR shows the least. The relaxation induced by SAA and FSC required intact endothelia. The mechanism of this vasodilation might involve eNOS. CPR-mediated vasorelaxation appears to involve interference with intracellular calcium homeostasis, blocking Ca 2+ influx or releasing intracellular Ca 2+ .

  1. The Vasodilatory Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Herb Medications: A Comparison Study of Four Botanical Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ping Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, in which, the endothelium dysfunction has been a key element. The current study was designed to explore the vasodilatory effect of anti-inflammatory herbs which have been traditionally used in different clinical applications. The total saponins from Actinidia arguta radix (SAA, total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma (FGR, total coumarins from Peucedani radix (CPR, and total flavonoids from Spatholobi caulis (FSC were extracted. The isometric measurement of vasoactivity was used to observe the effects of herbal elements on the isolated aortic rings with or without endothelium. To understand endothelium-independent vasodilation, the effects of herb elements on agonists-induced vasocontractility and on the contraction of endothelium-free aortic rings exposed to a Ca2+-free medium were examined. Furthermore, the role of nitric oxide signaling in endothelium-dependent vasodilation was also evaluated. In summary, FGR and FSC exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to CPR and SAA. FGR exerts the strongest vasodilatory effect, while CPR shows the least. The relaxation induced by SAA and FSC required intact endothelia. The mechanism of this vasodilation might involve eNOS. CPR-mediated vasorelaxation appears to involve interference with intracellular calcium homeostasis, blocking Ca2+ influx or releasing intracellular Ca2+.

  2. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  3. Relationship between botanical origin and antioxidants vitamins of bee-collected pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla C. L. S. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study quantified vitamin C, E and β-carotene in samples of fresh bee-collected pollen and correlating them with the botanical origin. Vitamin content varied between 13.5 and 42.5 µg/g for vitamin E; 56.3 and 198.9 µg/g for β-carotene and 273.9 and 560.3 µg/g for vitamin C. It was concluded that the botanical origin and collecting season influenced the vitamin contents. There is a relationship between the vitamins and its botanical origin: Raphanus sp and Macroptilium sp, Mimosa caesalpineafolia with β-carotene; Raphanus sp, Eucalyptus sp, Macroptilium sp, Mimosa caesalpineafolia with vitamin E and Anadenanthera sp, Arecaceae type and Philodendron sp with vitamin C.

  4. Issues and promise in clinical studies of botanicals with anticonvulsant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstein, Dana

    2015-11-01

    Botanicals are increasingly used by people with epilepsy worldwide. However, despite abundant preclinical data on the anticonvulsant properties of many herbal remedies, there are very few human studies assessing safety and efficacy of these products in epilepsy. Additionally, the methodology of most of these studies only marginally meets the requirements of evidence-based medicine. Although the currently available evidence for the use of cannabinoids in epilepsy is similarly lacking, several carefully designed and well controlled industry-sponsored clinical trials of cannabis derivatives are planned to be completed in the next couple of years, providing the needed reliable data for the use of these products. The choice of the best botanical candidates with anticonvulsant properties and their assessment in well-designed clinical trials may significantly improve our ability to effectively and safely treat patients with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing the Utility of a Bio-Neuropsychosocial Model for Predicting Medical Adherence and Responsibility During Early Adolescence in Youth With Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihogios, Alexandra M; Murray, Caitlin; Zebracki, Kathy; Acevedo, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2017-10-01

    The present longitudinal, multi-method, and multi-informant study examined biological, neuropsychological, and social predictors of medical adherence and responsibility among early adolescents with spina bifida (SB). Youth with SB (M age = 11.40 at Time 1) and their parents and teachers completed surveys, and families and peers completed observational assessments, at two biennial data collection time points (n = 112 for both time points). Multinomial logistic regressions tested predictors of group membership (adherent vs. nonadherent and child responsible vs. not responsible with SB medical tasks). Consistent with the bio-neuropsychosocial model, several risk factors emerged for SB management. Impaired gross motor classification and low IQ were barriers to obtaining medical responsibility, and high family stress and executive dysfunction were barriers to adherence and responsibility. This study offered intervention targets to promote self-management and adherence for youth with SB and their families, including parent stress-management and family problem-solving. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Objectively Assessed Exercise Behavior in Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Cancer: A Predictor of Perceived Benefits, Communication with Doctors, Medical Coping Modes, Depression and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunzhun; Zhang, Lanfeng; Shi, Songsong; Xia, Wenkai

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14.065; p = 0.029), monthly individual monthly income level (χ2 = 24.795; p = 0.003), BMI (χ2 = 15.709; p = 0.015) and diagnosis (χ2 = 42.442; p exercise with different frequency per week. Differences in the frequency of exercise were associated with different degrees of reported Benefit Finding (BF) (F = 24.651; p exercise. Our results indicated that benefit finding, medical coping modes, communication with doctors, social support, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with exercise. The variance in several psychosocial factors (benefit finding, medical coping modes, the communication with doctors, depression and quality of life) could be explained by exercise. Psychosocial factors should be addressed and examined over time when evaluating the effect of physical exercise that is prescribed as a clinically relevant treatment.

  7. Efficacy, Safety, and Acceptability of Low-Dose Mifepristone and Self-Administered Misoprostol for Ultra-Early Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Lan; Song, Li-Ping; Tang, Shi-Yan; Zhou, Lee Jaden Gil Yu-Kang; He, Hong; Mo, Xue-Tang; Liao, Yi-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of low-dose mifepristone combined with self-administered misoprostol for ultra-early medical abortion. A total of 744 women with ultra-early pregnancy (amenorrhea ≤35 days) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Equal numbers of participants were allocated randomly to the hospital administration and self-administration groups. All participants took 75 mg mifepristone at the initial visit and 400 µg oral misoprostol 24 hours later in the hospital or by self-administration. The primary end point was complete abortion. Secondary end points were rates of unscheduled reattendance, time required for and cost of hospital observation and follow-up, vaginal bleeding, adverse effects, menstrual disturbance in the posttreatment period, and satisfaction rating. No differences in the rates of complete abortion, unscheduled reattendance, vaginal bleeding, adverse effects, or return of posttreatment menstruation were observed. The time required for (and costs of) hospital observation and follow-up per participant was 557.82 minutes (and US$40.12) in the hospital administration group and 18.46 minutes (and US$1.96) in the self-administration group (both P misoprostol for ultra-early pregnancy termination was as effective and safe as hospital administration, with greater acceptability and lower cost to the women.

  8. [Bilirubin in the early neonatal period. Is there a positive aspect of hyperbilirubinemia?--A medical hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, K; Schlenzig, J S; Böhles, H

    1994-05-10

    The fact that almost all neonates exhibit a "physiological" jaundice, prompts the question whether bilirubin, usually exclusively considered a potentially toxic endproduct of the metabolism of heme, might not also have a positive task in the first days of life. A recently discovered property of bilirubin under in vitro conditions is its ability to combine with free oxygen radicals such as are produced in the oxidative metabolic processes of the neonate immediately following birth. In the present article, the concept of the anti-oxidative effect of bilirubin, and its translation to the early neonatal period is presented and discussed on the basis of a number of examples.

  9. An update on approaches to controlling coccidia in poultry using botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Giannenas, I; Küçükyilmaz, K; Christaki, E; Florou-Paneri, P

    2013-01-01

    1. This paper reviews the use of botanical extracts in the control of coccidial infection in poultry. 2. Some plants and their respective volatile oils and extracts have the potential to alleviate coccidiosis and reduce its severity. 3. Most plant bioactives improve some, but not all, aspects of coccidiosis with variable effectiveness against different species of Eimeria. 4. Difficulties in comparing research findings have arisen from the use of different experimental models, different active components and infectious dose of Eimeria. 5. Current knowledge of their potential anti-coccidial effects may provide guidance for the use of botanical extracts in the control of the coccidiosis.

  10. Work on mapping the Landscape Arboretum in the Skripchinsky Stavropol Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko Yuliya Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the steps of mapping the landscape arboretum. Landscape Arboretum is the core of the botanical garden, which includes all variety of introduced tree species. Graphic documents showing the location of each individual are an important factor in the conservation of biological diversity. The Botanical Garden archive stored topographical plans scale 1: 500, in the form of handwritten copies. They are the basis for mapping the territory. The mapping involves several stages: production of the paper base, field and office work. Visual and digital deliverable plans, are important to inventory of wood collections in the future.

  11. Early experience with open heart surgery in a pioneer private hospital in West Africa: the Biket medical centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Uvie Ufuoma; Adenle, Adebisi David; Adenekan, Anthony Taiwo

    2017-01-01

    More than forty years after the first open heart surgery in Nigeria, all open heart surgeries were carried out in government-owned hospitals before the introduction of such surgeries in 2013 at Biket Medical Centre, a privately owned hospital in Osogbo, South-western Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to review our initial experience with open heart surgery in this private hospital. All patients who underwent open heart surgery between August 2013 and January 2014 were included in this prospective study. The medical records of the patients were examined and data on age, sex, diagnosis, type of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass details, complications and length of hospital stay were extracted and the data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Eighteen patients comprising of 12 males and 6 females with ages ranging between 8 months and 52 years (mean= of 15.7 +/- 15 years) were studied. Pericardial patch closure of isolated ventricular septal defect was done in 7 patients (38.9%) while total correction of isolated tetralogy of Fallot was carried out in 5 patients (27.8%). Two patients had mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Sixty day mortality was 0%. Safe conduct of open heart surgery in the private hospital setting is feasible in Nigeria. It may be our only guarantee of hitch free and sustainable cardiac surgery.

  12. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p test group, the median period of time before the first consultation with an infectious disease specialist was 99 days, and for the rapid test group the time was 14 days (p test group (p test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  13. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Prins, Judith; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a hospital compared to a nursing home. We carried out a qualitative and a quantitative survey by administering questionnaires about expectations, impressive experiences and learning activities within two cohorts of first-year medical students before and after a 4-week nursing attachment. Despite different expectations, students reported similar experiences and learning activities for the nursing home and the hospital. Most impressive events were related to patient care, being a trainee, or professional identities being challenged. Students in nursing homes most often referred to their own relationships with patients. Students expressed different emotions, and frequently experienced positive and negative emotions at the same time. Rewarding experiences (not only difficult or stressful events) do matter for medical professional development. Students need to learn how to deal with and feel strengthened by the emotions evoked during clinical experiences, which should be supported by educators. The nursing home and the hospital seem to be equally suited as learning environments.

  14. The Bernades herbarium in the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez, N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The BC-Bernades herbarium is one of the oldest collections conserved in the Botanical Institute of Barcelona. It contains part of the field collections of Miquel Bernades i Mainader and Miquel Bernades i Clarís, doctors of medicine and botanists of Catalonian origin living in Madrid in the 18th century. The collection consists of 817 sheets, the complete list provided in the annexe. We also present information concerning the localities of certain specific recollections, the taxonomic groups and families, as well as a list of sheets of special interest. This list contains witness of cornfield weed now very rare or extinct in Iberian lands, such as Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi or Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , and also some of the first witness known from Spain of introduced plants, such as Aster cordifolius L. or Bidens bipinnata L.

    [es] El herbario BC-Bernades es una de las colecciones más antiguas conservadas en el Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. Contiene parte de las recolecciones de Miquel Bernades y Mainader y Miquel Bernades y Clarís, médicos y botánicos catalanes del siglo XVIII establecidos en Madrid. Consta de 817 pliegos, la relación de los cuales presentamos en un anexo. También mostramos datos sobre las localidades de recolección, grupos taxonómicos y familias presentes, y una relación de pliegos de interés. Entre estos aparecen testimonios de plantas arvenses extinguidas o muy raras en tierras ibéricas como Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi o Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , y también algunos de los primeros testimonios conocidos en España de plantas introducidas como Aster cordifolius L. o Bidens bipinnata L. [ct] L’herbari BC-Bernades és una de les col·leccions més antigues de les conservades a l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona. Conté part de les recol·leccions de Miquel Bernades i Mainader i Miquel Bernades

  15. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and...

  16. HIV/AIDS in a Puerto Rican/Dominican Community: A Collaborative Project with a Botanical Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melvin; Santiago, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning HIV/AIDS in Latino communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Discusses the presence of botanical shops (where herbal medicines and other healing paraphernalia can be purchased) in Latino culture. Describes Projecto Cooperacion, a project that utilized botanical shops as a means of…

  17. The important of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosmann; Andrew Groover

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support...

  18. Botanical remedies of the former Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). Part I: Eumycetes, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, Angiospermae (Monocotyledones only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, H H

    1983-03-01

    The botanical remedies reported in Heyne's De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indië (Volumes 1--IV, 1913--1922) have been screened out of economic botanical context, translated into English and summarized as a table of names, therapeutic indications, plant parts, and available details of preparation and use.

  19. Species traits and plant performance: functional trade-offs in a large set of species in a botanical garden

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Z.; Klimešová, Jitka; Hrouda, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2012), s. 1522-1533 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA206/09/1471 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetative multiplication * generative reproduction * botanical garden Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.431, year: 2012

  20. Effectiveness and safety of early medication abortion provided in pharmacies by auxiliary nurse-midwives: A non-inferiority study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Puri, Mahesh; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Blum, Maya; Maharjan, Dev; Grossman, Daniel; Regmi, Kiran; Darney, Philip D; Harper, Cynthia C

    2018-01-01

    Expanding access to medication abortion through pharmacies is a promising avenue to reach women with safe and convenient care, yet no pharmacy provision interventions have been evaluated. This observational non-inferiority study investigated the effectiveness and safety of mifepristone-misoprostol medication abortion provided at pharmacies, compared to government-certified public health facilities, by trained auxiliary nurse-midwives in Nepal. Auxiliary nurse-midwives were trained to provide medication abortion through twelve pharmacies and public facilities as part of a demonstration project in two districts. Eligible women were ≤63 days pregnant, aged 16-45, and had no medical contraindications. Between 2014-2015, participants (n = 605) obtained 200 mg mifepristone orally and 800 μg misoprostol sublingually or intravaginally 24 hours later, and followed-up 14-21 days later. The primary outcome was complete abortion without manual vacuum aspiration; the secondary outcome was complication requiring treatment. We assessed risk differences by facility type with multivariable logistic mixed-effects regression. Over 99% of enrolled women completed follow-up (n = 600). Complete abortions occurred in 588 (98·0%) cases, with ten incomplete abortions and two continuing pregnancies. 293/297 (98·7%) pharmacy participants and 295/303 (97·4%) public facility participants had complete abortions, with an adjusted risk difference falling within the pre-specified 5 percentage-point non-inferiority margin (1·5% [-0·8%, 3·8%]). No serious adverse events occurred. Five (1.7%) pharmacy and two (0.7%) public facility participants experienced a complication warranting treatment (aRD, 0.8% [-1.0%-2.7%]). Early mifepristone-misoprostol abortion was as effective and safe when provided by trained auxiliary nurse-midwives at pharmacies as at government-certified health facilities. Findings support policy expanding provision through registered pharmacies by trained auxiliary nurse

  1. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  2. Development of electronic medical record charting for hospital-based transfusion and apheresis medicine services: Early adoption perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Levy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs provide universal access to health care information across multidisciplinary lines. In pathology departments, transfusion and apheresis medicine services (TAMS involved in direct patient care activities produce data and documentation that typically do not enter the EMR. Taking advantage of our institution′s initiative for implementation of a paperless medical record, our TAMS division set out to develop an electronic charting (e-charting strategy within the EMR. Methods: A focus group of our hospital′s transfusion committee consisting of transfusion medicine specialists, pathologists, residents, nurses, hemapheresis specialists, and information technologists was constituted and charged with the project. The group met periodically to implement e-charting TAMS workflow and produced electronic documents within the EMR (Cerner Millenium for various service line functions. Results: The interdisciplinary working group developed and implemented electronic versions of various paper-based clinical documentation used by these services. All electronic notes collectively gather and reside within a unique Transfusion Medicine Folder tab in the EMR, available to staff with access to patient charts. E-charting eliminated illegible handwritten notes, resulted in more consistent clinical documentation among staff, and provided greater real-time review/access of hemotherapy practices. No major impediments to workflow or inefficiencies have been encountered. However, minor updates and corrections to documents as well as select work re-designs were required for optimal use of e-charting by these services. Conclusion: Documentation of pathology subspecialty activities such as TAMS can be successfully incorporated into the EMR. E-charting by staff enhances communication and helps promote standardized documentation of patient care within and across service lines. Well-constructed electronic documents in the EMR may also

  3. Early acquisition of non-technical skills using a blended approach to simulation-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Andrew; Desai, Mihir; Nguyen, Khanh; Moore, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Non-technical skills are emerging as an important component of postgraduate medical education. Between 2013 and 2016, a new blended training program incorporating non-technical skills was introduced at an Australian university affiliated hospital. Program participants were medical officers in years 1 and 2 of postgraduate training. An interdisciplinary faculty trained in simulation-based education led the program. The blended approach combined open access online resources with multiple opportunities to participate in simulation-based learning. The aim of the study was to examine the value of the program to the participants and the effects on the wider hospital system. The mixed methods evaluation included data from simulation centre records, hospital quality improvement data, and a post-hoc reflective survey of the enrolled participants ( n  = 68). Over 30 months, 283 junior doctors were invited to participate in the program. Enrolment in a designated simulation-based course was completed by 169 doctors (59.7%). Supplementary revision sessions were made available to the cohort with a median weekly attendance of five participants. 56/68 (82.4%) of survey respondents reported increased confidence in managing deteriorating patients. During the period of implementation, the overall rate of hospital cardiac arrests declined by 42.3%. Future objectives requested by participants included training in graded assertiveness and neurological emergencies. Implementation of a non-technical skills program was achieved with limited simulation resources and was associated with observable improvements in clinical performance. The participants surveyed reported increased confidence in managing deteriorating patients, and the program introduction coincided with a significant reduction in the rate of in-hospital cardiac arrests.

  4. Decision support tool for early differential diagnosis of acute lung injury and cardiogenic pulmonary edema in medical critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Christopher N; Shahjehan, Khurram; Li, Guangxi; Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Kashyap, Rahul; Janish, Christopher; Alsara, Anas; Jaffe, Allan S; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gajic, Ognjen

    2012-01-01

    At the onset of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, critically ill patients with acute lung injury (ALI) may be difficult to distinguish from those with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). No single clinical parameter provides satisfying prediction. We hypothesized that a combination of those will facilitate early differential diagnosis. In a population-based retrospective development cohort, validated electronic surveillance identified critically ill adult patients with acute pulmonary edema. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression were used to develop a decision support tool based on routine clinical information to differentiate ALI from CPE. Performance of the score was validated in an independent cohort of referral patients. Blinded post hoc expert review served as gold standard. Of 332 patients in a development cohort, expert reviewers (κ, 0.86) classified 156 as having ALI and 176 as having CPE. The validation cohort had 161 patients (ALI = 113, CPE = 48). The score was based on risk factors for ALI and CPE, age, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, and peripheral oxygen saturation/Fio(2) ratio. It demonstrated good discrimination (area under curve [AUC] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] P = .16). Similar performance was obtained in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.88; HL P = .13). A simple decision support tool accurately classifies acute pulmonary edema, reserving advanced testing for a subset of patients in whom satisfying prediction cannot be made. This novel tool may facilitate early inclusion of patients with ALI and CPE into research studies as well as improve and rationalize clinical management and resource use.

  5. The Impact of Health Changes on Labor Supply: Evidence from Merged Data on Individual Objective Medical Diagnosis Codes and Early Retirement Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene

    with a host of demographic, labor market and financial regressors. The panel structure of the data allows following individuals year by year from the age of 50 and precisely measure changes in objectively measured health and other regressors, as well as labor market status. We consider 12 broad, mutually......, unemployment, and others (including out of the labor force and welfare). We estimate both single risk models, lumping all retirement states, and competing risk specifications, including all separate exit routes. Throughout, females are included in the estimations, and we present separate results by gender. We....... Furthermore, unemployment followed by early retirement is different from unemployment followed by other programs regarding marital status, gender, income, and health. These comparisons hinge on the competing risk framework. Finally, even when using objective medical diagnosis measures we still find...

  6. Estimating sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Illustrates with a table. Keywords: Botanical surveys; Grass density; Grasslands; Mixed Bushveld; Nylsvley Nature Reserve; Quadrat size species density; Small-quadrat method; Species density; Species richness; botany; sample size; method; survey; south africa

  7. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  8. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, Xin Yue; Kong, Xiang Nan; Tang, Yi Fei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market

  9. Botanical drugs, synergy, and network pharmacology: forth and back to intelligent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Jürg

    2011-07-01

    For centuries the science of pharmacognosy has dominated rational drug development until it was gradually substituted by target-based drug discovery in the last fifty years. Pharmacognosy stems from the different systems of traditional herbal medicine and its "reverse pharmacology" approach has led to the discovery of numerous pharmacologically active molecules and drug leads for humankind. But do botanical drugs also provide effective mixtures? Nature has evolved distinct strategies to modulate biological processes, either by selectively targeting biological macromolecules or by creating molecular promiscuity or polypharmacology (one molecule binds to different targets). Widely claimed to be superior over monosubstances, mixtures of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs allegedly exert synergistic therapeutic effects. Despite evolutionary clues to molecular synergism in nature, sound experimental data are still widely lacking to support this assumption. In this short review, the emerging concept of network pharmacology is highlighted, and the importance of studying ligand-target networks for botanical drugs is emphasized. Furthermore, problems associated with studying mixtures of molecules with distinctly different pharmacodynamic properties are addressed. It is concluded that a better understanding of the polypharmacology and potential network pharmacology of botanical drugs is fundamental in the ongoing rationalization of phytotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  11. Evaluation of some bioagents and botanicals in in vitro control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collectotrichum destructivum has not been effectively controlled. This led to trials on the use of bioagents and botanicals to control the pathogen. The bio-agents such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma pseudokoningii were inoculated as dixenic culture with the ...

  12. The Plant Information Center (PIC): A Web-Based Learning Center for Botanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J.; Daniel, E.; Massey, J.; White, P.

    The Plant Information Center (PIC) is a project funded under the Institute of Museum and Library Studies that aims to provide global access to both primary and secondary botanical resources via the World Wide Web. Central to the project is the development and employment of a series of applications that facilitate resource discovery, interactive…

  13. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  14. An Improved Botanical Search Application for Middle-and High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A previously reported botanical data retrieval application has been improved to make it better suited for use in middle-and high-school science classes. This search interface is ring-structured and treats multi-faceted metadata intuitively, enabling students not only to search for plant names but also to learn about the morphological features and…

  15. Evaluation of Botanical Reference Materials for the Determination of Vanadium in Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemical...

  16. Missouri botanical garden’s support of ex-situ conservation with living collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Gunn; Meg Engelhardt; Derek. Lyle

    2017-01-01

    The Missouri Botanical Garden’s living collections are critical for supporting its multi-disciplinary strategy of integrated plant conservation. The Garden is increasing ex-situ collections of plants in need of conservation to build species diversity into its displays for visitor education. Current areas of focus include native Missouri species and International Union...

  17. Extraction of Botanical Pesticides from Pelargonium graveolens using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machalová, Zdeňka; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Topiař, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, MAY (2015), s. 310-317 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical pesticides * geranium oil * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  18. A multiple biomarker assay for quality assessment of botanical drugs using a versatile microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Hao; Ai, Ni; Yu, Lawrence X; Qian, Zhong-Zhi; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2017-09-25

    Quality control is critical for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of drugs. Current quality control method for botanical drugs is mainly based on chemical testing. However, chemical testing alone may not be sufficient as it may not capture all constituents of botanical drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a bioassay correlating with the drug's known mechanism of action to ensure its potency and activity. Herein we developed a multiple biomarker assay to assess the quality of botanicals using microfluidics, where enzyme inhibition was employed to indicate the drug's activity and thereby evaluate biological consistency. This approach was exemplified on QiShenYiQi Pills using thrombin and angiotensin converting enzyme as "quality biomarkers". Our results demonstrated that there existed variations in potency across different batches of the intermediates and preparations. Compared with chromatographic fingerprinting, the bioassay provided better discrimination ability for some abnormal samples. Moreover, the chip could function as "affinity chromatography" to identify bioactive phytochemicals bound to the enzymes. This work proposed a multiple-biomarker strategy for quality assessment of botanical drugs, while demonstrating for the first time the feasibility of microfluidics in this field.

  19. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  20. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  1. A Garden of Stories: An English Lesson in a Botanical Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Five middle school teachers are among the few people wandering around the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, squinting at labels describing the plants that will bloom soon. The author and her colleagues are on a reconnaissance mission, trying to plan an interdisciplinary field trip for the seventh grade. They represent different departments--science, math,…

  2. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    isoflavonoid equol, and the concentrations of equol were higher than found in most other studies. This study confirms that grazing pastures containing red clover increases concentrations of isoflavones and especially equol in bovine milk compared to grazing pastures with other botanical composition. The higher...

  3. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two storage experiments in an improved yam barn were carried out simultaneously at two locations in southern Nigeria to determine the influence of cultivar, botanical storage treatments and storage environments on the shelf life of yam (Dioscorea rotundata). The experiments were conducted from January to July.

  4. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  6. Anylisis of botanical composition and nutrient content on natural pastures in Samosir Island of Samosir Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, N. D.; Tafsin, M.; Hutasuhut, U.; Lubis, E.

    2018-02-01

    Samosir regency is one of the areas that have large grazing area. The potential of grazing production in the area plays an important role for the development of livestock, especially on ruminant livestock.The study aims to know the botanical composition and the nutritional content of forage on natural pasture at the Samosir Island. Animal feed assessment method on natural pastures in Samosir regency includes the determination of research location points based on the altitude through the survey method. Location of the study amounted to 15 locations. The result showed that at altitude 905 - 1200 meters above sea level had a botanical composition were 31 species with ratio of grass 80.58 %, legumes 9.14 % and weeds 9.63 % and the most dominant forage is Imperata cylindrica l. The botanical composition at altitude more than 1205 meters above sea level is 15 species with ratio of grass 92.72 %, legumes 2.87 % and weeds 4.39 % and the most dominant forage is Axonopus compressus. The forage which has the highest crude protein is Starkuak 15.13 %. The conclusion that the altitude in pastures give effect on the botanical composition of forages.

  7. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  8. Botanical investigations related to the Isua mining project, 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christian; Simonsen, Caroline Ernberg

    Botanical field studies were carried out in August 2011 and September 2012 in connection with the proposed mining activities at Isua in West Greenland. The aim was both to register and map rare and endemic vascular plants, and to localize vulnerable vegetation types. The vegetation and the flora...

  9. Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase

  10. Borneo : a quantitative analysis of botanical richness, endemicity and floristic regions based on herbarium records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Based on the digitized herbarium records housed at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands I developed high spatial resolution patterns of Borneo's botanical richness, endemicity, and the floristic regions. The patterns are derived from species distribution models which predict a species

  11. Botanical philosophy on the selection of rain forest reserves in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1979-01-01

    Now that at the Jakarta Forestry Congress it was announced on the behalf of the Indonesian government that a target area has been set to conserve 5% of the land area, eventually to be increased to 10%, the time has come to indicate how these areas are to be allocated. Botanical arguments are

  12. Botanical DNA evidence in criminal cases: Knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare L.) as a model species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.; Kuiper, I.; Klein Geltink, D.J.A.; Sabatino, G.J.H.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities and strategies for using DNA characteristics to link a botanical sample to a specific source plant or location vary with its breeding system. For inbreeding species, which often form small patches of identical genotypes, knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare L.) is a suitable model

  13. Grammatical objections to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, adopted at Cambridge in 1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1935-01-01

    It is generally known that botanical nomenclature, though sprung from mediaeval scientific Latin, and agreeing, in its orthography for the greater part, in its grammar as much as possible, with classical Latin, shows countless forms which not only from a classical-grammatical, but also from a

  14. Cienfuegos Botanical Garden and the Municipal Agricultural System, a territorial approach to local management extensionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Domínguez Soto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies the goods and services available in the Botanical Garden of Cienfuegos, from the plant genetic resources that tax the agricultural sector and that allow to establish synergies with the Agrarian System of the Municipality Cienfuegos with the purpose of producing food.

  15. Evaluation of some bioagents and botanicals in in vitro control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... culture with the pathogen to monitor antagonistic effect. In another experiment, botanicals of tobacco. (Nicotiana tabacum) and castor plant (Ricinus communis) were incorporated as poison in a growth media. Of all the four bio-agents used, only P. fluorescens was able to inhibit the growth of the pathogen.

  16. Influence of botanic origin and amylose content on the morphology of starch nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCorre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are crystalline platelets resulting from the disruption of the semi-crystalline structure of starch granules by the acid hydrolysis of amorphous parts. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of botanic origin and amylose content of native starches on the morphology and properties of resulting nanoparticles. SNC were prepared from five different starches normal maize, high amylose maize, waxy maize, potato, and wheat; covering three botanic origins, two crystalline types, and three range of amylose content (0, 25, and 70%) for maize starch. Different types of nanocrystals were obtained with a thickness ranging between 4 and 8 nm and diameter from about 50 to 120 nm depending on the source. The comparison of their morphology, crystallinity, and rheological properties is proposed for the first time. For the same amylose content, maize, potato, and wheat resulted in rather similar size and crystallinity of SNC proving the limited influence of the botanic origin. For the same botanic origin (maize), differences in size were more important indicating the influence of the amylopectin content. Also, particles tended to show square shapes with increasing native starch’s amylopectin content and A-type crystalinity. Thus, only high amylose content starches should be avoided to prepare SNC.

  17. Influence of botanic origin and amylose content on the morphology of starch nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCorre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2011-12-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are crystalline platelets resulting from the disruption of the semi-crystalline structure of starch granules by the acid hydrolysis of amorphous parts. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of botanic origin and amylose content of native starches on the morphology and properties of resulting nanoparticles. SNC were prepared from five different starches normal maize, high amylose maize, waxy maize, potato, and wheat; covering three botanic origins, two crystalline types, and three range of amylose content (0, 25, and 70%) for maize starch. Different types of nanocrystals were obtained with a thickness ranging between 4 and 8 nm and diameter from about 50 to 120 nm depending on the source. The comparison of their morphology, crystallinity, and rheological properties is proposed for the first time. For the same amylose content, maize, potato, and wheat resulted in rather similar size and crystallinity of SNC proving the limited influence of the botanic origin. For the same botanic origin (maize), differences in size were more important indicating the influence of the amylopectin content. Also, particles tended to show square shapes with increasing native starch's amylopectin content and A-type crystalinity. Thus, only high amylose content starches should be avoided to prepare SNC.

  18. Brief history of the development of the Subtropical Botanical Garden of the Kuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective report of the Director of the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban, Karpun YN, at the opening of the First National Dendrological Conference, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Garden, held on March 14-16, 2017 in Sochi

  19. Evaluation of the dry weight rank method for botanical analysis of grassland by means of simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Lantinga, E.A.; Struik, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    With the Dry Weight Rank (DWR) method of 't Mannetje and Haydock [see Journal of British Grassland Society (1963) 18, 268-275] for botanical analysis in pastures, the dry weight proportions of species are estimated from their first, second and third ranks in dry weight in single quadrats. The yield

  20. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual

  1. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  2. Connecting undergraduate and postgraduate medical education through an elective EPA-based transitional year in acute care: an early project report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonker, Gersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A well-designed final year may ease the transition from medical school to postgraduate training, if it has enough depth to enable the acquisition of early specialty expertise, while keeping enough breadth to support the graduation as all-round physician. Aim of this article is to describe the design of a multidisciplinary dedicated transitional year (DTY around the theme of recognition and initial treatment of vitally threatened patients.Methods: Undergraduate and postgraduate training directors from the departments of Anaesthesiology, Cardiology, Emergency Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine and Respiratory Medicine at UMC Utrecht and partnering hospitals have collaboratively developed and implemented a curriculum for a final year focusing on three entrustable professional activities (EPAs in the domain of acute care. These EPAs represent authentic tasks of starting residents in each of the participating specialties, align student training objectives with postgraduate expectations, and are the primary focus of learning, teaching, and assessment throughout the year. Students are developmentally supported by a mentor and educationally supported by monthly academic half days.Results: Between October 2014 and November 2016,, 47 students chose DTY Acute Care. The set-up of our DTY is inspiring other specialties to develop multidisciplinary DTYs. Attainment of clinical competence, experience of students and staff, and exploration of graduates’ early careers are subjects of current research projects.Conclusion: This multidisciplinary dedicated transitional year aims to graduate students with profile-specific competence in acute care. It prepares for residency in a range of specialties.

  3. Connecting undergraduate and postgraduate medical education through an elective EPA-based transitional year in acute care: an early project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Gersten; Hoff, Reinier G; Max, Stefan; Kalkman, Cor J; Ten Cate, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A well-designed final year may ease the transition from medical school to postgraduate training, if it has enough depth to enable the acquisition of early specialty expertise, while keeping enough breadth to support the graduation as all-round physician. Aim of this article is to describe the design of a multidisciplinary dedicated transitional year (DTY) around the theme of recognition and initial treatment of vitally threatened patients. Methods: Undergraduate and postgraduate training directors from the departments of Anaesthesiology, Cardiology, Emergency Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine and Respiratory Medicine at UMC Utrecht and partnering hospitals have collaboratively developed and implemented a curriculum for a final year focusing on three entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in the domain of acute care. These EPAs represent authentic tasks of starting residents in each of the participating specialties, align student training objectives with postgraduate expectations, and are the primary focus of learning, teaching, and assessment throughout the year. Students are developmentally supported by a mentor and educationally supported by monthly academic half days. Results: Between October 2014 and November 2016,, 47 students chose DTY Acute Care. The set-up of our DTY is inspiring other specialties to develop multidisciplinary DTYs. Attainment of clinical competence, experience of students and staff, and exploration of graduates' early careers are subjects of current research projects. Conclusion: This multidisciplinary dedicated transitional year aims to graduate students with profile-specific competence in acute care. It prepares for residency in a range of specialties.

  4. Larvicidal efficacy of botanical extracts against two important vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Amsath, A; Niraimathi, S

    2012-03-01

    To determine the larvicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Twenty five early third instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Among three solvent extracts tested the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. The LC50 (LC90) values of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima against early third instar of Anopheles subpictus were 86.47 (159.59) and 113.26 (207.73) ppm and Culex tritaeniorhynchus were 131.53 (245.37) and 165.28 (299.45) ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were excellent potential for controlling Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito larvae.

  5. Prognosis in medically stabilized unstable angina: Early Holter ST-segment monitoring compared with predischarge exercise thallium tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmur, J.D.; Freeman, M.R.; Langer, A.; Armstrong, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relative value of invasive and noninvasive predictors of outcome in patients after unstable angina. Fifty-four patients with unstable angina who had 6-month follow-up after stabilization on medical therapy were evaluated. We prospectively compared 24-hour Holter ST-segment monitoring at admission, quantitative exercise thallium tomography, and cardiac catheterization 5 +/- 2 days after admission and analyzed their value for predicting a cardiac event in patients with unstable angina within 6 months. When patients with a favorable outcome (n = 40) were compared with patients with an unfavorable outcome (n = 11) no statistical difference was found in duration of ST shift of 1 mm or more on Holter monitoring (51 +/- 119 min compared with 37 +/- 43 min), exercise duration by the standard Bruce protocol (8.0 +/- 3.6 min compared with 7.9 +/- 3.1 min), exercise-induced ST depression (0.6 +/- 0.9 mm compared with 1.0 +/- 1.0 mm), and contrast left ventricular ejection fraction (70% +/- 10% compared with 69% +/- 15%). Patients with a favorable outcome were distinguished from those with an unfavorable outcome by a higher maximum rate-pressure product (24 x 10(3) +/- 6 x 10(3) compared with 18 x 10(3) +/- 7 x 10(3), P = 0.0025), smaller size of the reversible scintigraphic perfusion defect expressed as a percentage of total myocardium imaged (6% +/- 11% compared with 17% +/- 18%, P = 0.05) and a smaller number of vessels with stenosis of 50% or more (1.1 +/- 1.2 compared with 2.1 +/- 1.0, P = 0.01). On multiple logistic regression analysis, a history of previous myocardial infarction was the most powerful predictor of outcome. In patients without myocardial infarction, reversible exercise thallium perfusion defect size was the only predictor

  6. The effects of the botanical estrogen, isoliquiritigenin on delayed spatial alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Payel; Neese, Steven L; Bandara, Suren; Monaikul, Supida; Helferich, William G; Doerge, Daniel R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Schantz, Susan L

    Age-related declines in cognitive function can impair working memory, reduce speed of processing, and alter attentional resources. In particular, menopausal women may show an acceleration in the rate of cognitive decline as well as an increased vulnerability to brain diseases as estrogens may play a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role in the brain. To treat menopausal symptoms, many women turn to botanical estrogens that are promoted as a safe and natural alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy. However, the majority of these compounds have not been systematically evaluated for efficacy and safety. The current study investigated the efficacy of the commercially available botanical estrogenic compound isoliquiritigenin (ISL) to alter performance on an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA). ISL is a compound found in licorice root that has been shown to have a wide range of effects on different biological systems, including estrogenic properties. This botanical is currently being used in over the counter dietary supplements. Middle-aged (12-month old) Long-Evans female rats were ovariectomized and orally dosed with either 0 mg, 6 mg, 12 mg or 24 mg of ISL 60 min before testing on the DSA task. The DSA task required the rat to alternate its responses between two retractable levers in order to earn food rewards. Random delays of 0, 3, 6, 9 or 18 s were imposed between opportunities to press. ISL treatment failed to alter DSA performance. Previous work from our research group has found that estrogenic compounds, including 17β-estradiol and the botanical estrogen genistein impair performance on the DSA task. The goal of our botanical estrogens research is to find compounds that offer some of the beneficial effects of estrogen supplementation, without the harmful effects. This work suggests that ISL may not carry the cognitive risks associated with most other estrogenic compounds tested to date. Copyright © 2018

  7. Botanical Polyphenols Mitigate Microglial Activation and Microglia-Induced Neurotoxicity: Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Dennis Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Cui, Jiankun; Lubahn, Dennis B; Gu, Zezong; Sun, Grace Y

    2016-09-01

    Microglia play a significant role in the generation and propagation of oxidative/nitrosative stress, and are the basis of neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Upon stimulation by endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), these cells release pro-inflammatory factors which can exert harmful effects on surrounding neurons, leading to secondary neuronal damage and cell death. Our previous studies demonstrated the effects of botanical polyphenols to mitigate inflammatory responses induced by LPS, and highlighted an important role for cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) upstream of the pro-inflammatory pathways (Chuang et al. in J Neuroinflammation 12(1):199, 2015. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0419-0 ). In this study, we investigate the action of botanical compounds and assess whether suppression of cPLA2 in microglia is involved in the neurotoxic effects on neurons. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to test the neurotoxicity of conditioned medium from stimulated microglial cells, and WST-1 assay was used to assess for the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells. Botanicals such as quercetin and honokiol (but not cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, 3CG) were effective in inhibiting LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and phosphorylation of cPLA2. Conditioned medium from BV-2 cells stimulated with LPS or IFNγ caused neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells. Decrease in cell viability could be ameliorated by pharmacological inhibitors for cPLA2 as well as by down-regulating cPLA2 with siRNA. Botanicals effective in inhibition of LPS-induced NO and cPLA2 phosphorylation were also effective in ameliorating microglial-induced neurotoxicity. Results demonstrated cytotoxic factors from activated microglial cells to cause damaging effects to neurons and potential use of botanical polyphenols to ameliorate the neurotoxic effects.

  8. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for complex fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients: impact on the level of independency, early function, and pain medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensperger, Fabian; Grüninger, Patrick; Dietrich, Michael; Völlink, Mathias; Benninger, Emanuel; Schläppi, Michel; Meier, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated early functional outcome, quality of life, and the level of independency in elderly patients after primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for complex fractures of the proximal humerus. This was a prospective case series that included 33 patients, aged ≥70 years, with a high level of independency who received RSA for complex fractures of the humerus (Orthopaedic Trauma Association B2/C) from January 2012 to April 2014. Level of independency, quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey score), early functional outcome (Constant-Murley score, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure), and pain medication (World Health Organization grading) were obtained at the 6-month follow-up and 1 year after surgery. The Constant-Murley score was 64 ± 14 after 6 months and 71 ± 12 at 1 year (P < .001), reaching 87% compared with the contralateral shoulder. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score reached 29 ± 20 at 6 months and 30 ± 21 at 1 year. The Short Form 36 score was comparable to normative data. After 6 months, 84% of our study group were back at their previous level of independency. Within 1 year, this rate increased to 91%. At the 1-year follow-up, analgesia intake was back at the level before the injury in 97% of the patients. Primary RSA provides good early functional results, reliable pain control, and excellent restoration of an independent life style in elderly patients. Thus, RSA may be considered for active patients with a high demand on shoulder function. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stop. Think. Delirium! A quality improvement initiative to explore utilising a validated cognitive assessment tool in the acute inpatient medical setting to detect delirium and prompt early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Angela; Harlan, Todd; Cobb, Janice

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the ability of nursing staff to detect delirium and apply early intervention to decrease adverse events associated with delirium. To characterise nursing practices associated with staff knowledge, delirium screening utilising the Modified Richmond Assessment Sedation Score (mRASS), and multicomponent interventions in an acute inpatient medical unit. Delirium incidence rates are up to 60% in frail elderly hospitalised patients. Under-recognition and inconsistent management of delirium is an international problem. Falls, restraints, and increased hospital length of stay are linked to delirium. A descriptive study. Exploration of relationships between cause and effect among cognitive screening, knowledge assessment and interventions. Success in identifying sufficient cases of delirium was not evident; however, multicomponent interventions were applied to patients with obvious symptoms. An increase in nursing knowledge was demonstrated after additional training. Delirium screening occurred in 49-61% of the target population monthly, with challenges in compliance and documentation of screening and interventions. Technological capabilities for trending mRASS results do not exist within the current computerised patient record system. Delirium screening increases awareness of nursing staff, prompting more emphasis on early intervention in apparent symptoms. Technological support is needed to effectively document and visualise trends in screening results. The study imparts future research on the effects of cognitive screening on delirium prevention and reduction in adverse patient outcomes. Evidence-based literature reveals negative patient outcomes associated with delirium. However, delirium is highly under-recognised indicating future research is needed to address nursing awareness and recognition of delirium. Additional education and knowledge transformation from research to nursing practice are paramount in the application of innovative strategies

  10. Robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy for elderly medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam SD

    2013-08-01

    statistical significance. No acute or subacute high-grade toxicities were documented.Conclusion: SBRT is a safe, feasible, and effective treatment option for elderly patients with inoperable early stage NSCLC. BED, histology, and tumor size are predictors of local control, while tumor size and gender predict OS.Keywords: SABR, CyberKnife, BED, gender, histology

  11. UP1306, a Botanical Composition with Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Brownell, Lidia; Hyun, Eujin; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pain, one of the cardinal signs of inflammation, is the most common clinical manifestations of arthritis. Conventional pain relief therapy heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes deleterious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. Hence, there is an equivocal need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis. Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and abdominal constriction (writhing's) assays in mouse were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of UP1306, a composition that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the heartwood of Acacia catechu and the root bark of Morus alba administered orally at dose ranges of 100-300 mg/kg. Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were carried out to determine the IC50 of Acacia and Morus extracts. The merit of combining these two extracts was also assessed. Statistically significant improvement in pain resistance and suppression of edema were observed in animals treated with UP1306, when compared to vehicle-treated diseased rats and mice. Results from the high dose of UP1306 (300 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg in early hours of treatment. In vitro, UP1306 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LO with IC50 values of 20.9 μg/mL, 49.2 μg/mL, and 11.1 μg/mL in COX-1, COX-2, and 5'-LO, respectively. These data suggest that UP1306, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin with dual COX-LO inhibition activity, could potentially be used to alleviate symptom associated to osteoarthritis. Pain is the most common clinical manifestations of arthritisCarrageenan-induced rat paw edema and abdominal constriction (writhing's) assays in mouse are among the

  12. Organizing medical oncology care at a regional level and its subsequent impact on the quality of early breast cancer management: a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voidey, Aline; Pivot, Xavier; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Nallet, Gilles; Cals, Laurent; Schwetterle, Francis; Limat, Samuel

    2014-07-28

    One of the main measures of the French national cancer plan is to encourage physicians to work collectively, and to minimize territorial inequities in access to care by rethinking the geographical distribution of oncologists. For this reason, cancer care services are currently being reorganized at national level. A new infrastructure for multidisciplinary cancer care delivery has been put in place in our region. Patients can receive multidisciplinary health care services nearer their homes, thanks to a mobile team of oncologists. The objective of our study was to assess, using a quality approach, the impact on medical management and on the costs of treating early breast cancer, of the new regional structure for cancer care delivery. Before-and-after study performed from 2007 to 2010, including patients treated for early breast cancer in three hospitals in the region of Franche-Comté in Eastern France. The main outcome measures were quality criteria, namely delayed treatment (>12 weeks), dose-intensity and assessment of adjuvant chemotherapy. Other outcomes were 24-month progression-free survival (PFS) and economic evaluation. This study included 667 patients. The rate of chemotherapy tended to decrease, but not significantly (49.3% before versus 42.2% after, p=0.07), while the use of taxanes increased by 38% across all centres (59.6% before versus 98.0% after, p 3.0 weeks before versus 5.6 ± 3.6 weeks after, p=0.11). Dose-dense chemotherapy improved slightly, albeit non significantly (86.3% versus 91.1% p=0.22) and time to treatment tended to decrease. The new regional infrastructure did not change 24-month PFS, which remained at about 96%. The average cost of treatment was estimated at € 7000, with no difference between the two periods. Despite a shortage of oncologists, the new organization put in place in our region for the provision of care for early breast cancer makes it possible to maintain local community-based treatment, without negative economic

  13. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea...... and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  14. Report on botanical nomenclature—Vienna 2005. XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna: Nomenclature Section, 12–16 July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Flann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available PrefaceThis is the official Report on the deliberations and decisions of the ten sessions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVII International Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria, from 12–16 July 2005. The meetings of the Section took place on these five consecutive days prior to the Congress proper. The Section meetings were hosted by the Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria. Technical facilities included full electronic recording of all discussion spoken into the microphones. Text of all proposals to amend the Code was displayed on one screen allowing suggested amendments to be updated as appropriate. The team at the University of Vienna (Christopher Dixon, Jeong-Mi Park, Ovidiu Paun, Carolin A. Redernig and Dieter Reich ensured that the proceedings ran smoothly and enjoyably for all.A report of the decisions of the Section was published soon after the Congress (McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057–1064. 2005. It includes a tabulation of the preliminary mail vote on the published proposals, specifying how the Section acted on each and detailing amendments and new proposals approved upon motions from the floor. It also includes the report of the Nominating Committee as well as the Congress resolution ratifying the Section’s decisions, neither reproduced here. The main result of the Section’s deliberations is the Vienna Code, which was published as Regnum Vegetabile 146, on 20 Sep 2006 (McNeill & al. in Regnum Veg. 146. 2006. It was also published online, on the same date (see http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php.The present report of the proceedings of the Vienna Nomenclature Section conveys, we believe, a true and lively picture of the event. It is primarily based on the MP3 electronic recordings, with, where necessary, supplementation by the comment slips submitted by most speakers and by reference to parallel tape-recording, particularly where there were gaps in the MP3 record. With these sources combined, and

  15. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple...

  16. Ingredients of a 2,000-y-old medicine revealed by chemical, mineralogical, and botanical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachi, Gianna; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Romualdi, Antonella; Ribechini, Erika; Lucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Colombini, Maria Perla; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2013-01-22

    In archaeology, the discovery of ancient medicines is very rare, as is knowledge of their chemical composition. In this paper we present results combining chemical, mineralogical, and botanical investigations on the well-preserved contents of a tin pyxis discovered onboard the Pozzino shipwreck (second century B.C.). The contents consist of six flat, gray, discoid tablets that represent direct evidence of an ancient medicinal preparation. The data revealed extraordinary information on the composition of the tablets and on their possible therapeutic use. Hydrozincite and smithsonite were by far the most abundant ingredients of the Pozzino tablets, along with starch, animal and plant lipids, and pine resin. The composition and the form of the Pozzino tablets seem to indicate that they were used for ophthalmic purposes: the Latin name collyrium (eyewash) comes from the Greek name κoλλυρα, which means "small round loaves." This study provided valuable information on ancient medical and pharmaceutical practices and on the development of pharmacology and medicine over the centuries. In addition, given the current focus on natural compounds, our data could lead to new investigations and research for therapeutic care.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 5% Foam in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Men With Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men, characterized by hair miniaturization, hairline recession, and vertex balding. It affects approximately 50% of men, negatively affecting self-esteem and sociability. Topical minoxidil formulations are approved up to a 5% concentration for men, but patient adherence to treatment is challenged by gradual results that may be perceived as a lack of initial benefit. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 5% minoxidil foam used in combination with a novel botanical hair solution was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, single-arm, open label study in 56 subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Assessments included investigator ratings of improvement and subject self-ratings of satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in scalp hair coverage and perception of overall treatment benefit in as early as 4 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings were significant for improved hair growth and hair appearance in as few as 4 weeks (P<.05). The regimen was well tolerated, and subjects indicated a high degree of satisfaction. Investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this novel regimen provide clinicians with an effective treatment option for AGA that also provides a high level of patient satisfaction, which may help promote patient adherence to long-term treatment.

  18. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allibhai, Zishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Taremi, Mojgan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Newmarket (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew J.; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Cho, B.C. John, E-mail: john.cho@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually <4 cm), peripheral, solitary tumors. Larger tumors are associated with poorer outcomes (ie, lower control rates, higher toxicity) when treated with conventional RT. It is unclear whether SBRT is sufficiently potent to control these larger tumors. We therefore evaluated and examined the influence of tumor size on treatment outcomes after SBRT. Methods and Materials: Between October 2004 and October 2010, 185 medically inoperable patients with early (T1-T2N0M0) NSCLC were treated on a prospective research ethics board-approved single-institution protocol. Prescription doses were risk-adapted based on tumor size and location. Follow-up included prospective assessment of toxicity (as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and serial computed tomography scans. Patterns of failure, toxicity, and survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of tumor size (diameter, volume) with respect to patient, treatment, and tumor factors was tested. Results: Median follow-up was 15.2 months. Tumor size was not associated with local failure but was associated with regional failure (P=.011) and distant failure (P=.021). Poorer overall survival (P=.001), disease-free survival (P=.001), and cause-specific survival (P=.005) were also significantly associated with tumor size (with tumor volume more significant than diameter). Gross tumor volume and planning target volume were significantly associated with grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis. However, overall rates of grade ≥3 pneumonitis were low and not significantly affected by tumor or target size. Conclusions: Currently employed stereotactic body radiation therapy dose regimens can provide safe effective local therapy even for larger solitary NSCLC tumors (up to 5.7 cm

  19. Safety profile and feasibility of early physical therapy and mobility for critically ill patients in the medical intensive care unit: Beginning experiences in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Ko, Young Jun; Suh, Gee Young; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Park, Chi-Min; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Yun Hee; Chung, Chi Ryang

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate risk factors for potential safety events during mobility physical therapy sessions in the medical intensive care unit. The safety profiles and potential risk factors of 99 patients who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit of a single teaching hospital in Korea between May 1 and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 26 potential safety events (5.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4%-7.3%) during 520 mobilization sessions were observed in 17 (17.2%; 95% CI, 10.6%-26.4%) of 99 patients. The common potential safety events were as follows in order of frequency: 11 events of tachypnea or bradypnea (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.1%-3.9%), 6 events of desaturation (1.2 %; 95% CI, 0.5%-2.6%), 4 events of tachypnea or bradycardia (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.3%-2.1%), 4 events of patients' intolerance (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.3%-2.1%), and 1 event of tracheostomy tube removal (0.2%; 95% CI, 0%-1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with potential adverse events with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.8 (95% CI, 2.2-15.6), respectively. Early mobility physical therapy performed by a newly established group was feasible for critically ill patients in Korea. However, potential safety events need to be monitored carefully for patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na(+), Ca(++), Mg(++), NH4(+), Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), PO4(3-)) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological and cultural diversity in the context of botanic garden conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Dunn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change, habitat loss, and other environmental changes on the world's biota and peoples continue to increase, especially on islands and in high elevation areas. Just as floristic diversity is affected by environmental change, so too are cultural and linguistic diversity. Of the approximately 7000 extant languages in the world, fully 50% are considered to be at risk of extinction, which is considerably higher than most estimates of extinction risks to plants and animals. To maintain the integrity of plant life, it is not enough for botanic gardens to consider solely the effects of environmental change on plants within the context of major conservation strategies such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rather, botanic gardens should actively engage in understanding and communicating the broader impacts of environmental change to biological and cultural diversity.

  2. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flower-Insect Visitor Interaction: Study Case on Rhododendron inundatum Sleumer in Bali Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Kuswantoro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhododendron-insect relationship was quite well studied in the northern hemisphere. However, information on the flower-insect relationship of the Indonesian Rhododendron was limited. This study aims to find the interaction between Rhododendron inundatum Sleumer collected in Bali Botanic Garden and its flower-visiting insect. The study was conducted by observing insect visitation to the flower of R. inundatum for 1 hour a day and repeated for nine days. Data analysis was conducted by calculating the Visitation Rate (VR of each visitor taxa to determine its frequency. Study result showed that R. inundatum in Bali Botanic Garden was visited mainly by Chrysopa sp., as well as members of the Vespidae, Curculionidae, Muscidae, Drosophilidae, and Tephritidae. The result of this study was dissimilar with the previous study of white-flowered Rhododendron, which was mainly visited by moths.

  4. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Tuscan bee pollen of different botanic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Domenici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the apicultural products, the honey bee-pollen is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. For the first time, bee-pollen samples from Tuscany (Italy were studied to evaluate botanical origin, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. The investigated pollen loads were composed of three botanical families: Castanea, Rubus and Cistus.The highest levels of proteins and lipids were detected in Rubus pollen. Castanea pollen contained greater polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content, while the highest flavonols level wasdetected in Cistus pollen. These results were also confirmed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, used here, for the first time, as a fast tool to characterize bee-pollens.

  5. Rapid identification of the botanical and entomological sources of honey using DNA metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Honey is generated by various bee species from diverse plants, and because the value of different types of honey varies more than 100-fold, it is a target for fraud. This paper describes a protocol that employs DNA metabarcoding of three gene regions (ITS2, rbcLa, and COI) to provide an inexpensive tool to simultaneously deliver information on the botanical and entomological origins of honey. This method was used to examine seven varieties of honey: light, medium, dark, blended, pasteurized, creamed, and meliponine. Plant and insect sources were identified in five samples, but only the botanical or insect source could be identified in the other two. Two samples were found to be misrepresented. Although this method was generally successful in determining both plant and insect sources, honeys rich in polyphenolic compounds or subject to crystallization were recalcitrant to analysis, so further research is required to combat honey adulteration and mislabeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. (Pinaceae is an extremely rare flora species of the Central Asia (Kirghizia; it has been cultivated at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS since 1949, where it was first introduced into general cultivation. Since 2000, upon reaching the age of 43 years, the seed reproduction of the plants is being marked. An X-ray test proved seeds, collected in 2014, to be filled and full. In spring 2015, first time in the 67 years of cultivating this specie in St. Petersburg area, first young crops were received. Abies semenovii – a cold hard and decorative tree – has to be introduced into the gardening of St. Petersburg and shall be promoted into the Karelia and further to the northern regions of the European part of the Russian Federation.

  7. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul

  8. Control of oenological products: discrimination between different botanical sources of L-tartaric acid by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cosofret, Sorin; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude; Serra, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Following previous studies on counterfeit of wines with synthetic ingredients, the possibility of frauds by natural external L-tartaric acid has also been investigated. The aim of this research was to map the stable isotope ratios of L-tartaric acid coming from botanical species containing large amounts of this compound: grape and tamarind. Samples of L-tartaric acid were extracted from the pulp of tamarind fruits originating from several countries and from grape must. delta(13)C and delta(18)O were measured for all samples. Additional delta(2)H measurements were performed as a complementary analysis to help discrimination of the botanical origin. Different isotopic patterns were observed for the different botanical origins. The multivariate statistical analysis of the data shows clear discrimination among the different botanical and synthetic sources. This approach could be a complementary tool for the control of L-tartaric acid used in oenology. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Validation of botanical origins and geographical sources of some Saudi honeys using ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Ali; Adgaba, Nuru; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Gad, Haidy A; Roshan, Abdulrahman; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Kolyali, Sevgi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims at distinguishing honey based on botanical and geographical sources. Different floral honey samples were collected from diverse geographical locations of Saudi Arabia. UV spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis including Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) were used to classify honey samples. HCA and PCA presented the initial clustering pattern to differentiate between botanical as well as geographical sources. The SIMCA model clearly separated the Ziziphus sp. and other monofloral honey samples based on different locations and botanical sources. The results successfully discriminated the honey samples of different botanical and geographical sources validating the segregation observed using few physicochemical parameters that are regularly used for discrimination.

  10. Evaluating urban eco-tourism resources and environment: a case study in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Yin, Jie

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China has been selected as the study area. The overall status and the development conditions of resources and environment have been analyzed for the park. The eco-tourism resources and environment of Chenshan Botanical Garden were further evaluated synthetically by using expert analysis and questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation system including 16 indices has been initially established from three aspects of tourism resource element value, resource development condition and eco-environment condition. The characteristics of eco-tourism resources and the score of each indicator for Chenshan Botanical Garden have subsequently been generated. The results show that the comprehensive evaluation score of eco-tourism resources and environment for Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden is 72.06, which belongs to third level of excellent tourism resources and environment. Finally, five suggestions are proposed for future development of its eco-tourism resources and environment.

  11. New forms of maples (ACER L., Aceraceae cultivated at Peter the Great Botanic Garden (ST. Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains description of two new maple forms - Acer miyabei Maxim. f. suberosum Byalt et Firsov forma nova (Aceraceae and Acer saccharinum L. f. variifolium Byalt et Firsov forma nova – cultivated at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in St. Petersburg, Russia. The article contains a brief history of the introduction of A. miyabei Maxim. and A. saccharinum L., information about the origin of the planting material in the park of the botanical garden of RAS, basic differences between the new forms and similar taxa (incl. Latin diagnoses, as well as data about standard samples and their storage. The article has color photos of the alive plants located in the botanical garden of RAS. Both maple forms are very decorative and appear to be very useful for a large-scale implementation in the urban landscape planting.

  12. ["Medical Texts and Jorunals," and Resources on "Prenatal Risk,""Premature and Low Birthweight Infants,""Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding"; "Effectiveness of Early Intervention." IPHA Birth-to-Three Clearinghouse Bibliographies 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Public Health Association, Springfield.

    Five separate bibliographies present citations of resources regarding prenatal risk, premature and low birthweight infants, infant nutrition and breastfeeding, and early intervention for infants with disabilities. The first bibliography lists 133 references from medical texts and journals regarding child development, disabilities, diagnosis, and…

  13. Elevated mRNA expression of PGF2alpha receptor splice variant 2(FP-V2) in human decidua is associated with incomplete mifepristone-misoprostol-induced early medical abortion by regulation of interleukin-8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.; Feng, W.; Han, W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, W.; Sui, Y.; Zhao, N.; Lye, S.J.; Li, J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is an established method for the induction of early abortion, but 15% of women still experience the unpleasant side effect of incomplete medical abortion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha receptor

  14. Water Quality Assessment of the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden Irrigation Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Stretchko, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater reuse for irrigation purposes on public and private land is a way to overcome the increasing pressure on finite water resources. Unfortunately, stormwater runoff can contain common pollutants such as nutrients, bacteria and petroleum products. Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden is an 82-acre public garden in Richmond, Virginia that uses stormwater runoff to irrigate garden displays. The objective of this study was to determine levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli), nitrogen, phosphorous,...

  15. 210 year anniversary of the Botanical Garden of the University of Tartu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politsinski Zanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available June 28, 2013 Botanic Garden of the University of Tartu has celebrated its 210th anniversary. To mark the occasion four significant events were presented: the first electric car trip, opening of the sculpture in honor of the gardeners of Estonia, the opening of "Moss garden" and a concert at the summer stage in the rock, which was held on June 29.

  16. Implementing a "quality by design" approach to assure the safety and integrity of botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy

    2012-09-28

    Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.

  17. [Literature survey on botanical origin and clinical application of traditional Tibetan medicine "Shengdeng"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Dao; Meng, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Ying-Shan; Chen, Gen-Ping; Huang, Yu-Lan

    2012-10-01

    "Shengdeng" is its Tibetan transliteration referring to many medicines. Tibetan doctors and pharmacists in different areas use different drugs in formulation and clinical application, which are easily confused. In order to grasp the formula and clinical application accurately, we conduct a literature survey on history and current state of botanical origin and clinical application of "Shengdeng", making clear the application of various herbs named "Shengdeng" and providing reference to all Tibetan researchers and clinical workers in formulation and clinical application.

  18. Integration of biological control and botanical pesticides : evaluation in a tritrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, D.S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Kfir, R.

    2001-01-01

    The plant kingdom is by far the most efficient producer of chemical compounds, synthesising many products that are used in defence against herbivores. Extracts made from some plants, particularly extracts from plants within the Meliaceae (mahogany) family, have been shown to have insecticidal properties. We investigated the potential of these extracts and the possibility of integrating botanical pesticides with biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Sub-lethal doses ...

  19. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  20. Botanic gardens should lead the way to create a “Garden Earth” in the Anthropocene

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    Charles H. Cannon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength and expertise that botanic gardens bring to conservation are based on their detailed knowledge and understanding of the care, management, and biology of a diversity of plant species. This emphasis on the organism has led to many ex-situ and in-situ conservation programs aimed at protecting endangered species, restoring threatened populations, and establishing living plant and seed collections of endangered species. In China, the scale and pace of change in land and resource use, often leading to environmental degradation, has created a strong emphasis on improving environmental conditions. If done properly, being “green” can be a surprisingly complex issue, because it should encompass and exploit the whole of plant diversity and function. Unfortunately, ‘green’ often includes a small portion of this whole. Earth's rich plant diversity presents considerable opportunity but requires expertise and knowledge for stable and beneficial management. With the dawning of the Anthropocene, we should strive to live on a “Garden Earth”, where we design and manage our environments, both built and natural, to create a healthy, beneficial living landscape for people and other organisms. The staff of botanic gardens worldwide and the living collections they maintain embody the best examples of sustainable, beautiful, and beneficial environments that thrive on plant diversity. This expertise should be a fundamental resource for agencies in all sectors responsible for managing and designing “green” infrastructure. Botanic gardens should actively engage and contribute to these opportunities, from large public infrastructure projects to small private conservation efforts. Here, we discuss several ongoing conservation efforts, primarily in China, and attempt to identify areas where botanic gardens could make a significant and meaningful difference.

  1. Morphometric features of Heuchera L. species in the introduction conditions of Donetsk Botanical Garden

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    Anastasia G. Selikhova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the Donetsk Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine the studies of morphometric characteristics of five of introduced species of the genus Heuchera L. were carried out. The results showed that H. americana is characterized by the greatest height, length and width of the leaf blade. The high variability of the parameters of height and diameter of the bush of H. villosa has signed.

  2. Morphometric features of Heuchera L. species in the introduction conditions of Donetsk Botanical Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia G. Selikhova

    2012-01-01

    On the territory of the Donetsk Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine the studies of morphometric characteristics of five of introduced species of the genus Heuchera L. were carried out. The results showed that H. americana is characterized by the greatest height, length and width of the leaf blade. The high variability of the parameters of height and diameter of the bush of H. villosa has signed.

  3. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  4. Elements of Success in Chicago Botanic Garden’s Science Career Continuum

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    Katherine A. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers. 

  5. Borneo: a quantitative analysis of botanical richness, endemicity and floristic regions based on herbarium records

    OpenAIRE

    Raes, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Based on the digitized herbarium records housed at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands I developed high spatial resolution patterns of Borneo's botanical richness, endemicity, and the floristic regions. The patterns are derived from species distribution models which predict a species occurrence based on the identified relationships between species recorded presences and the ecological circumstances at those localities. A new statistical method was developed to test the species distribut...

  6. HPTLC fingerprint: a modern approach for the analytical determination of botanicals

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    Marcello Nicoletti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Availability of rapid and reliable methods for detection of quality in plant raw materials and botanicals is urgently needed. The recent HPTLC instrumentation allows to obtain fingerprints useful to ascertain identity and composition. The results of direct application of HPTLC devices in selected cases, using the fingerprint approach, are here reported, considered and compared with other methods. HPTLC is proposed as an useful tool for analytical validation of the novel forms of natural products.

  7. HPTLC fingerprint: a modern approach for the analytical determination of botanicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Nicoletti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of rapid and reliable methods for detection of quality in plant raw materials and botanicals is urgently needed. The recent HPTLC instrumentation allows to obtain fingerprints useful to ascertain identity and composition. The results of direct application of HPTLC devices in selected cases, using the fingerprint approach, are here reported, considered and compared with other methods. HPTLC is proposed as an useful tool for analytical validation of the novel forms of natural products.

  8. HPTLC fingerprint: a modern approach for the analytical determination of botanicals

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletti,Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Availability of rapid and reliable methods for detection of quality in plant raw materials and botanicals is urgently needed. The recent HPTLC instrumentation allows to obtain fingerprints useful to ascertain identity and composition. The results of direct application of HPTLC devices in selected cases, using the fingerprint approach, are here reported, considered and compared with other methods. HPTLC is proposed as an useful tool for analytical validation of the novel forms of natural produ...

  9. THE MOLDOVA VEGETATION EXPOSITION FROM THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

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    POSTOLACHE GHEORGHE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction phases of the Moldova Vegetation Exposition from the Botanical Garden of Chişinău are presented. Twelve forest micro-expositions, one steppe vegetation exposition, one grassland micro-exposition and an area of rare plants have been created during last 35 year on an area of 14 ha. The Moldova Vegetation Exposition includes 400 species of vascular plants.

  10. Limitations of in vitro assessments of the drug interaction potential of botanical supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John S; Zhu, Hao-Jie

    2012-09-01

    Although there are inherent and recognized limitations of in vitro screening methodologies to assess conventional drug-drug interactions (DDIs) per industry guidelines and those adopted by independent laboratories, further limitations are being appreciated which are unique to the evaluation of botanical products and potential DDIs in which they may participate. Among the larger issues faced are the uncertainty in assigning hepatic concentrations of multiple constituents and their potential metabolites, accounting for oral bioavailability, distribution, first-pass metabolism and active metabolites. Furthermore, the wide variability in the chemical composition of commercially available botanical supplement formulations continues to be a major concern, and manufacturing standards or enforcement thereof is essentially nonexistent in most countries. Differing formulations, unspecified product excipients, administration and absorption of the therapeutic ingredient(s) of a standardized dosage form, the very presence and/or concentration of one or more phytoconstituents within a supplement are typically unknown and nontarget entities. A further issue is the absence of authentic analytical standards, and the inability to accurately screen the entities as mixtures to even approximate typical scenarios, which may occur following the ingestion of dietary supplements, adds additional layers of complexity to experimental design and difficulty in interpreting experimental results. Multiple challenges exist in experimental methodologies employed in performing in vitro research with conventional pharmaceuticals and those unique to botanical extracts. These obstacles prevent the investigators from effectively utilizing high-throughput models to accomplish more than essentially "flag" suspected sources of drug interactions which must be further evaluated in vivo, at present, in order to confirm clinical significance. This review is intended to discuss the problems and challenges in

  11. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

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    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  12. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

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    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST SUCKING INSECT PEST AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES ON COTTON CROP

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Baker; A. H. Makhdum; M. Nasir; A. Imran; A. Ahmad; F. Tufail

    2016-01-01

    The Synthetic and botanical insecticides are relatively safer for environment and beneficial insects. The study was conducted in Rahim Yar Khan during the cotton cropping season 2014 to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two Synthetic insecticides i.e. Nitenpyram (Jasper 10% SL) and Pyriproxyfen (Bruce 10.8% EC) and two botanical extracts of Calotropic procera and Azadirachta indica, against sucking insect pest complex of cotton and their natural enemies. Upon reaching economic thresholds, ...

  14. A three-stage-integrative approach for the identification of potential hepatotoxic compounds from botanical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yecheng; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Xiang; Nie, Xiaojing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-05-01

    With the increasing use of herbal medicines and dietary supplements, intensive concerns about their potential toxicities have been raised. Screening and identifying the toxic compounds from these botanical products composed by hundreds of components have become a critical but challenging problem. In this study, 3 methods, including fraction separation, an in-house-developed fluorescein diacetate-based automatic microscopy screening (FAMS) platform, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based compounds identification were integrated within the Three-Stage-Integrative (TSI) approach for the identification of potential hepatotoxicants from botanical products. The sensitivity and linear range of FAMS assay was validated and compared with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay by previously reported hepatotoxic compounds. The success of TSI approach was further demonstrated by its application to Fructus aristolochiae. Aristolochic acid IVa and aristolodione were tentatively identified to be potential hepatotoxicants in this plant. These applications suggested that our TSI approach provides an effective tool for identifying potential toxic compounds from botanical products.

  15. Biochemometrics to Identify Synergists and Additives from Botanical Medicines: A Case Study with Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Emily R; Kellogg, Joshua J; Kvalheim, Olav M; Cech, Nadja B

    2018-03-23

    A critical challenge in the study of botanical natural products is the difficulty of identifying multiple compounds that may contribute additively, synergistically, or antagonistically to biological activity. Herein, it is demonstrated how combining untargeted metabolomics with synergy-directed fractionation can be effective toward accomplishing this goal. To demonstrate this approach, an extract of the botanical goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis) was fractionated and tested for its ability to enhance the antimicrobial activity of the alkaloid berberine (4) against the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay data were combined with untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data sets (biochemometrics) to produce selectivity ratio (SR) plots, which visually show which extract components are most strongly associated with the biological effect. Using this approach, the new flavonoid 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,7,4'-trimethoxy-6,8- C-dimethylflavone (29) was identified, as were several flavonoids known to be active. When tested in combination with 4, 29 lowered the IC 50 of 4 from 132.2 ± 1.1 μM to 91.5 ± 1.1 μM. In isolation, 29 did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. The current study highlights the importance of fractionation when utilizing metabolomics for identifying bioactive components from botanical extracts and demonstrates the power of SR plots to help merge and interpret complex biological and chemical data sets.

  16. A bibliometric study of scientific literature in Scopus on botanicals for treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Peroni, Gabriella; Guido, Davide

    2016-06-01

    In androgenetic alopecia, a number of botanicals are available that can effectively slow or reduce hair loss and inflammation or stimulate partial hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on botanicals used for androgenetic alopecia and to perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for "alopecia" OR "androgenetic alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Camelia sinensis" OR (and other 15 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in Scopus database. A total of 29 references, that is, research articles, were retrieved by SCOPUS search, and 93.1% had been published since 2000. The majority (48.3%) describe applications of hair grow stimulants, followed by inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase applications (27.6%), and studies concerning inhibitors of inflammation (24.1%). The citation analysis revealed a growing interest for this topic and the papers on hair grow stimulants are most cited. Citation trend of inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase articles is growing in the last years. This study has highlighted three important aspects: (1) growing interest for this topic; (2) evidences mainly in hair grow stimulants and recently in the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, as demonstrated by article and citation counts across years; (3) in addition, all major studies have been focused on green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Serenoa repens, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuscuta reflexa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Geographical and Botanical Origin of Apis mellifera (Apidae) Honey in four Colombian Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Montoya, Paula Maria; Chamorro, Fermin J; Ramirez, Nedy; Giraldo, Catalina; Obregon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find palynological markers which permit differentiate honeys from the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander and Magdalena, by its geographical and botanical origin. Melissopalynological analyses were made of 184 honey samples obtained from 131 localities. A discriminant analysis and comparisons between the species composition of honey samples were made to find geo-graphical and botanical origin differences. A total of 297 pollen species distributed in 69 families was found, being Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. and Quercus humboldtii the most representatives. The major families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae and Melastomataceae. Six honey groups differentiated by its geographical origin were found: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Comunera Province. In a broader scale, honeys from the Andean and sub-Andean regions could be differentiated as well. Between the honey types differentiated by its botanical origin, the most important were monofloral honeys of Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. and Heliocarpus americanus, Asteraceae oligofloral honeys and mixtures of Q. humboldtii honeydew and floral nectar (Eucalyptussp., Brassicaceae Type, Asteraceae). This information in addition to the obtained by physico-chemical and sensorial analysis, may be the basis to acquire honeys' origin denomination.

  18. The Larch Genus (Larix Mill., Pinaceae at Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Firsov G.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 148 trees of larches (Larix Mill. cultivating at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (Saint-Petersburg, Russia which belong to 16 species (22 taxa. They are long-lived trees, up to 200 years old, of large sizes. The larches represent the base of tree-stand of Arboretum and form the alleys at the oldest historical regular part of Botanic Garden. The largest trees reach 31,6 m high (L. dahurica and 113 cm in trunk diameter (L. decidua and L. dahurica. The pride of collection being rare Far Eastern species – L. olgensis and related to it L. lubarskii and L. maritima. There are species promising both for repeated and primary introduction, the best prospects being in the flora of China and of adjacent countries of Eastern Asia. The continuous monitoring on winter hardiness as well as on steadiness to pests and diseases is necessary, which is especially true in conditions of the global warming of the climate. The investigation of reproductive abilities, quality of seeds and of seed generation is of importance. This is necessary to involve the best species and forms into city planting and forest economy.

  19. Forensic botany: species identification of botanical trace evidence using a multigene barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Beduschi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidence during criminal investigations. However, it is still an underutilized field of investigation with its most common application limited to identifying specific as well as suspected illegal plants. The ubiquitous presence of plant species can be useful in forensics, but the absence of an accurate identification system remains the major obstacle to the present inability to routinely and correctly identify trace botanical evidence. Many plant materials cannot be identified and differentiated to the species level by traditional morphological characteristics when botanical specimens are degraded and lack physical features. By taking advantage of a universal barcode system, DNA sequencing, and other biomolecular techniques used routinely in forensic investigations, two chloroplast DNA regions were evaluated for their use as "barcoding" markers for plant identification in the field of forensics. We therefore investigated the forensic use of two non-coding plastid regions, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF, to create a multimarker system for species identification that could be useful throughout the plant kingdom. The sequences from 63 plants belonging to our local flora were submitted and registered on the GenBank database. Sequence comparison to set up the level of identification (species, genus, or family) through Blast algorithms allowed us to assess the suitability of this method. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our botanic universal multimarker assay in forensic investigations.

  20. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.